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May 20, 2009

ELK 322E POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS


SOLUTONS OF THE FINAL EXAM PROBLEMS
Problem 1 (25 points):
A single phase electric load is connected to 480 volt source and absorbs 15 kW at a power
factor of 0.80, electric current lagging.
a) Compute the reactive power of load.
b) Compute the complex power.
c) Compute the apparent power.
d) Assume that the line voltage phase angle to be zero degrees and compute the electric
current phasor (magnitude and phase) and the expression of the instantaneous power p(t) as
a function of time.

Solution 1:
A
Load

Source

P Load = 15 kW
power factor
cosj=0.8 lagging

Vs(t)
Vs rms = 480 V
B

A single phase circuit diagram


Positive rotational
direction

Imaginary axis

Im
j

w
S
j
P
Active Power

Q : Reactive
Power
Real axis

The power triangle


We can write the following power relations for a load from the power triangle
The complex power is
= + = cos + sin = cos + sin
= cos , = sin , =

2 + 2 , and = tan()

Where S is the complex power, P is the active power, Q is the reactive power and
is the apparent power.
= cos = 15
Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009


cos = 0.8

0.6

sin = 0.6

tan = 0.8 = 0.75

a) = tan = 15 0.75 = 11.25


b) = + = 15 + 11.25 = 18.75 36.87 = 18.75 36.87
c) =

2 + 2 =

152 + 11.252 = 18.75


P

15

Also we can compute by = cos = 0.8 = 18.75 kVA


d) =
= 0 , = , = +

18750 36.87
= =
= 39.062 36.87
480

The magnitude of the load current is = 39.062 , and


The phase angle of the load current = 36.87
With the assumption of sinusoidal ac power supply, the instantaneous power p(t) can
be given as follows
= = 2 cos
( + 0) 2 cos
( 36.87)
= 678.82 cos 250 55.24 cos 250 36.87
= 37.499 cos 250 cos 250 36.87 .

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009


Problem 2 (25 points):
A 50-Hz three phase transmission line has the following per unit length positive
sequence parameters:
Resistance: R= 0.08 ohms/mile
Inductance: L= 1.1 x 10-6 Henries/meter
Capacitance: C= 10.8 x 10-12
Farads/meter
The line is 200miles long.
a) Compute the positive sequence pi () equivalent circuit of the line.
b) Compute the positive sequence nominal pi () equivalent circuit of the line.
(1 mile = 1.60934 kilometer in the land)

Solution 2:
a)

= +
= = 2 = 2 50 1.1 106 = 345.575 106 / = 0.345 /
1 mile =1.60934 km, so 1km = 1/1.60934 = 0.62137 mi
= 0.345

0.345
= 0.555 /
0.62137

= 0.08 + 0.555 =0.560781.8 /mi


= + = 0 + 2 = 250 10.08 1012 = 3.1667 109 90 mho/m
= 3.1667 106 90

3.1667 10 6
0.62137

90

= 5.0963 106 90 mho/mi

The positive sequence pi () equivalent circuit of the line


= = + = 200 0.08 + 0.555 = 16 + 111
= = 200 0.560781.8 = 112.1481.8
= = + = 200 5.0963 106 90 = 1.019 103 90

= 0.00050990
2
The lumped parameter positive sequence pi () equivalent circuit model of the line as
follows
IS

Z=112.14 /810 ohm

VS
-

IR
+

Y/2 =
0.0005 /900
mho

Y/2

VR
-

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009


b) Computation of the positive sequence nominal (exact) pi () equivalent circuit of the line.

We then calculate the characteristic impedance and the propagation constant as


follows.
=

0.08 + 0.555
=
5.0963 106

0.560781.8
= 109432.23 8.2
5.0963 106 90

= 331.76 4.1 = 330.9 23.71


=

(0.560781.8) (5.0963 106 90) =


= 1.685 103 85.9

2.8575 106 171.8

= 200 1.6904 103 85.9 = 0.33885.9 = 0.024 + 0.337


a)

Two-Port Representation of a long transmission line.

IR

IS
+

VS

ABCD

VR

= +
= +

For a long transmission line we have the equations, which give the relations between the
receiving-end voltage and current and sending-end end voltage and current as follows.
= cosh
() + sinh
()
1
=
sinh
() + cosh
()

Thus, the sending-end voltage and current equations in terms of ABCD constants, we have
A = cosh
1

C = sinh
()

B = sinh
()
D = cosh
().

We need to compute
+

and sinh =
2
2
2cosh = + = 0.024 + 0.337 + 0.024 0.337
= 0.024 0.337 + 0.024 0.337
= 1.0243 0.9437 + 0.3306 + 0.9763 0.9437 0.3306
= 1.8879 + 0.0158

cosh =

cosh = 0.9439 + 0.0079 = 0.944 0.48

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009


2sinh = = 0.024 + 0.337 0.024 0.337
= 0.024 0.337 0.024 0.337
= 1.0243 0.9437 + 0.3306 0.9763 0.9437 0.3306
= 0.04529 + 0.66139
sinh = 0.02265 + 0.33069 = 0.3314786.08
Thus
A = D = cosh = 0.944 + 0.008 = 0.944 0.48
B = sinh = 331.76 4.1 (0.3314786.0)
B = 110.0827 81.957 = 15.40145 + 109
1

C = sinh =

0.33147 86.08
331.764.1

= 0.00190.157 = 0.00000274 +j 0.00100014

We consider a -equivalent circuit parameters that has the same A, B, C, D parameters as


the transmission line:
Z

IS
+

VS
-

= sinh

IR
+

Y/2

Y/2

VR
-

=
tanh
2

2
tanh

cosh 1
=
2
sinh

= sinh = = 15.40145 + 109 = 110.08 81.957

1
=
tanh
=
2

2
330.9 23.71

0.9439 + 0.0079 1
0.02265 + 0.33069

= 0.7085 106 + 0.51449 103 = 0.0005145 89.92


Comparison of the positive sequence pi () equivalent circuit and nominal pi () equivalent
circuit of the line:
pi () equivalent

nominal pi () equivalent

= 112.1481.8

= 110.08 81.957

/2 = 0.00050990

/2 = 0.0005145 89.92

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009


Problem 3 (25 points):
The one-line diagram of simple power system is shown in Figure 1. Each generator is
represented by an emf behind the transient reactance. All impedances are expressed in per
unit on a common MVA base. All resistances and shunt capacitances are neglected. The
generators are operating on no load at their rated voltage with their emfs in phase. A three
phase fault occurs at bus 1 through a fault impedance of = 0.08 per unit.
a) Using Thvenins theorem obtain the impedance to the point of fault and the fault current in
per unit.
b) Determine the bus voltages and line current during the fault.
Bus 3

Bus 1
Xt = j 0.1

Bus 2
XL = j 0.2

G2

G1
Xd = j 0.1

Xd = j 0.1

g
Short
circuit

Figure 1 One-line diagram for problem 3

Solution 3:
a)
ZT : Thvenin impedance

ET

Short circuit
impedance
Zf= j 0.08 pu

AC

Thvenin equivalent circuit.

Xt = j 0.1

XL = j 0.2

Xd = j 0.1

Xd = j 0.1
Short
circuit

G1

Zf=j 0.08 pu

G2

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009

Xd + Xt = j 0.2

XL = j 0.2

Xt = j 0.1

Xd+ XL = j 0.3

a
Xd = j 0.1

Xd = j 0.1
b

a
ZT= j 0.2 // j 0.3
= (j0.2xj0.3)/(j0.2+j03)
= j 0.12pu
b

ZT = j 0.12

ZT = j0.12
a
AC

Short circuit
impedance

ET = 1.0 pu

AC

IF = ET /( ZT +Zf) pu

ET = 1.0 pu

Zf= j 0.08 pu

Zf= j 0.08 pu

b
Thvenin equivalent circuit.

Thvenin equivalent circuit.

0.2 (0.3) 0.06


=
= 0.12
0.2 + 0.3
0.5

The fault current flowing short circuit can be computed as:


=

1.0
1.0
=
=
= 5.0
+ 0.12 + 0.08 0.2
= 5.0

b)
Bus 3

Xd = j 0.1 pu

Bus 2

Bus 1

Xt = j 0.1 pu

XL = j 0.2 pu

If 21

If 31

Xd = j 0.1 pu

If =5.0 pu

VG1

Zf=j 0.08 pu

VG2

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009

The next step we must determine Thvenins voltage. Normally Thvenins voltage or
prefault bus voltages at generator buses can be obtained from the result of the power flow
solutions. In our problem, since loads are neglected and generator emfs are assumed equal
to the rated value, here we can take this value as 1.0 pu. 1 = 1.0 , 2 = 1.0 .
We can obtain line currents using Ohm Law considering voltage drops of the lines as follows.
31 =

1 1
0.2

21 =

2 1
0.3

The voltage at Bus 1:


1 = = 0.08 5.0 = 0.4
31 =

1.0 0.4
= 3.0
0.2

21 =

1.0 0.4
= 2.0
0.3

WE can check these values of lines current using Kirchhoff current law at Bus 1.
= 31 + 21 = 5.0
= 3.0 + (2.0) = 5.0
The voltage at Bus 2 can be computed as follows:
2 = 21 0.2 + 1 = 2.0 0.2 + 0.4 = 0.8
The voltage at Bus can be computed as follows:
3 = 31 0.1 + 1 = 3.0 0.1 + 0.4 = 0.7

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009


Problem 4 (25 points):
A three-bus power system has the following given information (it is also given in the figure):
Bus number 1 is the swing bus and the voltage is equal to 1.0 angle zero.
Bu number 2 is a generator (PV bus) with a voltage of 1.02 and real-power generation of 2.5.
Bu number 3 is a load bus with a load of 1.5+j0.8. The three lines connecting the three buses
all have impedances that are purely reactive =j0.1. There are no impedance ties to ground
reference
Bus 1

Bus 2
z12 = j0.1 pu

P2 = 2.5 pu
G2

G1
V1 = 1.0 pu 0

| V2 |= 1.02 pu

z13 = j0.1 pu

z23 = j0.1 pu
Bus 3

S3 = 1.5 + j0.8 pu

Figure 2 One-line diagram for the problem 4


a)
b)
c)
d)

Compute the 3x3 bus admittance matrix referenced to ground for this system.
What variable do you need to compute using an iterative method?
Write out the equations that you need to solve for part (b)
Write the Newton-Raphson iterative routine that you would use to solve the equations of
part (c) include the terms of Jacobian matrix.

Solution 4
a)
=
12

1
1
= = 0.1 = 10,
12

13 =

13

= 01 = 10,

23 =

23

= 0.1 = 10

The bus admittance matrix of the transmission system (including generator and transformers
admittances) is

11
= 21
31

12
22
32

13
23 .
33

11 = 12 + 13 = 10 10 = 20
12 = 21 = 12 = 10 = 10
13 = 31 = 13 = 10 = 10
22 = 12 + 23 = 10 10 = 20
23 = 32 = 23 = 10 = 10
Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009


33 = 13 + 23 = 10 10 = 20
20
= 10
10

10
10
20 10
10 20

b)
Lets assume that Bus # 1 is selected as a swing (slack) bus.
The state variables we need to compute are and .
Where and are the bus voltage angles of Bus 2 and Bus 3 respectively, and is the
voltage magnitude of Bus 3. The vector of state variables is given fallows.

c)
From Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL) we know at each bus i in an n bus system, the
current injection, , must be equal the currents that flow into the network.

= =

=1

Since

= we also know

= =


=1

The network power injection is then


=

=1

=1

= + ,
=

or
= ,

=
Recall = +

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009


For simplicity lets give the magnitude values omitting brackets but bold case as =
We need to write power balance equations for bus 2 and bus 3.

=1

( )
=1

( )
=1

( )

=
=1

( )

=
=1

cos + sin
=1

cos + sin
=1

cos + sin
=1

sin cos
=1

This complex equation can be resolved into real and imaginary parts, we obtain

cos + sin
=1

sin cos
=1

is the net real power injection to the bus number I, that is the net real power generation
(PG) minus the net real power demand (PD).
=
Similarly is the net reactive power injection to the bus number I, that is the net reactive
power generation (QG) minus the net reactive power demand (QD).
=
For this problem:
= 1.0 pu, 1 = (0 ), = 1.02 pu, and

pu

11 = 12 = 13 = 22 = 23 = 33 = 0
11 = 22 = 33 = 20,

12 = 21 = 13 = 31 = 23 = 32 = 10

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009


Bus 2, i =2
3

2 = 2 2 = 2.5 =

1.02 2 cos 2 + 2 sin 2


=1

2.5 = 1.02 1.0 21 cos 2 1 + 21 sin 2 1 +


1.02 1.02 22 cos 2 2 + 22 sin 2 2 +
1.02 3 23 cos 2 3 + 23 sin 2 3
. = . . + .

Bus 3, i =3
3

3 = 3 3 = 0 1.5 = 1.5 =

1.02 2 cos 2 + 2 sin 2


=1

1.5 = 3 1.0 31 cos 3 1 + 31 sin 3 1 +


3 1.02 32 cos 3 2 + 32 sin 3 2 +
3 3 33 cos 3 3 + 33 sin 3 3
. = + .

3 = 3 3 = 0 0.8 = 0.8 =

sin cos
=1

0.8 = 3 1.0 31 sin 3 1 31 cos 3 1 +


3 1.02 32 sin 3 2 32 cos 3 2 +
3 3 33 sin 3 3 33 cos 3 3

. = . +
1
= 2
3

2 2 + 2
0
= 3 3 + 3 = 0
3 3 + 3
0

1 = 10.2 sin 2 + 10.2 3 sin 2 3 2.5=0


2 = 3 10 sin 3 + 10.2 3 sin 3 2 + 1.5 = 0

3 = 3 10 cos 2 10.2 3 cos 3 2 + 23 20 + 0.8 = 0


d)
1 = 0
(+1) =

( )

( )

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

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May 20, 2009

21
20
31 = 30
31
30

1 () 1 () 1 ()
2
3
3
2 () 2 () 2 ()

2
3
3
3 () 3 () 3 ()
2
3
3

2
3
4

1 ()
= 10.2 cos 2 + 10.2 3 cos 2 3
2

1 ()
= 10.2 3 2 3
3
1 ()
= 10.2 sin 2 3
3
2 ()
= 10.2 3 cos 3 2
2
2 ()
= 3 10 cos 3 + 10.2 3 cos 3 2
3
2 ()
= 10 sin 3 + 10.2 sin 3 2
3
3 ()
= 3 10 sin 2 10.2 3 sin 3 2
2
3 ()
= 10.2 3 sin 3 2
3
3 ()
= 10 cos 2 10.2 cos 3 2 + 32 3
3

Power Transmission Systems, Spring 2009, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ramazan alar

Page 13