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Definisi Kurikulum Menurut Para Ahli

2013

ASSIGNMENT BLOK 3.2

ESSAY
DEFINISI KURIKULUM MENURUT PARA AHLI

Nurul Fauziah
13/356446/PKU/14008

PROGRAM PASCASARJANA ILMU PENDIDIKAN KEDOKTERAN


FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA
YOGYAKARTA
2013
1

Definisi Kurikulum Menurut Para Ahli

2013

DEFINISI KURIKULUM MENURUT PARA AHLI

Kurikulum adalah perangkat lunak dalam sebuah institusi pendidikan. Proses


terbentuknya kurikulum diawali dengan menetapkan profil lulusan (Dikti, 2008). Tetapi
sebelum menyusun kurikulum, alangkah lebih baik jika kita sebagai perencana mengerti apa
sebenarnya yang dimaksud dengan kurikulum? Beberapa orang ahli telah merumuskan
definisi kurikulum dari berbagai sudut pandang. Berikut ini adalah beberapa pendapat ahli
mengenai definisi kurikulum.
Definisi kurikulum dapat dibedakan atas dua bentuk (Ellis, 2004, p. 4., Dikutip dari
Glatthorn, Boschee, Whitehead dan Boschee, 2012, p. 3) yaitu:
1. Prescriptive curriculum / Kurikulum Preskriptif memberikan definisi mengenai apa
yang "seharusnya" terjadi, memiliki sebentuk rencana, sebuah program yang memiliki
tujuan, atau semacam pendapat ahli tentang apa yang perlu dilakukan dalam program
studi.
2. Descriptive curriculum / Kurikulum deskriptif adalah pengalaman. Kurikulum ini
disebut kurikulum yang terlaksana / curriculum in action

Prescriptive Curriculum
No.
1.

2.

Tahun
1902

Penulis
John Dewey

Definisi
Curriculum is a continuous reconstruction,
moving from the childs present experience
out into that represented by the organized
bodies of truth that we call studies . . . the
various studies . . . are themselves
experience they are that of the race.
(Dewey, 1902, pp. 1112, Glatthorn,
Boschee, Whitehead, Boschee, 2012, p. 3)

1918

Franklin Bobbitt

Curriculum is the entire range of


experiences, both directed and undirected,
concerned in unfolding the abilities of the
individual. (Bobbit, 1918, p. 43, dikutip dari
Glatthorn et al., 2012, p. 3)
The curriculum maybe define in two ways:
(1) it is the range of experiences both
indirect and direct, concern in unfolding the
abilities of the individual, or (2) it is a series
of conciously directed training experiences
that the schools use for completing and

Definisi Kurikulum Menurut Para Ahli

2013

perfecting the individual (Bobbit, 1942, p.


10, dikutip dari Wiles & Bondi, 2011, p. 5)
3.

1927

Harold O. Rugg

[The curriculum is] a succession of


experiences and enterprises having a
maximum lifelikeness for the learner . . .
giving the learner that development most
helpful in meeting and controlling life
situations. (Rugg, 1927, p. 8, dikutip dari
Glatthorn et al., 2012, p. 3)

4.

1935

Hollis Caswell &


Doak Campbell in
Caswell & Campbell

The curriculum is composed of all the


experiences children have under the
guidance of teachers. . . . Thus, curriculum
considered as a field of study represents no
strictly limited body of content, but rather a
process or procedure. (Caswell & Campbell,
1935, pp. 66, 70, dikutip dari Glatthorn et
al., 2012, p. 3)

5.

1957

Ralph Tyler

[The curriculum is] all the learning


experiences planned and directed by the
school to attain its educational goals. (Tyler,
1957, p. 79, dikutip dari Glatthorn et al.,
2012, p. 3)

6.

1967

Robert Gagne

Curriculum is a sequence of content units


arranged in such a way that the learning of
each unit may be accomplished as a single
act, provided the capabilities described by
specified prior units (in the sequence) have
already been mastered by the learner.
(Gagne, 1967, p. 23, dikutip dari Glatthorn
et al., 2012, p. 3)

7.

1970

James Popham & Eva


Baker

[Curriculum is] all planned learning


outcomes for which the school is responsible.
. . . Curriculum refers to the desired
consequences of instruction. (Popham &
Baker, 1970, p. 48, dikutip dari Glatthorn et
al., 2012, p. 3)

8.

1997

J. L. McBrien & R.
Brandt

[Curriculum] refers to a written plan


outlining what students will be taught (a
course of study). Curriculum may refer to all
the courses offered at a given school, or all
the courses offered at a school in a
particular area of study.

Definisi Kurikulum Menurut Para Ahli

9.

2010

2013

Indiana Department of Curriculum means the planned interaction of


Education
pupils with instructional content, materials,
resources, and processes for evaluating the
attainment of educational objectives. (n.p.)

Descriptive Curriculum
No.
1.

Tahun
1935

Penulis
Hollis Caswell &
Doak Campbell

Definisi
All the experiences children have under the
guidance of teachers.

2.

1941

Thomas Hopkins

Those learnings each child selects, accepts,


and incorporates into himself to act with, on,
and upon, in subsequent experiences.

3.

1960

W. B. Ragan

All experiences of the child for which the


school accepts responsibility.

4.

1987

Glen Hass

The set of actual experiences and


perceptions of the experiences that each
individual learner has of his or her program
of education.

5.

1995

Daniel Tanner &


Laurel Tanner

The reconstruction of knowledge and


experience that enables the learner to grow
in exercising intelligent control of
subsequent knowledge and experience.

6.

2006

D. F. Brown

All student school experiences relating to the


improvement of skills and strategies in
thinking critically and creatively, solving
problems, working collaboratively with
others, communicating well, writing more
effectively, reading more analytically, and
conducting research to solve problems.

7.

2009

E. Silva

An emphasis on what students can do with


knowledge, rather than what units of
knowledge they have, is the essence of 21stcentury skills.

Definisi Kurikulum Menurut Para Ahli

2013

Dari beberapa sumber lainnya, beberapa orang ahli juga mendefinisikan kurikulum. Definisi
tersebut ditampilkan dalam tabel berikut ini:
No.
1.

Tahun
1957

Penulis
Definisi
B. O. Smith, W. O.
Curriculum is a sequence of potential
Stanley & J. H. Shores experiences that is developed by the school
for the purpose of disciplining children and
youth in group ways of thinking and acting
(Smith et al., 1954, p.3, dikutip dari Wiles &
Bondi, 2011, p. 4)
R. Doll

The curriculum is now generally considered


to be all of the experiences that learners
have under the auspices of the school (Doll,
1970, p.9, dikutip dari Wiles & Bondi, 2011,
p. 4)

2.

1962

Hilda Taba

The curriculum is all of the learning of


students which is planned by and directed by
the school to attain its educational goals
(Taba, 1962, p. 11, dikutip dari Wiles &
Bondi, 2011, p. 4)

3.

1970

M. Johnson

We define curriculum as a plan for providing


sets of learning opportunities to achieve
broad goals and related specific objectives
for an identifiable population served by a
single school center (Johnson, 1970, p. 25,
dikutip dari Wiles & Bondi, 2011, p. 4)

4.

1995

D. Tanner & L.
Tanner

Curriculum is concerned not with what


students will do in the learning situation, but
with what they will learnas a consequence of
what they do. Curriculum is concerned with
result (Tanner & Tanner, 1995, p. 67, dikutip
dari Wiles & Bondi, 2011, p. 4)

5.

2001

R. M. Harden

The curriculum is a sophisticated blend of


educational strategies, course content,
learning outcomes, educational experiences,
assessment, the educational environment and
the individual students learning style,
personal timetable and programme of work
(Harden, 2001, p. 123)

6.

2011

Jon W. Wiles &


Joseph C. Bondi

Curriculum is a desired goal or set of values


that can be activated through a development
process, culminating in experiences for
learners (Wiles & Bondi, 2011, p. 4)

Definisi Kurikulum Menurut Para Ahli

7.

2012

Dirjen Dikti

2013

Kurikulum pendidikan tinggi merupakan


seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan
mengenai tujuan, isi, dan bahan ajar serta
cara yang digunakan sebagai pedoman
penyelenggaraan kegiatan pembelajaran
untuk mencapai tujuan Pendidikan Tinggi
(Dikti, 2012)

Dari beberapa definisi kurikulum di atas, saya lebih memahami definisi yang dijelaskan oleh
R. M. Harden; The curriculum is a sophisticated blend of educational strategies, course
content, learning outcomes, educational experiences, assessment, the educational
environment and the individual students learning style, personal timetable and programme
of work (Harden, 2001, p. 123). Harden mengemukakan pendapatnya mengenai kurikulum
dengan jelas dan mendetail. Dalam definisinya, Harden mempertimbangkan segala hal secara
menyeluruh dan menjadikannya bagian dari proses pembuatan kurikulum mulai dari dtrategi
pendidikan, course content, LO, pengalaman, assessment, lingkungan pendidikan, learning
style siswa dan alokasi waktu. Komponen-komponen ini secara nyata membentuk kurikulum
institusional dan sedapat mungkin dikajisecara mendalam.

Definisi Kurikulum Menurut Para Ahli

2013

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Glatthorn, A. A., Boschee, F., Whitehead, B. M., Boschee, B. F. (2012). Curriculum


Leadership: Strategies for Development and Implementation Third Edition. USA: Sage
Publication. Inc.
Harden, R. M. (2001). AMEE Guide No. 21: Curriculum Mapping: A Tool for Transparent
and Authentic Teaching And Learning. Medical Teacher, 23, 123 138
Kemenkumham. (2012). UU RI No.12 Tahun 2012 Tentang Pendidikan Tinggi. Jakarta:
Penulis
Wiles, J. W., Bondi, J. C. (2011). Curriculum Development: A Guide to Practice Eighth
Edition. USA: Pearson Education. Inc.
Dirjen Dikti. (2008). Buku Panduan Pengembangan Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi
Pendidikan Tinggi (Sebuah Alternatif Penyusunan Kurikulum). Diunduh dari
www.dikti.go.id/files/atur/PanduanKBK-Dikti2008.pdf