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SUMMERINTERNSHIP PROJECT ON

STUDY ON AGRICULTURE PROFILE AND FERTILIZER USE PATTERN OF


FARMERS IN WAGHODIA TALUKA VADODARA DISTRICT
(HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LTD)
Undertaken at
Parul Institute of Engineering &Technology
Submitted in the requirement for the award of the degree Of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
BATCH 2015-2017
Submitted by

Name of the Industry Mentor

Devendra Kumar Jha

Vishal Patel

MBA Semester II

Sudhanshu singh

Enrollment No. 15061400015


Under the Guidance of
Wg. Cdr. V.K. Agrawal
Faculty Member, PIET, FMS, PU

PARUL UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OFMANAGEMENT STUDIES
P.O. Limda, Tal. Waghodia, District Vadodara-391760

Declaration

I Devendra Kumar Jha Enrolment No. 150614200015from PIET (MBA) Semester II of the Parul
University, Vadodara herebydeclarethattheSummerInternship Report entitled Study on agriculture
profile and fertilizer use pattern of farmers in Waghodia taluka Vadodara
districtisanoriginalworkandthesamehasnotbeensubmittedtoanyotherInstitute forthe award of
anyother degree.

Date: 30/07/2016

Signature of the Student

PREFACE
The objective of the project was study on agriculture profile and fertilizers use pattern of
farmers in Waghodia Taluka Vadodara district for Hindalco Industries Ltd., for that we
have to understand the customer needs, knowledge, response, emotions and beliefs
regarding the product, so that they can contribute their valuable inputs for introducing the
fertilizers in India for company .The objective of this study was to analyze the pattern
of farmers using fertilizers in different village of taluka to understand the demand and
need of farmers and behavior towards chemical fertilizers

The project was started on 10th June,2016 after knowing all the relevant information
regarding the project, under the guidance of Mr. VishalPatel. The first part of my project
involves the study of the farmers pattern towards fertilizer and information regarding
agriculture in Waghodia taluka villages.

Since, the second part of my project was develop the questionnaires for the survey of
famers of Waghodia Taluka it will contain question like name contact no age fertilizer use
pattern irrigation methods and

information related to agriculture of farmers for our

project it will help to know that what the pattern followed by farmers for the use of
fertilizers in farm in different area. After completing the survey of the farmer we have to
analyze the data which we get from survey of the farmer and analyze and make report of
it.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This report has been prepared as partial fulfillment of MBA summer internship program,
Parul institute of engineering &technology, Parul University FMS. I am deeply indebted
to Parul institute of engineering &technology, Parul University FMS for incorporating
internship program in the master degree program which provides a wonderful opportunity
to carry out the life changing experience in internship program.
It gives me great pleasure in acknowledging the support and help of the Director of Parul
institute of engineering &technology, Parul University FMS Dr. Rajkumari Soni and
professor- report mentor Wg. Cdr. V.K. Agrawal

I would owe my thankful gratitude to the management team of HINDALCO INDUSTRY


Ltd. who gave me the privilege to carry out my internship program. I am also thankful to
all those people whose names are not mentioned in this page but whose constant support
has led to the development of the report.
I have tried to include all the relevant information regarding the topic of which I have
learnt during internship program. But this internship report may not have the inclusions
comprehensively so I heartily welcome suggestions and comments for the improvement
of the report.
Finally, I again send my warm greetings and obligations to Mr. Sourabh Dixit from
Hindalco Industry Ltd.and our respected mentor Vishal Patel.
Thanking you,
Devendra Kumar Jha

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Table of contents
Acknowledgement

iv

List of illustration

Abbreviations

vi

Chapter I: Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 objective of the study
1.3 Scope of the study
1.4 Company Profile
1.4.1 contact address
1.4.2 nature of organization
1.4.3 companys vision & mission
1.4.4 product range of the company
1.4.5 size of organization(manpower)
1.4.6 organization structure of the company
1.4.7 market share & position of the company in the industry
1.5 Industry profile
Chapter II: Review of literature
Chapter III: Research Methodology
Chapter IV: Data Analysis & Interpretation

Chapter V: Summary & Conclusions


5.1 Results of the study
5.2 Suggestions, scope for further Study & conclusions

CHAPTER I
1.1 Introduction

Fertilizer is a substance to soil to improve plants growth and yield. First used by ancient
farmers fertilizer technology developed significantly as the chemical needs of
growing plants were discovered. Modern synthetic fertilizers are composed mainly of
nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium compounds us the secondary nutrients added.
The use of synthetic fertilizers has significantly improved the quality and quantity at
the food available today but their long term use is debated by environmentalists. Just
like humans and animals, plants need adequate water, sufficient food, and protection
from diseases and pests to be healthy. Commercially produced fertilizers give
growing plants the nutrients they crave in the form they can most readily absorb and
use: nitrogen (N), available phosphate (P) and soluble potash (K). Elements needed
in smaller amounts, or micronutrients, include iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper(Cu) and
boron(B). Fertilizer is generally defined as "any material, organic orinorganic, natural
or synthetic, which supplies one or more of the chemical elementsrequired for the
plant growth". Zinc(Zn) are identified asessential elements for plant growth oxygen
and hydrogen are supplies by air and water and are, therefore, not treated as
nutrientsby the fertilizer industry. The main aim of the industry is to provide the
primary andsecondary nutrients which are required in macro quantities. Primary
nutrients are normallysupplied through chemical fertilizers. They are chemical
compounds containing one or more of the primary nutrients andare generally
produced by chemical reactions. Whatever may be the chemicalcompounds, its most
important ingredient for plant growth is the nutrient content. Theprimary nutrients are
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; however, theirconcentration in a chemical
fertilizer is expressed as a percentage of total nitrogen (N), available phosphate
(P2O5) and soluble (K2O). Thus, ammonium sulphate contains 20.6 per cent N;
single super phosphate 16 per cent P2O5 and nitrate ofpotash 60 per cent K2O.The
grade of a fertilizer is expressed as a set of three numbers in the order of per cent N,

P2O5 and K2O. If a nutrient is missing in a fertilizer, a zero represents it. Thus
ammonium sulphate is represented as 20.6-0-0 (since it does not contain phosphorus
and potassium), single super phosphate as 0-16-0 (as it does notcontain nitrogen and
potash), nitrate of potash as 0-0-60 (as it does not contain nitrogen or phosphorus).
When a fertilizer contains more than one nutrient, forexample di ammonium
phosphate, it is shown as 18-46-0, indicating that it contains 18per cent of nitrogen,
46 per cent of P2O5 and no potash. Similarly, "Subphyla", a nitrophosphate fertilizer
produced by RCF, Trombay, is shown as 15-15-15 indicating that the product
contains 15 percent N, 15 per cent P2O5 and 15 per cent K2O.areas. It has been
decided to decontrol the prices, distribution and movement ofphosphatic and potassic
fertilizers. Steps have been taken to ensure an increase in thesupply of non-chemical
fertilizers at reasonable prices. There are 53 fertilizer qualitycontrol laboratories in
the country. Since bio-fertilizers are regarded as an effective,cheap and renewable
supplement to chemical fertilizers, the Government isimplementing a National
Project on Development and Use of Bio-fertilizers. Underthis scheme, one national
and six regional centres for organizing training,demonstrating programs and quality
testing of bio-fertilizers has been taken up.It wasa challenging decision of the
Government to take Bombay High gas through a1, 700km pipeline to feed fertilizer
plants located in the consumption centres of North India.However, the major policy
which has ensured the growth of the fertilizer industry isthe thrust on accelerating
fertilizer consumption by fixing, on the one hand, low anduniform price for
fertilizers, and on the other hand providing the manufacturersadequate compensation
through the retention price and subsidy scheme. As expected,fertilizer nutrient
demand has gone up from 0.29 million tons in 1960-61 to 13.9million tons at the end
of 1995-96, compared to 12.15MT during 1992-93.The main objective of the
fertilizer industry is to ensure the supply of primaryand secondary nutrients in the
required quantities. Indian fertilizer industry is oneof the largest in the world and has
played significant role in the development ofagriculture in the country. The main
categories of fertilizer used are nitrogenous (N),phosphatic (P) and potassic (K).
While N and P fertilizers are manufactured in India,the entire requirement of K
fertilizers is imported due to absence of viable deposits ofraw material viz. potash.

Limited availability of cultivable land along with increasingpopulation is conducive


to fertilizer demand growth. There is always huge unmetdemand in India which is
met through imports. The main issues confronting thefertilizer industry at present are
with regards to feedstock and government policy forpricing & distribution. Naphtha
and natural gas are main feedstock in manufacture ofmajor fertilizers. Pricing and
availability of feedstock play significant part inprofitability of the units. The new
price scheme (NPS) came into effect from Apr.01,2003 replacing the retention price
scheme. As per notification of the policy for NPS urea in March 2007, the policy is
applicable retrospectivelyfrom Octo.01, 2006 till Mar.31, 2010.Some of the major
changes in the NPS are thatthe cost plus approach has been replaced with Import
Parity Price (IPP) concept onurea projects for debottlenecking and expansion and
existing DAP plants. On the backof high international prices of DAP in H1FY 09 the
fertilizer subsidy bill of theGovernment of India has increased substantially. Some of
the positive initiatives bygovernment like assured incentives for establishment of
new plants joint venturesabroad, prompt payment of subsidies and issuances of
bonds, uniform freight policy,etc. are likely to form better industry
prospects.Fertilizer is defined as any substance which is organic or inorganic, natural
orartificial, supplies one or more of the chemical elements required for plant
growth.Carbon, oxygen and hydrogen are directly supplied by air and water and
therefore nottreated as nutrients by the fertilizer industry. One of the vital industries
for the Indianeconomy is the Indian Fertilizer Industry as it manufactures a very
critical rawmaterial for agriculture which is the major occupation of the country. The
fertilizersespecially like the ammonia urea plants are energy demanding in their
operation.There are several fertilizer factories in the country. The various large
modern fertilizer factories of the country are situated at different places like
Nkangala of Punjab, Kanpur, Baroda, Mumbai, Varanasi, Kota, Vishakhapatnam,
Debary near Udaipur, Durgapur, Hilda, Namur in Assam, Gorakhpur and more.
Moreover, number of fertilizer industries are constantly being increasing for
augmenting the production of fertilizers. Production is for the most part in the hands
of public sector and co-operative sector. Prices of fertilizers have been partly
liberalized.

57 large fertilizers plants and 57 largesized and 64 medium- and small-sized


Size

of

Industry

the chemical fertilizer production units in


India producing urea, DAP, Complex
fertilizer, Ammonium Sulphate (AS) and
Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN)

Geographical
distribution

Cochin, Chennai, Kerala

Output per annum 121.10 lakh MT a year


Percentage in word It ranks third in the world of Fertilizer
Market

production

Market
Capitalization

25% to the GDP


57 large fertilizers plants and 57 largesized and 64 medium- and small-sized

Size

of

Industry

the chemical fertilizer production units in


India producing urea, DAP, Complex
fertilizer, Ammonium Sulphate (AS) and
Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN)

Geographical
distribution

Cochin, Chennai, Kerala

Output per annum 121.10 lakh MT a year


Percentage in word It ranks third in the world of Fertilizer
Market
Market
capitalization

production
25% to the GDP

However, the government has been paying huge subsidy to farmers, as it is a critical input
in meeting the rising food demands. So far fertilizer plants were inclined to be situated
near the stockpiles of raw materials. Now natural gas is being used more and more as
worthy raw material. As it can be channelized anywhere through pipelines, fertilizer
plants are now being built close to potential markets. Fertilizer plants are located in
public, private, joint, and co-operative sectors. Some fertilizer plants have also set up
mutually by Indian and Asians.
India produces a balanced proportion of rock phosphate, which is the source of
phosphorous. Further, its production has also increased considerably over the years. Rock
phosphate is insoluble in water. But when it is mixed with sulphuric acid it is transformed
into water soluble
With time, utilization of fertilizers has tremendously increased in the country. And at the
same time, the production of the different types of fertilizers has also increased
considerably over the years. Thus, it can be said that production of the fertilizer industries
have helped in overcoming the acute shortage of food grains in the past. The fertilizer
industries are slowly and gradually improving the overall agricultural production of the
country.

Some of the public sector companies in India fertilizer industry:

National Fertilizers Limited

Fertilizers & Chemicals Travancore Limited

Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited

Madras Fertilizers Limited

Steel Authority of India Limited

Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited

Paradeep Phosphates Limited

Pyrites, Phosphates & Chemicals Limited

Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Limited

Some of the private sector companies in Indian fertilizer industry:

Chambal Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited

Ajay Farm-Chem Private Limited

Balaji Fertilizers Private Limited

Deepak Fertilizer and Petrochemicals Corporation Limited

Bharat Fertilizer Industries Limited

Coromandal Fertilizers Limited

Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizer Co. Limited

Meerut Agro Chemicals Private Limited

Duncans Industries Limited

Karnataka Agro Chemicals

Godavari Fertilizers & Chemical Limited

Shri Amba Fertilizers (I) Private Limited

Tuticorin Alkali Chemi& Fertilizer Limited

Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited

Indo-Gulf Fertilizers & Chemicals Corporation Limited

Southern PetroChemical Industries Corporation Limited

Maharashtra Agro Industrial Development Corporation

Zuari Industries Limited- Fertilizer Limited

Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited

1.2 objective of the study

To find out the dependency between holding of land and uses of fertilizer.
To find out the preferences of farmers towards the various fertilizers.
To know the factors, consider of farmers at the time of purchase of fertilizers.
To find out the demand of Birla Bal wan as well as others fertilizers.
To know the biggest competitors of Birla Bal wan.
To know how much fertilizers brand available in Waghodia Taluka.

1.3 Company Profile

Hindalco Industries Limited, metals Flagship Company of the Aditya Birla Group, is the
industry leader in aluminum and copper. With a consolidated turnover of US$17 billion,
Hindalco is the worlds largest aluminum rolling company and one of Asias biggest
producers of primary aluminum. Its state-of-art copper facility comprises a world-class
copper smelter and a fertilizer plant along with a captive jetty. The copper smelter is one
of the worlds largest custom smelters at a single location.
In India, the companys aluminum units across the country encompass the gamut of
operations from bauxite mining, alumina refining, coal mining, captive power plants and
aluminum smelting to downstream rolling, extrusions and foils. Today, Hindalco ranks
among the global aluminum majors as an integrated producer and a footprint in 13
countries outside India.
The Birla Copper unit produces copper cathodes and continuous cast copper rods, along
with other by-products, including gold, silver, and DAP fertilizers. It is also Indias
largest private producer of gold.
Aluminum
Hindalco has been accorded Star Trading House status in India. Its aluminum is accepted
for delivery under the High Grade Aluminum Contract on the London Metal Exchange
(LME), while its copper quality is also registered on the LME with Grade A accreditation.

Copper
Our major products include standard and specialty grade alumina and hydrates, aluminum
ingots, billets, wire rods, flat rolled products, extrusions and foil.

Birla Copper upholds its long-standing reputation for quality copper cathodes and
continuous cast copper rods by assuring its management processes meet the highest
standards. Birla Copper also produces precious metals, fertilizers and sulphuric and
phosphoric acid.
Novelis Inc
Acquired by Hindalco in 2007, Novelis is the world leader in rolled aluminum products,
delivering unique solutions for the most demanding global applications, such as beverage
cans, automobiles, architecture and consumer electronics. Our unique material advantage,
customer-focused innovation and unparalleled commitment to sustainability define the
Novelis brand.

Aditya Birla Minerals is an Australian mining company with a focus on copper


production and exploration. Based in Perth, West Australia, the company conducts its
activities at the Birla Nifty Copper Operation in the Great Sandy Desert, WA. Aditya
Birla Minerals is part of the Aditya Birla Group and is part owned by Hindalco.

Hindalco-Almex Aerospace Limited manufactures high-strength aluminium alloys for


applications in the aerospace, sporting goods and surface transport industries. A joint
venture between Hindalco and Almex Aerospace, Hindalco-Almex operates a first-of-itskind facility in India, which is exclusively devoted to high-performance aluminium
alloys.

1.4.1 Contact address


Gujarat

Corporate Office

Mr.Sourabh Dixit

Aditya Birla Centre, S. K. Ahire

Hindalco Industries Limited [Unit: Birla Copper]

Marg, , Worli, Mumbai 400 030

3rd & 4th floor, Aries House


(Opp. Siddhartha Palace Hotel)
Old Padra Road
Vadodara 390 007, Gujarat, India
Tel: +91-265- 2338655 / 2342961
Fax: +91-265-2338460
Mobile: +91- 9904403384
Email: sourabh.dixit@adityabirla.com
Website: www.hindalco.com / www.adityabirla.com

1.4.2 Nature of organization


At Hindalco, sustainability takes prime position. A Sustainability Board, comprising the
top leadership team at Hindalco, under the leadership of the Managing Director oversees
the companys sustainability efforts. Hindalco has a well-rounded approach to
sustainability encompassing a variety of areas like sustainable mining practices, energy
conservation, recycling, environment-friendly disposal of industrial wastes, safety
practices, socio-economic development of the communities around the plant and
empowerment of employees. Hindalcos approach is to set clear policy and institutional
framework,

systematically

monitor

the

performance,

encourage

continuous

improvements and innovative practices, and deepen the dialogue with all stakeholders.
At Hindalco, sustainability considerations are paramount. During the life cycle of our
mines, we interact with as many as 5-7 generations of local community. Our mining
practices, regeneration activities and community engagement practices are geared
towards minimising the environmental impact and maximising the socio-economic
impact during the development of mines.
Attesting our environmental credentials are the numerous awards our units have won for
energy conservation, environment and safety. To be sure, good environment management
makes sound business sense.
Our proactive initiatives include:

Choosing the right technology for our greenfield projects to ensure energy
efficiency.

Enhancing material efficiency, process/equipment productivity backed by


pollution prevention practices and adoption of cleaner technologies for brownfield
projects.

Waste Management System for systematic collection of scrap and safe


storage/disposal and re-use of wastes.

Continuous efforts to conserve resources, minimise and recycle wastes.

Controlling emissions through dry scrubbing and electrostatic precipitators and


discharge through appropriate effluent treatment plants.

Rehabilitation through afforestation of mined areas and rehabilitation of waste


disposal sites by greening, e.g. fly ash mound and abandoned red mud dump.

Promoting industrial recycling of waste like spent pot lining, fly ash, spent
caustic, etc.
1.4.3 Companys vision & mission
Our Vision
To be a premium Metals, global in size and reach, with a passion for excellence.

Our Mission
To relentlessly pursue the creation of superior shareholder value by exceeding customer
expectations profitably, unleashing employee potential and being a responsible corporate
citizen adhering to our values.

Our Values
Integrity
Honesty in every action
Commitment
On the foundation of integrity, doing whatever it takes to deliver, as promised.
Passion

Missionary zeal, arising out of an emotional engagement with work.


Seamlessness
Thinking and working together across functional silos, hierarchy levels, Business and
geographies.
Speed
Responding to stakeholders with a sense of urgency.
1.4.4 Product range of the company
Hindalco produces the fertilizers di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and nitrogen
phosphorus potassium (NPK) complexes as value-added downstream products.
Hindalcos DAP plant went on stream in 2000 and has a capacity of 400,000 tpa. It
manufactures DAP and NPK complexes such as 10:26:26, 12:32:16 and 20:20:0.
Phosphoric acid is produced at the company's phosphoric acid plant by the chemical
reaction of sulphuric acid from the smelting complex and rock phosphate, which is
imported. At the DAP plant, phosphoric acid and ammonia are reacted to form DAP.
Imported potash is used to produce the NPK complexes.

The products are marketed under the well-known brand Birla Balwan, a brand name that
commands preference among the farmers of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya
Pradesh, Karnataka, Haryana and Punjab through the established vast network of dealers,
retailers and C&F agents. Operations are carried out through both private and
institutional distribution channels. The products are packed in gusseted lyril green 50kg
PP bags and are transported to various destinations by rail and road, stored and then
delivered to dealers, retailers, co-operative societies and other customers in various
marketing regions.

The customers are serviced through an experienced & qualified marketing team across all
the seven states. Marketing service-related activities and farmer/retailer meets are held at
the customers locations regularly by well-trained field personnel.
Birla Phospho Gypsum is marketed in the Agricultural field as a soil conditioner. The
product contains 15-17 per cent of Sulphur, 20-22 per cent of Calcium and 1 per cent of
P2O5. It an economical input that adds nutrients to the soil and enhances its productivity,
improvement and crop growth. Birla Phospho Gypsum is available in bulk loose form
and also in bags for convenience of handling and storage.
The popular brand Birla Vishwas caters to the market of diversified agricultural inputs.

1.4.7 market share & position of the company in the industry


Type

The company has annual sales


of US$ 15 billion and employs

public company

around 20,000 people.


Traded as

BSE: 500440
NSE: HINDALCO

BSE SENSEX Constituent

Industry

Metals

Founded

1958; 58 years ago

Headquarters

Mumbai, Maharashtra India

Area served

Worldwide

It is listed in the Forbes Global


2000 at 895th rank.

Its market capitalization by


the

end

of

May

2013

was US$ 3.4 billion.

Hindalco is one of the world's


largest

aluminum

rolling

companies and one of the


Key people

biggest producers of primary

Kumar Mangalam Birla(Chairman)

aluminum in Asia.
Products

Aluminum and copper products

Revenue

1,042.81 billion (US$15 billion)


(FY 2013-14)

Net income

30.27 billion (US$450 million)


(FY 2012-13)

Hindalcos

phosphates

fertilizers

are

marketed

under the brand name Birla


Balwan.

Birla

Balwan

commands a strong market


position and is very popular

Total assets

1,014.02 billion (US$15 billion)


(Mar 2013)

Number of

20,238 (Mar 2013)

among farmers in the states


of

Gujarat,

Maharashtra,

Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan,


Punjab and Haryana.

employees

Parent

Aditya Birla Group

Website

www.hindalco.com

Birla Balwan is sold through private trade channels as well as institutions like cooperatives and Agro Industry Corp.

Very popular fertilizer.

Strong market position.

Strengths

Global Brand image

One of the major Aluminium producers in the country.

Cost effective producer.

Sound Financial positions.

A number of Brownfield and Greenfield Projects.

A Well-Focused human resources development.

Serve as maximum customer satisfaction.

Cost effective accesses to quantity Bauxite.

Strong Chinese copper demand and increase in U.S. refined copper consumption..

Weaknesses
Present Production capacity is not adequate to meet the raising high demand.

Technology is not upgraded to mark as compare to global giants in aluminium


industry.

Slow growth rate/ the Copper division

High input rates cost.

High Coal rates/ Shortage of coal mines

Opportunities

R&D collaboration with universities and another research organization.

More emphasis on downstream production of value added products.

Recycling should be adopted as routine production.

Raising more finance from marketing for more acquisition and merger for
consolidating positions in the global market.

Innovating new technology to reduce cost of inputs.

Chaptalizing on the Urban consumer market by innovation more consumer


durables.

Threats

Strong domestic and global competitors, such as GSFC, GNFC, IFFCO, TATA,
POSCO, ESSAR, MITTLE.

Innovative revolution in fertilizer, plastic and steel industry.

Fall in price of Aluminium in neighbour country.

The SWOT analysis is an extremely useful tool for understanding and decision-making
for all sorts of situations in business and organizations. SWOT is an acronym for
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. SWOT analysis is perfect for business
planning, strategic planning, competitor evaluation, marketing, business and product
development and research reports. The SWOT analysis enables companies to identify the
positive and negative influencing factors inside and outside of a company or organization.

1.5 Industry profile


India is predominantly an agrarian economy. The Indian economy mainly depends upon
its agricultural produce. The agricultural output contributes to about 25% of the country's
GDP. As a result of the chemical fertilizers being one of the related parts of the
agriculture, there is tremendous scope for the growth of the chemical fertilizer industry.

Today, the Indian chemical fertilizer industry is developing fast in terms of using the
latest world-class technology. Indian manufacturers of chemical fertilizers are now
adopting some of the most advanced manufacturing processes to prepare innovative new
sproducts to supplement the Indian agriculture. India is also ranked as the third-largest
exporter and producer of nitrogenous fertilizer.

In the present day scenario, there are more than 57 large-sized and 64 medium- and
small-sized chemical fertilizer production units in India. The main objective of these
chemical fertilizer industries is to make sure that there is a proper supply of primary and
secondary fertilizers to the Indian crops in adequate quantities. Some of the prominent
products manufactured by the Indian fertilizer industry are nitrogenous fertilizers,

phosphate-based fertilizers, calcium ammonium nitrate, urea, ammonium sulfate, and


other complex fertilizers.

The chemical fertilizers industry in India has performed a significant role in enabling the
increased supply of essential nutrients to plants. It has also helped India achieve the
objective of being self-sufficient in the production of food grains and has accelerated the
growth of agriculture.

The chemical fertilizer industry is one of the most energy-intensive sectors, and it is very
vital from the viewpoint of environmental discussions. Today, there is a great need to
increase the productivity of chemical fertilizers through implementation of pollution-free
and environment-friendly technologies. This will be helpful in achieving economic,
social, and environmental development objectives.

The chemical fertilizer industry of India gained momentum after India adopted the
liberalization and globalization policy in 1991. The government aimed to reduce
subsidies and attract new investments by decontrolling all the phosphatic and potassic
fertilizers.

The Department of Fertilizers is the nodal organization that is responsible for the
planning, development, and promotion of the chemical fertilizer industry in India. This
department also monitors the production, distribution, and imports of fertilizers. Besides,
it is also responsible for management and provides financial assistance to the investors
who are investing in the sector.

The Indian Chemical Fertilizer industry promises a great future for investments. India's
demand for fertilizers is set to increase its supply manifold in the near future. Thus, there
are great investment opportunities for foreign investors to invest in the Indian chemical
fertilizers industry, optimize the fertilizer production through the use of modern
technology, and gain valuable returns. The government of India has made ambitious plans
to set several chemical fertilizer projects in place. These plans aim to increase the
production of fertilizers; thus, there are a lot of opportunities for new investors to enter
into a joint venture with government undertakings and earn good returns on investments.

Great potential lies ahead for foreign investors looking to invest in the chemical
fertilizers industry in India if they invest in the state of Gujrat as the state is foreseen to
be a leading state in the production of fertilizers. India is predominantly an agrarian
economy. The Indian economy mainly depends upon its agricultural produce. The
agricultural output contributes to about 25% of the country's GDP. As a result of the
chemical fertilizers being one of the related parts of the agriculture, there is tremendous
scope for the growth of the chemical fertilizer industry. Today, the Indian chemical
fertilizer industry is developing fast in terms of using the chemical fertilizers.
Integration of technologies and brilliant innovative research ensures that the products
touch all walks of life. From household consumer to core industrial consumer, GSFC
continuously fulfils multi-fold needs of the market.
GSFC's incessant strive for product diversification and value addition has created a
product mix ranging from more than 24 brands of fertilizers to petrochemicals,
chemicals, industrial gases, plastics, fibers and other products.
Conforming to the strictest international standards, GSFC continuously achieves and
maintains best quality, superior packaging, prompt deliveries & services of highest
standards for every product. This claim is well substantiated by a string of National &

International Awards, but TOTAL Customer Satisfaction is the MOST VALUED AWARD
at GSFC.

GSFC today stands for superior quality with many of its products being ISO 9001
certified. GSFC believes in providing highest value for the Customer's money through
economies of scale, continuous product improvement & Value addition to the products.
Undoubtedly, GSFC is a respectable player in the emerging scenario of the competitive &
globalized industry.
GSFC has Customer Service Centres both in Agriculture Field (AD&AS) and Industrial
Field (ADC) to disseminate the latest technical knowledge for efficient use of the
Products.

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE

REVIEW

India is one of the worlds largest and oldest agrarian economics. Agriculture is the back
bone of Indian economy. It provides employment opportunities more than 65% of the
work force directly and indirectly. The increasing number of population means higher
demand for food. Threats in agriculture production such as pets, loss of soil fertility and
lack of nutrients may result low percentage of plants to harvest. Hence, the importance of
using fertilizers rises. Fertilizer is one of the key industries in India being an essentials

input for agriculture production. Sharp increase in agriculture production in our country
rightly attributed to increasing production and consumption of fertilizer. India stands 3rd
in the consumption of fertilizes. Fertilizer has been universally accepted as an integral
part of package in practice for raising Indian agriculture to be a higher technological
plank. It is estimated that the fertilizers in association with water can enhance output
by70%. Nearly 50% of the increased food grains productions in the last decades in the
world come from the increased use of fertilizers. It is accepted that fertilizers is an
expensive agricultural input and therefore, its efficient use is indispensable for reducing
the cost per unit of agriculture products. Fertilizers are an organic or inorganic material of
natural or synthetic origin that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients
essential to growth of plants. Main inorganic nutrient fertilizers: these are the main
fertilizing elements supplied in substantial quantities for a plant growth i.e. Nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium. Secondary inorganic nutrients fertilizers are: Calcium,
magnesium, sodium, and Sulphur. Inorganic micro nutrients fertilizers contain elements
required in small quantities such as boron, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, etc.
Ammonium nitrate fertilizers of high nitrogen content, gives the dangerous nature of this
type of fertilizers. These organic and inorganic fertilizers made through the fertilizers
companies such as IPL, GSFC, GNFFC and IFFCO. These are some of the leading
fertilizers productions companies which mainly distributed all over Gujarat.

India made impressive gains in the field of agricultural production and harvested a
record in food grains production of 230 million tonnes during 2007-2008. Introduction of
HYVs and hybrid varieties brought optimism about fertilizer response superiority of
modern varieties. The total nutrient consumption (N+P2O5 +K2O) touched level of
264lakh million tonnes during 2009-10, the highest so far. Since the rain fed areas, which
constitute 70% of the cultivated areas, consume only 20% of the total fertilizers, the
government has been taking steps in recent years to increase the consumption of
fertilizers in these areas. Even though India is the third largest fertilizer user, average rate
of nutrient application is only 85 kg/ha. The use of fertilizers is affected by a number of
factors like irrigation, high yielding variety seeds, size of the farm credit etc. Increased
area under high yielding varieties led to increased food grains production. With effect

from 1 April 2003, the Government implemented the New Fertilizer Policy, which
allowed urea manufacturers to market initially 25 percent and subsequently 50 percent of
their production outside the purview of distribution control. The efficiency of fertilizer
use could be improved through fertilization practices that include an application of
macronutrients and micronutrients according to crop requirements. An adequate supply of
credit for farmers and distributors is necessary to ensure the availability of fertilizers
when and where they are required.
India made impressive gains in the field of agricultural production and harvested a
record in food grains production of 230 million tonnes approx. Introduction of HYVs
and hybrid varieties brought optimism about fertilizer response superiority of modern
varieties. The total nutrient consumption (N+P2O5 +K2O) touched level of 264lakh
million tonnes during 2009-10, the highest so far. Since the rain fed areas, which
constitute 70% of the cultivated areas, consume only 20% of the total fertilizers, the
government has been taking steps in recent years to increase the consumption of
fertilizers in these areas. Even though India is the third largest fertilizer user, average rate
of nutrient application is only 85 kg/ha. The use of fertilizers is affected by a number of
factors like irrigation, high yielding variety seeds, size of the farm credit etc. Increased
area under high yielding varieties led to increased food grains production. With effect
from 1 April 2003, the Government implemented the New Fertilizer Policy, which
allowed urea manufacturers to market initially 25 percent and subsequently 50 percent of
their production outside the purview of distribution control. The efficiency of fertilizer
use could be improved through fertilization practices that include an application of
macronutrients and micronutrients according to crop requirements. An adequate supply of
credit for farmers and distributors is necessary to ensure the availability of fertilizers
when and where they are required.
Government is involved in providing financial assistance
to the farmers for training and field demonstrations
on balanced use of fertilizers. In addition, Government
introduced Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS)
policy from April 2010 to encourage balanced use of
fertilizers. Department of Fertilizer offers fixed rate of

subsidy (NBS) on annual basis for nitrogen (N), phosphate


(P), potash (K) and sulphur (S) fertilizers.
Currently, Agricultural Technology Management
Agency (ATMA) Scheme is under implementation in
614 districts of 28 State & 3 Union Territories (UTs) of
the country. The activities taken up under the scheme
includes capacity building of extension functionaries
and farmers, front line demonstrations, exposure visits,
kisan melas, group mobilization, farm schools and
farmers-scientists interaction. Through these activities,
latest agriculture technologies are disseminated
to farmers of the country including creating awareness
among farmers for the balanced use of fertilizers. Over
24 million farmers have benefitted since 2005-06 in
different innovative agricultural production technologies
under the Scheme.
Information on judicious use of fertilizers is broadcast
through focused advertisement campaign under Mass
Media scheme implemented by this Ministry.
Government is also engaged in the quality checking of
the fertilizers sold in the country. Today there are nearly
74 Fertilizer Quality Control Laboratories functioning
under the control of different State Governments.
Today fertilizer has become essential to modern agriculture to feed the growing
population. Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to
improve crop yield. Urea is the most popular and widely used dry N fertilizer. The
objective of the present study is to characterize the effect of fertilizers on the earthworm.
The effects of soil fertilization with inorganic and organic fertilizers on earthworm
rearing (populations, biomass, number of cocoons, juveniles etc.) were studied under
different doses of the fertilizers for 60 days. When compared, marked changes were

observed in the activity of Eisenia foetida in both type of fertilizers introduced. The
present work indicates towards the deleterious effect of inorganic fertilizers on the
survival of earthworm community in soil.

Chapter III: Research Methodology

3.3 Research Methodology


Methodology implies more than simply the methods you intend to use to collect data. It
is often necessary to include a consideration of the concepts and theories which underlie
the methods. For instance, if you intend to highlight a specific feature of a sociological
theory or test an algorithm for some aspect of information retrieval, or test the validity of
a particular system, you have to show that you understand the underlying concepts of the
methodology.

When you describe your methods it is necessary to state how you have addressed the
research questions and/or hypotheses. The methods should be described in enough detail
for the study to be replicated, or at least repeated in a similar way in another situation.
Every stage should be explained and justified with clear reasons for the choice of your
particular methods and materials.
There are many different ways to approach the research that fulfils the requirements of a
dissertation. These may vary both within and between disciplines. It is important to
consider the expectations and possibilities concerning research in your own field.
Research Methodology is primary both exploratory as well as descriptive in nature. The
sources of information are both primary and secondary.
A well-structured questionnaire was prepared by company and personal interview were
conducted to collect the farmersperceptions towards fertilizer in Waghodia Taluka,
through the questionnaire.
Primary Data
Primary data is that which is collected by sociologists themselves during their own
research using research tools such as experiments, survey questionnaires, interviews and
observation.
Primary data can take a quantitative or statistical form, e.g. charts, graphs, diagrams and
tables. It is essential to interpret and evaluate this type of data with care. In particular,
look at how the data is organised in terms of scale. Primary data can also be qualitative,
e.g. The Primary data collected from Gram Panchayat kacheri regarding farming land
and crop as per Rabi and Kharif and DAP consumptions data from polish Bhawan
Consequently the data speaks for itself and readers are encouraged to make their own
judgements.
Importance

Addresses Specific Research Issues

Carrying out their own research allows the marketing organization to address issues
specific to their own situation. Primary research is designed to collect the information the
marketer wants to know (Step 2) and report it in ways that benefit the marketer. For
example, while information reported with secondary research may not fit the marketers
needs (e.g., different age groupings) no such problem exists with primary research since
the marketer controls the research design.

Greater Control

Not only does primary research enable the marketer to focus on specific issues, it also
enables the marketer to have a higher level of control over how the information is
collected. In this way the marketer can decide on such issues as size of project (e.g., how
many responses), location of research (e.g., geographic area) and time frame for
completing the project.

Efficient Spending for Information

Unlike secondary research where the marketer may spend for information that is not
needed, primary data collections focus on issues specific to the researcher improves the
chances that research funds will be spent efficiently.

Proprietary Information

Information collected by the marketer using primary research is their own and is
generally not shared with others. Thus, information can be kept hidden from competitors
and potentially offer an information advantage to the company that undertook the
primary research.
Secondary Data

The well-structured questionnaire is made. Through the questionnaire and personal


interview, data is collected. Data is collected from internet, to take the help of various
previous research related to the topic.
Tools of data analysis

A well-structured questionnaire for survey

Various charts and tables are made for proper interpretation

3.4 Limitations

The research is confined to a certain villages of Waghodia Taluka and does not
necessarily shows a pattern applicable to all of the Vadodara district.

The project has some limitation because of it is totally based on efforts of


individuals. Peoples may be careless and may not give the correct answers to the
questions, because of many reasons.

It is totally based on personal efforts of individuals.

Most of the farmers in Waghodia villages and rest of some other villages farmers
are totally dis-satisfied with the shortage of Birla Balwan. They also abuse to the
company, because of shortage.

Some farmers are not interested in filling the questionnaires.

Some farmers are unable to understand the questionnaire, also unable to under
stand other than Gujrati language.

This research is for limited area.

There is problem in mobile number, some farmers not gave mobile number
because of disturbance problem of other fertilizers druggist company so.

Some farmers are not allow me to enter their house compound as lack of local
language.

Some farmers are afraid to give me his information regarding his land.

Chapter IV: Data Analysis & Interpretation


1. Ages of Farmer
96

100
90
80
70
60

53

47

50
40
30
20
10
0

Interpretation

Farmers0 Ages

21 to40

40 to 60

Above 60

From the above graph we can conclude that

47 farmers have the age between 21 to 40


96 farmers have the age between 40 to 60
53 farmers have the age above 60

On basis of above graph we can say that the majority of the farmer ages between 40 to 60

2. How much Land do you hold?

Land holding
85
57
32
15
1

5 3

Interpretation
From the above graph we can conclude that out of 196 farmers

6 4

85 Farmers have land holding between 1 to 10 acres.


57 Farmers have land holding between 10 to 20 acres.
32 Farmers have land holding between 20 to 30 acres.
15 Farmers have land holding between 30 to 40 acres.
3 Farmers have land holding between 40 to 50 acres.
4 Farmers have land holding more than 50 acres.

So the majority of the land holding farmers is between 1to10. Hence the farmers in
Waghodia taluka are generally middle class of farmers.

2. How many crops do you grow in a year?

120
100
80
116

60
40

34

31

20

15

0
1 to 2

2 to 4

4 to 6

More than 6

Interpretation
From the above graph we can conclude that out of 196 farmers

31 Farmers grow only one crop in a year.

116 Farmers grow between 2to 4 crops in a year.


34 Farmers grow between 4to 6 crops in a year.
15 Farmers grow more than 6 crops in a year.

So the majority of farmers grow 2to 4 crops.

3. Are you aware about Birla Balwan

135

48

Yes

No

Interpretation
From the above graph we can conclude that

135 Farmers are aware about Birla Balwan Fertilizers.

48 farmers are not aware about the product , so there will be possibility for the
company to advertise in Wagodhiya Taluka to attracts more no. of farmers.

4. Name of the crops grow in Wagodhiya Taluka

No. Of Farmers

55; 9%

25; 4%

Paddy

135; 21%

Wheat
Cotton

97; 15%

Vegetables
Fodder
Tuber
116; 18%

71; 11%

Arenda
Tobacco
Nilgiri

35; 5%

25; 4%

87; 13%

Interpretation
From the above graph we can conclude that Most of the farmers grow more than three
crops in a year. And majority of the crops are Paddy, Wheat, cotton, Arenda, Tuber out of
my survey. So we can say that majority of farmers are growing more than three crops
during the year in waghodia Taluka.

5. Easy availability of Birla Balwan


Agree

Neutral

Disagree

108

67

21
1
1

Interpretation
As per the survey from vaillages of Waghodia taluka and from the graph majority of the
farmers are disagree. As we can see that there is almost 50% of the people are disagree
due to shortage of fertilizers in Waghodia Taluka and out of my survey 108 farmers are
disagree. 67 farmers are neutral due to unavailability of fertilizer and and more out
comes than the other brand fertilizers. Only 21 farmers agree with Birla Balwan
fertilizers in Waghodia Taluka.

6. Brand recall : DAP


84
67

35

Brand Recall
0 : DAP GSFC

Interpretation

3
GNFC

HINDALCO

10

OTHER

GSFC is more demanded brand in Waghodia Taluka.


Easily available and more popular brand for the farmers.
Also GSFC produces both fertilizers like DAP and Urea.

So in waghodia Taluka GSFC is more Popular and high consuming fertilizer in Waghodia
Talika than HINDALCO and others.

7. Source of Irrigation
77

55

35
25

Borewell

canal

Rain

Chapter V: Summary & Conclusions


5.1 Results of the study

Well

Farmers are not satisfied with Birla Balwan Fertilizers because of shortage of
fertilizer.

Some of the farmer also speak unprofessional language due to lack shortage of
fertilizer. Means they have to wait for long time to purchase the fertilizers.

To know how much fertilizer use per acres.

To know about the farmers perception towards the Birla Blawan fertilizer as well
as others available fertilizers in markets.

To know the which is the most competitive brand of Birla Balwan and how much
other brands fertilizers available in Waghodia Taluka.

Many of the farmers know about the Birla Balwan but they are still not getting the
fertilizers due to shortage of fertilizer.

First preference of farmers towards fertilizers as GSFC, GNFC, Birla Balwan.

Many of the farmers are enforced to purchase the other brand fertilizers instead of
Birla Balwan.

5.2 Suggestions, scope for further Study & conclusions

To produce maximum level of fertilizers so shortage of fertilizers may reduce.

Most of the farmers are dissatisfied with Balwan fertilizer because of lack of
shortage of fertilizer.

To Prepare the fertilizer benefits and list out all in local languages so, farmers can
understand in better way.

To interact with farmers yearly wise so that they can give their feedback which
will be helpful for company regarding the fertilizers.

As per farmers perception regarding Birla fertilizer is being good but the main
problem is less availability of fertilizer.

Many of the farmers are using substitute products like IFFCO and IPL.

Some of villages of Waghodia Taluka like Paldi, Gajdara, Someshworpura are


aware about Birla Balwan but the Waghodia Dipo is not a sufficient for them.

Conclusion
I have prepared report on AGRICULTURE PROFILE AND FERTILIZER
USEPATTERN in Waghodia Talkua in Hindalco Industries Ltd. Many of the farmers are
highly satisfies with this fertilizer. Also most of the farmers are dissatisfied with this
fertilizer lack of the fertilizer at the time of requirement. Farmers are not completely
agreed with this fertilizer satisfaction as well as its availability. Farmers who have used
this fertilizer they have got more outcomes than the other fertilizers.

Bibliography

The Economics Times Daily News Paper.

P.K.Jaga, Yogesh Patel (2012); An Overview of


Fertilizers Consumption in India : Determinants
and Outlook for 2020-A Review. http://www.ijset.
com/ijset/publication/v1s6/285-291%20IJSET_
PK%20JAGA.pdf
5. http://performance.gov.in/?q=department/fertilizers
6. Vijay Paul Sharma and Hrima Thaker (2011); Demand
for Fertiliser in India:Determinants and Outlook
for 2020. http://indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/

files /demands%20for%20fertiliser.pdf
K. S. Abbiramy, and P. Ronald Ross, Determination of acute toxicity of urea to Eisenia
fetida by a simple paper contact method, International Journal of Science, Environment
and Technology, Vol. 2, No 5, 2013, 886 891, 2013
[1] MunnoliPrakashMallappa, A. Teixeria da Selva Jaime, and BhosleSaroj, Dynamics
of Soil-Earthworm-Plant Relationshio: A Review, Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant, Global
Science books, 2010. [2] D. Jordan, R.J. Miles, V.C. Hubbard, and T. Lorenz, Effect of

management practices and cropping systems on earthworm abundance and microbial


activity in Sanborn Field: a 115-year-old agricultural field, Pedobiologia, 48: 155169,
2004. [3] A.J. Reinecke, and S.A. Reinecke, Earthworms as test organisms in
ecotoxicological assessment of toxicant impacts on ecosystems, In: Edwards C.A. (ed.):
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Buckerfield, R. Grey-Gardner, R. Merry, and B. Doube, The abundance and diversity of
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s
Appendices

Questionnaire
FAERMER PROFILE
Name:
Age:
Village:.
Taluka:
District:
Contact No:..
1. How much agriculture land you use in farming? : _____________ (acre)
2. Irrigated Land: ______________ 4. Non-Irrigated Land: ______________
3. The land do you hold is your own?
A) Yes
B) No
4. How many Crops do you grow in year? : _____________ (Number)
5. Do you have insurance cover for the crops you grow?
A) Yes
B) No
6. Which types of Soil do you have? :_____________________
7. Have you undertaken soil analysis? Yes No
If yes than where you send the sample for analysis?
a. State Government lab
b. Private lab
c. Company lab
d. Agricultural University lab
8. Brand recall
Urea DAP NPK MOP
9. Are you getting the benefits of Government schemes? Yes No
If yes Pl specify the scheme
a. Crop insurance scheme
b. Pradhanmantri fasal bima yojana
c. Jan dhan yojana
d. Soil health card
10. Years of farming experience:
0 to 5 years 5 to 10 years
10 to 15 years More than 15 years
11. What is the highest degree or level of education you have completed?
Pre-High School or High School Graduate
Post-Graduate Others
12. What is your yearly income?
Less than 2 lakh 2 lakh to 5 lakh
6 lakh to 10 lakh More than 10 lakh
13. Are you using Chemical Fertilizer in your farm?
Yes No

14. What is the main Source of irrigation?


Bore Well Rains
Canal / River Other
15. Which type of irrigation Method do you use?
Surface Drip Irrigation
Sprinkler Irrigation