Anda di halaman 1dari 4

Chapbook

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

AchapbookisanearlytypeofpopularliteratureprintedinearlymodernEurope.Producedcheaply,
chapbookswerecommonlysmall,papercoveredbooklets,usuallyprintedonasinglesheetfoldedinto
booksof8,12,16and24pages.Theywereoftenillustratedwithcrudewoodcuts,whichsometimesboreno
relationtothetext.Whenillustrationswereincludedinchapbooks,theywereconsideredpopularprints.
Thetraditionofchapbooksaroseinthe16thcentury,assoonasprintedbooksbecameaffordable,androse
toitsheightduringthe17thand18thcenturies.Manydifferentkindsofephemeraandpopularorfolk
literaturewerepublishedaschapbooks,suchasalmanacs,children'sliterature,folktales,nurseryrhymes,
pamphlets,poetry,andpoliticalandreligioustracts.
Theterm"chapbook"forthistypeofliteraturewascoinedinthe19thcentury.ThecorrespondingFrench
andGermantermsarebibliothquebleue(bluebook)andVolksbuch,respectively.[1][2][3]
Theterm"chapbook"isalsoinuseforpresentdaypublications,commonlyshort,inexpensivebooklets.[4]

ChapbookfrontispieceofVoltaire'sThe
ExtraordinaryTragicalFateofCalas,
showingamanbeingtortured,late18th
century

Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Productionanddistribution
4 Content
5 Influence
6 Modernchapbooks
7 Chapbookcollections
8 Seealso
9 Notes
10 References
11 Externallinks

Etymology
ChapbookisfirstattestedinEnglishin1824,andseemstoderivefromthewordfortheitinerantsalesmenwhowouldsellsuchbooks:chapman.The
firstelementofchapmancomesinturnfromOldEnglishcap('barter,business,dealing').[5]

History
Broadsideballadswerepopularsongs,soldforapennyorhalfpennyinthestreetsoftownsandvillagesaround
Britainbetweenthe16thcenturyandearly20thcenturies.Theyprecededchapbooks,buthadsimilarcontent,
marketinganddistributionsystems.TherearerecordsfromCambridgeshireasearlyasin1553ofamanoffering
ascurrilousballad"maistresmass"atanalehouse,andapedlarselling"lytlebooks"topeople,includinga
patcherofoldclothesin1578.Thesesalesareprobablycharacteristicofthemarketforchapbooks.
Chapbooksgraduallydisappearedfromthemid19thcenturyinthefaceofcompetitionfromcheapnewspapers
and,especiallyinScotland,religioustractsocietiesthatregardedthemas"ungodly."Althoughtheform
originatedinBritain,manyweremadeintheU.S.duringthesameperiod.
Woodcutofafairycirclefroma
Becauseoftheirflimsynaturesuchephemerararelysurviveasindividualitems.Theywereaimedatbuyers
17thcenturychapbook
withoutformallibraries,and,inanerawhenpaperwasexpensive,wereusedforwrappingorbaking.Paperhas
alsoalwayshadhygienicusesandtherearecontemporaryreferencestotheuseofchapbooksasbumfodder(i.e.
toiletpaper).ManyofthesurvivingchapbookscomefromthecollectionsofSamuelPepysbetween1661and1688whicharenowheldatMagdalene
College,Cambridge.AnthonyWoodalsocollected65chapbooks,(including20frombefore1660),whicharenowatTheBodleianLibrary.Thereare
alsosignificantScottishcollections,suchasthoseheldbytheUniversityofGlasgow.[6]

Moderncollectors,suchasPeterOpie,havechieflyascholarlyinterestintheform.

Productionanddistribution
Chapbooksaremostlysmallpapercoveredbooklets,usuallyprintedonasinglesheetfoldedintobooksof8,12,16and24pages,oftenillustratedwith
crudewoodcuts,whichsometimesbearnorelationtothetext.Theywereproducedcheaply.Onecollector,HarryWeiss,wrote:"theprintinginmany
caseswasexecrable,thepaperevenworse,andthewoodcutillustrations,someofwhichdiddutyforvarioustalesregardlessoftheirfitness,were
sometimesworsethanthepaperandpressworkcombined".However,thecategoryhasnoreallimits:somechapbookswerelong,somewellproduced,
andsomeevenhistoricallyaccurate.
ThecentreofchapbookandballadproductionwasLondon,anduntiltheGreatFireofLondontheprinterswerebasedaroundLondonBridge.However,
afeatureofchapbooksistheproliferationofprovincialprinters,especiallyinScotlandandNewcastleuponTyne.[7]

Content
Chapbookswereanimportantmediumforthedisseminationofpopularculturetothecommonpeople,especiallyinruralareas.Theywereamediumof
entertainment,informationand(generallyunreliable)history.Ingeneral,thecontentofchapbookshasbeencriticized,though,fortheirunsophisticated
narrativeswhichwereheavilyloadedwithrepetitionandemphasizedadventurethroughmostlyanecdotalstructures.[8]However,theyarenonetheless
valuedasarecordofpopularculture,preservingculturalartifactsthatmaynotsurviveinanyotherform.

Chapbookswerepricedforsalestoworkers,althoughtheirmarketwasnotlimitedtotheworkingclasses.
Broadsideballadsweresoldforahalfpenny,orafewpence.Pricesofchapbookswerefrom2d.to6d.,when
agriculturallabourerswageswere12d.perday.TheliteracyrateinEnglandinthe1640swasaround30percent
formalesandroseto60percentinthemid18thcentury(seeEducationintheAgeofEnlightenment).Many
workingpeoplewerereaders,ifnotwriters,andpreindustrialworkingpatternsprovidedperiodsduringwhich
theycouldread.Chapbookswereundoubtedlyusedforreadingtofamilygroupsorgroupsinalehouses.
Theyevencontributedtothedevelopmentofliteracy.FrancisKirkman,theauthorandpublisher,wroteabout
howtheyfiredhisimaginationandhisloveofbooks.Thereisotherevidenceoftheirusebyautodidacts.
Nevertheless,thenumbersprintedareastonishing.Inthe1660sasmanyas400,000almanacswereprinted
annually,enoughforonefamilyinthreeinEngland.One17thcenturypublisherofchapbooksinLondonhadin
stockonebookforevery15familiesinthecountry.Inthe1520stheOxfordbookseller,JohnDorne,notedinhis
daybooksellingupto190balladsadayatahalfpennyeach.TheprobateinventoryofthestockofCharlesTias,
ofThesignoftheThreeBiblesonLondonBridge,in1664includedbooksandprintedsheetstomakec.90,000
chapbooks(inc.400reamsofpaper)and37,500balladsheets.Tiaswasnotregardedasanoutstandingfigurein
thetrade.TheinventoryofJosiahBlare,ofTheSignoftheLookingGlassonLondonBridge,in1707listed
31,000books,plus257reamsofprintedsheets.AconservativeestimateoftheirsalesinScotlandaloneinthe
secondhalfofthe18thcenturywasover200,000peryear.
Thechapbook,JacktheGiantKiller

Theseprintersprovidedchapbookstochapmenoncredit,whocarriedthemaroundthecountry,sellingfromdoor
todoor,atmarketsandfairs,andreturningtopayforthestocktheysold.Thisfacilitatedwidedistributionand
largesaleswithminimumoutlay,andalsoprovidedtheprinterswithfeedbackaboutwhattitlesweremostpopular.Popularworkswerereprinted,
pirated,edited,andproducedindifferenteditions.FrancisKirkman,whoseeyewasalwaysonthemarket,wrotetwosequelstothepopularDon
BellianusofGreece,firstprintedin1598.
Publishersalsoissuedcatalogues,andchapbooksarefoundinthelibrariesofprovincialyeomenandgentry.JohnWhiting,aQuakeryeoman
imprisonedatIlchester,Somersetinthe1680shadbookssentbycarrierfromLondon,andleftforhimataninn.
Pepyshadacollectionofballadsboundintovolumes,underthefollowingclassifications,intowhichcouldfitthesubjectmatterofmostchapbooks:
1.DevotionandMorality
2.Historytrueandfabulous
3.Tragedy:viz.Murders,executions,andjudgmentsofGod
4.StateandTimes
5.Lovepleasant
6.Dittounpleasant
7.Marriage,Cuckoldry,&c.
8.Sealove,gallantry&actions
9.Drinkingandgoodfellowship
10.Humour,frollicksandmixt.
Thestoriesinmanyofthepopularchapbookscanbetracedbacktomuchearlierorigins.BevisofHamptonwasanAngloNormanromanceofthe13th
century,whichprobablydrewonearlierthemes.ThestructureofTheSevenSagesofRomewasfromtheorient,andwasusedbyChaucer.Manyjests
aboutignorantandgreedyclergyinchapbooksweretakenfromTheFriarandtheBoyprintedabout1500byWynkyndeWorde,andTheSackfullof
News(1557).
Historicalstoriessetinamythicalandfantasticalpastwerepopular.Theselectionisinteresting.CharlesI,andOliverCromwelldonotappearas
historicalfiguresinthePepyscollection,andElizabethIonlyonce.TheWarsoftheRosesandtheEnglishCivilWardonotappearatall.HenryVIII
andHenryIIappearindisguise,standingupfortherightwithcobblersandmillersandtheninvitingthemtoCourtandrewardingthem.Therewasa
patternofhighbornheroesovercomingreducedcircumstancesbyvalour,suchasStGeorge,GuyofWarwick,RobinHood(whoatthisstagehasyetto
givetothepoorwhathewasstealingfromtherich),andheroesoflowbirthwhoachievestatusthroughforceofarms,suchasClimofClough,and
WilliamofCloudesley.Clergyoftenappearasfiguresoffun,andstupidcountrymenwerealsopopular(e.g.,TheWiseMenofGotham).Otherworks
wereaimedatregionalandruralaudience(e.g.,TheCountryMouseandtheTownMouse).
From1597worksappearedaimedatspecifictrades,suchasclothiers,weaversandshoemakers.Thelatterwerecommonlyliterate.ThomasDeloney,a
weaver,wroteThomasofReading,aboutsixclothiersfromReading,Gloucester,Worcester,Exeter,SalisburyandSouthampton,travellingtogetherand
meetingatBasingstoketheirfellowsfromKendal,ManchesterandHalifax.Inhis,JackofNewbury,1600,setinHenryVIII'stime,anapprenticetoa
broadclothweavertakesoverhisbusinessandmarrieshiswidowonhisdeath.Onachievingsuccess,heisliberaltothepoorandrefusesaknighthood
forhissubstantialservicestotheking.
OtherexamplesfromthePepyscollectionincludeTheCountryman'sCounsellor,orEverymanhisownLawyer,andSportsandPastimes,writtenfor
schoolboys,includingmagictricks,likehowto"fetchashillingoutofahandkerchief",writeinvisibly,makerosesoutofpaper,snarewildduck,and
makeamaidservantfartuncontrollably.
TheprovincesandScotlandhadtheirownlocalheroes.RobertBurnscommentedthatoneofthefirsttwobookshereadinprivatewas"thehistoryof
SirWilliamWallace...pouredaScottishprejudiceinmyveinswhichwillboilalongtheretillthefloodgatesoflifeshutineternalrest".

Influence
Theyhadawideandcontinuinginfluence.EightypercentofEnglishfolksongscollectedbyearly20thcenturycollectorshavebeenlinkedtoprinted
broadsides,includingover90ofwhichcouldonlybederivedfromthoseprintedbefore1700.Ithasbeensuggestedthemajorityofsurvivingballads
canbetracedto15501600byinternalevidence.
OneofthemostpopularandinfluentialchapbookswasRichardJohnson'sSevenChampionsofChristendom(1596),believedtobethesourceforthe
introductionofthecharacterStGeorgeintoEnglishfolkplays.
RobertGreene'snovel,DorastusandFawnia,(originallyPandosto)(1588),thebasisofShakespeare'sTheWinter'sTalewasstillbeingpublishedin
cheapeditionsinthe1680s.Somestorieswerestillbeingpublishedinthe19thcentury,(e.g.,JackofNewbury,FriarBacon,DrFaustusandTheSeven
ChampionsofChristendom).

Modernchapbooks

Chapbookisalsoatermcurrentlyusedtodenotepublicationsofuptoabout40pages,usuallypoetryboundwith
someformofsaddlestitch,thoughmanyareperfectbound,folded,orwrapped.Thesepublicationsrangefromlow
costproductionstofinelyproduced,handmadeeditionsthatmayselltocollectorsforhundredsofdollars.More
recently,thepopularityoffictionchapbookshasalsoincreased.IntheUKtheyaremoreoftenreferredtoas
pamphlets.
Thegenrehasbeenrevitalizedinthepast40yearsbythewidespreadavailabilityoffirstmimeographtechnology,
thenlowcostcopycentersanddigitalprinting,andbytheculturalrevolutionsspurredbybothzinesandpoetry
slams,thelattergeneratinghundredsuponhundredsofselfpublishedchapbooksthatareusedtofundtours.
Withtherecentpopularityofblogs,onlineliteraryjournals,andotheronlinepublishers,shortcollectionsofpoetry
publishedonlinearefrequentlyreferredtoas"onlinechapbooks","electronicchapbooks","echapbooks",or"e
chaps".
StephenKingwroteafewpartsofanearlydraftofThePlantandsentthemoutaschapbookstohisfriends,instead
ofChristmascards,in1982,1983,and1985.PhiltrumPressproducedjustthreeinstallmentsbeforethestorywas
shelved,andtheoriginaleditionshavebeenhotlysoughtaftercollector'sitems.

Amoderndaychapbook

Chapbookcollections
TheNationalLibraryofScotland(http://www.nls.uk/collections/rarebooks/collections/chapbooks.html)holdsalargecollectionofScottish
chapbooksapproximately4,000ofanestimatedtotalof15,000published.RecordsformostScottishchapbookshavebeencataloguedonline.
TheLibraryoftheUniversityofGlasgow(http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/collection/chapbook.html)hasover1,000examplesthroughoutthe
collections,searchableonlineviatheScottishChapbooksCatalogueofc.4,000works,whichcoverstheLauristonCastlecollection,Edinburgh
CitylibrariesandStirlingUniversity.TheUniversityofSouthCarolina'sG.RossRoyCollectioniscollaboratinginresearchfortheScottish
ChapbookProject.
TheBodleianLibraryoftheUniversityofOxford(http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/ballads/ballads.htm)hasover30,000balladsinseveralmajor
collections.Theoriginalprintedmaterialsrangefromthe16thtothe20thcentury.TheBroadsideBalladsprojectmakesthedigitisedcopiesofthe
sheetsandballadsavailable.
SirFrederickMaddensCollectionofBroadsideBallads,atCambridgeUniversityLibrary(http://microformguides.gale.com/Data/Introductions/3
0330FM.htm),ispossiblythelargestcollectionfromLondonandprovincialpressesbetween1775and1850,withearlier18thcenturygarlands
andIrishvolumes.
TheLillyLibrary,IndianaUniversity,ChapbookCollection(http://www.indiana.edu/~liblilly/chapbook.shtml)has1,900chapbooksfrom
England,Scotland,Ireland,France,andtheUnitedStates,whichwerepartoftheElisabethW.Ballcollection.Onlinesearchfacility
TheElizabethNesbittRoom,UniversityofPittsburgh(http://www.library.pitt.edu/libraries/is/enroom/chapbooks/chapbookpageindex.htm),
housesover270chapbooksprintedinbothEnglandandAmericabetweentheyears1650to1850(afewScottishchapbooksareincludedaswell).
Titlelist,bibliographicinformationanddigitalimagesofchapbookcovers
RutgersUniversity,SpecialCollectionsandUniversityArchives(http://www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rul/libs/scua/scua.shtml),housestheHarry
BischoffWeisscollectionof18thand19thcenturychapbooks,illustratedwithcatchpennyprints.
TheJohnRylandsUniversityLibrary(JRUL),UniversityofManchester(http://rylibweb.man.ac.uk/data2/spcoll/sharpe/),contains600itemsin
TheSharpeCollectionofChapbooks,formedbyCharlesKirkpatrickSharpe.Theseare19thcenturyitemsprintedinScotlandandNewcastle
uponTyne.
LiteraturadeCordelBrazilianChapbookCollectionLibraryofCongress,AmericanFolklifeCenter(http://www.loc.gov/rr/jrfell/2005proj.html),
hasacollectionofover7200chapbooks(literaturadecordel).DescendedfromthemedievaltroubadourandchapbooktraditionofEuropean
literaturadecordelhasbeenpublishedinBrazilforoveracentury.
TheUniversityofGuelphLibrary,ArchivalandSpecialCollections(http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/resources/archives/Scottish/chapbooks.htm),has
acollectionofmorethan550chapbooksinitsextensiveScottishholdings.
TheNationalArtLibrary,Victoria&AlbertMuseum,London(http://catalogue.nal.vam.ac.uk/),hasacollectionofca.800chapbooks,all
catalogued.
TheMcGillUniversityLibrary(http://digital.library.mcgill.ca/chapbooks/index.php)hasover900BritishandAmericanchapbookspublishedin
the18thand19thcenturies.Thechapbookshavebeendigitizedandcanbereadonline.
Grupodeinvestigacinsobrerelacionesdesucesos(siglosXVIXVIII)enlaPennsulaIbrica.UniversidadedaCorua,SPAIN(http://rosalia.dc.
fi.udc.es/relaciones/index.html),CatalogandDigitalLibraryof"Relacionesdesucesos"(16th18thcenturies).Bibliographicaldatabaseofmore
than5.000chapbooks,pamphlets,Earlymodernpressnews,etc.Facsimilarreproductionofmanyofthecopies:CatlogoyBibliotecaDigitalde
RelacionesdeSucesos(siglosXVIXVIII)(http://rosalia.dc.fi.udc.es/RelacionesSucesosBusqueda/)
TheBallStateUniversityDigitalMediaRepositoryChapbookscollection(http://libx.bsu.edu/cdm4/collection.php?CISOROOT=/chapbks)
providesonlineaccessto173chapbooksfromthe19thand20thcenturies.
TheElizabethNesbittRoom(http://www.library.pitt.edu/libraries/is/enroom/index.html)UniversityofPittsburgh,PittsburghPennsylvania.
Abriefhistoryofthechapbook.(http://www.thethepoetry.com/2012/02/chapbooksashorthistoryoftheshortbook/)
CambridgeDigitalLibrary(http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/collections/spanishchapbooks)hostsagrowingnumberofdigitalfacsimilesofSpanish
ChapbooksfromthecollectionsofCambridgeUniversityLibraryandtheBritishLibrary.
Digitizedcollectionofchapbooks(http://bdh.bne.es/bnesearch/Search.do?destacadas1=Pliegos+sueltos&home=true&languageView=en)at
BibliotecaDigitalHispnica,BibliotecaNacionaldeEspaa(NationalLibraryofSpain)

Seealso
Booklet
GothicBlueBooks
Lubok
Pamphlet
palek(ballet)
Zine

Notes
1.Fromchapmen,chap,avarietyofpeddler,whichfolkscirculatedsuchliteratureaspartoftheirstock.
2.Spufford,Margaret(1984).TheGreatReclothingofRuralEngland.London:HambledonPress.ISBN0907628478.
3.Leitch,R.(1990)." 'HereChapmanBilliesTakeTheirStand':APilotStudyofScottishChapmen,PackmenandPedlars".ProceedingsoftheScottishSocietyof
Antiquarians120.pp.173188.
4."Chapbooks:DefinitionandOrigins".MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology.Retrieved19April2015.
5.OxfordEnglishDictionary,s.vv.chapbook,n.andchapman,n..
6."UniversityofGlasgow::ScottishChapbooks".special.lib.gla.ac.uk.Retrieved20151022.
7.Seethe"Introduction"inSimons,John(1998)GuyofWarwickandotherChapbookRomancesUniversityofExeterPress,Exeter,England,ISBN0859894452,
forissuesofdefinition.

8.Hoeveler,D.L.(2010)."GothicChapbooksandtheUrbanReader".WordsworthCircle41(3):155158.

References
TheDepartmentofRareBooksandSpecialCollections."TheScottishChapbookProject".UniversityofSouthCarolinaG.RossRoyCollection.
Furnivall,F.J.,ed.(1871).CaptainCox,HisBalladsandBooks.
Neuburg,VictorE.(1972).Chapbooks:AguidetoreferencematerialonEnglish,ScottishandAmericanchapbookliteratureoftheeighteenthand
nineteenthcenturies(2nded.).London:WoburnPress.
Neuburg,VictorE.(1968).Thepennyhistories:astudyofchapbooksforyoungreadersovertwocenturies(illustratedwithfacsimilesofseven
chapbooks.London:OxfordUniversityPress(TheJuvenileLibrary.
Neuburg,VictorE.(1964).Chapbooks:abibliographyofreferencestoEnglishandAmericanchapbookliteratureoftheeighteenthand
nineteenthcenturies.London:VinePress.
Neuburg,VictorE.(1952).Aselecthandlistofreferencestochapbookliteratureoftheeighteenthandnineteenthcenturies.Edinburgh:privately
printedbyJ.A.Birkbeck.
Spufford,Margaret(1981).SmallBooksandPleasantHistories:PopularFictionanditsReadershipinseventeenthCenturyEngland.Methuen.
Weiss,HarryB.(1969).Abookaboutchapbooks.Hatboro:FolkloreAssociates.
Weiss,HarryB.(1936).AcatalogueofchapbooksintheNewYorkPublicLibrary.NewYork:NewYorkPublicLibrary.

Externallinks
"Chapbook".EncyclopdiaBritannica5(11thed.).1911.
MediarelatedtoChapbooksatWikimediaCommons
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chapbook&oldid=724980663"
Categories: EarlyModernliterature Chapbooks Bookformats
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon12June2016,at20:49.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmayapply.Byusingthissite,youagreetothe
TermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.WikipediaisaregisteredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

Minat Terkait