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World War II: Timeline

September 18, 1931


Japan invades Manchuria.
October 2, 1935May 1936
Fascist Italy invades, conquers, and annexes Ethiopia.
October 25November 1, 1936
Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sign a treaty of cooperation on October 25; on November 1, the
Rome-Berlin Axis is announced.
November 25, 1936
Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, directed against the Soviet
Union and the international Communist movement.
July 7, 1937
Japan invades China, initiating World War II in the Pacific.
March 1113, 1938
Germany incorporates Austria in the Anschluss.
September 29, 1938
Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France sign the Munich agreement which forces the
Czechoslovak Republic to cede the Sudetenland, including the key Czechoslovak military
defense positions, to Nazi Germany.
March 1415, 1939
Under German pressure, the Slovaks declare their independence and form a Slovak Republic.
The Germans occupy the rump Czech lands in violation of the Munich agreement, forming a
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
March 31, 1939
France and Great Britain guarantee the integrity of the borders of the Polish state.
April 715, 1939
Fascist Italy invades and annexes Albania.
August 23, 1939
Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign a nonaggression agreement and a secret codicil
dividing eastern Europe into spheres of influence.
September 1, 1939
Germany invades Poland, initiating World War II in Europe.

September 3, 1939
Honoring their guarantee of Polands borders, Great Britain and France declare war on Germany.
September 17, 1939
The Soviet Union invades Poland from the east.
September 2729, 1939
Warsaw surrenders on September 27. The Polish government flees into exile via Romania.
Germany and the Soviet Union divide Poland between them.
November 30, 1939March 12, 1940
The Soviet Union invades Finland, initiating the so-called Winter War. The Finns sue for an
armistice and have to cede the northern shores of Lake Lagoda and the small Finnish coastline on
the Arctic Sea to the Soviet Union.
April 9, 1940June 9, 1940
Germany invades Denmark and Norway. Denmark surrenders on the day of the attack; Norway
holds out until June 9.
May 10, 1940June 22, 1940
Germany attacks western EuropeFrance and the neutral Low Countries. Luxembourg is
occupied on May 10; the Netherlands surrenders on May 14; and Belgium surrenders on May 28.
On June 22, France signs an armistice agreement by which the Germans occupy the northern half
of the country and the entire Atlantic coastline. In southern France, a collaborationist regime with
its capital in Vichy is established.
June 10, 1940
Italy enters the war. Italy invades southern France on June 21.
June 28, 1940
The Soviet Union forces Romania to cede the eastern province of Bessarabia and the northern
half of Bukovina to the Soviet Ukraine.
June 14, 1940August 6, 1940
The Soviet Union occupies the Baltic States on June 1418, engineering Communist coup dtats
in each of them on July 1415, and then annexing them as Soviet Republics on August 36.
July 10, 1940October 31, 1940
The air war known as the Battle of Britain ends in defeat for Nazi Germany.
August 30, 1940
Second Vienna Award: Germany and Italy arbitrate a decision on the division of the disputed
province of Transylvania between Romania and Hungary. The loss of northern Transylvania
forces Romanian King Carol to abdicate in favor of his son, Michael, and brings to power a
dictatorship under General Ion Antonescu.

September 13, 1940


The Italians invade British-controlled Egypt from Italian-controlled Libya.
September 27, 1940
Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact.
October 1940
Italy invades Greece from Albania on October 28.
November 1940
Slovakia (November 23), Hungary (November 20), and Romania (November 22) join the Axis.
February 1941
The Germans send the Afrika Korps to North Africa to reinforce the faltering Italians.
March 1, 1941
Bulgaria joins the Axis.
April 6, 1941June 1941
Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria invade and dismember Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia surrenders
on April 17. Germany and Bulgaria invade Greece in support of the Italians. Resistance in
Greece ceases in early June 1941.
April 10, 1941
The leaders of the terrorist Ustasa movement proclaim the so-called Independent State of
Croatia. Recognized immediately by Germany and Italy, the new state includes the province of
Bosnia-Herzegovina. Croatia joins the Axis powers formally on June 15, 1941.
June 22, 1941November 1941
Nazi Germany and its Axis partners (except Bulgaria) invade the Soviet Union. Finland, seeking
redress for the territorial losses in the armistice concluding the Winter War, joins the Axis just
before the invasion. The Germans quickly overrun the Baltic States and, joined by the Finns, lay
siege to Leningrad (St. Petersburg) by September. In the center, the Germans capture Smolensk
in early August and drive on Moscow by October. In the south, German and Romanian troops
capture Kiev (Kyiv) in September and capture Rostov on the Don River in November.
December 6, 1941
A Soviet counteroffensive drives the Germans from the Moscow suburbs in chaotic retreat.
December 7, 1941
Japan bombs Pearl Harbor.
December 8, 1941
The United States declares war on Japan, entering World War II. Japanese troops land in the
Philippines, French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia), and British Singapore. By April
1942, the Philippines, Indochina, and Singapore are under Japanese occupation.

December 1113, 1941


Nazi Germany and its Axis partners declare war on the United States.
May 30, 1942May 1945
The British bomb Kln (Cologne), bringing the war home to Germany for the first time. Over the
next three years Anglo-American bombing reduces urban Germany to rubble.
June 1942
British and US navies halt the Japanese naval advance in the central Pacific at Midway.
June 28, 1942September 1942
Germany and her Axis partners launch a new offensive in the Soviet Union. German troops fight
their way into Stalingrad (Volgograd) on the Volga River by mid-September and penetrate deep
into the Caucasus after securing the Crimean Peninsula.
AugustNovember 1942
US troops halt the Japanese island-hopping advance towards Australia at Guadalcanal in the
Solomon Islands.
October 2324, 1942
British troops defeat the Germans and Italians at El Alamein in Egypt, sending the Axis forces in
chaotic retreat across Libya to the eastern border of Tunisia.
November 8, 1942
US and British troops land at several points on the beaches of Algeria and Morocco in French
North Africa. The failure of the Vichy French troops to defend against the invasion enables the
Allies to move swiftly to the western border of Tunisia, and triggers the German occupation of
southern France on November 11.
November 23, 1942February 2, 1943
Soviet troops counterattack, breaking through the Hungarian and Romanian lines northwest and
southwest of Stalingrad and trapping the German Sixth Army in the city. Forbidden by Hitler to
retreat or try to break out of the Soviet ring, the survivors of the Sixth Army surrender on
January 30 and February 2, 1943.
May 13, 1943
Axis forces in Tunisia surrender to the Allies, ending the North African campaign.
July 10, 1943
US and British troops land on Sicily. By mid-August, the Allies control Sicily.
July 5, 1943
The Germans launch a massive tank offensive near Kursk in the Soviet Union. The Soviets blunt
the attack within a week and begin an offensive initiative of their own.

July 25, 1943


The Fascist Grand Council deposes Benito Mussolini, enabling Italian marshall Pietro Badoglio
to form a new government.
September 8, 1943
The Badoglio government surrenders unconditionally to the Allies. The Germans immediately
seize control of Rome and northern Italy, establishing a puppet Fascist regime under Mussolini,
who is freed from imprisonment by German commandos on September 12.
September 9, 1943
Allied troops land on the beaches of Salerno near Naples.
November 6, 1943
Soviet troops liberate Kiev.
January 22, 1944
Allied troops land successfully near Anzio, just south of Rome.
March 19, 1944
Fearing Hungarys intention to desert the Axis partnership, the Germans occupy Hungary and
compel the regent, Admiral Miklos Horthy, to appoint a pro-German minister president.
June 4, 1944
Allied troops liberate Rome. Within six weeks, Anglo-American bombers could hit targets in
eastern Germany for the first time.
June 6, 1944
British and US troops successfully land on the Normandy beaches of France, opening a Second
Front against the Germans.
June 22, 1944
The Soviets launch a massive offensive in eastern Byelorussia (Belarus), destroying the German
Army Group Center and driving westward to the Vistula River across from Warsaw in central
Poland by August 1.
July 25, 1944
Anglo-American forces break out of the Normandy beachhead and race eastward towards Paris.
August 1, 1944October 5, 1944
The non-communist underground Home Army rises up against the Germans in an effort to
liberate Warsaw before the arrival of Soviet troops. The Soviet advance halts on the east bank of
the Vistula. On October 5, the Germans accept the surrender of the remnants of the Home Army
forces fighting in Warsaw.

August 15, 1944


Allied forces land in southern France near Nice and advance rapidly towards the Rhine River to
the northeast.
August 2025, 1944
Allied troops reach Paris. On August 25, Free French forces, supported by Allied troops, enter
the French capital. By September, the Allies reach the German border; by December, virtually all
of France, most of Belgium, and part of the southern Netherlands are liberated.
August 23, 1944
The appearance of Soviet troops on the Prut River induces the Romanian opposition to
overthrow the Antonescu regime. The new government concludes an armistice and immediately
switches sides in the war. The Romanian turnaround compels Bulgaria to surrender on
September 8, and the Germans to evacuate Greece, Albania, and southern Yugoslavia in October.
August 29, 1944October 28, 1944
Under the leadership of the Slovak National Council, consisting of both Communists and nonCommunists, underground Slovak resistance units rise against the Germans and the indigenous
fascist Slovak regime. In late October, the Germans capture Bansk Bystrica, the headquarters of
the uprising, and put an end to organized resistance.
September 12, 1944
Finland concludes an armistice with the Soviet Union, leaving the Axis partnership.
October 20, 1944
US troops land in the Philippines.
October 15, 1944
The Hungarian fascist Arrow Cross movement carries out a coup dtat with German support to
prevent the Hungarian government from pursuing negotiations for surrender to the Soviets.
December 16, 1944
The Germans launch a final offensive in the west, known as the Battle of the Bulge, in an attempt
to re-conquer Belgium and split the Allied forces along the German border. By January 1, 1945,
the Germans are in retreat.
January 12, 1945
The Soviets launch a new offensive, liberating Warsaw and Krakow in January, capturing
Budapest after a two-month siege on February 13, driving the Germans and their Hungarian
collaborators out of Hungary in early April, forcing the surrender of Slovakia with the capture of
Bratislava on April 4, and capturing Vienna on April 13.
March 7, 1945
US troops cross the Rhine River at Remagen.

April 16, 1945


The Soviets launch their final offensive, encircling Berlin.
April 1945
Partisan units, led by Yugoslav Communist leader Josip Tito, capture Zagreb and topple the
Ustasa regime. The top Ustasa leaders flee to Italy and Austria.
April 30, 1945
Hitler commits suicide.
May 7, 1945
Germany surrenders to the western Allies.
May 9, 1945
Germany surrenders to the Soviets.
May 1945
Allied troops conquer Okinawa, the last island stop before the Japanese islands.
August 6, 1945
The United States drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
August 8, 1945
The Soviet Union declares war on Japan and invades Manchuria.
August 9, 1945
The United States drops an atomic bomb on Nagasaki.
September 2, 1945
Having agreed in principle to unconditional surrender on August 14, 1945, Japan formally
surrenders, ending World War II

Timeline: 1870 1914


Posted on May 4, 2009 by mbfitzmahan | 1 Comment

Causes of WW I (Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism Diplomacy: MAIN-D)


Bismarcks sudden change of foreign policy from aggression to moderation between 1871 and
1890 made many other European countries suspicious about his motives. However, at the core of

his foreign policy was his plan to surround Germany with friendly nations while encouraging
dissent among other powers. see article.

1869: Opening of the Suez Canal


1871: Unification of German states by Bismarck
1870-71 Franco-Prussian war Germany wins (takes (Alsace Lorraine from France). See map.
1873 Dreikaiserbund (3 emperors league) Russia, Germany, Austria- Hungary. See Bismarcks
Foreign Policy: 1871-1890.
1875 War in Sight crisis: France had recovered quickly after the FrancoPrussian war. In
1875 the War-in-sight crisis resulted from an attempt to bully France into abandoning her
rearmament programme. The export of horses to France was forbidden (usually a sign of
preparation for war). Then an article appeared in the influential Berliner Post entitled Is war in
sight? It was almost certainly inspired by Bismarck.
There was talk from leading German officials about the possibility of a preventative war. The
episode resulted in a German diplomatic defeat as Russia backed a British protest to Berlin. The
Dreikaiserbund had been weakened. The affair brought home the dangers of a two front war to
Bismarck. After this episode he proceeded with the utmost caution. see blog.
1875: British Disraeli buys shares for Suez Canal
1875-78 Balkan Crisis: Eastern Question. An uprising against the Ottoman Empire begins in
Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875. The reason for this revolt was the heavy taxes levied against
them from the Ottoman administration. The revolt led to the 1876 Bulgarian April.

1876 Serbia vs. Turkey (seeks Russian support, Russia says: western Balkans are under
Austrias influence not Russias)

Konstantin Makovsky - The Bulgarian martyresses


1877 Russo-Turkish War Shocked by atrocities committed against Bulgaria, Russia declares
war against Turkey. Russia wins leading to Treaty of San Stefano.
1878 Treaty of San Stefano (Create a large independent state of Bulgaria, to be administered by
Russia. Russia receives access to Bulgarias coast-line on the Aegean Sea. Russia also receives
access to the Danube from Romania. Russia is allowed passage through the Dardanelles. Serbia,
Romania, Montenegro were recognized as independent. Russia received land in Georgia and
Armenia. This is the highpoint of Russias near eastern policy.

1878 Congress of Berlin Bismarck Honest Broker (took away Russias gains from San
Stefano, Bulgaria was divided into 3 parts, coastline part and Macedonia were returned to
Ottoman empire. Austria-Hungary takes firm control of Bosnia-Herzegovina and jointly
occupying the Sanjak of Novibazar together with the Ottoman Empire. This state of affairs
persisted from 1878 until the outbreak of the crisis in 1908. The Treaty of Berlin also stated that
the Straits of Constantinople would be closed to warships during time of war. This had the effect

of bottling up the Russian fleet in the Black Sea.


Effects: Russia humiliated, felt hostile towards UK (afraid of Russian advances to the south, as
they may threatened British control of the Suez canal) and Austria-Hungarywho wanted land.
Serbia resents Austrian influence in Bosnia Herzegovina because Serbia wanted that land.
1879: Russia gets taxed on exported goods to Germany.
1879 Dual Alliance secret alliance between Austria and Germany: if Russia attacks either, the
other will back-up, BUT remain neutral if the attack were to come from others. Germany not
totally satisfied, as AUSTRIA-HUNGARY wouldnt support against France (note: Russia,
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, Germany loosely allied due to balance of power)
1880 The beginning of Imperialism (until 1914 in Africa and Asia) 90% of African territory
came under European rule (UK, France, Germany, Italy, King Leopold II of Belgium). map of
scramble for Africa
1881 Austria-Hungarian alliance with Serbia
1881 Renewal of Dreikaiserbund (military treaty)
1882 Austria-Hungarian alliance with Romania
1882 Triple alliance (defensive): Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (Italy joined Good for
Germany, both against France) (military alliance)
1882: British occupation of Egypt (Suez Canal), angering the French. see map of Colonial
Possessions.
1884 Germany agrees to protect Namibia (becomes German colony) Togo, Cameroon
(business purposes) Bismarck: does not wish to colonize, just protect business establishments.
See map of German colonies.
1884-85 Partition of West Africa decided peacefully by European Powers at West Africa
Conference in Berlin
1885 Nationalists in Eastern Rumelia (autonomous region of Ottoman Empire declared in
Berlin Congress, i.e. southern Bulgaria) revolted against Ottoman rule, and demanded the right
to join the rest of Bulgaria
1885 Germany takes Tanzania, New Guinea
1887 Reinsurance Treaty secret alliance between Russia and Germany, both would maintain
neutrality in the case of a third party EXCEPT is Germany attacks France, Russia attacks

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY(effect: Bismarck can continue being the negotiator between these two
fragile powers.)
1888 Wilhelm I dies, replaced by Wilhelm II.
1889: Germany takes Samoa.
1890 Bismarck removed from office (fights with Wilhelm II over foreign policy)
Bismarcks successors abandoned the difficult aspects of his subtle diplomatic balancing act and
jettisoned his balance of tensions. Most did not appreciate the vulnerability of the German
Empire, however, sandwiched between the other great powers. Those who did regarded the
solution as the further expansion of the Reich, which would have horrified Bismarck. Finally
disastrously they ignored his last advice to von Tirpitz in 1898 that Germany should keep
within her borders, and thereby led their nation into world war and ruin. see article.
1890 Wilhelm II lets Reinsurance Treaty lapse (no treaty with Russia any more)
1891 Franco-Russian entente
1897 Weltpolitik world policy German industrial expansion was so dependent on imports of
raw materials from oversees that a vast colonial empire was required with a large navy to support
it. Thus Weltpolitik was a programme of naval expansion and heavy involvement in colonial
affairs (by way of justification to match UKs force, and increase support for authoritarian rule).
Germanys unsuccessful and expansive colonization coupled with the financial expansion into
the Middle East and the build up of its navy will lead other European states to fear its neighbor
and question its motives. Create tension between the Triple Entente (England, France, Russia)
and the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungry, Italy)
1897 Krger Telegram Wilhelm II sends telegram to Boers congratulating on defeating
British, and keeping independence = provoking UK
1897 Russia and Austria-Hungary sign an agreement which puts the Balkans on ice as both
were keen to get their hands on the land in that area and avoid conflict.
1898 Naval Bill (Germany begins to develop naval power)
1998 Negotiations began to establish an Anglo-German understanding.
1898 Anglo-French war at Fashoda over North Africa. See map.
1899-1902: Boer War, South Africa (British vs. Dutch and German). See map.

1901 negotiations end between Brits and Germans. Germans demands too much from
England. Germany demands a permanent treaty and a promise of neutrality if either attacks
France.
1902 Anglo-Japanese Treaty designed to ease Britains worry over trade in that region, and to
easy fears over Russian threat to India (this may have encouraged Japan to go to war against
Russia in 1905, as it felt supported). See map.
1903 King Alexander of Serbia and wife assassinated by nationalists. The King was replaced
with King Peter who was pro-Russia, and therefore looked to tsarist Russia for support. This
coup in Serbia shifted political power to more nationalistic elements. These nationalists saw the
Sanjak of Novibazar and Bosnia-Herzegovina as natural avenues for territorial expansion.
Relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary gradually deteriorated.
1903-1904: Russo-Japanese war over Asian territory. (Russia humiliated, Japan wins). Russia
shifts focus to Balkans.
1904/5 Schlieffen plan plan to invade France, Russia via Belgium followed by an all-out
assault on Russia. The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs early 20th century overall
strategic plan for victory both on the Western Front against France and against Russia in the east.
In short, it was the German plan to avoid a two-front war by concentrating their troops in the
west, quickly defeating the French and then rushing those troops by rail to the east to face the
Russians before they had time to mobilize fully. see map .
1904 British and French Entente Cordiale cleared up colonial differences in Africa and
Asia. France agreed UK could keep Egypt (Suez Canal for trading to India), and France could
keep Morocco. This was merely a colonial alliance, however the Kaiser Wilhelm is suspicious
this is military pact to insure Germanys isolation.
1905 1st Moroccan Crisis (map) Wilhelm II interfered with Great Powers attempt to expand
colonies when France tried to get concessions from the Sultan. Wilhelm II visited Tangiers
(March 09), received by the Sultan and told him that he supported Moroccos independence and
to resist French pressure. Chancellor Bernhard von Blow, worried about the recently signed
Entente Cordiale between Britain and France decided to test the entente. He didnt believe that
Britain would not be prepared to offer a strong support to France in a situation where war would
be in sight.
Germany sought a multilateral conference where the French could be called to account before
other European powers. On July 1 France with strong British backing, agreed to attend the
conference. The crisis continued to the eve of the conference at Algeciras, with Germany calling
up reserve units (December 30) and France moving troops to the German border (January 3).
Although the Algeciras Conference temporarily solved the First Moroccan Crisis it only
worsened international tensions between the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente that

ultimately led to the first world war. This also showed that the Entente Cordiale was strong as
Britain had defended France in the crisis. The crisis can be seen as a reason for the AngloRussian Entente being signed the following year since both countries backed France. Kaiser
Wilhelm II was angry at being humiliated and was determined not to back down again which led
the German involvement in the Second Moroccan Crisis.
1905 Lord Lansdown British foreign secretary messaged the French gov. in the vague hope
that the entente may, under certain circumstances, become a military alliance. The Kaiser
interpreted this as at attempt to reverse settlements over Morocco, so France did not agree thus
showing how insignificant their entente was.
1904-05 Russo-Japanese war over imperial differences in Asia, resulted in a surprise Japanese
victory and the humiliation of Russia
1906 The Algeciras Conference called to settle the dispute caused by the 1st Moroccan Crisis.
Of the thirteen nations present the German representatives found their only supporter was
Austria-Hungary. A German attempt at compromise was rejected by all but Austria Hungary.
France had firm support from Britain, Russia, Italy, Spain, and the United States. The Germans
decided to accept a face-saving compromise agreement on March 31, 1906 that was signed on
May 31, 1906. France agreed to yield control of the Moroccan police, but otherwise retained
effective control of Moroccan political and financial affairs.
1906 UK release HMS Dreadnought bigger, better than others = suspicion and distrust
amongst all of Europe, if UK and Germany are built. (Biggy gunboat, got more than you!)
1907-10 British naval expenditure increased from 31.5 to 50 million quid per annum to
compete with German expansion
1907 Anglo-Russian entente, which loosely created the triple entente between Russia, France
and Germany
1908 Bosnian crisis Austrian-Hungarian and Russian foreign ministers agree informally
that Austria annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina and Bulgarian independence and Russia would have
access to Dardanelles even in war, Bulgarian independence, territorial concessions to Serbia, and
abolition of restrictions on Montenegrin sovereignty. Austria takes Bosnia, denies Russian claim
for other changes to the Berlin Treaty of 1878. Germany supports Austria. Hugh embarrassment
to Russia and Serbia.
1908-10 Anglo-German arms race climaxed, causing international tension.
1908 Young Turk movement revolted in Turkey demanding social reforms
1908 Serbia made bid to create a Balkan coalition which leads to the Balkan League

1911 Agadir Crisis (2nd Moroccan Crisis)


Rebellion broke out in Morocco against the Sultan. In April, the Sultan was besieged in his
palace in Fez and the French prepared to send troops to help put down the rebellion under the
pretext of protecting European lives and property. On 1 July 1911 the German gunboat Panther
arrived at the port of Agadir. There was an immediate reaction from the French and the British.
The British became worried of the Panthers arrival in Morocco. They believed that the Germans
meant to turn Agadir into a naval base on the Atlantic. The Royal Navy had a naval base in
Gibraltar in the south of Spain. Britain was concerned that the Germans might have a base near
the Atlantic and so sent battleships to Morocco in case war broke out. The British supported
France as in the First Moroccan Crisis again showing the strength of the Entente Cordiale.
On July 7, the German ambassador in Paris informed the French Government that Germany
cherished no territorial aspirations in Morocco and would negotiate for a French protectorate on
the basis of compensation for Germany in the French Congo region and the safeguarding of
her economic interests in Morocco.
On 21 July David Lloyd George delivered the Mansion House speech in which he declared that
national honour was more precious than peace. The speech was interpreted by Germany as a
warning that she could not impose an unreasonable settlement on France.[4] The speech read:
If Britain is treated badly where her interests are vitally affected, as if she is of no account in the
cabinet of nations, then I say emphatically that peace at that price would be a humiliation
intolerable for a great country like ours to endure.
Franco-German negotiations initiated on July 9 in 1911 toward the Treaty of Fez led (on
November 4) to a convention under which Germany accepted Frances position in Morocco in
return for territory in the French Equatorial African colony of Middle Congo.
1911 Italy succeeds in Libya
1912 German military leaders began to recognize a tip in the balance of power to their
disadvantage.
1912 Balkan League formed: Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro. Chief aim of this PanSlavic coalition was to force the Turks out of the Balkans
1912 Balkan League declares war on Turkey (first Balkan war) gained swift victory and drove
the Turks out of most of European Balkan areas. See map.
1912-14 Attention swung towards the Balkans, including: ethnic tensions, nationalist groups
and great power rivalry.
1913 Treaty of London settled first Balkan war.

1913 Treaty of Bucharest forced the Bulgarians to give Serbia large gains in Macedonia, but
under Austrian and German pressure, the Serbs were once again denied the Adriatic port.
1913 Treaty of Constantinople allowed Turkey to gain Adrianople.
1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated visiting Sarajevo (nephew of Franz Joseph I, the
Austrian emperor, heir to Habsburg throne)
1914 see map: Nations at War 1914-1918
1919 see map.
(Gert Reimets, H