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PECUTAN SPM 2015

Nama : ..

Ting : 5 .

ATOMIC STRUCTURE, PERIODIC TABLE AND CHEMICAL BOND


1.

(a)

Properties of compound W are shown in the box below.


Sifat-sifat sebatian W ditunjukkan dalam kotak di bawah.

Colourless liquid at room condition


Cecair tidak berwarna pada keadaan bilik

Have melting point of -27OC and boiling point of 77 OC


O

Mempunyai takat lebur -27 C dan takat didih 77 C

Does not mix with water


Tidak bercampur dengan air

(i)

Is compound W an ionic or covalent compound? Explain your answer


Adakah sebatian W merupakan sebatian ion atau sebatian kovalen? Terangkan jawapan anda.

(ii)

State one more property of compound W.


Nyatakan satu lagi sifat bagi sebatian W.

[4 marks]

(b)

Diagram 7 shows electron arrangement of compounds P and Q.


Rajah 7 menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi sebatian P dan sebatian Q.

Na

Cl

Compound Q

Compound P

Sebatian Q

Sebatian P

Diagram 7
1

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(i)

Compare compound P and compound Q in terms of


Type of bonds
Type of particles forms
Type of attraction force between the particles
Way for the atoms to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement

Bandingkan sebatian P dan sebatian Q dari segi

Jenis ikatan

Jenis zarah-zarah yang terbentuk

Jenis daya tarikan antara zarah-zarah

Cara bagi atom untuk mencapai susunan elekton oktet yang stabil

[8 marks]
(ii)

Oxygen atoms can react with sodium atoms to produce a compound. Draw the
electron arrangement of compound formed.
Atom oksigen boleh bertindak balas dengan atom natrium untuk menghasilkan
satu sebatian. Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk.
[ Number of proton : O = 16; Na = 11 ]
[2 marks]

(iii)

Nitrogen atom can react with hydrogen atom to produce a compound. Draw the
electron arrangement of the compound formed.
Atom nitrogen boleh bertindak balas dengan atom hidrogen untuk menghasilkan satu sebatian.
Lukiskan susunan electron sebatian yang terbentuk

[ Number of proton : N = 7; H = 1 ]
[ 2 marks ]

(c)

Tartaric acid is a covalent compound which is widely used as a flavouring in soft drinks.
The composition according to the mass of tartaric acid is 32% carbon, 4% hydrogen and
64% oxygen.
Asid tartarik merupakan sebatian kovalen yang banyak digunakan sebagai perasa dalam minuman ringan.
Komposisi menurut jisim bagi asid tartarik ialah 32% karbon, 4% hidrogen dan 64% oksigen.

(i)

Determine empirical formula of tartaric acid


Tentukan formula empirik bagi asid tartarik.

[4 marks]
(ii)

Molar mass of tartaric acid is 150 g mol-1. Determine molecular formula of tartaric
acid.
[Atomic relative mass : H, 1; C, 12; O, 16]
-1

Jisim molar asid tartarik ialah 150 g mol . Tentukan formula molekul bagi asid tartarik.
[Jisim atom relatif : H, 1; C, 12; O, 16]

[2 marks]

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(d)

Diagram 2 shows an atom of carbon-13. It is an isotope of carbon element.


Rajah 2 menunjukkan satu atom karbon-13. Ia merupakan isotop bagi unsur karbon.

6p
7n

Diagram / Rajah 2
(i)

Describe the atomic structure of carbon-13


Huraikan struktur atom bagi karbon-13.

[4 marks]
(ii)

Another isotope of carbon element is carbon-14. It has 8 neutrons. Compare the


two isotopes of carbon element.
Satu isotop lain bagi unsure karbon ialah karbon-14. Ia mempunyai 8 neutron. Bandingkan dua
isotop bagi unsur karbon itu.

[4 marks]
(e)

There are many uses of radioisotopes, namely in the field of medicine, agriculture,
industry and archaeology. Choose one of the above examples. State one radioisotope
and its uses.
Terdapat banyak kegunaan radioisotope iaitu dalam bidang perubatan, pertanian, industry dan arkeologi.
Pilih satu daripada contoh di atas. Nyatakan satu radioisotope dan kegunaannya.

[2 marks]

(f)

Diagram 5.1 shows solid M and solid R submerged in paraffin oil in two separate
reagent bottles. The labels on the two bottles have dropped off.
Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan pepejal M dan R yang direndam di dalam dua botol reagen yang mengandungi
minyak paraffin.

When a small piece of metal M and R are burn separately in oxygen, the changes
observed are shown in the table below.
Apabila seketul logam M dan R dibakar secara berasingan dalam oksigen, pemerhatian yang diperoleh
telah ditunjukkan dalam jadual di bawah.

PECUTAN SPM 2015

Type of metal

Observation

Jenis logam

Pemerhatian

Burns rapidly and violently with lilac flame in oxygen.


White fumes are formed. When cooling down to
room temperature, a white solid is deposited.

Burns slowly and less vigorously with a red flame in


oxygen. White fumes are formed. When cooling
down to room temperature, a white solid is
deposited.

Terbakar dalam oksigen dengan nyalaan ungu secara sangat


cepat dan cergas. Wasap putih terbentuk. Apabila sejuk pada
suhu bilik, pepejal putih terbentuk.

Terbakar dalam oksigen dengan nyalaan merah secara perlahan


dan kurang cergas. Wasap putih terbentuk. Apabila sejuk pada
suhu bilik, pepejal putih terbentuk.

Table / Jadual 5.2

(i)

Based on table 5.2, compare the reactivity between M and R. Explain your
answer.
Berdasarkan jadual 5.2, bandingkan kereaktifan diantara M dan R. Terangkan jawapan anda.

[4 marks]
(ii)

Suggest metal M and metal R. Write a chemical equation for the reaction
between metal M and oxygen gas.
Cadangkan logam M dan logam R. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindakbalas diantara logam M
dengan gas oksigen

[4 marks]
(iii)

In the above reaction, 0.1 mol of metal M reacted completely with oxygen gas.
Calculate the mass of the product formed.
[ Molar mass of M oxide = 94 g mol-1]
Dalam tindakbalas di atas, 0.1mol logam M telah bertindakbalas lengkap dengan gas oksigen.
Hitung jisim bagi hasil tindakbalas yang terbentuk.
-1
[Jisim molar bagi oksida M = 94 g mol ]

[2 marks]

PECUTAN SPM 2015

ELECTROCHEMISTRY
2.

(a)

A student has carried out an electrolysis process using dilute ethanoic acid and carbon
as electrodes. What is produced at the cathode? Write a half equation for the reaction.
Seorang pelajar telah menjalankan proses elektrolisis dengan menggunakan larutan asid etanoik dan
karbon sebagai elektrod. Apakah yang terhasil di katod? Tuliskan persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas
tersebut.

[ 2 marks]
(b)

Diagram shows two types of cells.


Rajah menunjukkan dua jenis sel.

Compare and contrast cell X and cell Y in their chemical reactions. Include the
observations and half equations for reactions at the electrodes in both cells in your
answers.
Banding dan bezakan sel X dan sel Y dalam tindak balas kimianya. Sertakan pemerhatian dan persamaan
setengah bagi tindak balas di elektrod kedua-dua sel di dalam jawapan anda.

[ 8 marks ]

(c)

Taufiq needs to electroplate an iron ring. He has given some materials and apparatus
as below:
Taufiq dikehendaki menyadur sebentuk cincin besi. Dia telah dibekalkan bahan dan radas seperti berikut :

(i)

State two purposes of electroplating.


Nyatakan dua tujuan penyaduran.

[ 2 marks]

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(ii)

Plan a laboratory experiment to electroplate the iron ring. Your answer should
consist:

Procedure of the experiment

Half-equations for the reactions at both electrodes.

Observations for both electrodes.


Rancang satu eksperimen makmal untuk menyadur cincin tersebut. Jawapan anda perlu
mengandungi:

Prosedur eksperimen

Persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas di kedua-dua elektrod

Pemerhatian di kedua-dua elektrod.

[ 8 marks ]

(d)

You have an impure silver plate. You intend to purify the silver plate. Suggest a method
and electrolyte that can be used to purify it. Write the half equation for the reaction at
anode and cathode.
Anda mempunyai satu kepingan argentum tak tulen. Anda ingin untuk menulenkan kepingan argentum itu.
Cadangkan satu kaedah dan elektrolit yang boleh digunakan untuk menulenkannya. Tulis setengah
persamaan bagi tindak balas di anod dan di katod.

[4 marks]
(e)

Table 2 shows the setup of apparatus of two experiments to investigate electrolysis


process by using different electrodes.
Jadual 2 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi dua eksperimen untuk mengkaji proses elektrolisis dengan
menggunakan elektrod yang berlainan.

EXPERIMENT

SETUP OF APPARATUS

EKSPERIMEN

SUSUNAN ALAT RADAS

II

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(i)

Compare the observation and product formed at the anode for both experiments.
Bandingkan pemerhatian dan hasil yang terbentuk di anod bagi kedua-dua eksperimen.

(ii)

Write the half equation at the anode for both experiments.


Tuliskan persamaan setengah di anod bagi kedua-dua eksperimen.

[6 marks]
(f)

Table below shows the descriptions and observations for three experiments, I and II.
Jadual dibawah menunjukkan penerangan dan pemerhatian bagi tiga eksperimen, I dan II.

Experiment

Description

Observation at anode

Eksperimen

Penerangan

Pemerhatian di anod

Electrolysis of 2 mol dm-3


copper (II) chloride solution
using carbon electrodes.
Elektrolisis larutan kuprum (II)
-3
klorida 2 mol dm menggunakan
elektrod karbon

II

Electrolysis of 0.001 mol


dm-3 copper (II) chloride
solution using carbon
electrodes.

Greenish-yellow gas
released.
Gas kuning kehijauan terbebas

Colourless gas released


Gas tanpa warna terbebas.

Elektrolisis larutan kuprum (II)


-3
klorida 0.001 mol dm
menggunakan elektrod karbon

Compare the product of electrolysis at anode between experiment I and experiment II.
In each case explain the difference in the products. Write half equation for the reaction
at anode in experiment III.
Bandingkan hasil elektrolisis di anod antara eksperimen I eksperimen II dan eksperimenIII. Bagi setiap kes
terangkan perbezaan hasil itu. Tulis setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas di anod dalam eksperimen III.

[ 10 marks]

PECUTAN SPM 2015

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE FOR INDUSTRIES


3.

(a)

Diagram 13.1 show ammonium sulphate formed from the reaction between substance
X and ammonia. Substance X is produced from Contact process whereas ammonia from
process Z. Contact Process also produces pollutant Y.
Rajah 13.1 menunjukkan ammonium sulfat yang terbentuk daripada tindak balas bahan X dan ammonia.
Bahan X dihasilkan daripada Proses Sentuh manakala ammonia dihasilkan daripada Proses Z. Proses Sentuh
juga menghasilkan bahan pencemar Y.

(i)

State the name of substance X and pollutant Y.


Nyatakan nama bahan X dan bahan pencemar Y.

[2 marks]
(ii)

State one use of ammonium sulphate. Write the chemical equation for the
reaction between substance X and ammonia to produced ammonium sulphate.
Nyatakan satu kegunaan ammonium sulfat. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara
bahan X dan ammonia untuk menghasilkan ammonium sulfat.

[3 marks]
(iii)

Describe briefly Process Z in industry to produce ammonia.


Huraikan dengan ringkas Proses Z dalam industri untuk menghasilkan ammonia.

[4 marks]
(iv)

State three effects of pollution caused by pollutant Y.


Nyatakan tiga kesan pencemaran yang disebabkan oleh bahan pencemar Y.

[3 marks]

(b)

Diagram 13.3 shows particles arrangement in two different materials, X and Y. X is a


pure metal and Y is its alloy. Y is harder than X.
Rajah 13.3 menunjukkan susunan zarah dalam dua bahan yang berbeza, X dan Y. X ialah logam tulen dan Y
ialah aloinya. Y lebih keras daripada X.

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(i)

Explain why Y is harder than X.


Terangkan mengapa Y lebih keras dariapada X.

(ii)

By using one suitable example, describe a laboratory experiment to show the


hardness of the alloy compared to its pure metal.
In your description, include the following aspects:

Materials and apparatus


Procedure of experiment
Tabulation of data
Observation

Dengan menggunakan satu contoh yang sesuai, huraikan eksperimen makmal untuk menunjukkan
kekerasan bagi aloi dibandingkan dengan logam tulennya.

Dalam huraian anda, sertakan aspek-aspek berikut:


Bahan dan alat radas

Prosedur eksperimen

Penjadualan data

Pemerhatian

[10 marks]
(c)

Diagram 7.1 shows two types of ammonium fertilisers that usually been used in paddy
cultivation.
Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan dua jenis baja ammonium yang sering digunakan dalam penanaman padi.

Between these fertilisers which one is the most suitable to be used in paddy cultivation.
Explain your answer.
[Relative atomic mass : C = 12; O = 16; N = 14; H = 1; S = 32]
Antara baja berkenaan yang manakah paling sesuai digunakan dalam penanaman padi. Jelaskan jawapan
anda.
[Jisim atom relatif : C = 12; O = 16; N = 14; H = 1; S = 32]

[ 6 marks]

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(d)

Table 8 shows three substance, example and their components respectively.


Jadual 8 menunjukkan tiga jenis bahan, contoh dan komponen masing-masing.

Substance

Example

Component

Bahan

Contoh

Komponen

Reinforced concrete

cement, sand, small


pebbles and steel

Alloy
Aloi

Polymer
Polimer

Konkrit yang
diperkukuhkan

simen, pasir, batu kecil dan keluli

copper and zinc

ethene

kuprum dan zink

etena

Table 8
Based on Table 8 answer the following questions:
Berdasarkan Jadual 8 jawab soalan-soalan berikut:

(i)

Name substance P and suggest how the strength of concrete can be increased to
be used as pillars of building.
Namakan bahan P dan cadangkan bagaimana kekuatan konkrit dapat ditingkatkan bagi kegunaan
membuat tiang bangunan.

[2 marks]
(ii)

Polymer R is formed through polymerization process


Polimer R terbentuk melalui proses pempolimeran.

Write the chemical equation to produce the polymer R and give a name for the
polimer
Tuliskan persamaan bagi penghasilan polimer itu dan namakan polimer R

[3 marks]

10

PECUTAN SPM 2015

RATE OF REACTION
COLLIDING PARTICLE

1.

Zinc

hydrochloric acid

zinc chloride

hydrogen

Chemical equation

: .

Ionic equation

: .

Colliding particles

: .

2.

Calcium carbonate + sulphuric acid calcium carbonate + water + carbon dioxide

Chemical equation

: .

Ionic equation

: .

Colliding particles

: .

3.

Sodium thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + sulphur + sulphur dioxide + water

Chemical equation

: .

Ionic equation

: .

Colliding particles

: .

4.

Hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen

Chemical equation

: .

Ionic equation

: .

Colliding particles

: .

11

PECUTAN SPM 2015

4.

Table 10 shows the results of three sets of experiments to investigate the factors that affect
the rate of reaction. 50 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas is collected in each experiment.
Jadual 10 menunjukkan keputusan bagi tiga set eksperimen untuk menyiasat faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar
3
tindakbalas. 50 cm gas karbon dioksida dikumpulkan dalam setiap eksperimen.

Time taken to
collects gas / s

Experiment

Reactants

Temperature / oC

Eksperimen

Bahan tindak balas

Suhu / C

Masa yang diambil untuk


mengumpulkan gas / s

28

240

28

60

40

150

50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 nitric acid


+ excess marble chips
3

-3

50 cm asid nitrik 1.0 mol dm + serpihan


marmar berlebihan

II

50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 nitric acid


+ excess powdered marble chips
3

-3

50 cm asid nitrik 1.0 mol dm + serbuk


marmar berlebihan

III

50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 nitric acid


+ excess marble chips
3

-3

50 cm asid nitrik 1.0 mol dm + serpihan


marmar berlebihan

Table 10
(a)

Nitric acid reacts with marble chips to produce calcium nitrate, carbon dioxide gas and water.
Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction and calculate the maximum volume of
carbon dioxide gas produced in experiment I.
[Relative atomic mass: C = 12, Ca = 40; 1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions]
Asid nitrik bertindak balas dengan serpihan marmar untuk menghasilkan kalsium nitrat, gas karbon dioksida dan
air.
Tulis persamaan kimia yang seimbang bagi tindakbalas itu dan hitung isi padu maksimum gas karbon dioksida
yang dihasilkan dalam eksperimen I.
3
[Jisim atom relatif: C = 12, Ca = 40; 1 mol gas menempati 24 dm pada keadaan bilik]

[5 marks]
(b)

Calculate the average rate of reaction in Experiment I and in experiment II.


Kira kadar tindak balas purata untuk eksperimen I dan II

[4 marks]
(c)

Based on table 10, compare the rate of reaction between:


Berdasarkan Jadual 10, bandingkan kadar tindak balas antara:

(i) experiment I and experiment II


eksperimen I dan eksperimen II

(ii) experiments I dan experiment III


eksperimen I dan eksperimen III

12

PECUTAN SPM 2015

In each case explain the difference in the rate of reaction with reference to the collision
theory.
Bagi setiap kes terangkan perbezaan dalam kadar tindak balas dengan merujuk kepada teori perlanggaran.

[10 marks]
(c) The size of reactants can be used to increase the rate of reaction between metal and acid. By
using a suitable named of metal and acid, describe an experiment to show how size of metals
affects the rate of reaction.
Saiz bahan tindak balas boleh digunakan untuk meningkatkan kadar tindak balas antara logam dan asid. Dengan
menggunakan satu logam, asid dan mangkin yang dinamakan, huraikan satu eksperimen bagaimana saiz logam
boleh mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.

[10 marks]
(d) Another experiments are conducted to determine the factors that affect the rate of reaction
between zinc and hydrochloric acid. Particulars of experiment are listed as below.
Eksperimen yang lain dijalankan untuk menentukan faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas di antara zink
dan asid hidroklorik. Butiran eksperimen disenaraikan seperti di bawah.

Experiment

Reactants

Eksperimen

Bahan tindak balas

Time taken to
collects 50 cm3 of CO2 gas / s
Masa yang diambil untuk
3
mengumpulkan 50 cm gas hidrogen / s

50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric


acid + excess zinc granule
I

300
3

-3

50 cm asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol dm + butiran


zink berlebihan

II

50 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric


acid + excess zinc granule
3

180
-3

50 cm asid hidroklorik 2.0 mol dm +


ketulan zink berlebihan

III

50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric


acid + excess zinc granule + copper
(II) sulphate solution
3

150

-3

50 cm asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol dm + butiran


zink berlebihan + larutan kuprum (II) sulfat

(i)

Sketch the graph of volume against time for experiment I and II in same a graph. Explain
your answers.
Lakarkan graf isipadu melawan masa untuk eksperimen I dan II di dalam graf yang sama. Terangkan
jawapan anda.

[6 marks]
(ii)

Sketch the graph of volume against time for experiment I and III in same a graph.
Explain your answers.
Lakarkan graf isipadu melawan masa untuk eksperimen I dan III di dalam graf yang sama. Terangkan
jawapan anda.

[6 marks]

13

PECUTAN SPM 2015

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE FOR CONSUMER


5

(a)

Food process or fast food is the food component that can be consumed directly without
cooking first. Its maybe canned food, western foods such as burgers and hot dog,
frozen foods and other fast food. This is not the best food choices because of its
contents that are not nutritious enough. Regular intake of fast food can cause heart
attack and stroke. The content of fat and excess sugars in food can immediately
resulting in the fast food lovers experiencing obesity and so on obesity.
Makanan proses atau makanan segera adalah komponen makanan yang boleh dimakan terus tanpa perlu
memasaknya terlebih dahulu.la mungkin makanan dalam tin, makanan berasaskan corakpemakanan barat
seperti burger dan hot dog, makanan sejuk beku dan sebagainya. Makanan segera ini bukanlah pilihan
makanan yang terbaik kerana kandungannya yang kurang berkhasiat. Pengambilan makanan segera yang
kerap boleh menyebabkan serangan jantung dan strok. Kandungan lemak dan lebihan gula dalam makanan
segera boleh mengakibatkan penggemar makanan segera mengalami kegemukan dan seterusnya obesiti.

Diagram 10.1 shows two examples of fast food preferred by teenagers. Based on
Diagram 10.1, give two types of food additive used and the their function.
Rajah 10.1menunjukkan dua contoh makanan segera yang disukai oleh golongan remaja. Berdasarkan
Rajah 10.1, berikan dua jenis bahan tambah makanan yang digunakan dan fungsi masing-masing.

[4 marks]
(b)

Diagram 10.2 shows a conversation between Sarah and Suzie.


Rajah 10.2 menunjukkan perbualan antara Sarah dan Suzie.

14

PECUTAN SPM 2015

These two students met a doctor and some medicines were prescribed to them. For
each medicine, state its name, type and the correct usage.
Kedua-dua orang murid ini berjumpa dengan doktor dan beberapa ubat telah dipreskripsikepada mereka.
Bagi setiap ubat, nyatakan jenis ubat dan cara penggunaan yang betul .

[4 marks]

(c)

Diagram 10.2 shows structural formula of soap. Name Part A and Part B and its function
during cleaning.
Rajah 10.2 menunjukkan formula struktur untuk sabun. Namakan Bahagian A dan Bahagian B serta
fungsinya semasa pembersihan

[4 marks]

(d)

You are given liquid soap, samples of hard water and soft water and cloth with oily
stains. Describe an experiment to investigate the effectiveness of cleansing action of
soap in different type of water. Your description must include example of hard and soft
water, observations and conclusion.
Anda dibekalkan dengan cecair sabun, contoh air liat dan air lembut dan kain yang mengandungi kotoran
berminyak. Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat kesan pencucian sabun dalam jenis air yang
berbeza. Huraian anda hendaklah mengandungi contoh air liat dan air lembut, pemerhatian dan
kesimpulan.

[10 marks]

15

PECUTAN SPM 2015

SALT
6.
A house wife`s discovered that the cake she bake did not rise.
Seorang suri rumah mendapati kek yang dibakarnya tidak naik.

A farmer discovered that plants in his farm not growth well.


Seorang petani mendapati tanaman dalam kebunnya tidak membesar dengan baik

(a)

Suggest how they can overcome these problems. Give a reason.


Cadangkan bagaimana mereka boleh mengatasi masalah-masalah tersebut. Beri satu sebab.

[4 marks]
(b)

Diagram 9 shows a series of reaction starting from Salt P.


Rajah 9 menunjukkan satu siri tindak balas bermula daripada garam P.

Based on Diagram 9 :
Identify salt P, residue X, gas Y and acid M.
Write the chemical equation for the reaction between residue X and acid M. Berdasarkan
Rajah 9 :
Kenal pasti garam P, baki X, gas Y dan asid M.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara baki X dan asid M.

[6 marks]

(c)

Barium sulphate can be prepared by double decomposition reaction using salt A and
salt B solution. Both salts are soluble. Suggest salt A and B. Describe preparation of
barium sulphate salt by using salts that you have stated and then write chemical
equation involved.
Barium sulfat boleh disediakan melalui tindak balas penguraian ganda dua menggunakan larutan garam A
dan larutan garam B. Kedua-dua larutan garam ini merupakan garam terlarutkan. Cadangkan garam A dan
garam B. Huraikan penyediaan garam Barium sulfat dengan menggunakan garam-garam yang anda
nyatakan seterusnya tuliskan persamaan kimia yang terlibat.

[10 marks]

16

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(d)

A student has carried out an experiment to construct an ionic equation for the
formation of lead (II) iodide.
Seorang pelajar telah menjalankan satu eksperimen untuk membina persamaan ion bagi pembentukan
plumbum(II) iodida.

Seven test tubes of the same size were labelled 1 to 7. A fixed volume of 5.0 cm3 of 1.0
moldm-3 potassium iodide solution was placed in each test tube. 0.5 cm3 of 1.0 moldm3 lead(II) nitrate solution was added into test tube 1, 1.0 cm3 into test tube 2 and so on
until 3.5 cm3 was added into test tube 7. The heights of the precipitate formed in each
test tube were measured.
Tujuh buah tabung uji yang sama saiz dilabelkan dengan 1 hingga 7. Isipadu tetap 5.0 cm3 larutan kalium
iodide 1.0 moldm-3 diletakkan dalam setiap tabung uji .0.5 cm3 larutan plumbum (II) nitrat 1.0 mol dm-3
ditambah kedalam tabung uji 1, 1.0 cm3 ke dalam tabung uji 2, dan seterusnya sehingga 3.5 cm3 ditambah
ke dalam tabung uji 7. Tinggi mendakan yang terbentuk dalam setiap tabung uji diukur.

The results are shown in Table 11.1


Keputusan ditunjukkan dalam Jadual 11.1

Test tube / Tabunguji


Volume of 1.0 moldm-3 lead (II) nitrate
solution / cm3
Isipadu larutan plumbum (II) nitrat 1.0 mol dm
3
/ cm

Height of precipitate /cm


Tinggi mendakan / cm

(i)

-3

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

1.1

2.2

3.4

4.4

5.5

5.5

5.5

Based on Table 11, plot a graph of the height of the precipitate against volume of
lead (II) nitrate solution.
Berdasarkan Jadual 11, plotkan graf tinggi mendakan lawan isipadu larutan plumbum (II) nitrat .

[3 marks]
(ii)

Determine the volume of lead (II) nitrate solution that had reacted completely
with 5.0 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 potassium iodide.
Tentukan isipadu larutan plumbum (II) nitrat yang telah bertindakbalas lengkap dengan 5.0 cm
-3
larutan kalium iodide 1.0 mol dm .

[1 mark]
(iii)

Using the volume obtained in (a) (ii), calculate the number of moles of lead (II)
ions and iodide ions that are required for the formation of lead(II) iodide.
Dengan menggunakan isipadu yang diperolehi dalam (a) (ii), hitungkan bilangan mol bagi ion
plumbum (II) dan ion iodida yang diperlukan untuk pembentukan plumbum (II) iodida.

Then, calculate the number of moles of iodide ions that has reacted with 1 mol of
lead (II) ions.
Kemudian, hitungkan bilangan mol ion iodida yang bertindakbalas dengan 1mol ion plumbum (II).

[4 marks]
(iv)

Write the ionic equation for the formation of lead (II) iodide.
Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi pembentukan plumbum (II) iodida.

[2 marks]
17

PECUTAN SPM 2015

PAPER 3

RUSTING OF IRON
7.

An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of metal in contact with iron on the
rusting of iron. The irons are coiled with metal zinc, copper and tin and kept inside a jelly
solution which contains a small amount phenolphthalein and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III)
solution. The test tubes are put aside for 5 days and the observations are recorded.
Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan logam yang bersentuhan dengan besi terhadap
pengaratan besi. Besi yang dililitkan dengan logam zink, kuprum dan timah disimpan di dalam larutan jeli yang
mengandungi sedikit fenoftalein dan larutan kalium heksasianoferrat(III). Tabung uji disimpan selama 5 hari dan
pemerhatian direkodkan.

DAY 1 /

Hari Pertama

Jelly solution + Potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) solution + Phenolphthalein

Iron nail coiled


with copper
metal

Iron nail coiled


with zinc
metal

DAY 5 /

Iron nail coiled


with tin metal

Test Tube 1

Test Tube 2

Test Tube 3

Tabung uji 1

Tabung uji 2

Tabung uji 3

Hari kelima

Jelly solution + Potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) solution + Phenolphthalein

Pink colour
Warna merah
jambu

Iron nail coiled


with copper
metal

Iron nail coiled


with zinc
metal

Blue colour

Iron nail coiled


with tin metal

Warna biru

Test Tube 1

Test Tube 2

Test Tube 3

Tabung uji 1

Tabung uji 2

Tabung uji 3

Diagram 1/ Rajah 1

18

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(a)

Based on diagram 1, Record all observations and corresponding inferences at day 5 in


table 1.
Berdasarkan rajah 1, rekod semua pemerhatian dan inferens pada hari kelima di dalam jadual 1.

[ 6 marks ]
Observations

Inferences

Pemerhatian

Inferens

Test Tube 1 : Tabung uji 1

Test Tube 1 : Tabung uji 1

..

Test Tube 2 : Tabung uji 2

Test Tube 2 : Tabung uji 2

...

..

...

..

..

Test Tube 3 : Tabung uji 3

Test Tube 3 : Tabung uji 3

.... .
.

Table 1 / Jadual 1
(b)

For this experiment, state:


Bagi eksperimen ini, nyatakan:

(i)

Manipulated variables.
Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasi

(ii)

Responding variable
Pemboleh ubah bergerak balas

(iii)

Fixed variable
Pemboleh ubah dimalarkan

[ 3 marks ]

19

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(c)

Write the half equation for the formation of rust in test tube 3.
Tulis setengah persamaan bagi pembentukan karat dalam tabung uji 3.

...
[ 3 marks ]
(d)

By comparing test tube 1 and 2, state the hypothesis for the experiment.
Dengan merujuk kepada tabung uji 1 dan 2, nyatakan hipotesis untuk eksperimen ini.

...
[ 3 marks ]

(e)

Referring to test tubes 2 and 3, state the relationship between the position metal from
iron in electrochemical series and the rusting of iron.
Merujuk kepada tabung uji 2 dan 3, nyatakan hubungan di antara kedudukan logam dari ferum dalam siri
elektrokimia dan pengaratan besi.

...
...
[ 3 marks ]
(f)

Classify metal zinc, copper and tin into more electropositive than iron or less
electropositive than iron based on the electrochemical series.
Kelaskan logam zink, kuprum dan timah kepada lebih elektropositif daripada ferum atau kurang
elektropositif daripada ferum berdasarkan siri elektrokimia.

[ 3 marks ]
(g)

State the operational definitional for the rusting of iron.


Nyatakan definisi secara operasi bagi pengaratan paku besi.

...
...
...
...
[ 3 marks ]
20

PECUTAN SPM 2015

HARDNESS OF ALLOY AND PURE METAL


8.

An experiment to determine the hardness of pure copper metal and bronze is conducted as
diagram below. Diagram 2 shows a weight with mass of 1 kg is released at the height of 50 cm
above the steel ball bearing which is placed on top of a block of pure copper metal. The
experiment is repeated three times. The experiment is then repeated again by using bronze
block to replaced pure copper block.
Satu eksperimen untuk menentukan kekerasan kuprum tulen dan gangsa telah dijalankan seperti ditunjukkan dalam
rajah di bawah. Rajah 2 menunjukkan satu pemberat 1 kg dilepaskan pada ketinggian 50 cm di atas bebola keluli
yang diletakkan di atas blok kuprum tulen. Eksperimen ini diulangi tiga kali. Eksperimen ini diulangi semula dengan
menggunakan blok gangsa untuk menggantikan blok kuprum tulen.

Ruler

Thread

Weight 1 kg
Steel ball bearing strap
with cellophane tape

Pure copper block


/ bronze
Diagram 2 / Rajah 2
The diameter of each dent is measured to determine the hardness of blocks. Diagram 3 shows
the dent made from each experiment.
Diameter setiap lekuk diukur untuk menentukan kekerasan blok logam. Rajah 3 menunjukkan lekuk yang terbentuk
dalam setiap eksperimen.

Observations on pure copper / Pemerhatian pada kuprum tulen

Experiment 1
Diameter of dent =

Experiment 2
Diameter of dent =

Experiment 3
Diameter of dent =

21

PECUTAN SPM 2015

Observations on bronze / Pemerhatian pada gangsa

Experiment 1
Diameter of dent =

Experiment 2
Diameter of dent =

Experiment 3
Diameter of dent =

Diagram 3 / Rajah 3

(a)

Measure and record the diameter of dent at spaces provided in diagram 3.


Ukur dan rekodkan diameter lekuk pada ruang yang disediakan dalam gambar rajah.

[ 3 marks ]
(b)

Construct a table to record the diameter of the dent and average diameter of dent on
pure copper and bronze.
Bina satu jadual bagi merekodkan diameter lekuk dan purata diameter lekuk untuk bongkah kuprum tulen
dan gangsa

[ 3 marks ]

(c)

State the hypothesis for this experiment.


Nyatakan satu hipotesis bagi eksperimen ini.

...
...
...
[ 3 marks ]

22

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(d)

State the following variables


Nyatakan pembolehubah yang berikut.

(i)

Manipulated variables.
Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasi

(ii)

Responding variable
Pemboleh ubah bergerak balas

(iii)

Fixed variable
Pemboleh ubah dimalarkan

[ 3 marks ]
(e)

State the relationship between the diameters of dent with hardness of metal.
Nyatakan hubungan di antara diameter lekuk dengan kekerasan logam.

...
...
...
[ 3 marks ]
(f)

Classify the following substance into pure metals and alloy


Klasifikasikan bahan berikut kepada logam tulen dan aloi.

Aluminium

Brass

Manganese

(Aluminium)

(Tembaga)

(Mangan)

Stainless steel

Chromium

Duralumin

(Besi tahan karat)

Kromium

(Duralumin)

[ 3 marks ]

23

PECUTAN SPM 2015

PAPER 3 ESSAY

CONDUCTIVITY OF IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUND


9.

Ionic compound can conduct electricity in aqueous and molten states but covalent
compound cannot conduct electricity in all states.
Sebatian ion boleh mengkonduksikan elektrik dalam keadaan leburan dan larutan akueus tetapi sebatian kovalen
tidak boleh mengkonduksikan elektrik dalam sebarang keadaan.

Using lead(II) bromide as an example of ionic compound and naphthalene as an example of


covalent compound, plan a laboratory experiment to compare the electrical conductivity of
molten ionic and covalent compounds.
Dengan menggunakan plumbum(II) bromida sebagai contoh sebatian ion and naftalena sebagai contoh sebatian
kovalen, rancangkan satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan kekonduksian elektrik leburan sebatian ion dan
sebatian kovalen.

Your planning should include the following aspects:


Perancangan anda hendaklah mengandungi aspek berikut:

(a) Problem statement


Pernyataan masalah

(b) All the variables


Semua pemboleh ubah

(c) Hypothesis
Hipotesis

(d) List of materials and apparatus


Senarai bahan dan radas

(e) Procedure
Prosedur

(f) Tabulation of data


Penjadualan data

[17 marks]

24

PECUTAN SPM 2015

VULCANISE AND UNVULCANISED RUBBER


10.

Diagram 3 shows a car tyre. The car tyre is made from vulcanized rubber. Vulcanized rubber is
stronger than unvulcanized rubber.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan tayar sebuah kereta. Tayar kereta itu diperbuat daripada getah tervulkan. Getah tervulkan
adalah lebih kuat daripada getah tak tervulkan.

Diagram 3
Based on the statement above, plan one laboratory experiment to compare the strength of
vulcanized and unvulcalnised rubber.
Merujuk kepada pernyataan di atas, rancang satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan kekuatan getah tervulkan
dengan getah tak tervulkan.

Your planning should include the following aspects:


Perancangan anda hendaklah mengandungi aspek-aspek berikut:

(a)

Aim of the experiment


Tujuan eksperimen

(b)

All the variables


Semua pembolehubah

(c)

Statement of the hypothesis


Pernyataan hipotesis

(d)

List of substances and apparatus


Senarai bahan dan alat radas

(e)

Procedure for the experiment


Prosedur eksperimen

(f)

Tabulation of data
Penjadualan data

[17 marks]

25

PECUTAN SPM 2015

SOAP AND DETERGENT


11.
Soft water is water that is used daily in our life, such as tap water, drinking water,
water from river, spring water and water from lake. Hard water is water that
contained a high percentage of calcium ions and magnesium ions.
Soap is very effective to clean grease and oil in soft water but detergent is
effective in both soft and hard water.
Air lembut adalah air yang di gunakan seharian dalam kehidupan kita seperti air paip, air minuman,
air dari sungai, air mata air dan air dari tasek. Air liat adalah air yang mengandungi peratusan
kandungan ion kalsium dan ion magnesium yang tinggi.

Referring to the information in the diagram above, plan an experiment to investigate the
cleaning effect of soap and detergent in hard water. Your planning should include the
following aspects:
Merujuk kepada maklumat dari gambarajah di atas, rancangkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan
pencucian sabun dan dtergen dalam air liat. Perancangan anda hendaklah mengandungi aspek-aspek berikut:

(a) Problem statement


Pernyataan masalah

(b) All the variables


Semua pemboleh ubah

(c) Hypothesis
Hipotesis

(d) List of materials and apparatus


Senarai bahan dan alat radas

(e) Procedure
Prosedur

(f)

Tabulation of data
Penjadualan data

[17 marks]

26

PECUTAN SPM 2015

RUSTING OF IRON
12.

Diagram 3(a) and 3(b) below shows the apparatus set up to study the effects of metals X and
metal Y on the rusting of iron.
Rajah 3(a) dan 3(b) di bawah menunjukkan susunan alat radas untuk mengkaji kesan logam X dan logam Y ke atas
pengaratan besi.

Referring to the information in the diagram above, plan an experiment to investigate the
effect of a named X and Y metals on the rusting of iron. Your planning should include the
following aspects.
Merujuk kepada kenyataan yang diberi pada rajah di atas, rancangkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan
logam X dan Y yang di namakan kepada pengaratan besi. Perancangan anda mesti disertakan dengan aspek
berikut.

(a)

Aim of the experiment


Tujuan eksperimen

(b)

All the variables


Semua pemboleh ubah

(c)

Hypothesis
Hipotesis

(d)

List of materials and apparatus


Senarai bahan dan alat radas

(e)

Procedure
Prosedur

(f)

Tabulation of data
Penjadualan data

[17 marks]

27

PECUTAN SPM 2015

SOLUBILITY OF IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUNDS


Diagram 4 shows a conversation between two students about the solubility of an ionic
compound in water and organic solvents.

Rajah 4 menunjukkan perbualan di antara dua orang pelajar mengenai keterlarutan sebatian ion di dalam air dan
pelarut organik.

Diagram 4 / Rajah 4
Referring to the above conversation, plan a laboratory experiment to study the solubility of an
ionic compound in water and organic solvent. You are required to use one example of ionic
compound, distilled water and another example of organic solvent.
Merujuk kepada perbualan di atas, rancang satu eksperimen makmal untuk mengkaji keterlarutan satu sebatian ion
di dalam air dan pelarut organik. Anda dikehendaki menggunakan satu contoh sebatian ion, air suling dan satu
contoh lain pelarut organik.

Your planning should include the following aspects:

Perancangan anda hendaklah mengandungi aspek-aspek berikut:

(a)

Problem statement

(b)

All the variables.

(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

Penyataan masalah

Semua pembolehubah.

Statement of the hypothesis


Pernyataan hipotesis

Lists of materials and apparatus


Senarai bahan dan radas

Procedure for the experiment


Prosedur eksperimen

Tabulation of data
Penjadualan data

[17 marks]

28

PECUTAN SPM 2015

MARKING SCHEME FOR PECUTAN SPM 2015


ATOMIC STRUCTURE, PERIODIC TABLE AND CHEMICAL BOND
1

(a)

(b)

(i)

Covalent
Has low melting point /boiling point
Cannot dissolve in water

(ii)

Cannot conduct electricity / volatile

(i)
Compound P

Compound Q

Type of bonds

Covalent

Ionic

Type of particles forms

Molecule

Ion

Type of attraction force


between the particles

Intermolecular force /
Van der Waals

Electrostatic force

Sharing the electron

Transferring of electron //
sodium atom donates electron
and chlorine atom accept
electron

Way for the atoms to


achieve the stable octet
electron arrangement

(ii)

2-

Na

(iii)
N

29

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(d)

(i)

The nucleus at the centre of atom contains 6 protons and 7 neutrons


It nucleon number is 13 and proton number is 6
It has 6 electrons occupying in 2 electron shells.
The electron arrangement is 2.4 with 4 valence electrons.

(ii)

Both carbon isotopes have the same number of protons and electrons that is 6
protons and 6 electrons.
They have the same electron arrangement, thus they show similar chemical
properties.
Carbon-14 has an extra neutron (8 neutron) compare to carbon-13 (7 neutron).
The masses of the two isotopes are different, thus they have different physical
properties such as densities, melting and boiling points.

(e)
Radioisotope

Use
Medicine

Cobalt-60
Sodium-24

To kill the malignant cancer cell in


radiotheraphy
Injected into the patients body detect the
blood clots
Agriculture

Carbon-14
Phosphorus-32

Used in investigation of respiration


process and photosynthesis in plants
Used as a tracer in investigating the rate of
fertilizer absorption in plants
Industry

Sodium-24

Added into underground pipe to detect


leaking in pipe
Archaeology

Carbon-14

To determine the age of fossils


30

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(f)

(i)

M is more reactive than R.


Atomic size of atom M is bigger than atom R // Valence electron of atom M
further than atom R from nucleus.
Force of attraction between valence electron and nucleus weaker//
It is easier for atom M to release electron.

(ii)

Metal M : Potassium
Metal R : Lithium
4M + O2 2M2O

(iii)

1 mol of H2SO4 produce 1 mol of H2


0.05 mol of H2SO4 produce 0.05 mol of H2
Volume of H2
= 0.05 24
= 1.2 dm3

ELECTROCHEMISTRY
2.

(a)

Hdrogen gas
2H+ + 2e H2

(b)
Cell
Name of the cell

Electrolytic cell

Chemical cell

Electrical energy to
chemical energy

Chemical energy to
electrical energy

Anode: Copper
Cathode: Copper

Negative terminal : Zinc


Positive terminal: Copper

Ion in solutions

Cu2+, SO42- ,H+ ,OH-

Cu2+ , SO42- ,H+ ,OH-

Half equations

Anode: Cu Cu2+ + 2e
Cathode: Cu2+ + 2e Cu

Negative terminal:
Zn Zn2+ + 2e
Positive terminal:
Cu2+ + 2e Cu

Anode: The electrode


becomes thinner
Cathode: The electrode
becomes thicker

Negative terminal: Zinc


electrode become thinner
Positive terminal: Copper
electrode becomes
thicker

Energy change
Electrodes

Observation

31

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(c)

(d)

(i)

1.
2.

To improve the appearance/ to make the object more attractive


To prevent/ reduce corrosion/ rusting.

(ii)

Procedure
1. 50 cm3 of silver nitrate solution 0.5 mol dm-3 is poured into a beaker.
2. Clean the iron ring with a sand paper.
3. The iron ring is connected to cathode / negative terminal of the battery
while the silver plate is connected to anode/ terminal positive of the
battery.
4. Both plates are immersed in silver nitrate solution.
5. The switch is turned on.
6. Record the observation
Half equation
At anode
At cathode

:
:

Ag Ag+ + e
Ag+ + e Ag

Observation
Anode
Cathode

:
:

The silver electrode becomes thinner


The shiny silver deposits on the iron ring.

Method
Electrolyte

:
:

Electrolysis of silver nitrate solution


Silver nitrate solution

Procedure
1.
Pour 0.5 mol dm-3 of silver nitrate solution into a beaker.
2.
Connect pure silver to the cathode and impure silver to the anode
3.
Dip / immerse the electrodes into the silver nitrate solution
4.
Turn on the switch
5.
Record the observations
Half equation
At anode
At cathode

(e)

:
:

Ag Ag+ + e
Ag+ + e Ag

(i) and (ii)


Experiment I

Experiment II

Anode becomes thinner

Gas bubbles are released

Copper (II) ion

Oxygen

Cu Cu2+ + 2e

4OH- O2 + 2H2O + 4e

32

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(f)
Experiment I

Experiment II

Chloride ion and hydroxide ion are


attracted to anode during electrolysis

Chloride ion and hydroxide ion are


attracted to anode during electrolysis

Product at anode is chlorine gas

Product at anode is oxygen gas

The concentration of chloride ion is higher


than hydroxide ion

Hydroxide ion is placed below than Cl- ion


in Electrochemistry Series

Chloride ion is selected to be discharge at


anode during electrolysis

Hydroxide ion is selected to be discharge


at anode during electrolysis

2Cl- Cl2 + 2e

4OH- O2 + 2H2O + 4e

Chloride ion release 2 electrons to


produced chlorine gas

Hydroxide ion release 4 electrons to


produced oxygen and water

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE FOR INDUSTRIES


3.

(a)

(b)

(i)

X : sulphuric acid
Y : sulphur trioxide

(ii)

Fertilizer
H2SO4 + 2NH3 (NH4)2SO4

(iii)

Raw materials;
Nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas
Mix with ratio 1: 3 // N2 + 3H2 2NH3
Temperature = 400 500 oC
Pressure = 200 atm
Catalyst = Iron

(iv)

Soil becomes acidic, plant destroy pH of lake/river decreases, aquatic life die
Building damage

(i)

1.
2.
3.
4.

(ii)

1.
2.

Atoms of substance X are arranged in orderly arrangement


When forces are applied the atoms in X can easily slide onto each other
Atoms of substance Y have foreign atoms that disrupt the orderly
arrangements of pure atoms
The foreign atoms prevent the atoms from slide easily

List of apparatus: Weights, metre rule, retort stand with clamp, string
List of substances: steel ball bearing, bronze blocks /[a named alloy],
copper / [its pure metal]
33

PECUTAN SPM 2015

Procedure:
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Ball bearing is placed on the surface of a copper/ pure metal block


1 kg weight is hung above the copper / pure metal block at a fixed height [50
cm 2 m]
The weight is dropped on the ball bearing
The diameter of the dent on the copper / pure metal block is measured and
recorded.
The experiment is repeated using a bronze / alloy block.

Observation:
8.

The diameter of the dent on the copper / pure metal is bigger

Discussion:
9. Tin atom in bronze disturbs the orderly arrangement of copper atom.
10. Tin atom reduces the layer of copper atoms from sliding over each other.

(c)

Karbamida
2 x 14
12+16+2(16)

x 100% = 46.67%

% kandungan N dalam Baja Ammonium sulfat


2 x 14
2(18)+32+4(16)

(d)

(i)

x 100% = 21.21%

% kandungan N dalam Karbamida lebih tinggi daripada baja Ammonium sulfat

Composite material,
Adding steel rod into the concrete

(ii)

Alloy Q/brass is harder than it pure metal/copper


The presence of zinc atom in alloy Q disrupts the orderly arrangement of
copper atom
These make the atomic layers of atoms harder to slide over on another
In pure metal/copper the atoms are arranged packed closely and in orderly
manner.
This allow the layers of atoms are easily to slide one another

34

PECUTAN SPM 2015

RATE OF REACTION
1.

Zinc

hydrochloric acid

zinc chloride

Chemical equation

Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2

Ionic equation

Zn +

Colliding particles

Zn and H+ ions

2.

H2

2H+ Zn2+ + H2

Calcium carbonate + sulphuric acid calcium carbonate + water + carbon dioxide

Chemical equation

CaCO3 + 2HCl

Ionic equation

CaCO3 + 2H+

Colliding particles

CaCO3

3.

hydrogen

CaCl2 + H2O + CO2


Ca2+ + H2O + CO2

and H+ ions

Sodium thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + sulphur + sulphur dioxide + water

Chemical equation

Na2S2O3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + S +

Ionic equation

S2O32- + 2H+ S +

Colliding particles

S2O32- and 2H+

4.

SO2

SO2

H2O

H2O

Hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen

Chemical equation

2H2O2

Ionic equation

none

Colliding particles

H2O2

and

2H2O + O2

H2O2

35

PECUTAN SPM 2015

4.

(a)

CaCO3 + 2 HNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2


Number of mol HNO3

= (50 X 0.1)/1000
= 0.05 mol

2 mol HNO3 : 1 mol CO2


Number of mol of CO2 produced

= 0.05 / 2
= 0.025 mol

Maximum volume of CO2 = 0.025 X 24


= 0.6 dm3
= 600 cm3

(b)

(c)

Rate of reaction

= 50 / 240
= 0.2083 cm3 s-1

Rate of reaction

= 50 / 60
= 0.8333 cm s-1

(i)

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The rate of reaction of Experiment II higher than Experiment I


Powdered marble chip has higher Total Surface Area that exposed to
collision with hydrogen ions
The frequency of collisions between CaCO3 and H+ ions in experiment II are
higher.
So, the frequencies of effective collisions between particles in experiment II
are higher

The rate of reaction of Experiment III higher than Experiment I


The temperature in experiment III is higher than experiment I.
The kinetic energy of particles/hydrogen ions in experiment III is higher //
the reactants move faster.
The frequency of collisions between CaCO3 and H+ ions in experiment III are
higher.
So, the frequencies of effective collisions between particles in experiment
III are higher

36

PECUTAN SPM 2015

(c)

metal
acid

: Zinc
: Nitric acid//hydrochloric acid//sulphuric acid

Materials and apparatus:


Burette, conical flask, basin, delivering tube, spatula, electronic balance, measuring
cylinder,
Procedure:
1.
Fill a burette with water , invert into a basin with water, clamp with retort stand,
adjust the meniscus to 50 cm3
2.
Measure 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 of nitric acid using a measuring cylinder.
3.
Pour acid into the conical flask.
4.
Measure 4 gram of granule zinc using an electronic balance
5.
Add zinc into the acid
6.
Collect the gas released (refer to diagram)
7.
Start the stop watch
8.
The time taken/ to collect 50 cm3 of gas is recorded.
9.
Step 1 to 5 are repeated by using zinc powder

(d)

(i)

Volume / cm3

2V
II
V
I

Time / s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The number of mole of acid is twice than in experiment I


Thus, the volume of gas is twice than experiment I.
The concentration of hydrochloric acid in experiment II is twice than experiment I
The rate of reaction in experiment II is higher.
Thus the graph in experiment II is steeper

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PECUTAN SPM 2015

Volume / cm3

(ii)

V
III
I

Time / s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The number of mole of acid is the same in both experiments


The volume of gas released is the same.
Catalyst copper (II) sulphate is added
The rate of reaction in experiment III is higher
The graph in experiment III is steeper

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE FOR CONSUMER


5.

(a)
Jenis bahan tambah makanan

Kegunaan

Preservative

Melambatkan proses tertumbuhan


mikroorganisma

Flavouring

Memberi rasa kepada makanan

(b)
Nama

Jenis ubat

Cara penggunaan

Sarah

Analgesic

Makan selepas makan

Suzie

Psychotherapeutic

Ikut arahan doktor

(c)

Bahagian A
Bahagian B

(d)

Bahan dan radas:


Air hujan (air lembut), air laut ( air liat), sabun, bikar, silinder penyukat, rod kaca, 2 helai
kain yang mengandungi kesan gris

: hydrophobic
: hydrophilic

Prosedur

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PECUTAN SPM 2015

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Masukkan 250 cm3 air liat ke dalam bikar A dan 250 cm3 air lembut ke dalam
bikar B.
Tambahkan 5 cm3 sabun ke dalam setiap bikar.
Kacau campuran dengan rod kaca.
Masukkah kain yang bergris ke dalam bikar A dan bikar B.
Bersihkan kain di dalam larutan sabun.
Bilas kain dengan air.
Pemerhatian dicatatkan

Pemerhatian
Jenis air

Pemerhatian

Air hujan (soft water)

Gris hilang

Air laut (hard water)

Gris kekal

Kesimpulan
Sabun berkesan di dalam air lembut berbanding air liat.

SALT
6.

(a)

(b)

Add baking powder/sodium bicarbonate/bicarbonate soda.


Baking powder produces carbon dioxide gas
Add Ammonium nitrate//lime stone
Fertilise//neutralise alkaline soil
Salt P = Lead (II) carbonate
Residue X = PbO
Gas Y = CO2
Acid M = HNO3
PbO + 2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O

(c)

1. Salt A = Ba(NO3)2
2. Salt B = Na2SO4 // K2SO4
3. [Apparatus : beaker, filter funnel, filter paper]
4. Pour [ 20-100 ] cm3 of [ 0.1-2.0 ] mol dm-3 Barium nitrate solution into a beaker.
5. Add [ 20-100 ] cm3 of [ 0.1-2.0 ] mol dm-3 sodium sulphate solution.
6. Stir the mixture.
7. Filter.
8. Rinse the residue with distilled water.
Ba(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaNO3

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PECUTAN SPM 2015

(d)

(i)

Height of precipitate / cm

5.5

Volume of 1.0 mol dm-3 of


lead (II) nitrate / cm3

5.5

(ii)

2.5 cm3

(iii)

moles of Pb2+ ions

= 2.5 x 1.0 / 1000


= 0.0025

moles of I- ions

= 5 x 1.0 / 1000
= 0.005

(iv)

Moles of I- ions react with one mol Pb2+ ions = 0.005/0.0025


= 2 mol
Pb2+ + 2I- PbI2

RUSTING OF IRON
7.

(a)
Observations

Inferences
Test Tube 1 : Tabung uji 1
Iron does not rust

Test Tube 1 : Tabung uji 1


Pink colour formed
Test Tube 2 : Tabung uji 2
Blue colour formed

Test Tube 2 : Tabung uji 2


Iron rust

Test Tube 3 : Tabung uji 3


Blue colour formed

Test Tube 3 : Tabung uji 3


Iron rust

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PECUTAN SPM 2015

(b)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Manipulated variable
Responding variable
Fixed variable

: Type of metal coiled to iron nail


: Rusting of iron
: Type of iron nail / type of solution

(c)

Fe Fe2+ + 2e

(d)

When zinc is used, iron nail does not rust but when copper is used iron nail rust

(e)

The further the positions of metal to iron nail in electrochemical series the higher the
rate of rusting.

(f)
More electropositive than iron
Zinc

(g)

Less electropositive than iron


Copper
tin

When metal is coiled to the iron nail is placed in a jelly solution, iron nail rust when jelly
solution turns to blue.

HARDNESS OF ALLOY AND PURE METAL


8.

(a)

2 decimal places dan mesti tulis unit cm

(b)
Experiment

Diameter of dent / cm
Pure copper
Bronze

I
II
III
Average diameter
of dent / cm
Jawapan mesti 2 decimal places
(c)

Bronze is harder than pure copper

(d)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(e)

The smaller the diameter of dent the harder the metal

Manipulated variable
Responding variable
Fixed variable

: Type of metal blocks


: Hardness of metal // diameter of dent
: Mass of weight // height of weight // size of steel
ball bearing

(f)
Pure metals
Aluminium
Chromium
Manganese

Alloy
Brass
Stainless steel
Duralumin
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PECUTAN SPM 2015

CONDUCTIVITY OF IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUND


9.

(a)

Which compound conduct electricity in molten state, ionic or covalent


compounds?

(b)

Manipulated variable
Responding variable
Fixed variable

(c)

Ionic compound can conduct electricity in molten state but covalent compound cannot
conduct electricity

(d)

Materials and apparatus:


Crucible, carbon electrodes, tripod stand, Bunsen burner, clay pipe triangle, connecting
wire, voltmeter, spatula, switch and battery

(e)

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

: type of compound
: conductivity of electricity
: molten state

Fill crucible with lead (II) bromide solid


Place the crucible on a clay pipe triangle which is on the tripod stand
Dip carbon electrodes in lead (II) bromide
Connect the carbon electrodes to the battery and voltmeter
Turn on the switch
Record the voltmeter reading
Repeat experiment using naphthalene

(f)
Type of compound

Voltmeter readings / v

Lead (II) bromide


Naphthalene

VULCANISE AND UNVULCANISED RUBBER


10.

(a)

To determine the strength of vulcanized and unvulcanised rubber

(b)

Manipulated variable
Responding variable
Fixed variable

(c)

Vulcanised rubber is stronger than unvulcanised rubber

(d)

Substances and apparatus:


Vulcanised rubber, unvulcanised rubber, ruler, retort stand, bulldog clip, 2 kg of weight.

: Type of rubber
: Strength of rubber
: Thickness of rubber

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PECUTAN SPM 2015

(e)

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Cut vulcanised and unvulcanised rubber into a same shape and size.
Hang vulcanised rubber using a bulldog clip to the retort stand
Measure the length of vulcanised rubber
Placed 2 kg of weight to the vulcanised rubber
Measure the length of vulcanised rubber
Released the weight
Measure the length of vulcanised rubber
Record the reading
Repeat experiment using unvulcanised rubber

(f)
Type of rubber

Length of rubber during


the experiment / cm

Length of rubber after


the experiment / cm

Vulcanised rubber
Unvulcanised rubber

SOAP AND DETERGENT


11.

(e)

(a)

Which cleaning agent is effective in hard water, soap or detergent?

(b)

Manipulated : soap and detergent / cleaning agent


Responding : cleaning effect
Fixed
: hard water

(c)

Soap is not effective in hard water whereas detergent is effective in hard water

(d)

Apparatus:
1. Basin @ Beaker
2. Oily cloth
3. Spatula / spoon

Materials:
1. Hard water
2. Soap
3. Detergent
Procedure :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Fill a basin with hard water


Add 5 spoon of soap to the basin filled with water
Stir the water
Add oily @ greasy cloth to the basin
Scrub / wash / brush the oily stain from cloth
Record the observation
Repeat experiment using detergent

(f)
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PECUTAN SPM 2015

Cleaning agent

Observations

Soap
Detergent

RUSTING OF IRON
12.

(a)

To determine the effect of magnesium and copper to the rusting of iron

(b)

Manipulated variable
Responding variable
Fixed variable

(c)

When magnesium is used, iron nail does not rust but when copper is used iron nail rust

(d)

Materials and apparatus:


Test tubes, test tube rack, dropper, glass rod, sand paper, potassium hexacyanoferrate
(III) solution, jelly solution, phenolphthalein solution, beaker

(e)

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

: Type of metal coiled to iron nail


: Rusting of iron
: Type of iron nail // type of jelly solution

Prepare jelly solution


Add potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) solution to the jelly solution.
Add 5 drops of phenolphthalein solution to the jelly solution
Stir the mixture
Pour the mixture to a test tube
Clean magnesium with a sand paper
Coiled magnesium ribbon to the iron nail
Placed it into the test tube
Repeat experiment using copper strip.
Leave it for a few days
Record the observations

(f)
Type of metal

Observations

Magnesium
Copper

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PECUTAN SPM 2015

SOLUBILITY OF IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUNDS


13.

(a)

To determine the solubility of an sodium chloride in water and methylbenzene

(b)

Manipulated variable
Responding variable
Fixed variable

(c)

Sodium chloride is soluble in water but not in methylbenzene

(d)

Materials and apparatus:


Sodium chloride, water, methylbenzene, test tube, stopper, test tube rack

(e)

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

: Type of solvent
: Solubility
: sodium chloride / ionic compound

Add half spatula of sodium chloride to a test tube


Add 5 cm3 of water to the test tube
Put a stopper to the test tube
Shake the test tube
Record the observations
Repeat experiment using methylbenzene

(f)
Type of solvent

Observations

Water

Methylbenzene

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PECUTAN SPM 2015