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Matter refers to everything that is around us. It can be solid, liquid or gas. Matter can change
physically. For example, it can change from solid to liquid, or liquid to gas. Matter can also be
changed chemically. A chemical change involves changing one or more substances to
produce a new substance. The properties of the new substance may be di  erent from those in
the original. Many changes are caused by natural events. For example, precipitation involves
a change of state of water vapour from gas to liquid or solid. This change is caused by
changes in air temperature and air pressure.
Changes to matter can also be caused by human activity. Cooking is an example of a human
activity that causes changes in matter. Cooking involves physical and chemical changes. For
example, when we fry an egg, a chemical change takes place in the egg. It is permanently
changed; we cant change it back into its original form.
Matter is made up of atoms, atoms join together to form molecules. And molecules bind
together to form the states of matter, know as solid, liquid and gas.
SOLID: In a solid, molecules are strongly bonded together, this makes solids rigid and hard.
Solids have a fixed volume and hold their shape, no matter what container they are in.
LIQUID: In a liquid, the forces between molecules are weaker, so they are free to move around
more. That is why liquids can flow. A liquid would change its shape to fit the container it is in.

GAS: In a gas, the molecules are not bonded to one another, so they can move around very
freely. As a result, gases can expand to fill the container they occupy. There is a lot of empty
space between the molecules in a gas, so they can compress into a smaller volume.
(Video 1)
4.1.2. CHANGES.






but well only learn these two.
A physical change is a type of change in which the form of matter is altered but one substance is not
transformed into another.
Examples: An example of a physical change is crumpling a sheet or paper or breaking a pane of glass or
freezing water into ice.
They are reversible and do not change the composition of matter.
CHEMICAL CHANGES (Combustion and rusting)
Chemical changes occur when one or more substances combine to form a new substance. A
chemical change is non-reversible. The new substance cant be changed back into its original
form or components.
The process in which two or more substances combine chemically is called a chemical
What is combustion?
Combustion, or burning, is the name for a chemical reaction in which oxygen combines with a
fuel, such
as wood, coal or natural gas.
What problems can combustion cause?
Combustion produces thermal and light energy, but it also produces other substances. These
other substances can cause many problems:
Most fuels produce carbon dioxide during combustion. Carbon dioxide contributes to global
Burning coal, petrol or diesel produces particles that pollute the air. Breathing these
particles can cause respiratory illnesses.

Burning coal and diesel can produce an acid called sulphur dioxide. When sulphur dioxide
mixes with rainwater, it produces acid rain. This kind of rain can kill plants and damage

What is oxidation?
Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which an atom loses one or more electrons to oxygen
atoms. Oxidation causes changes to the properties and appearance of substances.
Many vehicles are made of iron. When iron is exposed to oxygen in the air, its electrons are
lost. The oxygen atoms in the air gain electrons from the iron atoms, and oxidation takes
This causes the colour of the iron to change to an orange or red colour. At the same time, the
iron becomes brittle, and breaks easily. Rusting can cause problems in vehicles, because the
structure of the vehicle becomes weak and can break. To prevent rusting, vehicles are
painted. The paint forms a barrier between the iron and the oxygen in the air so that it doesnt
A mixture is a substance made up of two or more types of matter that arent chemically
combined. A mixture can be separated into its original components.
Homogeneous mixtures
A mixture that has a consistent colour and texture is called a homogeneous mixture. Every
part of a homogeneous mixture has the same properties. Air is an example of a homogeneous
mixture because it contains oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and small amounts of other
substances. But when we look at air, we cannot distinguish the specifi c components.
Heterogeneous mixtures
A mixture that has a varied colour or texture is called a heterogeneous mixture. Each
substance in the mixture retains its specifi c properties. Concrete is an example of a
heterogeneous mixture. It contains cement, water, sand and small stones and pebbles. The
stones and pebbles can easily be distinguished from the cement.
Whats a solution?
A solution is a mixture of one or more liquids with one or more other substances. In a solution,
the substances are dissolved in the liquid. When this happens, the components cant be
distinguished from the mixture. For this reason, solutions are homogeneous mixtures. The

liquid components of a solution are called solvents. The other components are called solutes.
Seawater is an example of a solution where water is the solvent and salt is the solute.
How can we separate solutions?

Filtration (to separate liquid from insoluble solid)

This technique can be used to separate an insoluble solid from a mixture. For
example, soil can be
separated from water using fi ltration because soil doesnt dissolve in water. As the
mixture passes
through the fi lter, the solid particles are trapped in it.
Evaporation (to separate a liquid from a soluble solid)
This technique can be used to separate a soluble solid from a solution. For example,
Seawater is
a solution of salt and water. The salt can be separated from the water using
evaporation. As the
seawater is heated, the water evaporates, leaving the salt behind.
Distillation (to separate two liquids with different boiling point)
This technique can be used to separate a liquid from a solution or to separate two
liquids. For example, alcohol can be separated from a mixture of alcohol and water by
distillation. This is possible because alcohol has a higher boiling point than water and
evaporates more quickly.
The alcohol in the mixture evaporates and forms a gas. This gas is then cooled so that
it condenses and forms a liquid again.
Dissolution (to separate two solids)
This technique can be used to separate a soluble solid from an insoluble one. For
example, sand can be separated from salt by dissolution. This is possible because
sand is insoluble, but salt is soluble. To separate a mixture using dissolution, follow
these steps.
4.2.1 Properties of light
Light is a form of energy that travels in waves. Matter that is in a gaseous state is
usually Transparent. This means that it doesnt reflect light. Matter that is liquid

usually has a smooth, reflective surface. Solid matter usually has a rougher surface
than liquid matter. As a result, solids reflect light, but they dont produce a reflection.
Some solids, liquids and gasses dont have these
properties. For example, glass is used to make mirrors because it has a smooth
surface and its reflective.
When light hits a smooth surface, its refl ected regularly.

When light hits a rough surface, its refl ected irregularly. Irregular refl ection of light is
called diffusion.