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MODERNETCHING
ANDENGRAVING

EVROPEANANDAMERICAN

BEINGTHESPECIAL
5VMMERNVMBEROF
THESTVDIO'1902

PRIX:

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ASplendidCollectionofWaterColoursby
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MR.WALTERCRANE'STEXTBOOKS.

Crown8vo.ProfuselyIllustrated.6s.neteach.
THEBASESOFDESIGN.With200Illustrations.
LINEANDFORM.With157Illustrations.

THEDECORATIVEILLUSTRATIONSOFBOOKS.OldandNew.
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PRACTICALDESIGNING:AHandbookonthe

PreparationofWorkingDrawings.ShowingtheTechnical
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turer,andtheLimitsimposedontheArtistbytheMaterialandits
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Contents.Carpets,byAlexanderMiller.Pottery,byWiltonP.
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OffARTSTUDENTS.ArrangedwithAnalyticalNotesand
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THEPAVEMENTMASTERSOFSIENA.ByR.H.Hobart
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PETERVISCHER(14551529).ByCecilHeadum.

THEIVORYWORKERSOFTHEMIDDLEAGES.ByA

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VELAZQUEZ.ByR.A.M.Stevenson.[ThirdEdition.

ANDREADELSARTO.ByH.Guinness.[SecondEdition.

LUCASIGNORELLI.ByMaudCruttwell.
RAPHAEL.ByH.Strachey.

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MEML1NC.ByW.H.JamesWeale.
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FRANCIA.ByGeorgeF.Williamson,Litt.D.
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MANTEGNA.ByMaudCruttwell.
REMBRAN'DT.ByMalcolmBell.
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ENGLISHWATERCOLOUR

ENGLISH>
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COVERDESIGNFORTHELIMITEDBOUNDEDITION
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TheSeparatePartsofthisWork
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f**f**?

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OFFICESOFTHESTUDIO'&LONDON*44LEICESTERSQUARE
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AD.IV

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ORIGINALPRODUCTIONS

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mmmmtLM

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mitiSQHHLAL&SQNHEAL*.SON
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BookletwithColouredDesigns
sentpostfreeonapplication

CDEIiMBlIMHHMHHIWIT

OtherBookletstobehadare

"WOODENBEDSTEADS"
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AD.V

EWELS

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MODERNSCHOOL

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designedtosuit
anirregularly
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TheMatrixTurquoisewithitsprettycoloureffect
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TheseDesignsarethe
Propertyofandmadeupby
MURRLE,BENNETT&Co.
13CharterhouseStreet
LONDON,E.C.

highclass

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Veryquaintdesign
wellmodelled,with
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AD.VI

LONDON

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AD.VII

AUTOTYPES

of

ImportantPictures

FromtheCollectionbelongingtothe
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T.&R.Annan&Sons

2joSAUCHIEHALLSTREET
GLASGOW

fPriees12/6and166eaed

IllustratedCataloguesmaybehadon
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Street,London;orataboveaddress.

ARTISTSIN

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To

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Works:KALEYARDS,CHESTER.
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CATALOGUES,DESIGNSANDPRICESONAPPLICATION.

AD.VIII

e"HENRY"JTYLE

JohnP.White,

ThePyghtleWorks,

BEDFORD.

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pieces,Summerhouses,Chplets,Dovecotes,
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AD.IX

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The"Dunsley"SuiteofBedroomFurnitureinFumigatedOakf1616s.

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AD.X

FRANZHANFSTAENGL,

LONDON,MUNICH,NEWYORK.

FineArtPublisher,

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(NearlyoppositetheNationalGallery.)

MAXKLINGER.

REPRODUCTIONSINPHOTOGRAVURE,ETC.,OFTHEPRINCIPALOILPAINTINGS,
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ETCHINGS

INCLUDINGTHECOMPLETECYCLEENTITLED"EINELIEBE."

TextbyFranzHermannMeissner.

EditiondeLuxe,limitedto50NumberedCopies,onJapanesePaper,20.EditiononPlatePaper,10

TheBindingfromaDesignbytheArtist.

KLINGERNUMBEROFTHE"KUNSTUNSERERZEIT"

(ARTOFOURTIMES).

FULLYILLUSTRATEDTEXTBYF.H.MEISSNER.Price4S.

MaxKlingerisundoubtedlyamostinteresting,perhapsthemostinteresting,contemporarypoetandphilosopher,
revealinghisgeniusbytheworksofhishandsHeisequallyremarkableasapainterandasculptor,butheisknown?
aboveallasanetcher.Anhourspentwithoneofhismanyetched"opera"affordsanintellectualpleasure,harclyto
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SCREEN
EmbossedLeather
AllHandwork.HeightNi
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Price7Guineas

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LEATHER

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WINSOR&NEWTON,ltd.,

RathbonePlace,London,W.

NOTICE.

The"BILLofFARE"SERIES.

ThisCollectionofBrochuresandEssaysispublishedfortheexpress
purposofdrawingpublicattentiontothepresentconditionoftheLAW
overLUNACY,andaswelltoadvertisethepnb'icationoftheSensa
tionalNOVEL:SORDIDAMOK!!or.AWinterHolidayamongst
thePeopleMakersoftheWorld.BvACommonCenturion(Clairon
deBruyere).Price6s.Wkight&Jones,2OrmondRow,Chelsea,
London,S.W.TobeobtainedatallLibrariesandBooksellers.

THE"BILLOFFARE"SERIES.

No.1.PrefatorialRemarksandAppendix,is.A,B,andC,ofthe
Novel,"SORDIDAMOK.J!"ByaCommonCenturion(Clairon
deBruyere).No.2.Statement,6d.No.3.AnEssayupon"Glace
Poudree"and"FamilyLove,"6d.G.Pulman&Sons,Ltd.,24to
26ThayerStreet.London,W.No.4.ThenthereisNightlightin
(comic),2s.6d.No.5.ARoughDraft,IllustratedCover,aboutGrada
tionalProstitution,2>.6d.Privatelyprinted.No.6.DiversOdesand
Peons,6d.No.7.Listof47Works,someusefulfromtheLibrary
RegisterofT.O.Star,&c,is.No.8."MissisAlwaysPaidMeHer
self."AFuneralOrat01spokenatthesideoftheopengrave,bv
Messrs.DogbootsandTurnipTops(inDialogueForm),withcoloured
Frontispiece,2s.Wright&Jones,2OrmondRow,London,S.W.
No.9.AnEssiyuponToDw,18721902a.d.,andTaTa,5s.
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AD.XII

Jnstantlyavailablefor^PictureMaking.

FOLDING

POCKETKODAKS

Pricesfrom22s.to3I2s.6d.

Readilycarriedinthepocket.Easilymasteredbyaayoneinafew
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TheNo.3

FoldingPocketKodak.fullCataloguefromanyDealer,orfrom

1Zr\T\A1ZIUand43CLERKENWELLROAD,

JL/iO.Reduced,LONDON,E.C.

RetailBranches:59BromptonRd.,S.W.;60Cheapside,E.C.;113OxfordStreet,W.;171173Regent
Street,W.;and40Strand,London,W.C.AlsoatBoldStreet,Liverpool,andBuchananStreet,Glasgow.

17961902

BookPrintin

if

paul'swork,edinburgh
14tavistockstreet,london,w.c.

AD.XIII

JOHN/188

JWILSONS'RegentSt.

SuccefsorsLtd.


late15933ondSt.

pair.

TEACLOTHS

THEFINESTCHOICEOF,

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UNIQUECURTAINS^K^MS&Zld.

HAMDl^FRrHTFF^Pur^Linen,French,andIrish,with
rT^iNUiYi.IV^lll^lL>exquisiteEmbroidery,from4s.6d.dozen

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cateandharmoniousinColouringandquite
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ANEW
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inFabricsforCurtains,Artistic
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Illustrated
(Catalogue

Jree

witfi
^Details
and
^Prices

AD.XIV

MODERNETCHINGS
ANDENGRAVINGS


ListofSupplementalPlates

BritishSection

PLATE

THECANAL,fromtheEtchingbyProf.A.Legros,R.Ei

STUDYOFALANDSCAPEAFTERALEXANDERCOLLIER,fromtheHerkomergravureby

Prof.H.vonHerkomer,R.A8

WESTMINSTERABBEY,fromtheEtchingbyAxelHermanHaig,R.E12

AQUIETMORNING,fromtheHerkomergravurebyAlfredEast,A.R.A.....16

AYOUNGTRITON,fromtheEtchingbyCharlesHolroyd,R.E22

THEMILLINTHEWIRRAL,fromtheEtchingbyFredBurridge,R.E29

ROSLIN,fromtheEtchingbyD.Y.Cameron,R.E33

PORTUGUESEMULETTASMAKINGTHETAGUSBEFOREASQUALL,fromtheEtching

byTristramEllis,A.R.E41

AmericanSection

TRAGHETTO,fromtheEtchingbyJamesMcNeillWhistler1

FrenchSection

MARKETDAYATMONTMARTRE,fromtheColouredEtchingbyManuelRobbe1

CHOOSINGAGOODPROOF,fromtheColouredEtchingbyManuelRobbe4

JEANHELLEUEMBRASSLPARSAMERE,fromtheDryPointbyP.Helleu....7

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GermanSection

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PENELOPE,fromtheColouredEtchingbyMaxKlinger13

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AD.XV

Theadvantageof

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AD,XVI

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Architecture,Peinture,Sculpture,
Ornementation,Artsindustriels,
Qravure.IlillSISIIlIIS

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EstampesencouleursduXVIII'
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aladecorationdesappartements,
chateaux,pavilionsdechasse,etc.

'EAUFORTE

NUMEROD'ETE1902

etlaGRAVUREMODERNES

Table

LAGRAVURESURMETALENANGLETERRE,par
S.Baldryi

LAGRAVUREMODERNEENAMERIQ.UE,parWillJen
kins4

LAGRAVURESURMETALENFRANCE,parGabriel

MoUREY7

LAGRAVUREENALLEMAGNE.parHansW.Singer,io
LAGRAVURESURMETALENAUTRICHE,parWilhelm

Scholermann.12

L'EAUFORTEMODERNEETLAGRAVUREENHONGRIE,

parAnthonyTahi14

LAGRAVUREENHOLLANDE,parP.Zilcken...15
GRAVURESMODERNES,SECTIONBELGE,par


J.Khnopff18

L'EAUFORTEETLAGRAVUREMODERNESAUDANE
MARKETENNORVEGE,parGeorgBrochner..20
L'EAUFORTEENFINLANDE,parleComte

LouisSparre23

LAGRAVUREENITALIE,parRomualdoPantini..24
L'EAUFORTEMODERNEETLAGRAVUREENSUISSE,
parRobertMobbs25

AGRAVURESURMETALENAN
GLETERRE.PARS.BALDRY.

Iln'estpasfacilededonnerunedefinitionexacte
decemotgravuresurmetal.Danssonsensleplusetroit,
ils'appliqueraitpeutetreal'ceuvrequeTongraveavecun
outilpointusuruneplanchedemetal,adesdessinsautrait
surcuivrequi,recouvertsd'encre,sereproduirontenimpres
sionsurlepapier.Entendueainsilagravureseradedeux
sortes:celledanslaquellelestraitsfaitsaveclapointesont
rendusplusprofondsetplusfortsparl'attaqued*unacide
quimordlecuivre,etcelleditealapointeseche,dans
laquelleiln'yapasderenforcementparunacide.Onpeut
obtenir,avecdesplanchestraiteesdecesdeuxfagons,des
epreuvesquiontdesqualitestechniquescaracteristiqueset
quireproduisentlestouchesoriginalesdelapointeetces
epreuvessontpeutetrelesspecimensdelaformelaplus
puredel'artdugraveur.

Maiscommenttracerunelignededemarcationentre
cetteformedegravureetlesautres?Certainsprecedesse
rapprochentdupremieretn'endifferentquepardemenus
details;pourd'autres,lepremierprocedeintervientpour
produireleresultatfinal.Mieuxvautdonedonnerunedefi
nitionaussilargequepossibleetnepasinsistersurdes
distinctionsquinefontqu'embarrasserlegraveur.Lestra
vailleurseuxmemesdemandentunepleinelibertepour
exprimerleursideesquellesqu*ellessoient;onlevoitbien
dansl'empressementdelaSocieteRoyaledesPeintres
Graveursaencouragertouteslesformesdegravurecapables
Numerod'EteduSTUDIO,1902

dedevelopperl'originalited'inventionetd'execution.Une
desregiesdecetteSocietedeclarequetouteslesformesde
gravuresurmetal,soitparleburin,l'aiguille,lamaniere
noire,l'aquatinteouquelqueautreprocedechoisiparl'ar
tistecommemoyend'expressionoriginale,doiventetre
comprisesdanslemotpeintregraveur.Cetteextension
s'expliquesansdoute,enpartie,parledesirqu'uneSociete
d'exposantsdoitavoirdepresenteruneexpositioninteres
santeetvariee,maiselleprovientaussidecetautretres
reeldesirqu'ontlesartistesdesereserverlechoixdela
methodetechniquequileurparaitralameilleure.

Defait,siuneSociete,fondeepourdevelopperl'artdela
gravureetlepopulariseraupresdetousceuxquecetart
interesse,voulaitreglementeravecprecisionlesprocedes
d'execution,elleabdiqueraitunegrandepartiedesonauto
riteetperdrait,enfait,toutdroitd'exister.Saveritable
raisond'etreelleparaitl'avoir,desl'origine,judicieu
sementreconnuestdereunirtousceuxquicom
prennentleurroled'artisteetdefaireadmettretous
lesgenresdeproductionqu'inspirelelegitimedesirde
s'ecarterdusentierbattu.

Ignorercequiportelamarqued'uneserieuseoriginalite,
e'etaitdemauvaisepolitique,e'etaitencourager,audetri
mentdel'art,lesprocedesmecaniquesetcommerciaux.
Quiconqueaquelquechosedenouveauadiredoitetre

entendu;ilseraitabsurdedelereduireausilencesous
pretextequ'ilemploieunautreidiomequesesprede
cesseursouqu'ilauneideequineleuretaitpasvenue.

Detouslesgenscompetentsayantdonneleur
opinionsurcettequestiondeterminologie,leplusortho
doxeestpeutetreleprofesseurvonHerkomer.Dansune
leqon,faitependantqu'iloccupaitlachaireSladea
Oxford,ildeclaraitquecetermedegravuresurmetal
devaits'appliqueratouteformed'eeuvresurmetal
soitmordual'aided'unacide,soitattaqueauburinoua
l'aiguille,toutautantquecetravailrepresentestrictement
l'expressionlapluslibred'uneformed'art.Ladistinction
entrecequiestetcequin'estpas,aproprementparler,de
lagravuresurmetal,luiparaitunequestiondepure
esthetiqueplut6tquedemetier;ilrefuseletitredegra
vuresatouteslesplanchesmecaniquementtravaillees,
lamethodedutravailfutelleabsolumentconformeaux
procedesenusage.Etenmemetemps,iladmetqu'iln'y
apasdemesuresnideregiespourreconnaitreleveritable
procede.Lesentimentpersonneldoitnecessairementjouer
unroleimportantdanslaconduitedeceuxquipratiqucnt
cetartsubtiletildoitavoiregalcmentunesupreme
influencesurceuxquisedemandenthonnetementquel
tvpedeproduction,quelprocedeilschoisiront.Bien
entendu,ilnepeutyavoirdebaseprecise,puisquelacon

LaGravuresurmdtalenAngleterre

victipnindividuellejoueunsigrandrole;inevitablement,
ildoityavoirdesconflitsdegoutsurdesquestionsimpor
tahtes,maiscesconflitsmemessontunstimulantetun
encouragementpourunespritactif.

Sinousacceptons,commebased'argumentation,laderi
nitionduprofesseur,sinousadoptonssesconclusionssur
lesi'onctionsdcl'art,nouspourronsdireque,danstoutle
domaineartistique,iln'estpasdeproceded'executionqui
puissedormerplusdesatisfactionalafoisal'artisteetaU
connaisseuretquioffreunchampplusattrayant.Les
succesdugraveur,l'ceuvred'unhommequiestarrivea
mettrepleinementd'accordsoncerveauetsamain,sont
chosesexquisesfaitespourfascinerunpenseurintelligent,
car,pourenarriverla,ilafallurealisercompletcmentde
grandesidees.Cetartestpleindefinesseseminemment
suggestivespourunveritabletemperamentd'artiste,il
l'eleveversdeshauteursd'expressionqu'aucunautrepro
ceded'executionnepeutatteindre.Etilyatantderoutes
pourarriveraubutquel'artisten'ajamaisacraindred'etre
entravepar1'insurHsanceetFirresponsabilitedel'outil;les
seulsarretsqu'ildoitredoutersontceuxquiviendront
deiuimeme,rienn'empecherasesprogresquesapropre
insuffisanceareconnaitresonchemindanssapoursuitedu
succes.

Mais,enmemetemps,lagravure,danstoutesses
formes,estunartincertain,ouplutotunartincertainpour
unartisteambitieux.Sisontravailestmecaniqueetsou
misregulierementaunseriederegies,ilnedonneraque
desresultatsmecaniquesquinepourrontsatisfairequ'un
hommeainstinctsvulgairesetsansimagination.IInesera
plusoriginal,maismaniere,d'unecorrectionpedante;il
perdrasesplusnoblesqualitesetneferaplusqu'une
eeuvresuperficiellementachevee;aucontraire,avecun
artistequirisqueraunechecdansl'espoirdeproduireune
eeuvreimportante,cetartdonneradessurprisessansfin,
carilpeutvarieretrangementdanssesmanifestations.Les
resultatsserontpeutetrefantastiques,exageres,contraires
atoutprecedent;maisalorsmemequ'ilsseraienttouta
faitmanques,ilsneserontnitimidesniridicules,et,s'ils
sontbons,peutetreserontilsd'unattraitexquis.Entout
cas,ilsn'aurontjamaiscettevulgaireperfectionmecanique
dontlemanoeuvresecontente.

Lesraisonsdecetteincertitudedoiventetrecherchees
dansletemperamentdugraveuretdanslesdifficulty's
techniquesdel'artluimeme.Lapremiereconditiondu
succespourl'artisteestl'ardeur,l'amourdel'ceuvrepour

ellememe,lafermeresolutionden'etrearreteparaucune
desdifficultesquipourrontsedresserdevantlui..

S'ilalefeusacre,ilattaqueragaiementlesproblemes
lespluscompliques;ilentriompheraparlafouguede
cesdecisions;lepluspetitmomentdedecouragement
suffiraital'ecarterdefinitivementdelabonnerouteet
l'entraineraitdansunefoulededifficultesinextricables.
IIpourrasefairequ'aumomentoill'ardeurestason
comble,tellesdifficultessedressentinsurmontables,et
2

alorsilfaudras'avouervaincu.Certainsgraveursdisent
deleurartqu'ilestfaitd'accidentsheureuxourtial
heureux.etilstrouvent,danscetteincertitude,unesource
d'interet.Cetteideenousparaitunpeutropfantaisiste;
car,enrealite,ilexisteunnombreconsiderabledeconnais
sancestechniquesqu'onpeutobtenirparuneetudeserieuse;
ilyamilledifficultespratiquesdontceluiquipossedeafond
sonartpeutserendremaitre.Lafacond'appliquercescon
naissancespratiquesdependdel'artiste.S'ilestd'untempe
ramenthesitantetdisposeas'egarer,ilseheurteraapas
mald'accidents;maiss'ilauneConstancesuffisante,il
saurabienreconnaitrel'erreurquiacausesoninsueceset
lesqualitesd'energiequiluioutvalulareussite.

Sidonelapersonnalitedugraveuratantafaireavec
Texecutiondel'ceuvre,onpeutreconnaitrequel'ecole
anglaisecomprendungrandnombred'artistesquipos
sedentlesqualitesnecessaires.Encesdemieresannees.
l'Angleterreaproduitnombred'eeuvresgraveesquireu
nissenttouteslesconditionsdespontaneite,d'originalite,de
communionaveclanature,toutcelajointauneadmirable
habiletetechnique.Quelquesunesdecesceuvresmeri
tentd'etrerangeesparmilesmeilleures,beaucoupsont
audessusdelamoyenneet,memeparmicellesqui
peuventetrejugeescommemanquees,onconstateune
evidentebonnevolonte,unetentatived'evitercettevulga
ritequisatisfaitlesimpleouvrier.Sansdoute,lesbonnes
chosesdoiventetrechoisiesparmiunamasd'eeuvresqui
n'ontaucunepretentional'originalite,maisonentrouve
assezpournepasregretterlapeinedelesavoircherchees.

C'estunpointanoter,toutal'honneurdenotreecole
anglaise,quesondomaineesttresetendu.Lavarietedans
l'ceuvredenosartistes,leurempressementaemployertous
lesprocedesquipeuventservirl'artiste,sontdignesdes
plusgrandseloges.Ilsnesecontententpointdesuivreles
tracesd'unoudeuxmaitres,derepetercequed'autresont
fait;leurdesirleplusvifestdedonnerlibrecoursaleur
independancedepenseeetd'expression.Dansl'ceuvre
memedesgraveursquirefletentlapratiquedeleurs
maitres,onconstatequ'ilssontcapablesd'interpreterautre
mentlesfaitsqu'onleuraenseignes.Engeneral,on
remarque,endepitdequelquesaberrations,unesprit
d'originalitequiadonnenaissanceadefortesetinteres
santesceuvresd'artdanstouteslesbranchesdelagravure.

C'estpeutetredanslesfiguresquelesgraveursanglais
ontlemoinsreussi.Personne,encepays,n'approchede
lagracieuseelegancededessin,delasoupleliberte
d'expressiondeM.PaulHelleu,etsurementaucundenos
artistesnepeutetrecomparealuipourlecharmequ'il
metanouspresenterletvpemodernedel'humanite.

Nousn'avonspasdavantagedemaitrescommeM.Anders
Zornquisaitmerveilleusementallierl'assurancedudessi
nateuraunemaleconfiancedansl'usagedesmeilleurs
proeddesdegravure.Mais,aumoins,pouvonsnousrecla
mercommenotre,enraisondesonlongsejourpann
nous,M.Legros,undesmaitresdel'art,etpouvonsnous

LaGravuresurmetalenAngleterre

citerungroupoimportantdejeunesgraveursanglaisqui
doiventasonexempleetasonenseignementlesmeil

leuresqualitesdelcurart.DesartistescommeM.W.Strang,
M.CharlesHolroyd,M.Gascoyneetd'autresquioutetc
lesStevesdeM.Legrosal'EebleSladeouaSouthKen
sington,tiennentuneplaceefninenteencepayset
montrent,dansleursmethodesdetravail,destendances
tresriettesettresoriginalessurl'applicationdesprincipes
d'art.

Jlexisteaussiunautregrouped'artistes,elevesdupro
fesseurHerkomer,quicompte,parmisesmembres,plu
sieursdespremiersgraveursdenotretemps.M.Herkomer
luimeme,entantquegraveurrriezzotintisteetinventeur
duprpeededitpeinturesurplanche,quipermet1'exacte
reproductiondel'ceuvreniemedel'artiste,doitetre,sans
contredit,considerecommel'undesplusingenieuxetdes
plushabilesmaitresgraveurs,etsonenseignementlaissera
destracesinoubliables.IIabeaucoupfaitpoursimplificr
lesprocedescompliquesdelagravure;parsesingenieuses
adaptationsdesvieuxprocedes,ilestarriveadesresultats
qu'onnepouvaitobtenirautrefoisqueparuntravaillong
etincertain,etilasucommuniquerauxautresartistes
beaucoupdesonardeurintelligenteetbiendirigee.Ces
deuxgroupcsproduisent,chaqueannee,desceuvressigni
ficativesetpleinesdepromesses.

Neanmoins,si,parmilesgraveursdefigures,ilenest
peuquipuissentetremisaupremierrang,lalistedeceux
quimeritentd'etresignalesn'estpaspetiteetvautqu'on
laconsidere.MM.MortimerMenpes,JacombHood,
R.W.Macbeth,D.A.Wehrschmidt,NormanHirst,
A.W.Sayes,GeorgeRoller,WilliamHole,MissCor
mack,MM.E.G.Hester,J.C.Webb,J.B.Pratt,
MacbethRaebumetautresdontlafacondecomprendre
lesdifferentesformesdegravures'exprimeenunelongue
seriedeplanches,lesunesoriginales,lesautresreproduc
tionsdetableaux.Detempsaautre,cesartistesproduisent
uneceuvreexcellentequinousditquelegrandidealdes
vieuxmaitresrevitdenosjoursetqueledesird'arriverau
chefd'oeuvreesttoujoursaussivifqu'autretois.

Lenombredesgraveursquis'occupentparticulierement
depaysagesoud'etudesdemotifsd'architectureestasse/.
grand;leurstravauxprouved'unefaconremarquableque
cesartistessontencommuniontresvraieaveclanature.

Nombredecesoeuvressontinspireesparlesentiment
dutraitetparlacomprehensionpleinedecharmedes
subtilitesdel'atmosphere;ellessontparticulierement
heureusesdansleurtranspositiondestonsetdescouleurs
enblancetnoir.Cettevulgarited'interpretationdela
naturequiinsistesurlesdetailssansimportance,qui
negligeleseffetsdecoratifsetl'harmonieuxagencementdes
massesdelumiereetd'ombreneserencontrepascfaez
ceuxdenosgraveursqueTonpeutconsiderercommeles
maitresdupaysage.lischerchent,avanttout,ainterpreter
avecnoblesselesmotifsdontilsontfaitchoixets'ils
echouentparfois,c'estqueleurbutetaitaudessusdes

moyensd'expressiondontilsdisposaient:echechonorable
etquidoitleuretrepardonneenfaveurdelanobleambi
tionquilesinspirait;ilneprovientnid'unmanquede
couragenid'unedispositionaetresatisfaitdepeu.

IIseraitfaciledeciterdesexemplesdenoblestentatives
couronneesdesucces,dansl'ceuvredeM.FrankShort,
avecsondessinimpeccableetsonsensprofonddustyle;
deM.F.V.Burridge,avecsamanierelarge;M.D.Y.
Cameron,M.E.W.Charlton,M.C.J.Watson,M.Wil
fridBall,M.ThomasHuson,M.AlfredHartley,Sir
J.C.Robinson,lecolonelGoff,M.R.E.J.BushetSir
F.SeymourHadensontaciter;chezeuxlareuniondusen
timentetdel'expressionforteesttoutafaitremarquable;les
artistesdontlesnomssuiventontunsentimenttoutaussi
netduroleartistiquedugraveur:M.T.IrvingDalgliesh,
M.Fred.Slocombe,M.J.G.Murray,M.OliverBaker,
M.AlfredEast,M.JohnFinnic,M.ArthurRobertson,
M.LawrenceB.Phillips,M.F.Laing,MissC.M.Pott,
M.H.VanRaalte,M.T.T.Rowe,MissCG.Cope
man,M.DavidWaterson,MissM.A.Sloane,M.H.R.
Robertson,MissM.Bolingbrocke,M.F.W.Goolden,

MissC.M.Nichols,Mr.W.KiddieretM.JosephKnight.

DesartistescommeMM.W.HoleetLegrostraitentavec
uneegalemaitriselepaysageetlessujetsdefigures.IIya
aussi,celavasansdire,M.Whistler,Tundenosplusemi
nentsgraveurscontemporains.Partoutonrencontredes
ceuvresinteressantes,dignesd'attention,quiproviennent
d'artistesquietudientl'histoiredeI'artcontemporain,d'ar
tistessincereseteonsciencieux.

IIestencourageantdepenserquedanscetteecoleanglaise
oncroital'importanceduroletechniquedugraveur.Le
travailleurpeutchoisirleprocedequiluiconvientlemieux
etquiluipermettradetraduirelemieuxl'impressionqu'il
ressentdelanature.IIn'estpasenserredansdesregies
etroites,iln'apasacraindred'etredesavoueparcequ'ilsor
tiradeslimitesquientraveraientlalibertedesonexpression.
Laplupartdesvieillesconventionsontdisparuetavecelles
cetteideequel'artistequialavolonteetlacapacitedese
faireuneroutenoiivelleendehorsdessentiersbattusestne
cessairementunheretiqueetunincroyant.Jenesachepas
quecechampplusvasteaitconduitadesextravagances.La
sinceritedesmeilleursartistesgraveursesthorsdedouteet
ilsn'apprecientleurlibertequeparcequ'ellelesmeta
memederealiserunpeudel'infmievarietedecettenature
dontilssontrestesadmirateursrespectueux.

S.Baldry.

LaGravuremoderneenAmeriqite

AGRAVUREMODERNEENAME
RIQ.UE.PARWILLJENKINS.

Pendantnombred'annees,l'artdelagravureen
Ameriqueeutuneactiviteetunepopulariteplusgrandes
qu'enaucunautrepays.Cesuccesetcetteactivitemal
employesontetesurementlacausedeladecadencedecet
art.Apresunecourteperiode,pendantlaquelleonsut
apprecier,lavoguedevintundada,disonsmieux:une
scie,etpresquetouslesartistes,sollicitesparunedi
teur,posaientlaleurpinceauetprenaientl'aiguilledans
leseulbutdefabriquerdesplanchespourdel'argent.Un
artnesurvitpasacesprocedesdegradantsetlareactionne
sefitpasattendre.Malgretout,unpetitgroupedetravail
leursrestafidelesaleurartetdonnadespreuvesdeson
ardeuretdesonhabilete.

Laconfectiond'unegravureparaitrachosefacileet
trivialeal'ignorantetcependantceprocedeposelespro
blemeslesplusdifficilesdesartsgraphiques.L'ignorant
trouveplaisiravoirdespeintures,desreproductions,peut
etrememelesapprecieratil,maisilsaitpeuouriendela
gravuredanssonvraisensetilnes'ensoucieguere.L'ar
tisteetleconnaisseur,seuls,apprecientl'interetdel'exe
cutiontechniqued'unegravure,lapoesiedestraits,
lesimpressionsd'unedelicatessesifine,larichesse
velouteedelapointeseche,lestyle,lerythme,lereve
artistiquedevenureel.Aceuxlaseulsledevoirdeconser
ver,enparolesetenpratique,lesmeilleurestraditionsdu
metier.Cequ'ilfautdonneraupublic,c'estuneconnais
sanceplusnettedel'importancedelagravure,unepercep
tionplusclairedecefaitquecesepreuvestireesd'une
planchedecuivregraveesontlespluspersonnellesetles
plusintellectuellesmanifestationsdetouslesarts,carelles
laissentvoirplusclairementquetouteautreceuvrequ'elles
peuventreproduirelatouchedelamainetlapensedirectrice
del'artiste.Souvent,unegravurenousapprendlapensee
laplusintimedel'artiste,commentilasuserendremaitre
duprocede,enparcourirledomaine;c'estl'histoiredes
luttesdel'espritsurlamatiere,desdifficultesvaincues,et
delamatiereasservieal'intelligence.

Lesressourcesartistiquesdutrait,sinombreusesetsi

varices,ontete,chaqueannee,plusintelligemmentprati
queesparl'artisteamericainetmieuxapprecieesdugrand
public;unebrillanteecoledegraveurssurbois,suiviepar
uneecole,plusbrillanteencore,dedessinateursalaplume
dontlesceuvresontparudansdesperiodiquesbienimpri
mesettresrepandus,ontepurelegoutpublicetaugmente
sasympathiepourlesartsgraphiques.

Unerenaissanced'interetpourlagravureprouvel'affine
mentdugoutpublicenrepandantdesceuvresd'unereelle
beauteetd'unevaleursuffisantepourretenirl'attention
surleursmerites.Deplus,unebonnegravuren'estpas
seulementuneceuvredebeaut,c'esttoujoursundocument
intellectuel,c'estunautographequiportesibienlamarque
del'artistequequiconquel'etudiepeuteprouverlecharme
4

d'uneleconetpenetrerdanslasubtileatmospheredecet
art.

M.Whistleraditqu'enartilestcrimineld'allerau
deladesmoyensemployesasonexercice.C'estune
maximequ'ilnes'estpasbornearepeter,ill'aconscien
cieusementpratiqueeetencelailaexerceunetresgrande
influencesurlesceuvresdesgraveursamericains.Artiste
auxdonsvaries,pleind'ardeur,ila,parsabellevirtuosite,sa
noblessedeconceptionetparsestentativessiconsciencieuses,
gagneetconserveunesituationdegraveursuperieureacelle
d'aucunartistedesontemps.IIn'yestpasparvenusans
opposition.Peud'artistesmodernesonteu,danscesder
nierstemps,asedefendrecontrelesattaquesplusinjustes
etplusapresdelapartdesautoriteslesplushautes,aun
certainmoment,enAngleterre.Aujourd'hui,sontalentest
heureusementreconnudetousetiln'estpasd'artiste
modernequipuisseseflatterd'avoirplusd'admirateurs
eclairesetdevoues.11acourageusementpoursuivisonideal
sansselaisserarreterparunefaiblessedeconceptionou
unmanquedecapaciteaexprimercequ'ils'etaitdonne
commetache.Pourl'artisteetleconnaisseur,sonceuvre
estleplusbelexemple,danslagravuremoderne,d'unbut
eleveetd'uneexpressiongracieuseetpoetique.Alafois
peintre,graveuretlithographe,ilsaisitavecunegraced'une
suprememaitrise,lecaractereleplussecretdesobjets;ilen
donnelapuissanteexpressionavecunefinessetoujoursla
meme,aveclesmoyenslesplussimplesetlespluseffectifs.

Parfois,ilestpresqueepigrammatiquedanssafaconde
diretantensipeudelignesoudetraits,etsonceuvreappa
raitavecl'intensitedramatiquedesgrandesmasses.IIya
aujourd'huiplusdequaranteansquelaaseriefrancaise,
leCabaret,Unlogisdangereux,etd'autres,futsuivie
parlaseriedelaTamiseplusconnueetdontchaque
plancheestunveritablejoyaureproduisantquelquesscenes
pittoresquesdelaTamiseacetteepoque.Cespremieres
ceuvres,bienquetresremarquables,n'etaientquelecom
mencementdetoutescesplanches,lesplusbellesqu'ait
signeesungraveurmoderne,etchaqueanneelacollection
s'augmentadesujetsnombreuxetvaries.Bateaux,cons
tructions,figures,portraits,canaux,docks,ruesdeLondres,
deParis,deVenise,sitesdeHollande,deBelgique,des
provincesdeFrance,ontetepourluidessujetspourexercer
lamagiedesonburin.Laplacer^serveeicialagravure
americaineneseraitpassuffisantepourdonnermemele
cataloguebrievementannotedesonceuvregravee,sans
parlerdesautresbranchesdel'artoilWhistleramanifeste
sapersonnaliteavectantdedistinction.IIestheureusement
aujourd'huiaussivigoureux,aussiactifquejamais.

Aupremierrangdespeintresgraveursamericainssetrouve
CharlesA.Piatt.Vigoureux,brillant,riched'effets,cet
artisteconnaitafondlatechniquedesonartetilestpasse
maitredanschacunedesesvariihes.Tresbiendoue,ila
exercesonhabileteendesdirectionsdifferentes.Aunbrio
peucommundetraitsiljointlaprofondeuretlarichesse
destons,uneagreablefacond'avoirtoujoursquelquechose

LaGravuremoderneenAmerique

denouveauadireetdelediredanslestermeslesplus
choisisetlespluselegants.

StephenParrishestungraveurdontl'oeuvreestinteres
santequelquesoitlesujettraite;qu'ils'agissederendrele
clairsoleildePensylvanieoulestonsplussombresdu
Canada,samaniereesttoujourspleined'interetetriche
danschaquetraitetdanslesensembles.IIn'yapas
d'oeuvreamericainequimontremieuxcombiencepays
abondeensujetspourl'artiste.Onremarque,chezles
peintresetlesgraveursamericains,unecertaineraretede
sujetslocaux,probablementfautedecesexemplesque
l'artisteeuropeenaconstammentsouslesyeux.Celuici
veutil,eneffet,peindreteloutelaspectd'unpaysage,il
peutfacilementetudierlesexemplesetlestraditionsdes
maitrespoursavoircommentresoudreleproblemequise
posedevantlui.IIpeutsavoircommentDaubignyafait
cecietRousseaucela;avecquelsoinConstableaetudieles
diflerentesperiodesdecroissanced'unarbre,moispar
mois,endiversessaisons;avecquellenetteteilapeintla
formed'unnuageouunmorceaudepremierplan.

Lesgraveursamericainssontobligesd'allerchercherdes
exemplestechniquesdansdessujetsetrangersaleurpropre
paysetn'ontpassouslamainlesmemesfacilites.
M.Parrishestdeceuxquiontetecapablesdevoiretde
sentirlavaleurdesvieuxmaitresgraveurs;ilpossedeassez
leursmethodestechniquespourentreprendretouslessujets
avecuneegaleforceetuneegaleardeur.

OttoBacher,cebrillantdessinateuralaplume,apra
tiquelagravureavecunehabileteparfaiteetunesimplicite
d'executionquidonneasonceuvreunegrandepuissance
etbeaucoupd'effet.SesplanchesdeVenisesontparmiles
meilleuresgravuresdesartistesamericains.Sonhabiletea
saisirlacouleurlocale,asemouvoirkl'aisedansles
groupescompliquesdebateaux,demats,decordages,dans
lemiroitementeblouissantetfascinantdel'eausousun
soleileclatant,Pontmisamemedeproduiredesplanches
quiontuninteretalafoispittoresqueettechnique.

FranckDuveneckagravebeaucoupdeplanchesremar
quables.Alafoispeintreetgraveur,ilconnaitadmirable
mentletraitetsaits'exprimeravecunegrandedigniteet
unegraceelegantedeburin.Lemeilleurdesonceuvrea
etefaitenItalic

PlusieursmembresdelafamilledesMoranontprisune
placedistingueeparmilespeintresgraveurs.Thomas
Moranpeutetreappelel'artistequiadecouvertlesbeautes
dusudouestdel'Amerique.Cespeinturesdelaregionde
Yellowstoneluiontvaluunesituationapartdansl'art
americain.ReveurcommeTurner,ilapeintVeniseet
l'Orientavecuneimaginationfervente.Sesgravuressont
remarquablesdefacilitetechniqueetdeforce.Sontraita
uneetonnantequalitedevitalitenerveusequidonnede
l'interetatoutessesplanches.PeterMorans'estconsacre
auSudOuestetilapeintlaviesipittoresquedesPueblos.
Danslaplupartdesesceuvres,lesanimauxjouentunrole
important.Lespaysagesavecdesbestiauxsontbienrendus

etremarquablesparlapuretedudessin.FeueMmiNimmo
Moranavaitacquisunesituationdistingueecommegra
veur.SonceuvreestunexemplefrappantdecequeTon
peutobteniravecunsimpletraitadouciseulementparle
moelleuxdupapieretlechaleureuxdesencres.

WalterL.Lathropestungraveurquisaittoutleparti
qu'onpeuttirerd'untrait,lagraceetlavarietequ'onpeut
luidonner.SasuperbeseriedepaysagesduConnecticut
estpleined'interettechnique;ellereproduitladelicieuse
atmospheredupaysnatal.

JosephPennells'estfaitconnaitrenonseulementcomme
graveur,maiscommeecrivain.Entantquedessinateuren
blancetnoir,ilaeterarementegaleencesvingtdernieres
annees.AladerniereexpositiondeParis,l'uniquemedaille
d'ordeireclasseaccordeealasectionamericaineluifut

ddcerneecommegraveur.

MmeAnnaLeaMerritts'estd'abordfaitremarquer
commepeintredeportraitsetensuitecommeauteur
d'uneviededefuntsonmariHenryMerritt,artisteet
auteur.Elleafaitdelagravurepourillustrersespropres
ouvrages.Elleasignedecharmantesplanches,surtout
desportraitsdecontemporainsconnusavec,al'occasion,
lagravured'unescenederiviere,unpaysageoudesinter
pretationsdesesproprespeintures.Sesvigoureuxportraits
demissEllenTerry,unetetedeM.LeslieStephensont
destypesdebonnegravure.

EllenOakfordafaitdebonnesgravuresdepaysages;
fortedeton,sonceuvreabeaucoupducharmedelicat
d'unevegetationhumideetdupleinair.Elleexposeplutot
desmassespicturalesquedestraitscoulantsetscintillants,
maissonceuvreesttoujourssatisfaisanteetcharmeparson
originalite.

D.ShawMacLaughlanestunjeuneartisteaccompli;ila
d'abordsuivil'enseignementacademique,maisilatrouve
dansl'artdelagravureuneformed'expressionsplusfaite
poursesgoutsartistiques.Profondementimbudugenie
grandiosedeRembrandt,deDiireretdesvieuxmaitres
dutrait,ils'estdonnelatached'apprendretoutcequ'il
pourraitdesbeautesquil'avaientfrappedansl'oeuvrede
cesgrandshommes.IIestevidentqu'unenthousiasmc
aussidevouepourunidealdevaitavoirdesresultats.
M.MacLaughlanl'aprouveparnombredeplancheschar
mantes,vigoureusesetoriginales.Honneursetmedailles
sontvenusaluietaussilespropositionsd'unorganisateur
d'expositions,bienconnuenEuropeetenAmerique.Onpeut
attendrebeaucoupdansl'avenird'unartisteaussiaccompl
etd'unetudiantaussiconsciencieuxdelabonnegravure.

ArthurA.Lewisestunautrejeuneartistequiaconsa
cresestalentsal'ideallepluselevedelagravure.IIse
sertdutraitavecforceetsonceuvre,d'unecomposition
consciencieuseethabile,sedistingueparunerichesse
veloutee.11reussitparticulierementlessujetsafigures;il
saitretenirtoutcequiestessentieletdessineavecune
gracecharmanteetunegrandeoriginalitedestyle.

GeorgeC.Aidmetunenotemoderneetgracieuse

LaGravuremoderncenAmirique

danssonoeuvrcquetraversebeaucoupdepenseeartistique
etd'amourdelanature.Tresappliqueasonart,ilaetudie
avecgrandsoinsessujets,etsontravail,toutdeconvic
tion,prometbeaucouppourl'avenir.

11nefautpass'etonnerqu'unaquarellistedetalent,
qu'unillustrateurcorrimeM.SidnevR.Burleighentre
prennelagravureavectantdesucces.Avecunraretalent
dedessin,unbriodetouchequiluiesthabituelentout
art,M.Burleighpourraetre,s'illedesire,undespremiers
graveursamericains.

CharlesW.Stetsonestunartisteexceptionnellement
doue,pleind'originaliteetpuissantcoloriste.D'uneima
ginationplusgrandequebeaucoupd'autresdesonecole,
ilimprimeatoutcequ'iltouchelesqualitesquifontune
oeuvre.Onletraitedegeniedanssonentourage,ilTest;
niFecole,nil'enseignement,maisseulementunegrande
originalitenaturellepeutdonnercettecouleurriche,solide,
brillante,eclatante.Sesgravuressontd'uneinteressante
originaliteetmarqueesd'ungrandsensdelacouleur.

FeuThomasHovenden,peintreeminentdegenre,a
pratiquelagravureavecsucces.C'est,avanttout,unartiste
decaractere:sesplanchesafiguresseremarquenttoujours
parlalargeuretlarichessedesdetails.

JulianRixafaitdesplancheshabiles,toujourscaracteri

seesparunegranderichessed'expressiondutraitetdu
goutpourlestonsetlesrichescouleurs.

W.C.Bauerestremarquablepourlafacondontilsait
reproduireunpaysagedanssesdifferentesphases.D'une
bellecomposition,d'uneprofondeconnaissancedusujet,
sesplanchessonttoujoursfaitesserieusementetagreables
dansleureffet.

OtisWebberauneoeuvrerichedetons;ilmaniele
traitavecgoutetsaitbienrendrelesdifferentsaspectsde
lanature.

C.F.W.Meilatzsaitrendre,avecsucces,ungrand
nombredesujets.Lesensemblesetlesmassesd'architec
ture,lestraitscaraeteristiquesdesmaisons,lesgensetles
monumentssonttraitesparluiavecgraceetconviction.

FeuW.GoodrichBealetaitexcellentdanssesplan
chesdepaysages;l'arbre,lesroches,lacolline,lenuage,
lemorceaudepremierplan:toutavait,chezlui,saplace,
sonimportance,sarelationetsoncaractere.Sescomposi
tions,largesoucompliquees,etaienttoujoursfaitesavecune
notiontresfinedesvaleursrelatives.

J.A.S.Monkaproduituneceuvreexcellenteavec
l'aiguilledugraveur;peintrebrillantdepaysages,demou
tonsetdebestiaux,ilpossedeuneinstructionsolideetsa
gravureesthabileetpleinedegout.

EdmondH.Garrett,peintre,auteur,illustrateuretdes
sinateur,s'estconsacrealagravurepourillustrerunebelle
seriedelivresetilaachevesatacheavecuneremarquable
habileteartistique.

R.SwainGiffordafaitd'cxcellentesplanches,comme
aussiM.J.O.Smilliequiamissonhabileteauservice

denombreuxprecedes:trait,aquatinte,mezzotinte,pointe
seche,etc.IIdirige,al'AcademieNationale,uneclasse
degravured'apreslemodelevivant.Commeartisteet
commeprofesseur,ilabeaucoupcontribueavivifierl'art
enAmerique.

RobertBlumetW.Chase,cesdeuxexcellentspeintres,
sont,tousdeux,desgraveursaccomplis,maisilsn'ontrien
produitencesdemierstemps.RobtF.Bloodgoodapublie
desplanchestresartistiques;ilavaitbienvouluendonner
deuxauStudio.Malheureusement,ilnousaeteimpossible
delesreproduired'unefaconsatisfaisanteetnousavons
du,aregret,nepaslespublier.IIenaetedememed'une
gravuredeE.H.Garrett.CarltonChapman,l'habile
peintredemarine,nousavaitenvovcd'excellentsmor
ceaux,etaussiFredericW.FreeretJ.A.S.Monks,mais
cesenvoisnoussontparvenustroptardpourparaitredans
cenumero.

AuCanada,ilfautsignalerd'excellentesgravuresa
differentesepoques,maispeudechoseencesdernieres
annees.HenrySandhamagravebeaucoupdeplanchesextre
mementinteressantes.HomerWatsonenafaitunnombre
considerable.JohnHammonds'estmontregraveuraccom
pli.FrederickCoburnapeuproduit,maissesportraitsont
unmeriteartistique.D.ShawMacLaughlan,Canadiende
naissance,aetetroplongtempsal'etrangerpouretreclasse
aveclesCanadiens;ilestaujourd'huinaturaliseAmericain.

IIn'estpaspossibledenommericitousceuxqui
auraientdroitautitredegraveursamericains.Lesartistes
dontlesnomssuivent,etqu'ilconvientd'ajouteraceux
quenousavonsdejasignales,onteteplusoumoinsdes
graveurseminentsencesdixdernieresannees;leur
exempleetleurenseignementaurontunepuissanteinfluence
surlarenaissancedecetartsiaime,renaissancequisemble
plusprobablequ'ilyaquelquesannees.

J.M.Gaugengigl,AlfredBrennan,J.W.Twachtman,
CharlesCorwin,C.A.Vanderhoof,BernardWalter
Priestman,GeorgeBrown,T.W.Wood,J.M.Fal
coner,F.S.Church,H.Farrer,J.C.Nicoll,F.Dielman,

H.P.Share,WalterSaterlee,OttoSchneider,B.Lauder,
HamiltonHamilton,ErnestHaskell,JamesS.King,
J.Lauber,SamuelColeman,FranckWaller,C.Volkmar,
ErnestC.Post,C.A.Walker,CharlesH.Woodbury,
H.D.Murphy,W.G.Glackens,W.H.H.Bicknell,
FranckBicknell,SidneySmith,H.R.Blane.y,G.G.Mac
Cutcheon,FrankWaller,G.D.Clements,ElliotDan
gerfield,KatherineLewin,W.H.Skelton,J.Fagin,
KrausmanVanElten,J.J.Calaghan,J.G.L.Ferris,
FrankM.Gregory,J.F.Sabin,W.St.J.Harper,Stephen
J.Ferris,HermanHyneman,W.E.Marshall,C.F.Kim
ball,EricPapeetReginaldCoxe.

WillJenkins.

LaGravuresurmetalenFrance

LAGRAVURESURMETALEN
FRANCE.PARGABRIELMOUREY.
Lagravuresurmetalsuit,depuisquelques
armies,enFrance,uneevolutionanalogueacelledela
lithographicL'eauforteencouleursremplacepeuapeu,
presqueexclusivement,dansl'estimedesamateurs,l'eau
forte,lapointesechemonochromesetleburin.IIn'ena
pasete"autrementdelalithographie;l'engouementdu
publicestall6recemmentadesgravuressurpierredont
lapolychromie,plusoumoinsaudacieuse,plusoumoins
riche,constituel'uniquemerite,ettellespiecesmono
chromesd'unSteinlenoud'unWillettefirent,auxyeux
debeaucoup,l'effetd'imagesdemod^es,d'estampesd'un
autreage,dt5jatreslointain.

Aucoursdesdeuxarticlesconsacres,enfevrieret
mars1901parleStudio,al'eauforteencouleurs,j'avais
essayedeformulerenquelquesmotslesdifferentes
manieresquecomportecettetechniquespeciale.Meper
mettratonderevenirsurunequestionquiinteressea
tantdetitresnonseulementlesartisteseuxmemes,mais
lesamateursd'artetlescollectionneurs?Ausurplus,les
renseignementsquejedonnail'andernier,j'aiprissoin
delescompleter,enm'adressantal'hommequiconnaitle
mieuxenFrance,pournepasdireenEurope,lessecrets
del'eauforteencouleurs;j'ainommeM.Eugene
Delatre,graveuretimprimeurdegravure,lefilsd'Au
gusteDelatre,dontCastagnaryaeuraisondedireque
s'ilavaitvecudutempsdeRembrandt,celuicin'aurait
paseteobligedetirersesepreuvesluimeme,d'Auguste
Delatre,aquiFelicienRopsaecritcecurieuxtraitede
gravureauvernismouquisertd'appendiceaEaufortc,
pointesecheetvernismouetquetoutgraveurdoit
connaitre.

M.EugeneDelatreaete,avecCharlesMaurin,undes
premiersgraveursquisesoientlaisseseduireparl'eau
forteencouleurs;c'estluiquiatirelaplusgrandepartie
deseauxfortesencouleursparuesacejour,carles
artistesquiprecedenteuxmemesautiragedeleurs
planchessontfortpeunombreux.

L'eauforteencouleurscomprendtroismanieres.La
.premiereconsisteenuneseuleplanche,queToncoloriea
lapoupdeetdontlenombredetiragepeutetre,enprin
cipe,illimite.

Ledeuxiemeprocedecomportedeuxplanches:une
pourletraitetlesombres,unepourlacouleuroules
couleurs,enprenantsoindetirerlaplanchedescouleurs
lapremiere,etlaplanchedutraitendernierlieu.

Letroisiemeprocedenecessiieuneplancheparcouleur,
parsuiteautantdetiragesquedeplanches;mais,avec
quatreplanchesauplus,onpeutarriver,medisait
M.Delatre,atouteslescombinaisonsdecouleurs.

Restelemonotypequiest,onlesait,unepeinturesur
metal,surcuivre,generalement,queTonfaitpassersous


lapresseavantquelacouleursoitentierementseche.On
peutfaireaussi,paraitil,desmonotypessurzinc;on
dessiueaveclecrayonlithographiqueetToncolorieavec
delacouleurcommepourl'eauforteencouleursala
poupee;lecrayonlithographiquepeutresisterautiragede
cinqousixepreuvesauplus,carlapuissancedutrait
s'affaiblitachaqueepreuve.

Jen'insisteraipasdavantage,ondevinepourquoi;ces
questionsdetechniquesontduressortdeceuxqui,prati
quantunmetier,enpossedentafondl'experience,ettout
critiques'exposeaupedantisme,quipretendyapporter
deslumierespersonnelles.Puis,qu'importentlesprocedes:
seulslesresultatscomptentetparlent,etnotremissionest
delesconstater.L'artdugraveurest,eneffet,detous
lesartsgraphiques,leplusmysterieux,leplusspecial,et
enmemetemps,parlesressourcesinfiniesqu'iloffre,le
plusetendu.Quelabimeentrelamaniered'unMeryonet
d'unGaillard,d'unLepereetd'unRops,d'unBracquemond
etd'unHelleu,d'unJacquemartetd'unWhistler!Les
gensfontbien,quandilsdoiventbienfaireditFelicien
RopsdanslalettreaAugusteDelatredontjeparlaisplus
haut,parlesmoyenslesplusdiversetlesplusopposes.
Cequiconviental'unneconvientpasal'autre.Jecrois
qu'ilenestdetoutedoctrine,detouteformuleaca
demiqueouautre,detouterecette,commedeceremede
contrelecholera,qu'undocteurc&ebre,apresessai,
declaraitexcellentpourlesmacons,maisdeplorablepour
lesebenistes.

Parmilesgraveursquisontdemeuresleplusfide
lementattachesal'eaufortemonochrome,ilfautciter
enpremierlieuAugusteLepere.Nul,niducotedes
artistes,niducotedesamateurs,nemereprocherade
saluerenluil'undesmaitres,sinonlemaitre,delagra
vuremoderne.Leperepossedeuneincomparablescience
dumouvement,delavie;Lepereestundessinateurde
premierordre;Lepereestuntechnicienadmirable.
Chaquenouvelleplanchequ'ilgravenouslemontreen
pluscompletepossessiondesonart,elargissantsavision,
assouplissantsonexecution,sanscesseallantversplus
deliberty,toujoursplusoriginaletpluspersonnel.La
seriedepiecesqu'ilarapportees,l'andernier,deHollande,
marqueleprogresconstantquej'indique.Siloin,cepen
dant,quesoitalleLeperedanscesmerveilleuses
planches,nousleverronsbientotfairedespasdeplusen
avant.Quellesexquisescliosesquecesaspectsd'Ams
terdam!Quelleverve,quelleacuile,quellesuretede
pointe,quellevari&e"demorsure,quelleintensitede
couleur!

NousavonsdittroprecemmentdansleStudio,du
talentdeM.EdgarChahinecequ'ilconvientd'endire
pourqu'ilsoitndcessairedemettreenvaleurlesder
nieresplanchespubisesparcetiespersonnelartiste.
LePortraitdeAfl'eDelvair,delaComdieFran<jaise,
d'unesiexpressiverecherchedecaractere;leBoade

LaGravuresur

metalenFrance

plumeetGaby,cetteexquisefiguredejeunefemme
accoudee,lesmainssouslementon,sesfinscheveux
blondscouronnesparcegrandchapeaugris,lemontrent
enpossessiond'unepluspenetrantesouplesse.Mais,si
sensiblequ'ilapparaisseauxelegancesfemininesd'au
jourd'hui,EdgarChahinen'endemeurepasmoinsattache
al'etudedestypesetdesscenespopulaires;deuxdeses
dernieresplanches:AvenuedeClicbyetUncoinderue
danslequartierdesGrandesCarrieres,leprouvent.

Leparisianismed'EugeneBejotestmoinsaigupeut
etre,maisilestplussouriant.IIexcelleafixerlesaspects
monumentauxdelagrandeville,surtoutcesbordsdela

Seinequiabondentenmotifsimprevus,enperspectives
indites.

GustaveLeheutreestaussiunpassionnedespaysages
depierres,desvieillesrues,desvieillesmaisons,etsoit
a1'eauforte,soitalapointeseche,ilagravenombrede
piecesd'unesaveurparticuliere.C'estaTroyes,surtout,
sonpaysnatal,qu'ilatravailleetqu'iltravaille,dessi
nateurconsciencitux,graveurdontlafinessed'execution
etlafermeted'accentatteintsouventalamaitrise.La
Maisondugarde,TannerieaMontargis,/'Impasse
JambeyaTroyes,VEcluseduTreport,quelsdelicieux
morceaux!EtquedireaussidecesBateauxparisiensa
Aufeuil,d'unsiaudacieuxeffetdeperspective,d'un
caracteresimarque!

Helleuesttoujourslevirtuoseprestigieuxdelapointe
dediamantquenousconnaissons,lemaitredesgraceset
deselegancesdelafemmemoderne.Onneselassepoint
del'admirer.Toujourspareilaluimeme,diton.
C'esti<toujourssuperieuraluimemequ'ilfautdire.
Quoideplusexquisquesarecenteseried'etudesd'apres
laDucbessedeM...,unedesgrandesdamesde
l'aristocratieanglaise,surtoutcelleci,laDucbessedeM...
endormie,suruncanape,tenantsursesgenouxsonox
terrierfavori?Etvoiciuneautreseried'apresMmeMade
leineC...,d'unparisianismeraffine;etvoicicette
adorableseriedesgestesmaternels,JeanHelleuembrasse
parsamere,etlesSaxes,quisontcoraraelependantde
sacelebrepointeseche,lesDessinsdeIVatteauauLouvre,
quetouslesamateursconnaissentetcherissent.

Feuilleterensuitelespagespoignantes,tragiques,oil
Steinlen,avecsonsenssiprofonddelaviepopulaire,
noustransportedanscemondespecialdesfaubourgspari
siens,nousfaitpenetrerdanslesdessousdemisereetde
vicedelaVilleLumiere,creeuncontrasted'etrange
plaisir.Steinlenest,amesyeux,superieurdans1'eau
fortenoire.SesAmoureuxdevillage,Pauvrebere,le
Bouge,Rentreedutravail,lesPetitsChanteursdesrues,
etcertainspaysages,commecetEffetdesoleilcoucbant
surunpout,d'unesaisissantebeaute,resterontdansson
oeuvre.Cesontdesplanchestoutespalpitantesdeverite
etd'emotion,intensesdedessinetdecomposition,des
chosesd'uneentierebeaute.

Toutdifferents,maisd'uneegalesinceritedevision,
8

lesburinsduHollandaisP.Dupont,fixeaParisetquia
ledroit,commel'ArmenienChahine,defigurerici.

M.Duponts'estassimile,avecuneextraordinaireintel
ligence,latechniquedesmaitresgraveursallemandsdu
xvetduxvisiecle,etilentireunpartiadmirable
etpersonnel.Saufunpaysaged'Amsteidam,laGroote
Toren,jeneconnaisdeluiquedesetudesdechevaux,
defortschevauxdetraitoudelabour:leCbcvaltombc,
I'Outillage,Cbevalmangeant,dontledessinateura
etudieetscrutel'expression,lesgestes,lesattitudes,
l'aspectparticulieravecunetendressetouchanteetqu'il
faitvivredansdesdecorsdepleinenatureoudesquais
deParis.M.P.Dupontestunartistedepremierordre;
sonnommerited'etreretenu.Toutrecemment,dansun
portraitdeSteinlen,minutieusementexecuteavecune
patienceetunsoucidelaperfectiontropraresaujour
d'hui,ilatteignaitauneprofondeurtoutafaitadmi
rable.

Dansseseauxfortesnoiresouencouleurs,Charles
Huardcontinuedepeindrelaviedespecheurs,desmarins,
desvieillesfemmesetdestypesdeprovincequ'ilobserve
sifinement.SaVieillefemmereprisantpresd'unefenetre,
saPecbealaballesontparmilespieceslesmeilleures
qu'ilaitsignees.Sesscenesmilitairesencouleursme
paraissentmoinspersonnelles,d'unartmoinshaut,trop
direct;enrevanche,ilconvientdementionnerspeciale
mentsonetudedeCrevettes,d'uneprecisionetd'unecou
leurcharmantes.

M.GastonEy'Chenncafaitaussidesetudesd'ani
mauxquisontdevraispetitschefsd'oeuvre:laCarpc,
Papillonjaune,PetitePantb'cre.C'estunamoureuxdes
colorationsprecieusesetdelicates,untendreobservateur
delanaturedonttouteslestentativesdemeurerontlong
tempscaptivantes.

M.CharlesHoudardseconfinedeplusenplusdans
ceseffetsdesoleilcouchant,oililatteintaunesibelle
richessedecouleur.L'EtangduMoulin,Aupontdes
QuatreBornessontdespagesentitlementreussies,oil
dominelesentimentleplussinceredelapoesiedela
lumiere.

LesdonsdeM.Mulleroftrentbeaucoupdesouplesseet
devariete.Sesportraitsd'actrices,celuideC/eode
Merodesurtout,sontfortcurieux;jeleurprefere,cepen
dant,sesBaigncusessouslessanies,laRueSaintVin
cent;I'Hiver,effetdeneiged'unebellepuissance;lePort
duPolletet,plusencore,saPromenadeaHydePark,
oililtraite1'eauforteencouleursavecinfinimentdesou
plesseetdesraffinementstresseduisants.LaProme
nadeaHydeParkest,unpeu,lafameusePromenade
auPalaisRoyal,deDebucourt.C'estuneplanchedigne
deprendreplaceparmilesmeilleuresproductionsdela
gravureencouleursmoderne.

M.CharlesMaurinestundesraresartistesquitraitent
lenuavecceprocede.Sesleversetcouchersdefillettes,
sesetudesdejeunesfillesetdefemmesaubain,autub,

LaGravuresurmetalenFrance

dansl'intimitedesdeshabilles,sesscenesdelaviedes
enfantsetdesmeresontunesaveurexquise.Leseul
reprochequ'onpourraitleuradresser,c'estd'etretrop
premisesetdedessinetdecouleur;maiscertainesd'entre
ellesonttoutl'interetdespluscharmantstableauxdece
genre,parexemple,leRubandecoiffure,Nouvelleedu
cationsentimentale,Premieretoilette,Bathroometle
Haindelafillette.

Cetteenveloppedetechnique,M.ManuelRobbequi
est,malgretoutsontalent,unmoinsparfaitdessinateur
queM.Ch.Maurin,lapossedeauplushautdegre.Cer
tainesdespiecesqu'ilasigneesontuneseductionincom
parables;cellessurtout,amonavisdumoins,quisontle
moinspolychromes,leCritique,parexemple,oilTon
voitunejeunefemme,deboutdevantunchevalet,dans
uneravissantepose.LaDamealachaiselongueme
plaitbeaucoupaussi.EtletalentdiversdeM.Robbe
s'exprime,avecnonmoinsdepersonnalitequedansces
scenesd'interieur,dansdespaysagesavecfigures,comme
leMarcheaMontmartre,Danslepare,Leverdelune,
leVieilArhrc,Auxchamps,belleevocationdepleine
nature,debordantedeverite"etd'unepuissanteintensite
lumineuse.

M.RichardRanftestplusfantaisistedanssesscenesde
lavieparisienne,commeleMarchealavolaille,la
Charretteanglaise;ilseplaitadesgammesdecouleurs
chantantesquifont,desesestampes,declairspoemesaux
harmoniesjoyeuses.

FrancisJourdain,lui,demeureattacheauxoppositions
subtilesdetonalitessourdes;ilcherchedeseffetsplus
profonds,pluspenetrants,toutensesoucianttoujours
del'impressiondecorative.Parmilesaquafortistespoly
chromes,iloccupeuneplaceapart;jeneconnaisrien
depluscharmantquecetteFemmedansI'ombre,cette
Femmehsanl,ouencorecetteFemmeaucanape,dans
unegammedegrispoussiereuxetderosessaumon^s,
rehaussdsparlanoted'oreteintdescheveuxetlenoir
moelleuxducoldeveloursquiiaitaucoudelareveuse
commeunlargecollierd'ombre.

M.B.BoutetdeMonvelapeuproduitdepuisunan;
deuxplanches,pasdavantage,sijenetrompe:leBar,

unedecescurieusesetudesdetypesparisiensauxquelles
ildoitsanotoriete,etAvanlForage,quirappelleunpeu
tropsesHaleurs,quoiquelacolorationensoitdifferente.

LespiecesgraveesparM.EugeneDelatresont,au
pointdevuetechnique,d'uneperfectionabsolue.Jene
croispasqueTonpuissearriveraplusdefinesse,aplus
dedelicatesse,aplusdedouceur,aplusdefondu.C'est
unejoiequedefeuilletercetteseriedepaysagesouvibre
lalumieredesfraichesmatinees,ous'estompelabrume
descr^puscules:VEntreeduvillagedeSaintJulienle
Pauvre,leMoulindeI'Epau,lesPommiers,ouBrumes
surlaSarthe,pourn'enciterquequelquesuns.Tres
different,maisdgalementsaisissant,lePontSolferino,la
nuitaveclspointslumineuxdesreverberesdansI'ombre

humided'unbrouillardroux;etcharmantes,cesdeux
effigiesdechats:Moumoune,Marquis,tandisque,dans
laVieillefemmeauxchats,s'exprime,nonmoinspleine
ment,l'espritd'intimiteetd'observationquiainspirea
EugeneDelatredesipen&rantespages.

ParmilesdernieresplanchesdeM.JacquesVillondont
letalentatantdedistinction,cellesquis'imposentleplus
sontcel'esoililseborneauxeffetslesplusrestreintsde
couleurs,al'emploileplusmoderedelapolychromie;
cetteParisienneassisesurunfauteuilrose,aprofilperdu,
toutelaplanchecommevoileed'ungrisfin,lajolie
silhouettedelajeunefemmesobrementnoteeentraitsde
pointedumemegrissidelicat;ouencorecetteElegante,
d'uneeleganceunpeusecondEmpire,entoilettebleue
d'unsijolibleu!quirespireauBois,envoiture,l'air
desPremiersbeauxjours!Tiesamusantes,cespieces
quel'artisteintitule:leNegreenbonnefortune,Cabaret
denuitetI'Ombrellerouge.

LepeintreimpressionnisteDezaunays'eftorceetily
reussitdetransporterdanssesplanchesgraveesla
fraicheurjoyeusedecolorationquidonnetantd'eclata
sestoiles.Sesetudesbretonnes:PaysannedeRosporden,
PetitemendiantedePleybon,FemmeetfillettedePlou
gastelDaoulas,assisesavecleurpanieretleurparapluie,
dansleursvetementsauxcouleurstranchees,sontdeli
cieusesetd'uncharmeunpeuexotique,pleind'agrement.

M.Dubuctiredetrespuissantseffetsdel'itudedela
mer.Autantilestlumineuxetclatantquandilpeintla
MediterraneeauMouri/lou,dansunruissellementd'eau
etdeclartbleues,autantilesttragiqueetgrandiose
quandilfaits'avancersurl'oceanauxlargesvagues,dans
lanuit,panachedefumee,sesprojecteursallumes,ses
chemineescrachantdeslueursfantastiques,leVaisseau
deguerre.C'estunsuperbemorceau,desaisissante
impression.

11fautendireautantdespaysagesdeM.E.Viola,
eauxfortesnoiresouapeinecolonies,parlargesmasses,
oill'artisteexprimesavisionetrangeetmysterieuse,
Humblesterres,entreautres.

LafacondontM.RouxChampionregardelanature
estmoinsromantiqueetplussouriante.LePardonest
unedesespieceslesmieuxreussies,etjetrouvedetres
heureusesqualitesdecoloristedanslesVoilesrouges,
leMoulinetcettejolieimpressionduJardinduLuxem
bourg,sansomettrelePontonsurlaSeine,paruncr
pusculeaucielverdatre,balayedegrandsnuages,sur
lequelsedetache,colossed'ombre,lasilhouettedeNotre
Dame.

M.HenriPaillard,l'illustrateurdeBrugeslaMorie,
s'estpeulaisseseduireparleprocededel'eauforteen
couleurs.SesQuaisdelaSeinesontcependantunetres
jolieplanche;maisonlesentplusal'aisedanslagra
vurenoire:laStationdebateauxmouches,laMaison
duroiaBruxelles,1'HoteldeVilledeMiddleburg,oil
ilgraved'unepointealertelapoesiedesvieillespierres.

L'EaufortcetlaGravurcmodernesenAllemagne

MM.L.Pivet,avecleCoq,pagedeclairealluredeco
rative,auxcolorationsharmonieuses;Schuller,avecles
DeuxCoqs;G.Angelvy,avecsesdeuxplanches:Debuts
etfind'uumaraudeur,ontemployefortheureusement
lesressourcesdel'eaufortepolychromealapeinturedes
animaux.J'aimeparticulierementlaplanchedeM.L.Pivet.

Quedepiecesilfaudraitencoreetudier,analyser,qui
offrentunvifinteret,autantparleurvaleurartistiqueque
parleurvaleurtechnique.Jemecontenteraideciterles
finesetudesdefemmes,deGastonDarbour:laPari
sienne,enroberouge,regardantundessin;laDame
iiuhibou,I'InterieurforainalafoiredeNeuilly,de
Betout,d'uneobservationsiingenieuse;l'exquiseScene
d'.interieur,deV.Dupont,ouTonvoitunejeunemere
cousantpresdesonenfanthissesursahautechais;;les
grandesetudesdefleurs,d'inspirationunpeutropjapo
naise,deMlleVoruz;laseriedetypesetdescenesde
larue,deSunyer,rappelanttrop,malheureusement,la
manieredeSteinlen:PlacedeVAbreuvoiraMonl
martre;GroupesassisauLuxembourg;telpaysagede
A.Lafitte:SoiraOnvoal;laPromenadeapresla
course,scenedemceursespagnoles,deR.Canalz;les
paysagesdumididelaFrance,deM.RalliScaramanga,
quidenotentuneetrangeettresvibrantevision;les
etudesdefemmesdeM.E.Roustan,interessantes,quoique
defactureunpeumolle;lePaysageduBourbonnais,
deM.P.Maud.Jemereprocherais,enfin,denepas
mentionnertoutspecialementlesrecentesplanchesen
couleursd'AugusteDelatre:Solitude,leMarais,etce
belEffetdeluneenEcosse,surtoutcettemagnifique
eaufortenoire,Effetd'orage,oulemaitregraveura
atteintaunesplendeurtragiquevraimentadmirable.

Quellerichesse,quellediversitedeproduction!Com
biennombrcuxlestemperamentsd'artistesquecetartde
l'eauforteencouleursaseduit,etquireussissentaen
tirerunpartipersonnel.Danslescabinetsd'estampes,
danslesmuseesdel'avenir,l'eauforteencouleursoccu
peraunebelleplace;lesgraveursfrancaispeuvent
s'enorgueillir,apresavoirelargilechampdelagravure
surmetalmonochrome,d'avoirressuscitelagravuresur
metalpolychrome,d'enavoirfaitunprecedesoupleet
fecond,expressifal'infinietsusceptibledes'adaptera
touteslesfantaisiesetatouteslesmanieres.

Adressons,enterminant,nosremerciementsaMM.Ed.
SagotetaM.Ch.Hessele,editeursproprietairesoudepo
sitairesdesplanchesgfaveesquifornient1'illustrationde
cetarticle.

GabiuelMourey.

'EAUFORTEETLAGRAVURE
MODERNESENALLEMAGNE.PAR
HANSW.SINGER.

Ledernierquartdusiecledernieravuparaitre,enAlle
magne,unerenaissancedel'eauforte,accompagnantle
renouveaudepresquetouteslesautresformesdeFart.
Parmileshommesquis'appliquerentacegenredetravaux
avantcetteepoqueetquidemeurentencoreaujourd'huiau
premierrang,lesplusdistinguessontpeutetreC.A.Meyer
BaseletP.Halm.Tousdeuxsesontfaitconnaitreparun
grandnombrededelicatspaysages,nousoffrantdesaspects
delaSouabe,delafrontierenorddelaSuisseautourdu
lacdeConstanceetd'autresregionsanalogues,vuspar
deshommesquiontprisgoutaupaysage,nonsagrandeur
etsavarieteromantique,maissanaturepureetsimple,
memeauxportesdesgrandesvilles.


Halmestceluidesdeuxquimeriteleplusnotreatten
tion,carilsurpassememeMeyerBasel.IIareproduit,avec
beaucoupdefideliteetdegrace,lesceuvresd'autresartistes
etacomposedesmotifsd'ornements.Ontrouverala
preuvedecetalentspecialdanslesmagnifiquesvolumes
consacresauxcollectionsdeFredericleGrand,quifiguraient
aupavilionallemand,al'ExpositiondeParis,en1900.De
plus,Halmpasse,endepitdesajeunesserelative,pourlt
Nestordel'eaufortemoderne.

C'estlui,eneffet,qui,commeami,aenseignelemetier
aKarlStaufferBern,etKlingers'estengageplustarddans
lavoieoilStaufferl'avaitprecede.C'estaugeniedeKlin
ger,autantquasonsuccesquiattiral'attention,qu'estdue
larenaissanceactuelle.

Staufferavaitdebutecommeportraitisteetaquafortiste.
IIavaitl'amourdelasculpture;malheureusementilne
sedecouvritcegoutquepeudetempsavantlemalheur
quimitfinasesjours.IIaccomplit,dansledomainede
l'eauforte,toutelabesognepenibleettorturantequicon
sistsatenterd'exprimersonideal,achercherladirection
quiconvientasontalenttechniqueetalatournuredeson
genie.Sonceilsaisissaitvitelesformes;ilaimaitasuivre
lesmoindresreliefsetlesmoindresdepressions;ils'effor
^aitsanscessedetrouverlemeilleurmoyenpourrendre
entierementetconsciencieusementlaforme.C'estpour
quoi,dansl'eauforte,ilcommencaparrenonceralaligne
accentuee;puisilabandonnaentierementcettemethodeet
pritleburin.Maisilnemaniaitpascetinstrumentavecle
manierismedontlesnegligentssuccesseursdeMercuriet
Toschiavaientdonnel'exemple.IIavaitlaisselalesysteme
admisetseservaitdesonburinavecautantd'inde
pendancequ'unaquafortistedesapointe.Ladifferencedu
jesultatresideencequeladelieatessedesontraitluiper
mettaitd'obtenirdeseffetsdeprecisionetdeteintequela
pointeetlalignemordueparl'eaufortenesauraientrea
liser.Commechefsd'oeuvredansl'ordredumodele,des
planchestellesquelePortraitdesamereetleModelev
couchen'ontjamaisetesurpassees6

10

L'EauforteetlaGravuremodernesenAUemagne

Klinger,quiavaital'origineunveritabletemperament
d'aquafortiste,asubi,cammeStauffer,destransformations;
maisilavecuassezpourarriveradesresultatsdefinitils.
Luiaussiestdevenu,alafin,unsculptenrconsomme.
Quandiletaitjeune,l'exuberancedesonimagination
l'avaitamendafairedel'eauforteetdudessin;ilavaittrop
d'idees,quisedisputaientl'honneurd'etremisesaexecu
tion,pourqu'ilputsetrouverasonaisedanslapeinture.
Auxyeuxdesconnaisseursenmatiered'eaufortepropre
mentdite,lesceuvresdedebutdeKlinger,parexemple
lesseriesdeplanchespourOvideoupourlecontede
VAmouretPsyche,sontlesplusattrayantes.Ellessont
deconcertantesparl'abondanceetl'etrangetedel'imagina
tion,maiscecaracterelitterairedemeureausecond
plan.Lesseriesposterieures,commeI'Histoired'un
amour,I'Histoired'uncvie,Surlamort,sontimpo
santescommelesproductionsd'unespritqu'ondoit
prendreauserieux.Pourtantilcommenceanegligerson
style,acausedel'ardeuraveclaquelleils'attacheaimposer
aupubliccequ'ilveutexprimer.Lesplusrecentesseries,
surtoutlesFantaisiesdeBrahms,considereescomme
puresceuvresd'art,portentdesmarquesdedecadence.
Commedessinateur,ilesttoujoursaussipuissant,son
imaginationesttoujoursaussiviveetaussivigoureuse,
maissamethodealamentablementperdu.IIcombinesur
unemimeplanchedesprecedesquis'harmonisentmal.
IIviseauneftetvouluets'yattachesansconsidererla
naturespecialedelaformed'artqu'ilemploie.Apresent
qu'ilestdevenuentierementunsculpteur,Klingeraperdu
lapatience,laconscience,lalegeretedemainqu'ilavait

audebutdesacarriere.

Deceuxsurlesquelsilacxerceuneinfluenceparticu
liere,telsqueGrenier,Kolbe,DasioetHofer,Dasioseul
aconsacrebeaucoupdetempsalagravureetal'eauforte.
Dasioaproduitdesceuvresimportantes;maisils'estlaisse
emporterparuneinspirationromanesquequiseplaita
affecteruneculturesuperieureacellequ'ilpossfodeenrea
lite.Enpresentantsesallegories,sesseriesphilosophiques,
ilanegligedeconsacrerletempsnecessairea1'etudedu
cotetechniquedel'artetalasciencedudessin.

IIn'yapasd'ecolesd'eauforteenAUemagne;iln'yen
eutjamais,d'ailleurs.Lenombredeshommesquiculti
ventcetartestplusconsiderable;laqualiteetlaquantite
desceuvresproduitessontsuperieuresacequ'ellesetaient
ilyavingtcinqans.Pourtantchacunvasonchemin,avec
plusoumoinsd'independance.Beaucoupd'eeuvressont
interessantes;onyvoitleseffortsdepeintrescherchanta
realiserleseffetsqu'ilsontdejaobtenusal'aidedupinceau.
Sommetoute,fortpeudegensfontdel'eaufortepurement
etsimplement.CesontlesartistesdeDresde,Unger.
FischeretPietschmannquitiennentlatete.Leurartsuit
plusparticulierementlesdonneesobserveesdepuisCallot,
parl'eauforteclassique;ilressemblefortaceluideleurs
confreresanglais.lisontunjustesensdelavaleuretdela
puissancedelaligneetilsemploientlamethodesimpleet

directe,sansperdreleurtempsadesessaiscnvuc
deresultatsnouveaux.Fischeracomposedetresbeaux
paysages,prissurlesrivesdel'Elbe,surlesc6tesdela
BaltiqueaBornholmouaRiigen,duhautdesmontsde
Silesie.Peud'entrenousont,autantquelui,lesensdu
stylesimpleetgrand.

LesartistesdeHambourgsontlacontrepartiedeceux
deDresde.Ilsontapprisdansdeslivrestouteslesmethodes
ettouteslesficellesdemetier.Ilsontproduitdes
planchespeunombreusesmaistreshabilementexecuteeset
ilsaccomplissentavecdexteritecertainstoursdeforceaux
quelsd'autresaquafortistesnesontparvenusqu'apresdes
anneesdetravail.C'esttoutl'elogequ'onpentfaire
d'Eitner,d'lllies,deKayser,etc.Peutetreontilsetetrop
habiles,tropadroits.Ilsontepuisetoutlesuedeleurart
etsemblentavoirconstatetresvitequ'ilsn'enpouvaient
plusrientirer,carilsFontpresqueentierementabandonne.
L'artserieuximpliqueuntravailpleind'ardeur;c'estla
unechoseincontestable.L'hommequinedisposed'aucun
aide,quidoitsecreerluimemcsesvoiesetmoyensest,
generalement,celuiquicreelesceuvreslesplusdurableset
quis'attacheleplusfidelementacequ'ilaappris.Les
artistesdeHambourgonteulapartietropbelle.

ABerlin,noustrouvonslesdeuxmeilleursaquafortistes
deFEurope;nouspouvonssanscrainteaffirmerlefait.Ce
sontA.KriigeretK.Kcepping.

Kceppings'estacquisunerenommeeuniverselleparses
eauxfortesd'apresRembrandt,FranzHalsetMunkaczy.
Cesontdesceuvressansegales.Noncontentdeconserver
al'ceuvredupeintresoncaractereoriginal,Kceppingnous
donneFimagedelapatemimedelapeinture,del'etatde
conservationdelatoilequ'ilasouslesyeux.Kriigeret
Kceppingont,tousdeux,faitdesessaisd'eeuvresoriginales;
maisilsn'ontpasreussiarecolterlesapplaudissements
quiavaientaccueillileursautrestravaux.

NoustrouvonsencoreaBerlin,MaxLiebermannquiest
unartistevraimentinteressant.Sil'onadmetlapossibility
dequelquechosequiseraitdel'eaufortepleinairiste
ouimpressionniste,onestobligedereconnaitrequeLie
bermannl'arealisee.DesplanchescommelaCharrcite
danslesdunes,laGardeusedecbevres,I'Fstaminetde
Rosenheim,lesJeitnesHollandaisescousantdansle
petitjardin,sontassezsurprenantesetassezinteressantes.
Pourmapart,jepreferebeaucoupdedelicatespointes
sechessurzinc,faitesparLiebermann,representantde
petitesvuesdeHollande,etportantlamarqued'unsens
tresfindelabeautedusujet.

Leistikow,deBerlin,luiaussifaitdel'eauforteunart
entierementdecoratif;c'estainsiqu'ilconcoitegalementla
peinture.Sonstyle,bieneloignedunaturalisme,estperson
neletseduisantparcequ'ilsimplifie,nonseulcmentles
couleurs,maisencorelesformesdelanature.

L'artdeMmeKollowitzn'estcertainementpascelui
qu'onattendraitd'unefemmc.11n'yaaucunebrutalitede
realismedanslestableauxqu'ellenousdonnedestypesles

11

L'EauforteetlaGravuremodernesenAutriche

plusdegradesdel'humanite.Pourtantdesceuvresaussi
puissantesquelaDansemacabreautourdelaguillotine
sontmerveilleusementsaisissantes.Malheureusement,la
plupartdesesplanches,laseriedesTisserands,laRevolte,
sententtroplapolitique.

ACarlsruheresidentThomaetKalckreuthquiont
produitbeaucoupd'eauxfortes.Cequinousinteresse
dansleursplanches,c'estlepeintre,ouplutotl'artisteque
nousconnaissonsparsestableaux.lisn'ontpasencore
composed'oeuvrequiajoutedestraitsnouveauxaleurper
sonnalite,tellequ'elleestdejaconnuedenous.Onenpeut
direaurantdefeuLeibl,oudeStuckoudeMenzelmeme.
Nousregretterionsdenepaspossederleurseauxforteset
cependantsinousentreprenonsdejugercesartistes,nous
n'avonspasuneopiniontreshautedeleurtalentdans
cetteformed'art.Stuckestpeutetredescinqceluiqui
nousseduitleplus.SonVivierairuites,estunebelle
plancheoililatireleplusgrandpartid'unetechnique
remarquablementsouple.AvantdequitterCarlsruhe,ilfaut
aumoinsmentionnerWaltherConz.

11estassezetrangequeMunich,nagueremetropole
reconnuedeTartallemand,n'aitjamaisdonne1lejouraune
ecoledegraveurscomparableasonecoledepeinture.Un
desplusdistinguesdesesjeunesartistes,JHeinrichWolff,a
etcappeleaKonigsberg,justeaumomentoililcommen
i;aitasefaireconnaitre.Wolffasurtoutfaitduportrait;il
manielaroulettedefaconextremementinteressante.Hegen
bart,quivientd'abordercegenredetravaux,prometde
reussirparfaitement,aenjugerencomparantsesdernieres
eauxfortesasesessaisdedebut.IIacomposedesestampes
dontletraitfinrappelleunpeutroplepurdessinala
plume;maisilaaussireussiquelquesexcellentseffetsde
surface,notammentdansPritalafuite.

Lesaquafortistesquiaimentaemployerlesprocedesde
surfaceetcherchentarealiserlepittoresqueclairobscur
despeintres,sonttousdesMunichoisouonsubiTinfluence
deMunich.lissonttouspaysagistes,etilfautmettreen
tetedelaliste,Gambert,auteurdejoliesvuesdepays
marecageux.Grafluidisputelapalme,ainsiquePankok,
quiemploielamanierenoire,tandisquelesdeuxautresse
serventplusvolontiersdel'aquatinteetduvernismou.Les
artistesWorpswede,MackensenetOverbeckpeuvent
etreclassesdanscettecategorie,parleursintentionssinon
parleurtechniquequiestlagravureautraitdemandantla
tonaliteaulithographepraticienetautravailderetrous
sage.

IIyaaussi,naturellement,desgraveursdepaysageau
trait,danslegenredel'AnglaisOliverHall.Ubbelhodea
produitdesceuvresremarquables,lumineuses,agrandes
lignes;ilauneraredelicatesseetealculebienlatranspo
sitiondesplansdelanatureenlignescoordonnees.Rasch
etHagen,deWeimar,ainsiqueHirzelquiestenmeme
tempsreputecommegraveurd!'exlibris,presententplus
oumoinsderessemblanceavecUbbelhode.

IInefautpasnegligerVogelerquinousadonnenombre

12


deplanchesremarquablesmalheureusemententachees
d'affectationetmanquantdesolidite,etilfautciterencore
GeygeretR.Miiller.Geygerestremarquablementadroit;
maissontalentfafaitchoirdansuntelsoucidufini
quecertainesdesesdernieresceuvressontpresquepenibles
aregarder.R.Miillermanquetotalementd'imaginationet
d'inventionnouvelle,sibienquesesplanches,d'excellente
technique,sontmalheureusementaussidepourvuesd'in
teretquedesphotogravures.

Telssontlesnomsdelaplupartmaisnondetous
desgraveursallemandsmodernes.Atoutprendre,ils
peuventsupporterassezbiend'etrecomparesaceuxdes
autrespays.S'ilsnepossedentpas,autantqu'ilseraitdesi
rable,lesensdelapuretedestyle,cedefautestquelque
peucompenseparlagrandevarieteetlanouveautedes
ceuvresaetuellesenAllemagne.IIyaeumoinsd'imitation
etplusd'originalitedansl'eauforteetlagravure,enAlle
magne,quedanstouteautrebranchedel'artgermanique.

HansW.Singer.

'EAUFORTEETLAGRAVURE
MODERNESENAUTRICHE.PAR
WILHELMSCHOLERMANN.

EnAutriche,Fartmodernenest,aproprementparler,
qu'unejeuneplantehative,cultiveedepuispeuavecgrand
succes.Sanaissanceneremonteguereaplusd'unedizaine
d'annees.Memeauneepoqueplusrecente,en1896,quand
eutlieu,aVienne,lagrandeexpositioninternationalede
l'artgraphique,lesaquafortistesautrichiens,al'exception
dequelquesgraveursreproduisantlesceuvresdesvieux
maitres,brillaientparleurabsence.IIn'estdonepassur
prenantquelaplusnoblebranchedesartsgraphiques,
cellequi,plusquetouteslesautres,peutetrefondeesur
unetraditionsevereetvenerable,l'artdemanierlapointe
d'aciersurlaplaquedecuivre,n'occupepaslepre
mierrangparmilesplusrecentstravauxdesartistes
autrichiens.

Onpourraittrouver,acefait,uneautreraisonplus
psychologique.Letalenthabitueldel'artisteautrichien,
sontemperamentartistiqueprennent,d'ordinaire,une
orientationtoutedifferente.C'estdanslelibrejeude
l'imaginationetdugout,dans1'adaptationheureusedela
formeetdelacouleuradeseffetsdecoratifs,qu'iltrouve
generalementl'occasionlapluspropiceal'applicationde
sestalents.11estnedecorateur.Enregiegenerale,les
conceptionsartistiquesseveresetprofondesnesontpas
soncotefort.Maisilraffoledufastemulticolorequise
pretepeual'artdelicatetpatientdelagravure.

D'ailleurs,1'evolutionessentiellementmodernedela
gravurequi,enunissantlesillonduretmarqueduburin
ouletraitpluslegerdelapointesechealavarietedes
massesdecouleurgracieuse,atantcontribue,depuispeu,

L'EauforteetlaGravur

auprogresdolachromolithographic,ceprocedenou
veaudegravurepolychromesiheiireusementinventepardes
artistesfrancaisdegrandmeritc,n'aencoreetcemploye,a
maconnaissance,paraucunpeintregraveurautrichien.
Pourtantlemouvementparaits'accentuerpeuapena
Viennemime,bienqu'onsehomeencore,engravure,a
desreproductions.

WilliamUnger,bienqu'ilnesoitpasAutrichiende
naissance,s'estetablidanslaeapitaledel'Autricheet
occupeunpostedeprofesseural'AcademiedesBeauxArts

deVienne.Sesgravures,d'apreslesvieuxmaitreshollan
daisetflamands,enparticulierd'apresRembrandtet
Rubens,sontuniversellementadmirees,bienqu'onsoit
obligedereconnaitrequ'ellesnesontpastoutesde
memeforceetd'egalevaleur,carcertainesdesesnom
breusesplanchesrendentmallagrandeuretlesouffledes
originaux,tandisqued'autressontexcellentes.Sonvaste
panneau,d'apreslapeintureduTitien,appeleeHimms
licheitudIrdiscbeLieb'e(Amourcelesteetprofane),peut
etrecitecommeunedesesmeilleurestentativespour
traduirelacouleural'aidedesdouxeffetsdel'estampeala
manierenoire.

LeprofesseurUngerestgeneralementconsiderecomme
ledoyendesgraveursetlemaitred'unegenerationde
jeunesremplisdetalent.Eneffet,ilaamenenombre
dejeunesgensaseservirdesinstrumentsdugraveur,et
siTonenjuged'apresl'independanceaveclaquelleses
elevesetsesamissesontdispersesdansdesdirections
differenf.es,ilsemblequesesleconsetsesconseilsn'ont
nullementexerceuneinfluencerestrictivesurlesdons
qu'iletaitchargedecultiver.Aucontraire,sonenseigne
nientacontribueapermettreachaquetalentnaissantde
trouversavoieensuivantlibrementsesinclinationsparti
culieres.

Danslajeunegeneration,M.AlfredCossmann,un
deselevesdeUnger,aaffirmesonmeritedefacontres
personnelle.11estneen1870,aGratz,enStyrie,et,apres
avoirfaitsesetudesal'Ecoled'ArtsetMetiersde
YCEsterreicbiscbeMuseumfurKunsiuudIndustriea
Vienne,enparticulier,danslesectiondeceramique,ila
commenceaapprendrelagravure,sousladirectiondu
professeurUnger.IItravaillepoursoncomptedepuistrois
ansdeja,apresavoirdiimentapprislesdiversesmethodes
techniquesdelareproductionlithographique.

DanslaplancheintituleeVAgitateur,l'artisteachoisi
unsujettoutafaitactuel.IIya,danssonceuvre,une
vigueurremarquable,unsouffleardentetuneagitationfie
vreuse.IIyamemeuneabondanced'expressionima
geequi,toutenetantprolondementvraie,cotoiedepres
lacaricature.Descompositionsdecegenre,absolu
mentmodernesd'inspirationetsaisiessurlevifaveccette
vigueur,meritentqu'ons'yarretenonseulementparinte
retdemetier,maisaussipourdesraisonsplusliauteset
plusgeneralcs.Cejeuneartisteest,amonavis,douede
quelquechosequiestplusquedutalent.IIyaenluiun

emodcrnesenAutriche

entimentd'humanitetressolidemeleaunpointed'iro
nieapeineperceptible;e'estlalamarqued'unartistede
genie.

Cossmannemploieunevarietedeprocedestechniques
qu'ilcombineselonlesexigencesdusujet.L'Agitateuf
availeted'aborddessineettireafeauforte;puisl'auteur
s'estservid'aquatintespourlefond,pourlesdemiteintes
etpourcertainespartiesdesvetementsetdescheveux.Ce
n'estguereunegravure;l'artistes'estfortpeuservidela
pointeseche.

Unautreartiste,nonmoinsoriginal,M.Ferdinand
Schmiitzer,membredelaSecession,aremporte
recemmentdebrillantssucces.11apassequelquesannees
d'etudesaParisoils'estdevelopperapidementsonvigou
reuxsentimentdupittoresqueetcettefineperceptiondes
valeursrelativesdelalumiere,del'ombreetdestachesde
lumiere,caracteristiquedel'aquafortistene.Sesdernieres
planchessontexcellentes;certainessontplusgrandesque
lesgravurescourantes.IIs'estdepuispeumisafairedu
portraital'eauforteetaremporteunemedailled'oraux
ExpositionsdeParisetdeDresde.Schmiitzeraaussi
tenteunessaiaudacieuxengravantuneplancherepresen
tantunedamesurlepointdemonteracheval.Leperson
nageestmigrandeurnaturelle,ete'estreutetrelaplus
grandegravurequisoitaumonde.Latentativeestsans
doutecurieuse;maislavaleurpratiqueetartistiquedeces
toursdeforceestplusquediscutable.


Schmiitzerestcertainementungraveurvigoureux,posse
dantauplushautdegrelesentimentde1'effetatmospherique
etdel'harmoniedecomposition.Sessujetssonttraites
exactementselonsondesseinarrete,avecunevigueurd'exe
cutionsansdefaillances.IIaetudieafondlesvieuxmaitres,
apenetretousleurssecrets,maisendemeuranttoujours
luimeme.Enpareilcas,lesvieuxmaitres,loind'oteraux
jeunesartistestoutepersonnalite,contribuentpuissamment
Afortifierleurfacultedevision.IIenaeteainsipour
SchmiitzeretTonpeutenvisagersonaveniravecsympathie
etconfiance.

EmilOrlikestdejabienconnudeslecteursduStudio.II
estpeutetreaujourd'hui,toutbienconsidere,leplushabile
etlepluscompletdesdessinateursautrichiens.IIpossedela
lacultedechangerd'humeur,demaniereoudemethode
avecunesouplesscintellectuelled'unevigueuretd'uneviva
cite'merveilleuses.IIneconnaitpasdebarrieres,depreju
g&nidepreferences.S'illuiprendfantaisiedesepenetier
del'inspirationdeI'artjaponais,parexemple,ilsentira,
dessineraetpeindraougraveracommeunJaponais.La
varietedesesprocedestechniquesestalafoissubtileet
sincere,delicateetvigoureuse;ilserepetetiesrarement.

J'aidejaeul'occasiondeparlerdel'artdeM.Rudoll
Jestmar,commeaquafortisteetdessinateur(voirleStudio,
tomeXIX,n85).IIsemblequel'imaginationdecet
artistesoitsanscesseenceuvredanscecerveauaudacieux
etfantaisistequiconcoitetdecomposelesaspectscomme
lesaccordsd'unemusiquesansfin.IIestneenGalicie,a

L'Eaufortemoderneet

Cracovie,en1867.IIafaitsesetudesaVienne,aCarlsruhe,
enItalieetaLeipzig,etilestrevenuaVienne,en1897,en
qualitedemembredel'UniondesArtistesautrichiens{Vc
reinigungbildcndcrKiinstlerCEstenreicbs).

L'artdelagravureproprementditeestenhonneurdepuis
desgenerationschezlesartistesautrichiens.Aussitrouyet
onparmilesmodernesdeshommesdetalentemployantla
gravureautraitpourtransposer,enestampe,lescoupsde
brossedupeintre.Legraveurreproducteurest,enart,ce
queletraducteurestenlitterature;ilfautqu'ilsoit,avant
toutuninterprete,qu'ilsepenetreetserevetedelaperson
nalitcdel'auteurets'impregnedeYinspirationtechnique
del'original,cetauxiliairedel'expressionpersonnelleque
Tonmeconnaittropsouventetquiestpourtantinseparable
detoutartdignedecenom.

Parmilesaquafortis.tesetlesgraveursquiseconsacrent,
aujourd'huialareproduction,unartistepolonais,M.Ignaz
Lopienski,s'esteleveaunegrandeperfectiond'execution
technique.Acemerites'ajoutelesentimenttresdelicatet
artistiquedecequ'onpourraitappelerfamedutableauqu'il
reproduit.

LopienskiestneaVarsovie,en1865.IIad'abordetudie
lasculptureetlagravuredesmedailles,aVienne,sousla
directionduprofesseurBengler,puisal'EcoledesArtsde
coratifsdeParis.IIestensuiterevenuaViennepourfinir
parseremettreautravailuanslacapitaledesonpaysnatal.

IIestsurtoutlepeintredesonpaysetdesescompatriotes.
Lesplainesbassesetdesertesdecepaysplatetsauvage,oil
lespauvrespaysanssontencoretenusenservageparlesriches
proprietairesdusol;cesvastesetenduesdelandes,oil
errentdeschevauxmalnourrisetoilpousseunemaigre
vegetation,telleestlaPologne,ensembledetcrritoires
russes,allemandsetautrichiens.Laplanchequenousoffrons
iciaulecteur,PHiver,estlareproductiond'untableaudua
unautreartistepolonais,leprofesseurWieruszKowalski.
C'estuneimmensesolitudeneigeuseeclaireeparunelune
d'hiver,rendueplusdesoleeencoreparquelquespinset
sapinsdechiresparlatempete,sedetachantcommedes
spectressurleciel,oillesetoilesscintillent,amoitieeteintes,
sembletil,parlerefletetincelantdelaneige.Lesolporte
lestracesdespasd'unehordedeloupsaftames,assembles
al'arriereplan,commes'ilstenaientconseilpourexaminer

cequ'ilconvientdefairedanscestempsdifficiles.Au
premierplan,unebetesolitaire,laqueueentrelesjambes,
leveverslecieletoilesonmuseauflaireuretTondistingue
faiblementsachaudehaleine,apparaissantcommeunevapeur
dansfairpaisible,glace,veritablementpiquantdefroid.II
yadanscettesceneunedesolationetrangequelesmotsne
sauraientexprimer.

Letalentmagistraldeployeparl'auteurdanscetteplanche
estabsolumentmanifeste.IIyalal'uniteetlaconcentra
tion,combineesavecl'executionattentive,sansminutie
exageree.Riennedonnel'impressiond'untravailpenible
oud'undefautdesincerite.

Pourconclure,ilestpermisdedireque,silesartistes
14

laGravureenHongrie

autrichiensnenousontpasencorefournidegrandesnou
veautesendehorsdelamanierenoire,cequ'ilsnousoffrent
estpersonneletmeritoire.Quelquesoitleresultatdeleurs
effortsdansl'emploidecevieuxprocede,ilsmeritenttoute
notreconsideration.

WlLHELMSCHOLERMANN.

L'EAUFORTEMODERNEETLA
GRAVUREENHONGRIE.PAR
ANTHONYTAHI.

L'eauforteetparticulierementl'eauforteencouleursne
peutpasavoird'histoire,nidetraditiondansunpayscomme
laHongrie,oilledeveloppementartistiqueestsirecent.En
Angleterre,enFrance,enAllemagneoill'artmodernea
atteintsonapogee,lagravureautraitetlaplanched'acier
quiluiestsiinferieureontparcouruunetreslonguecar
riere.Toutelatendancedel'artaetesifortementopposee
alalignepurequ'ilnefautpass'etonnerquel'eauforte,
quiexigeunehabiletedemainetdemetier,aitetenegli
geeparlesartistes.

Lejouroillesartisteseurentunevisionplusriche,plus
vive,oililsabandonnerentleurrigidelignedeconduite,oil
ilscesserentderougirdes'interesseratouteslesvarietesde
l'art,lesartsgraphiques,l'eauforte,lalithographieet,par
fois,laxylographiereprirentfaveur.

IIestcertainqu'enHongrie,pourunecauseouune
autre,diflicultedeprocede,indifferencedupublicle
nombredesartistesquisesontoccupesd'eaufortepoly
chromeestinsignifiant.IIfautenblamernosartistes,carla
plupartd'entreeuxn'attachentd'importancequ'auxtableaux
dechevaletetcroienttoutlerestcindigned'eux,alorsque
dansd'autrespays,1'Angleterre,laBelgique,laFranceet
1'Allemagne,desSocietesdegraveursal'eaufortesesontfon
dees,ilyavingtcinqans,aveclesplusheureuxresultats.alors
quelegoutpublicaetestimule,exciteparlapublication
d'admirablesreproductionsd'eauxfortes,laHongrien'avait
riendesemblablesjusqu'a1'andernier,oilunCerclegra
phiquefutfonde,et,jusqu'apresent,iln'adonneaucun
resultat.

Cettepauvretedesartsgraphiquesdoitetreattribueea
cefaitquelaHongrien'apas,avraidire,dedebouche
artistiquepersonneletqu'elleestecarteedetouslesgrands
centresinternationauxd'art.Commejel'aidit,lenombre
nombredesartisteshongroisquis'occupentdegravureest
tresrestreint;ilsecomposedepeintresquicomprennentla
necessited'avoirplusd'unmoyenpours'exprimer,plus
d'undebouchepourleurenergie.

Lorsque,ilyaunquartdesiecle,l'auteurdeceslignes
voulutapprendrelatechniquedel'eauforte,ilnesetrouva
danstoutlepaysqu'unhommecapabledeluidonnerune
instructionpratique:e'etaitungraveursurcuivre,Jcno
Dobv,aujourd'huiledoyendesaquafortisteshongrois,car

L'EauforteetlaGravuremodeniesenHollande

ilaabandonnelagravureautraitpourseconsacreral'eau
forte.Aujourd'huiencoreilnepeutoublierlegraveur,et
cequ'ilfaitestremarquableparunsensdelalignetres
fortettrescorrect.Seseauxfortesoriginatessonttres
rares.Dobyaoccupelachairedegravuresal'eaufortea
l'Ecoled'artappliquedeBudapest;ilaeupoureleves
B.Chabada,A.IzekelyetEdvillles.

L'eaufortedoitbeaucoupaussiauprofesseurLajos
Raucher,del'lnstitutpolytechniquedeBudapest;parson
exemple,ilafaitnaitreetiladeveloppelegoutdecetart
chezbeaucoupdejeunesartistes,seseleves.Audebut,et
surtoutdanssesvuesdeBudapest,l'architectesetrahissait
parsondessinraideetprecis;mais,danslasuite,sonstyle
nature!etdelicats'affirma.surtoutdanslesaquatintesqui
sontpleinesd'expression.IIfautnoter,danssesplanches,
lesoinqu'ilprendasessujetspourleurdonnertouteleur
valeur.*

LapremiereeaufortedeZsigmondLandsingerfutHet
ligerHaui,d'ArnoldBocklin,qu'ilfitaFlorence.

C'estlaaussiqu'ilgravalePortraitdeBocklin,ener
giqueetpuissanteoeuvre,degrandeurnaturelle,quirepro
duit,avectantdecaractereetdevie,latetedugrand
peintreSuisse.L'intimitequiliaBocklinetLandsinger
datedelaproductiond'uneautregravure,Fafnerder
Drache,executeeparBocklinluimeme.Leseauxfortes
deLandsingersontremarquablespourleurhabilete,etpar
leursfinsetpuissantsrendusdestonsdelachair.

ViktorOlgijaietudiasousWilliamUngudeVienneet
sousTheodoreAlphonsedeParis.IIs'etaitdestinetout
d'abordauxartsgraphiquesetnefitdelapeintureque
plustard;aussisesconnaissancestechniqueseneauforte
sontellesremarquables.IIestavanttoutdessinateuret,
bienquesesplanchessoientfinesdeton,ellessedistin
guentsurtoutparlesentimentdelaligne.

Unepartiedesameilleureceuvreestcontenuedansun
albumdedixplanchesintituteHiver;ilenestd'autres
remarquables,leChene,leMoulin,laRoutedesCypres.

AladarEdvilllesestunadmirableaquarelliste,onlevoit
biendanssesplanchesremarquablesparleurcoloris.Dans
sonCimetiere,lecolorisduchaudfeuillaged'automneest
tresheureusementrenduetlafacondetraiterlenuage
charged'oragedonneacetteplanchequelquechosedetres
dramatique.

AkosF.Aranijossyquimouruttropjeune,ilyaquelques
annees,avaitunbeauetrichetalent.IIavaitetel'elevede
Raab,aMunich,ettraitaitavecuneegaleassurancelesfigures
etlespaysages.DanssonPortraitdeI'evequeBubics,il
fautnotrelemodeledelicatdelachair;danslaLavan
diereetlesOics,c'estl'eauquiattiresurtoutl'attention.
Samortprematureeaeteunepertepourl'artdel'eauforte
enHongrie.

LesplanchesdeArpadSzekelysontd'undessinateur;on
voitqu'ils'efforceaussidedonnerdelatonaliteasontra
vail.IIcherche,souventavecsucces,atraiterlesdivers
aspectsdelanature,sol,eau,images,vegetation,etcha

cundelamanierequiconvient.Peutetrevoudraitonplus
decouleurdanssessujets,peutetreyatilsouventuncer
tainmanqued'harmonieentrelesujetetlafacondontil
estrendusurlaplanche.

ErnoBartadanssesplanchessidiversesmontreunreel
talentdemezzotintiste,samaniereestforteetsestons
chauds.Peutetreseratilencoreplusheureuxquandson
modeleseradevenuplussimpleetpluslarge.

BelaChabadaseborneareproduirelesoeuvresdes
artisteshongroiscontemporains;ilstrouventenluiun
interpreteintelligentettrescapable.Sesmezzotintesorigi
natesontunedelicatessequilesrendtresattrayantes.

Citonsparmilesautresartistesquiseconsacrental'eau
forte:KalmanDery,HenrikPap,JozsephRipplRonai,
elevedeKoppingetdeRaab.Encesdernierstemps,ils'est
consacreexclusivementalalithographiequidevientdeplus
enplusalamodechezlesartistes.

AnthonyTahi.

EAUFORTEETLAGRAVURE
MODERNESENHOLLANDE.PAR
?.ZILCKEN.

Pendantlespremieresanneesduxixesiecle,l'eauforte,
quiavaitetesimerveilleusementflorissanteenHollande,
autempsdeRembrandt,parutcompletementabandonnee.
Vers1850,quelquespeintres,Mollinger,JanWeissenbruch
etRoelofs,graverentuncertainnombredeplanchesinte
ressantesquin'avaientpascependantcetteindependance
etcetteforcepoetiqued'execution,undescharmesde
l'eauforte.

CefutlecelebreaquafortistehongroisUngerqui,au
coursd'unsejourenHollande,amenaJosefDraels,
Mauveetquelquesautrespeintresdumemegroupe,a
enduirelesplaquesdecuivreetatracersurlevernisces
improvisationsrapidesoufouilleesdontbeaucouponttoute
lagracedesplusfineseauxfortes.Cesoeuvressont,pour
Laplupart,extremementrares;aussiestilaregretterque
cesartistesdetalentn'aientpasplussouventexercecetart
delicat.

Ch.StormvanGravesande,dontlestravauxdecegenre
sontfameux,vivaitalorsenBelgiqueoililsuivaitleslecons
deFelicienRops.11acquitrapidementunetellereputation
quePhilipGilbertHamerton,danssonlivresurI'Eauforte
etlesaquafortistes,consacreunnombreimportantde
pagesacepeintregraveur.Hamertondisaitdelui,en1876,
ausujetdel'estampeintituleeAuBordduGeins,pres
d'Abcoude:aVoiciunedespluspartakeseauxfortes
qu'aientproduiteslesecolesmodernes;elleestsiparfaite
memequesij'etaisreduitanepossederquesixeauxfortes
modernes,celleciseraitdunombre.StormvanGrave
sandeagravebeaucoupdeplanches,presdequatrecents
jusqu'acejour.IIarecemmentabandonnel'eauforteveri

L'EauforteetlaGravuremodernesenHollande

tablepourseconsacrcrentierementalapointeseche.C'est
danscetordredetravauxqu'ilfautchercher,amonavis,
sesestampeslespluscaracteristiques.11reussitayexpri
merparfaitementlelentmouvementdeseauxdansles
paisiblescoursd'eauhollandais,lasurfacetranquilledela
LagunedeVeniseetparfoislesvaguesbrutalesdelamer
duNordsebrisantcontrelesgrevesbasses.Al'aided'un
petitnombredelignes,iltraduitunemultituded'effets.
Sesoeuvresfournissentunevuecompletedupittoresque
paysagehollandais.

StormvanGravesandeoccupeuneplaceapartdanscette
dcoledegravure.IIasurtoutexercesonartenHollande,
maisilalongtempsvecuenBelgiqueetenAllemagne;
c'estdepuispenqu'ilestrevenudanssonpaysnatal.

Israelsacontinue,jusqu'acesdernierstemps,agravera
l'eauforte,etonpossededeluibeaucoupdebonnes
estampes.Cesontdeveritableseauxfortes,encesens
qu'ellessontfaitespurementautrait.Parfois,illestire
immediatemental'etatdefinitif;parfoisilnousenoffreles

diversetats.Cegrandartisteainterpret*;asafaconcer
tainsdesessujetsfavoris,deseffetsd'interieurslumineux
etharmonieux,desbordsdemerclairsetbrillants,oildes
enfantsdepecheursjouentsurlesable.Toutcscesceuvres
attestentunetechniquepersonnelleetexpressive,avecde
puissantscontrastesdelumiereetd'ombre;ellessont
pleinesd'emotionintenseetpenetrante.

JamesMaris,quandilabordaL'eauforte,fitenviron
quatrepetitesplanches,unpont,deuxmoulinsetuncro
quisdesafemmeetdesafilleainee.Cesestampesont
touteslesqualitesdeseauxfortesanaloguesdeRembrandt.
Ledessindelicatetexpressif,lesquelqueslignesadroite
mentjeteessonttoutafaitd'unmaitre.Mauveaexecute
unplusgrandnombredeplanches;maisbeaucoupsont
perdues,notammentquelqueschefsd'oeuvreoililavaitmis
sesqualitesexclusivesd'emotiondetonaliteetdedessin.
LabibliothequepubliquedeNewYorkpossedel'unique
collectioncompletedesesceuvresquiontsurvecu.

MatthewMaristentait,acetteepoque,untrespetitessai,
aujourd'huiextremementrare;unejeunefilleavecun
agneauetunenfant.Cen'estquelongtempsapresqu'il
entrepritdefairelareproductionducelebreSemeur,de
Millet.

Pours'exercerdenouveaual'eauforte,ilexecutaun
certainnombredeplanches;mais,asespropresyeux,ces
remarquablesestampes,quiontdejaatteintdesprixtres
eleves,sontdesimplesessaissansimportance.Lareproduc
tionduSemeurestnonunepurecopie,maislamerveil
leuseinterpretationd'unchefd'oeuvreparunhommede
genie.Acetegard,c'estcertainementunedesplusremar
quablesestampesqu'onpuissevoir.Marisaajoutesonsen
timentpersonnelalahauteconceptiondeMilletetainsi,
choserare,deuxartistesd'egalmeriteontcollaborepour
creeruneceuvred'unevaleursanspareille.

Jonkind,alamemeepoque,executaitsescelebresvues
rapides,expressivesetcaracteristiquesdeHonfleuretdu
16

Havre,sesvivantscroquisdeParisetdelaHollande.
Cependantl'eaufortehollandaisemodernedoitsurtoutsa
renaissanceauxjeunesmaitresquiontconsacreunegrande
partiedeleurtempsacetart,commeBauer,Witsen,
Dupont,Mlll;vanHoutenettantd'autres.Depuis1889,ils
ontregulierementexposeleurstravauxauxsalonsdeParis,
aChicago,aVeniseetenAllemagne,toujoursavecunvif
succes.Enfin,ilsontfaitsensation,en1900,al'Exposition
universelle.

La,ilarrivaquelasectionneerlandaisedegravure,qui
cpmptaltenvironvingtquatreexposants,remportaun
nombrederecompensesaussiconsiderablequedespays
commel'Angletene,I'Allemagne,lesHtatsUnis,avecun
nombredeuxfoisplusimportantd'exposants.Deplus,un
destroisgrandsprixdecettesectionechutaBauer.

Al'exceptiondeJosefDraels,legrandartistequia
atteintaujourd'huisasoixanteseiziemeannec,maisdout
lavigueurestaussiparfaitequ'ilvacinquanteans,les
peintresgraveurssontdesjeunes,variantentretrente
etquaranteansd'age.Nuld'entreeuxneconsacretout
sontempsal'eauforte.Tousfontdelapeintureenmeme
tempsquedel'eauforte,etc'estacetteparticularityque
sontdueslesqualitestoutafaitoriginalesdeleurs
estampes.

Bauerest,dansl'artmoderne,unexempleremarquable.
Depuissapremierejeunesse,ilacequeTheophileGau
tierappellelanostalgicdel'Orient;ilnepeint
jamaisquedesscenesprisesaConstantinople,auCaire
oudansl'Hindoustan.Presquetouslesans,ilpasse
environsixmoisavoyagerenOrientetilvoitcespays,
m'ecritil,nontelsqu'ilssont,maistelsqu'ilsetaientil
yadeuxsiecles.Cependantilreussitarendrecette
visionparsonart.

Sesgravuressontnombreuses;oncomptepresdedeux

centspetitesplanches,esquissesrapidesetlegeres,encore
queparfaitementcompletes,etaussiquelquesgrandes
estampes,commelaProcession,laRcincdeSaba,
Aladin,leMatinanbordduGauge,laFeteper
sane,etc.,toutesbiencountiesdescollectionneurs.

Baueratouteslesqualitesquicaracterisentlevraigra
veur;encontemplantsesceuvres,onsongefrequemment
aRembrandt,parcequ'iladeshabitudesanaloguesde
composition,lamemesimplicitedanslescontrastesde
lumiereetd'ombre,lamemeexecutionfacileetdelicatea
l'aidedelignessobres,nettesetsures.Bauerestdoue
d'unepersonnalitetoutafaitoriginateetnulaquafortiste
hollandaisouetrangernepentluietrecompare.Possedant
unteltalentdecompositionetunetelleforced'imagina
tionetd'expression,ilmerited'etreclasseaupremierrang
desgraveursmodernes.

En1880,lacreationdelaSocietehollandaised'eauforte
donnaunelanrapideal'artdelagravure.LaSociete"
organisadesexpositionsannuellesetpublia,chaqueannee,
uncartond'estampes.Lesjeunespeintres,quieussentvitere
nonceral'eauforte,fui'ent,parla,encouragesas'yadonner.

L'EauforteellaGravuremodernesenHollande

CommesecretairedelaSociete,jemesuistrouviien
situationdesuivredepres,aucoursdesdouzedernieres
annees,lesprogresbrillantsetsingulierementsinceresde
l'eauforteenHollande.Sijedissinceres,c'estqu'en
effettousnosartistessericuxsuiventtranquillementlavoie
qu'ilsontchoisie,sansaueuneideed'imitation.C'estun
destraitscaracteristiquesdesartisteshollandaisqued'exer
cerleuractivitedansleurdomainepropreenoheissanta
leursconvictionspersonnelles,sanspreterattentionaux
influencesexterieures.Cettemethodeleurdonneunegrande
individualite.

Deuxdesplusdistinguesd'entreeuxsontWillemWitsen
etP.Dupont.Witsenestlepeintredesindolentscanaux
d'AmsterdametdeDordrecht,oilserefletentlesvieilles
maisonspittoresques,multicolores,parfoismornesettristes,
maistoujourspleinesdecharme.Detouslessujetsqu'ila
choisispourlestraiterenaquarelle,ilfaitdeseauxfortes
aussiparfaitementconstruitesquesesautrestravaux.En
ajoutantparfoisdesteintessoufre,ilobtientdeseffetstres
puissantsetnequittejamaisuneplancheavantd'avoircom
pletementrendul'aspect,lacouleuretlatonaliteharmo
nieusequ'ilcherche.IIestimequechacunedesesestampes
doitetreeneoeuvred'art.

Dupont,quidebutapardeseauxfortesrapidesetexpres
sivesd'apresnature,reproduisantdesvuesd'Amsterdamet
desenvirons,aentierementmodifiesamanieredepuis
quelquesannees.Commelesbrillantsresultatsobtenuspar
l'eaufortenelesatisfaisaientplus,ils'estessavealagravure
auburin.Sestravaux,danscegenre,ontproduitunevive
impressional'ExpositiondeParis,en1900.Depuisce
jour,ilapersevereavecunsuccescroissant,danscetart
tresdifficile,etiltravailleaujourd'huiadesportraitsdont
l'un,celuideSteinlen,meriteunementionparticuliere.
IIpratiquetoujoursl'eauforte,maislesplanchesqu'iltire
ainsinesontquedesetudespreparatoirespoursesgravure1.
Commeilestjeune,admirablementdoue,pleind'endu
ranceetd'energie,onpeutfondersurluidegrandsespoirs.

MlleB.vanHouten,bienquepeucelebre,estegalement
unetresremarquableaquafortiste.Elleestlaniecedu
peintredemarineMesdaget,depuissapremiereenfance,
elleavecudansunmilieuartistique.Apresavoiracheve
sesetudes,elles'estraiseaexecuterdegrandesestampes
d'apresdeschefsd'oeuvredeCorot,Delacroix,Courbetet
Dupre.D'apresDupre,elleacomposeunetresbelle
planche,siattendvementetsiconscieusementtravaillee
qu'elledonneexactementlatonaliteetlesvaleursde1'ori
ginal.Danscettejoliegravure,rienn'aetelaisseauhasard;
lamoindretoucheaeteinterpreteeavecuneadresseetune
delicatesserares.MnevanHoutenafaitaussiunecentaine

deplanchesoriginales,quisontpleinesdepuissanceetde
vigueur.Quandelletraceal'eaufortedesoiseaux,des
tulipes,destoumesols,desvuesd'interieuroudestetes,
elleoperepargrandeslignes,largesetprofondement
creusees.Unpareiltravailrisquesouventdedonner,au
tirage,desepreuvesnoiresetbrouillees.Maiselleechappe

acedangergraceasasensibilitetresdelicate,asonsen
timentintensedes'chosesqu'elleinterprete.Aussises
planchesrendentellestoujoursmerveilleusementlasub
stancefragiledespetalesdefleurs,ledouxplumagedes
oiseaux,laperspectiveetlegrandairdespaysages.

PourparlerdemoimC'meenquelquesmots,jediraique
j'aiexecute,depuisvingtanspresdequatrecentcinquante,
planches,dontdeuxcentsenvironsontdesreproductions
d'apreslesMaris,Mauve,Israels,AlfredStevens,Rem
brandt,Vermeer,deDelft,etc.D'autressontdespaysages
originaux,laplupartd'apresnature,etaussidesetudesa
lapointeseche,d'apresdesmodelesetenfin,quelques
portraits.

Lesartistesquej'aicitessontlesgrandesfiguresde
l'eaufortehollandaisemoderne.Aupriisd'euxtravaillent
nombred'autresaquafortistesdemeritevarie'maisreel.
Disposantd'unespacelimite,jemecontenteraidepre
senterbrievementl'esquissedeleursdiversespersonnalites.

Parmilespeintresquiontfaitbeaucoupdebonneset
interessanteseauxfortes,ilfautmentionnerW.deZwart,
habileetbrillantpaysagisteetportraitiste,dontonanombre
d'estampespleinesd'expression.

Tooropacompose,danscesdernieresannees,quelques
pointessechesrempliesdedelicatesse,generalementdes
etudesdepersonnages.Seseauxfortes,commetoutcequ'il
fait,sontd'unepersonnalitetresaccentuee.

JanVeth,undenosplusdistinguespeintresdeportraits,
estPauteurdenombreuseslithographiesdeHollandais
celebres.IIaexecuteaussiquelquesrareseauxfortes,avec
ungoutetuntalentpeucommuns.

Jlnefautpasoublier,danscetteenumerationtropbreve
ettroprapide,EtienneBosch,auquelondoitbeaucoupde
planches,sujetsdumovenageouvuesdeHollandeetd'lta
lie;parmicesdernieres,VuedeSorrentoestexcellente
parlestyleetlacomposition.

MlleEtnaFlesafaitquelqueseauxfortesselonleprocede
classique,entreautres,I'EscalierdeRothenburg.Ed.Kar
sen,peintreitlaMaeterlinck,delogishollandaisme
lancoliquesetpresquefantastiques,nousadonnequelques
planchesparticulierementremarquablesparleurdelicatesse.
Ed.Bechtafaitquelqueseauxfortesauvernismou,notam
mentunLeverdeLitne,estampetresinteressantetir6ea
l'aided'unprocederarementemploy^.

Reicherestunpeintreauquelondoit,enoutrededeux
planchessoigneusementexecutee;,d'apresBreitneret
M.Maris,despaysagesoriginauxetquelquesnatures
mortesd'unedecisionfrappantedansl'execution.

W.O.J.Nieuwcnkampfutundespremierspeintres
hollandaisquiserendirentaJava.Etantdoued'unstyle
personnel,ilarapportedecevoyagedesvuescaracteris
tiquesetinteressantes.

A.Koster,apresquelquesvuesdesPyrenees,aaborde
lepaysagehollandais;ilaprisdesvuesdanslesenvirons
deLaHayeetdeLimbourg,enrendantamerveillele
caracteredecesregions,

17

Gravuresmode?',

Cettecourteetudeneseraitpascomplete,sijenedon

naisicilesnomsdequelquesaquafortistesdemeritequi
ontcomposenombred'importantesestampesd'apresnos
maitresanciensetmodernes,maisquin'ontpresque
jamaistented'ceuvreoriginate.

AupremierplanvientVanderWeele,peintredontle
stylerappelleceluideMauve;ilafait,d'aprescemaltre,
quelquesgravurestresharmonieusesetgracieuses.Certaines
ceuvresoriginatesdumemeartistesontremarquables,
notammentI'AgneaumortetlesPoresbuvant.Onen
peutdireautantdespetitesvuesdeHaarlemetdesenvi
rons,composecsparGraadtvanRoggen,travailleur
acharnequiestaussil'auteurdequelquesplanchescon
sciencieusesetfidelesd'apresJ.Maris,Vermeer,etc.Ces
ceuvresportentlamarqued'uneetudetiespatiente.

LeprofesseurC.Dake,d'Amsterdam,agrave,d'apres
Mauve,Israels,Maris,Mesdag,etc.,nombredeplanches
importantespleinesd'ampleur,traiteesavectalent,quilui
ontvaluunegrandepopularite.

Ph.Zilcken.

RAVURESMODERNES.SECTION
BELGE.PARJ.KHNOPFF.

L'andernier,danslessallesduCercleartis

tiquedeBruxelles,laSocietedesAquafortistesbeigesavait
organiseuneexpositionoilavaientetcaccueilliestoutesles
tendancesdesariistesqu'interesseletravaildelagravure
alapointesecheoual'eauforte.

LaSociete"desAquafortistesavaitvoulu,parcette
remarquableexposition,celebrerlequinziemeanniversaire
desafondationetmontrerlesuccesdeseseffortspour
restituerl'ancienneAssociationdont,autrefois,Felicien
Ropsavaitetclepromoteur.

CreeruneSocieteinternationaled'aquafortistesen
BelgiqueavaitetclagrandeambitiondeRops;maisil
avaiteteretardependantunlongtempspardesdifficulties
materielles.11parvintenfinaconstituerl'Associationet
ilfutdecidequ'unalbumetuncahierd'eauxfortes
seraientpublics;lepremierfasciculeparuten1875.

Cefut,aecritCamilleLemonnier,danssonHis
toiredesbeauxartsenBelgique,unmomentdestabi
litydansl'existenceinquieteetdisperseedel'artiste;
pendanttouteuneannee,ilseconsacraentierementa
l'ceuvresortiedesoninitiative,seprodiguant,discipli
nantlesartistesetlesamateurs,corrigeantlesplanches,
surveillantl'impression.communiquantaugroupequi
s'ctaitformeautourdeluisapropreardeur.Lepublic,
malheureusement,nefutpastoucheparcegrandeffort;
l'albumcessadeparaitre.Sipeudetempsqu'aitdurela
publication,ellen'endeveloppapasmoinslegoutd'un
artcaptivantentretousetfitgermerdestalents.
18

es,Sec/ionbeige

S.A.R.M,n<lacomtessedeFlandreavaitacceptela
pn5sidenced'honneurdelaSocieteinternationaledes
Aquafortistes,etlesdeuxeauxfortesqu'ellepubliasuc
cessivementdansl'albumdoiventetrecompteesparmi
lesbonnesplanchesdecerecueil.Quandsefondala
nouvelleSocietedesAquafortistesbeiges.SonAltesse
Royaleacceptaencored'enetrelapresidented'honneuret
elleparticipagracicusementasesexpositionsetases
albums.Enunepublicationdegrandluxe,supplement
extraordinairealaRevuegrapbiquebeige,M.E.de
Munck,undesfondateursdelanouvelleSociete"des
Aquafortistes,apuetudierendetailetahautement
apprccielesfortesqualitesdecompositionetd'execution

quidistinguentleseauxfortesdecetteroyaleartiste.

LaplusgrandepartiedesexposantsaceSalondela
SocietydesAquafortistesetaitcomposeedepeintresgra
veurs,etiletaitinteressantd'^tudierlavarietedeleurs
tendances.Quelquesunss'efforcentdeconnaitre,parune
educationpresqueclassique,lesstirsprocedestradition
nelsdumetier;d'autrescherchentaadaptercesprocedes
aleurtravailparticulierdepeintre;d'autres,alarecherche
deprocedesnouveaux,emploientdesoutilsdehasardou
essayentleseffetsdemorsuresextraordinairessurdes
enduitsimprevus;d'autres,encore,neveulentquetrans
portersurlecuivreuneetudedetraitouunsimplecro
quis.

LeseauxfortesdeM.Baertsoenpeuventetrecomptees
parmisesceuvreslesplusremarquables.Ellessont6ta
bliespargrandesmassesd'ombresetdelumiereset
executeesd'untraitdontletypeconvientparfaitementau
typedel'effetdeclairobscurrechercheparl'artiste.

IIestvraiquecetrait,enluimeme,peutparaitrequel
quefoisrudeetsommaire,maisilparvientmieuxainsia
retenirl'encre,lorsdel'impression,danslestailles,eta
dormerceseffetsderetroussagedontM.Baertsoen
aimetantatirerprofit,sansenabusercependantcomme
untropgrandnombredesesconfreres.Acepropos,une
curieuselettreecriteparunaquafortislebruxellois,
M.R.vanBastelaer(conservateuradjointalabiblio
thequeroyale,estampes),atepublieedansledernier
rapportdelaSociete.Avouonsleanotrehonte,y
liton,cequifaitsurtoutlesuccesmoderneduretrou:
sageetexpliquelenombreanormald'effetsdesoiroude
nuitqu'onrencontredansl'eauforteactuelle,e'estsurtout
qu'ilpermetdedonneruneapparencepassableadesgra
vuresinsuffisantes,denoyerleurpauvretedansl'obscurite
epaisseetvidedesoidisantgrandspartisd'ombreque
l'artistefutimpuissanlaproduireluimemeparson
dessin.

MM.WytsmanetVanRisselbergheparaissentd<5dai
gnerlatrophabilecollaborationdel'imprimeur;leurs
gravuressont,pourainsidire,desdessinsexecutesde

Gravuresmoder,

manierelenteetprudente,apresavoiretesoigneusement
prepares;ellesvalentparleurtravailconsciencieux.Dans
seseauxfortes,M.Wytsmanmontrel'etudeapprofondie
qu'ilafaitedupaysagebrabangon;ilaimearepresentor
cesgrandsmassifsd'arbresauxlignescalmesdisposes
dansunecampagneauxplanslegerementondules.Dans
sesportraitsetsesmarines,M.VanRisselberghes'efforce
autantaexprimerl'aspectcaracteristiquequ'aevitertoute
virtuositesuperficielle.

C'estpardesqualitesdememegenrequevalentles
oeuvresdeMM.CoppensetBartholome.

LareputiondeM.Ensor,enqualitedegraveur,est
considerableetilaetesouventetudieetdiscutedans
desrevuesartistiquesoulitteraires.IIarepresenteen
seseauxfortesdesmarinesetdespaysagesdesenvirons
d'Ostende,avecunedelicatessedetraitcharmantequi
.exprimeamerveillelasensationd'unelumierefineet
argentee.IIadessineaussidesarchitecturesetrangeset
produit,acotedecela,deselucubrationsfantastiques,
desdiableriespueriles,d'innommablescocasseriesquin'ont
d'equivalentenartquecetteoutrancierefantaisielitte
raire:UbuRoi.C'estlamemeincoherencedecompo
sition,lamemegrossiereted'expressionavec,cependant,
cettearrierepenseequ'ilyapeutetrelaaussiquelque
chose.

MM.LaermansetDelaunoissedistinguentparl'aspect
excessivementfrustedeleurstravaux.

LesplanchesdeM.Laermansparaissentavoirete
graveesaumoyend'untresvieuxclou;cellesdeM.De
launoisparaissentavoiretenonpasmorduesmais

vitriol^es.Cesgravuresont,cependant,lesessen
tiellesqualitesd'artqueTons'accordearetrouverdans
lespeinturesdecesdeuxgrandsartistes.

IIenestdememepourlepeintreanversoisHensdont
lesmarines,d'executionunpeubrutalemaisd'aspect
lumineux,furentremarque'esauSalondelaSoci^te1des
Aquafortistes.

MM.Heins,Gailliard,Mignot,Romberg,Titzet
H.Meunierapportent,dansletravaildelagravure,la
faciliteaformulerletraitquedonnelapratiquedudessin
pourl'illustrationoul'affiche.D'ailleurs,danslenumero
specialduStudioconsacreauxdessinateursalaplume,
lesdiversesqualitesdecesartistesonttemisesen
evidence.MM.Heins,GailliardetMignotfontdel'eau
fortesimplement.

MM.Romberg,TitzetMeuniers'interessentades
procedesplusrecherche^quileurontdonnedejadefort
curieuxresultats.

Enfin,iln'estqu'unseuldespeintresgraveursbeiges
quiaitleculteexclusifduprocedealapointeseche;

es,Sectionbeige

c'estI'auteurdecesnotesquiagravedecettefacon
quelquesdessinsouetudesdetraitsoudenoirs.
DanssonHistoiredesBeauxArtsenBelgique,Camille
Lemonnierdeterminefortexactementcequidistingueles
deuxgraveurs,professionnelspourraitondire,qui
dominentencemomentl'ecole,MM.G.BiotetA.Danse.

Biot,desFinstantoililexpose,manifestedesqua
litesdegraceetdedistinctionquisedeveloppentgra
duellementetfinissentparluicomposerunepersonnalite
tranchee.Calamatta,duqueliletaitI'eleve,avaitfait
germerenluilegoutdeselegancesclassiques;maisce
gouts'epurechezlediscipleparl'etudeattentivedela
nature;sonburin,depouilledelasecheressetradition
nelle,parait,alalongue,sejouerdeInterpretationavec
descaressesetdeslegeretesdepointe.

<iLafinesse,lamesure,lasimplicitedansl'effet,la
gracedanslesentiment,quelquechosedetimideetde
reservedansl'accentgeneral,telssontlestraitsphysio
nomiquesdecetartquiasuetrealafoisaimableet
severe,enfondantlaraideurclassiqueaucontactd'une
gracetoutemoderne.

ChezDanse,aucontraire,l'artsefaitbrutal,
emporte,fievreux.Lejetviolentdel'ebaucheseper
p^tuejusquedans1'achevementdel'ceuvre:ilaimeles
tonsheurtes,lesnoirssoutenus,leslumierescoupantes,
lesapre.t^sdel'execution;del'ecoledeJ.B.Meunier,a
laquelleils'estforme,iln'aretenuqueladecisiondu
coupdeburin,lasoliditedesprocedes,lasciencedes
maniements.

Presquetoujours,lapointedel'aquafortistevienten
aide,chezlui,auburin;c'estellequidonneasesplanches
lemordantdel'accentetlaplenitudedelacoloration;
memedanssesgravureslesplusseveres,ellemetun
capricequerepudieraientlespraticiensduburinpur.

Noussommesloin,avecunpareilhomme,des
ouvrierspatientsconsacrantunelonguesuited'annees
aunememeplanchequ'ilsconduisentalaperfection
paruneseried'etapesinterminable.

MaisM.Dansenes'estpascontent^depioduireun
tresgrandnombredegravures,ilvoulutaussiproduire
desgraveursel,alorsqu'iletaitprofesseurdedessina
l'AcademiedeMons,en1871,ilcrea,asesfrais,une
ecoledegravureencetteville.Decetteecolesortirent,
entreautres,MM.Lenain,Bernier,L.Greuze,Lucq,
M"Weiler,Wesmael,M"1'L.DanseetMmeDestree
Danse,lesdeuxfillesdumaitre.

M.Lenainpeutetreplaceparmilesmeilleursgraveurs
auburincontemporains.IImanielestivcreoutildesgra
veursd'unefaconlibreetfinequiluifaitdonnerquelque
foislesaspectsplusvariesdel'eauforte.Unelongueetude
desmaitresdelagravurefrancaiseavaitaccentu^cette
particularitydesontalent:lafinessedel'execution.

!9

L'EauforteetlaGravuremode)

D'autrepart,sonirreductibleinstinctnatall'aconduit
ainterpreterlesgrandespagesdespeintresdelaRenais
sanceflamande,etilaentreprisuneseriedegrandes
gravuresd'apreslesRubensdesmuseesdeMunich,de
Vienne;deBruxellesetd'Anvers.

LesceuvresdugraveurliegeoisF.Mare'chalontdejaete
etudieesdansleStudio,enunenoticespecialepublieeilya
deuxans.Enuneautrenotice:QuelquesartistesLiegeois,
publieedansleStudioen1898,lesremarquablesqualites
artistiquesdeM.A.Rassenfosse,l'amifideleetledisciple
preferedel'extraordinaireFelicienRops,dtaienthaute
mentappr^cie'es,ainsiquesaprofondeconnaissancede
touslesprecedesdel'artdugraveur.

Deuxautresartistesliegeois,MM.DonnayetDewitte,
ontaussiattirel'attentiondesconnaisseursparquelques
eauxfortescaracteristiques.

Parmilesgraveursquisesontimpressesauxrecherches
d'impressionsencouleurs,ilfautciterpremierement
M.Q.deSampayo,unartisteportugaisquesesrelations
d'etudesavecM.Rassenfossed'unepartet,d'autrepart,
PexcutiondesesceuvresaBruxelles,permettentd'appre
ciercependantencettenotice,consacreeauxgraveurs
beigesvivants.

M.Q,deSampayoacomposeavecsoinlamiseen
couleursdeseseauxforteset,avecl'aidedeM.van
Campenhout,l'habileimprimeurdelaSocie"tedesAqua
fortistes,ilacoloriealapoupe"equelquesplanches
delicates.

Lecoloriagealapoupeeconsisteenlamiseen
couleursd'uneseuleplancheaumoyendesdoigtsetd'un
petitpaquetdechiffons(lapoupee).

C'estdgalementparcemoyenqu'ontcolorieesles
planchesdeMM.Romberg,Coppens,Gaudyetdel'au
teurdecesnotes;cellesdeMM.TitzetSchlobachontete
imprimeesetcolorieesparsuperposition,procede'qui
comprendlasuperpositiondeplusieursplaques,minutieu
sementrepnesetpouvantporterchacunejusqu'atrois
couleurs.

Ceprocdde'estassurementpluscommodepourl'impri
meurmais,parcontre,ilestcertainsquelecoloriagea
lapoupeedonneplusdedelicatesseetdefinessedecolons.

FernandKhnopff

L'EAUFORTEETLAGRAVURE
MODERNESAUDANEMARKETEN
NORVEGE.parGEORGBROCHNER

BienquelaSoeietedesAquafortistesDanoiscelebre,
cetteannee,lecinquantenairedesafondation,bienquele
Danemarksevantedepossederdeuxveteransdel'eau
forte,quiontplusdesoixanteansd'exercice,c'estseule
20

"tiesauDanemarketenNorvege

mentaucoursdesdixdernieresanneesquelespeintres
danoissesontappliquesal'eauforte,sansdoutegracea

1'effetdel'interetsusciteparleseauxfortesdeCarlBloch,
nonseulementduvivantdel'artiste,maissurtoutdepuissa
mort.D'ailleurs,depuisquelquesannees,l'eauforteesten
tresgrandhonneuraupresdenombredepeintresdanois,
Unoudeuxartistesmeme,ontabandonne,momenta
nementtoutaumoins,lepinceau,pourprendreenmain
lapointeagraver.Touslesgraveurssont,sijenem'abuse,
despeintres;tous,sansaucuneexceptiondigned'etrecitee,
fontdestravauxoriginaux,sibienquelegraveurpro
fessionalestchoseinconnueenDanemark.Aussin'est
ilpassurprenantquenombredestraitscaracteristiquesde
leurpeintureinfluencentenbienouenmalla
natureetlemeritedeleurgravure.Cetteinfluencesetait
sentirnotammentdanslechoixdessujetsetdanslecarac
teredel'extkution.Lespaysagesetlesmarines,lesscenes
apersonnages,lesinterieurspopulairesetmodestes
dominent.Lessujetsd'imaginationsontplusrarement
abordes;beaucoupd'artistesrecherchentlasinceriteetla
sobrieteplutotquel'efFetfrappantetlesfinessesdu
metier.IIarriveparfoisqueleseauxfortesdanoises
n'impressionnentpastresvivementlespectateurapremiere
vueouapresunexamenrapide.Ellesnefrappentpasaussi
fortementsansdoutequecellesqued'autrespays,la
Franceetl'Angleterreparexemple,produisentennombre
incalculable.Mais[onnepeuttarderareconnaltreet
aappreciercetamourdelanature,cettesinceriteet
cettedelicatessed'etudequidistinguenttantd'ceuvres
danoises.

Lagravuredanoisedoitbeaucoupal'habilete,autalent
etalaremarquablevigueurdeCarlLocher.Pendanttrois
ans,Locher,quiavaitdejaalorsatteintlaquarantaineet
jouissaitd'unegrandereputationcommepeintredemarines,
etudiaaBerlinsousladirectionduprofesseurHansMeyer.
SiLochern'avaitainsidonnel'exemple,peudesescon
freresauraientapparcmmentprisaleurtourlapointea
graver.Lorsque,plustard,Locherorganisadescours,on
vit,parmiseseleves,descelebritescommeAnnaet
MichaelAnkeretKroyer.Jecroispouvoirdirequele
regretfutgenerallorsqu'ilrenoncaaformerdeseleves.
Locherfut,d'autrepart,lepremierDanoisquiexecutades
eauxfortesdegrandedimension,etsicertainesdeses
ceuvresnesontpasplusuniversellementconnueshorsde
sonpays,c'estsansdouteparceque,pourassurerle
nombrelimitedesepreuves,ilafaitsouventdetruireles
planches.IIn'estpeutetrepasinutiledeconstatericique
leStudio,enchoisissantlesceuvresdestineesaetrerepro
duites,s'estattacheamettreparticulierementenrelief
cellesoilletraitatoutesavigueurcommeoppositionaux
lignestropemmeleesetauxtonalitesexcessives.Malheu
reusement,leseauxfortesnoussontparvenues,adiverses
reprises,troptardpourqu'ilfutpossibledelesrepro
duire.11convientaussi,acetteoccasion,dereconnaitre
l'obligeancedontontfaitpreuve,poursecondermatache,

L'EauforteetlaGravuremode,

nonseulementlesartistes,maisaussilesmaisonsd'edition,
Winkel,MagnussenetStender.

LorenzFroelichpartageavecVilhelmKyhnl'honneur
d'etrelegrandveterandel'artdanois,nonseulement
comtnepeintre,maiscommeaquafortiste.Entrelapremiere
eaufortedeFroelichetsonoeuvrelaplusrecente,ils'est
ecoule,jecrois,l'immenseintervalledesoixantetrois
annees;cependantnulnesoupconneraitquesaderniere
eauforteestl'ceuvred'unoctogenaire.Samainn'arien
perdudesasurete;saprofondeconnaissancedelavieani
maleapparaitenpleinelumieredanscettepetiteplanche,
danslemauvaiscaractereinnedupetitchienetdansl'in
differencebonenfantetpresquejovialedugrand.Mais
cettegravurenepresentequ'unaspectparticulierdel'art
deFroelich.L'artisteagraveungrandnombred'illustrations
charmantes,religieuses,commelaPriereduSeigneur;
poetiques,commeCupidonctPsyche,ethistoriques.IIappa
raitlacommeundessinateurdetoutpremierordre,plein
d'imaginationetdepuissance,doued'uninfailliblesenti
mentdelabeaute.Lescontourssontparticulierement
remarquables;onpourraitdirememequee'estlaune
qualitedontilnes'estjamaisdeparti.Maislesdetailsne

paraissentpastoujoursl'avoirinteressetresvivementetje
croisqueparfoisilarecouruauproceded'unfondconven
tionnel.Acetegard,ildifferedesonvieilami,leplus
charmantetleplustalentueuxdespaysagistes,Vilhelm
Kyhn,quiprefereprendrelaresponsabilitedetoutelacom
positionetnelaisserienalamercidulithographe.Kyhn
aproduitunnombreconsiderabled'eauxfortes,dont
aucunen'estdedimensiontresambitieuseetdontcertaines
sontmemetoutafaitminuscules.Maispresquetoutessont
empreintesducharmeparticulieral'auteur,charmeema
nantd'unamourprofond,d'uneveritabletendressepour
lanature,d'uneobservationsincere,d'untemperament
extremementemotif,letoutsecondeparunetechnique
experteetparfoisconsommee.

IIestaregretterqued'excellentspeintrescommeAnna
etMichaelAnkern'aientpasplussouventmanielapointe
agraver.LaVieilleFemnielisaul,d'AnnaAnker,esttres
interessanteetlesTrotsPecbeurs,desonmari,caracte
risentnettementl'artdecepeintre.Nulneconnaitmieux
queluilespecheursskaw,hardisetendurcis;ilvasans
direquesesetudessontadmirables.IIamanielapointe
avecautantd'habiletequedediscretion;quelmalheur
qu'ilnes'ensoitpasserviplussouventpourperpetuerles
traitsdesesfidelesamis.

LeprofesseurOttoBache,l'illustrepeintreanimalier,
vientapeinedefairesesdebutscommeaquafortiste,mais
leresultatDeuxtetesdecbiensestd'unbonaugure.
Laverveetlavigueurmerveilleuses,lafinesseetlasurete
d'observationquidistinguenttantdesestoilesetdeses
dessins,vaudrontassurementauprofesseuruneplaced'hon
ncurparmilesaquafortistes.

H.N.Hansenest,detouslesgraveursdanois,celuiqui
aleplusd'ampleuretl'imaginationlaplusfeconde.Depuis

nesauDanemarcketenNorvege

quelquesannees,ilapresqueentitlementabandonnela
peinturepourlapointedontils'estservipourcomposer
desceuvresadmirables,pleinesdepersonnaliteetd'inven
tion.Sansdoutesaligneerreparfoiset,danscecas,l'effet
estduengrandepartiealatonalite;maisleresultatest
souvent,leplussouvent,toutafaitheureux,etcertaines
deseseauxfortes,toutaumoins,ontunechaleur,une
couleur,unebeautepoetiqueetquelquefoispresqueplas
tique,qu'onrencontrerarementailleurs.C'estcequ'on
observenettementdanslapuissantetetedesonFlorentin.
Danssadernieregravure,laFemmedePutiphar,l'exe
cutionestplusdelicate;onvremarquel'adroitmelangedu
raffinementetdel'esprit.Certainesdesesplancheschar
mentparleurbeauteclassique,commeFlorence;d'autres,
DonBarto/o,parleurgaieteetleurrondeur;d'autres
encore,quisontpeutetrelesmeilleuresdetoutes,parla
plenitudedeleurpuissancepoetiqueetparleurgrandeffet
decoratif:laPyramideCestuisaRome,lesNuitsclaircs,
VEnvoiduFaucon,leVieuxMoulin,etc.

SigvardHansenmontre,dansseseauxfortes,uneprefe
rencepourlespavsagesdeneige;ilpeintavectalentet
bonheurlesscenesd'hiver.'

LeprofesseurHaslundn'emploielapointequedetemps
aautre,apresdelongsrepos.Sonoeuvreestplusmodeste;
maissaligneestsureetfidele.IItirevolontierssoninspi
rationdelavieanimale.

LeprofesseurFr.Henningsenapeutetre,asonactif,un
moinsgrandnombred'eeuvres.Maisunoudeuxdeses
petitssujetsapersonnagessonttresadroitementtraites.

AxelHoupratiquel'eaufortedepuisdelonguesannees.
IIs'estentierementformeseuletatentebeaucoupd'es
saisinteressants.IIconfectionnetoujoursluimemeses
pointesetsesautresinstrumentsdetravail.Danscertaines
ceuvres,saligneestalafoisvigoureuseetexpressive.
Toutl'effetresidedans1'executiondel'eauforte.IIaune
preferencepourleportraitetilaconsacreaN.Honsen
Jaeobson,lecelebresculpteurdanois,quivitactuellementa

Paris,uneplanchequi,nonseulementesttresressem
blanteetreproduitdefaconjusteetfrappantelestraitsde
Jacobsonensoulignantlafortepersonnalitedumodele,
maisquiest,enmemetemps,unremarquabletravailde
gravure,composeavecbeaucoupd'adresse.Certainesceu
vresdusculpteuronteteintroduitesdansl'estampeavec
autantdebongoutqued'habilete.

IIconvientdeciter,parmilesmeilleursgraveursdanois,
Peterlisted.IIestinteressantd'observercombienses
travauxal'eauforteressemblentasestableauxaI'huile.
IIaparfoisunetendancearecherchertropledetail;mais
ilnedevientpaspourcelarechercheouinsipide.Dansses
Interieurs,dontl'unaeterecemmentacquisparle
Luxembourg,lasimplicitydumotifetl'uniteducoloris
tendentaproduireuneffetderaffinementtrespur,man
quantpeutetreunpeudenouveaute,maisexprimantavec
unesinceriteprofondeetcharmantecequ'ilsveulentex
primer,Onretrouvecesqualitiesdansleseauxfortesde

L'EaujorteetlaGravuremodel

1'artiste;ellessontplusparticulierementprononcees,peut
etre,danssaJeunefillcaupiano,encorequejepreferele
portraitdesonpere.

E.Krauseestunjeunegraveurpleind'aveniretc'est
toutafaitparhasardqu'ils'estprisdegoutpourl'eau
forte.Sonartestempreintd'unsentimenttresvifdupit
toresque.Satonaliteestchaudeetilestadroitdessinateur.
IIaimelesvieuxedificespleinsd'interetetdebeautetopo
graphiqueetilchoisitvolontiersleseffetsdenuitnoire
oudefindesoiree,qu'ilrend,leplussouvent,al'aidedu
traitsouligneparfoisparl'accentuationdestons.SesSix
sceurs,sixvieillesmaisonsdeCopenhague,qu'onviehtde
demolirillustrerent,defaconideale,unecitemaritime.
Lesnuagessombresroulentdansleciel,lalumieremou
rantesemirantdanslarangeedesvieillesfenetreset
danslespavt^smouilles,lasaisissantesilhouettedesmats
etdesagresressortantennoirsurlefondducielnocturne,
lafouledesmarinsetdesouvriersduportaupremier
plan:toutconcourtarendreadmirablementlecaractere
exactdecettescenepitttoresque.

LeportraitdeKroversparluimemefournitunepreuve
suffisantedecequepourrafairel'auteur,commeaquafor
tiste,si,commeileonvientdelesouhaitersincerement,il
trouveencoreletempsetl'occasiondeseservirdelapointe
agraver.Salegeretedetouche,safranchiseetsasubtilite
d'executionapparaissentdansceportraitoilils'estattache
exclusivementalaligne,quiesttoujoursadroite,bienque
parfoisunpeucapricieuse.Laressemblanceestparlaite,
sincere,vivanteetsansdetours.SonportraitduVieux
Kyhnestdelicieux;c'estuneteteidealed'artisteauxbeaux
yeux,alalonguebarbeetauxlongscheveuxblancs.Sa
gravurerepresentantGriegetsafemmc,d'apresson
tableauacquisparleMuseenationaldeSuede,estsimple
mentadmirabledanslesmeilleurespreuves,maisl'effet
etlatonalitedependent,engrandepartie,dutirage.

AdolphLarsenestdevenu,depuispeu,untreshabile
graveur.IIestsoigneuxetpatient,timidepeutetreet
manquantunpeudetemperament.Cependantilaason
actifplusieursexcellentspaysagesetinterieurs.IIparait
surtoutasonavantagedanscertainsdesespaysagesoilil
arendu,avecbeaucoupdesincerityetdegout,lalumiere
pureetvagued'uncielcrepusculaire.IIafaitaussison
propreportraitquiesthabilementcompose,maisnontout
afaitsatisfaisant.Assurement,sisagrandeconscienceartis
tiques'accompagnaitd'unpeuplusd'ampleuretdechaleur,
ilarriveraitadesresultatsbienmeilleurs.

CarlLocherest,commejel'aidejadit,undespiliers,
sinonlapierreangulairedel'artdel'eauforteauDane
mark.IIjointunetechniqueexerceeaunetresnette
visiondupittoresqueetauneconnaissanceparfaitedeson
sujet,quiestpresquetoujourslamer,avecsesaspects
multiplesetvaries.IIyaunelargeuretuneforceconvain
cantedanssafaconderendrel'ondulationdesvagues;le
refletdel'eaucontrelesbrisantslointainsestrenduavec

uneveritablemaitrise.Danssesmeilleuresceuvres,car

nesauDanemarketenNorvege

lemeriteenesttresvariableLochers'estmontreun
graveurdepremierordre.

SorenLundestdignementrepresentsparsagravure,le
VieuxCheval,illustrationd'uncelebrepoemedanois.Le
pauvrecheval,vieuxetabandonne,estparvenuauboutde
sapeniblecarriereet1'hommealafauxunfaucheur
auxtraitsfluidesetfantastiquesestlaquil'attend.Sur
cesujetlimite,Lundaproduituneffetsingulierement
magiqueetpathetique,etTonobserveracombienletrait
estadroitetvigoureux.

J.Liibschitzestungraveurenthousiastedesonart,
auquelilaconsacrebeaucoupdetempsetdetravail,tant
chezluiqu'aParis.IIainventeunvernisclairetsonpro
cededetirageaupositifpassepouretreunprogressur
celuideHamerton.IIexisteaussiunepointeagraverspe
ciale,lapointeLiibschitz.Danscertainesdesesplanches,
cetartistesesertexclusivementdelapointeseche;dans
d'autres,lapointesecheintervientseulementpourcertains
details,parexemplepourlecieldesagrandemarine
exposeecetteanneeal'Academieroyaledanoisepay
sagesaisissantetremarquablequiestlaplusgrande
gravureoriginalepublieejusqu'acejourauDanemark.
InfluenceparTolstoi,Liibschitzaresoludeseconsacrera
1'executiondecesgrandesgravuresdestineesarejouirle
coeuretaembellirlelogisdesgensdupeuple;surceter
rain,ilapleinementreussi.C'est,jecrois,graceason
initiativequedeshommescommeleprofesseurBache,le
professeurJerndorffetleprofesseurHenningsensesont
misafairedel'eauforte,etc'estpournousunamer
desappointementqueleprofesseurHansTegner,lefameux
dessinateurautrait,celebreparsonHolbergetson
Andersen,n'aitpasperseveredanscettevoie.

C'eute"techosesingulierementsurprenante,siPeter
Mcensted,quiestunadmirabledessinateuretquimaniele
pinceauaveclaplusgrandevirtuosite.n'etaitpasdevenu
ungraveuraccompli.Lespaysagesreproduitsiciattes
tent,d'ailleurs,qu'ilasuacquerircenouveautalent,
etpeudegraveursdanoissontcapablesderealisermieux
queluideseffetsdefinesse.Onluiareprochedemanquer
quelquepeudesincerite;entoutcas,cedefautn'apparait
pasdansseseauxfortes.IIymontre,enrevanche,avec
queltalentiltraitesoitlesarbres,isolesougrouped,
nusourevetusdetouteleurparureestivale,ressortantsurun
fonddecielhabilementchoisi;soitl'eaudormanted'un
etangoud'unfosse,entirantuntripleeflfetdeceque
Tonvoitaufond,atraverslatransparencenuageusede
l'eau,decequis'yrefleteetdecequiflottealasurface.

ThorvaldNissestl'auteurd'unPaysagcd'biverqui
donnebienlamesuredel'artdecepeintremerveilleuse
mentdoue.Onvtrouvesoneclat,sonaudaceetlasince
rite,faited'exactitudeinstinctive,quiluipermetderendre
l'aspect,sietrangequ'ilsoit,dusujetquis'offrealui,
terreoumer.Sonexecutionestexpressiveetfrappante,
bienqu'ilnesegardepastoujoursdeprendrecertaines
libertes,dumoinsauxyeuxdesgraveursrigoristes.Mais,

L'EanforteenFinlande

danstoutessesceuvres,ilyaunepersonnaliteetuneviri
lityquicompensentpleinementtouteerreurpurement
technique.Danssesbonsjours,Nissdepassedebeaucoup
laplupartdesesconfreres.Commepeintre,ilestl'auteur
decertainsdesplusbeauxpaysagesetsurtoutdesplus
bellesmarinesquepossedeleMuseenationaldeCopen
hacueetuneoudeuxcollectionsparticulieres.

TomPetersenalesentimenttresdelicatducharmequi
emanedebizarresvisionsdel'ancientemps.IIatraite

certainsdecessujetsavecungrandbonheiir.

FrantsSchwartzpourraitetreappeleleplusaristocra
tiquedesgraveursdanois;ilestsobreetcompletetpos
sedeafondsonmetier.IIacomposeplusdecentgravures
dontlaplupartsontplutotfaitespeutetrepourlecarton
ducollectionneurquepourlesregardsd'unpublicplusou
moinsconnaisseur.IIrecourtsouventalapointesecheet,
danscertainesdesesceuvres,emploiecetteseulemethode.
Nombredesesetudesattestentlavivacitedesapuissance
d'observation;d'autresmontrentsonhabileteacomposer
untableau.DansVAnnonciatioft,lepersonnagedeMarie
estd'unesimpliciteetd'unepuretecharmantes;l'auteura
tireunexcellentpartidedonneesrelativementminces;
quelqueslignessuffisentaindiquerlesplismoelleuxdela
robeetduvoile.LestrotsRoisillustrentdignementle
passagedeHeinequiaetechoisicommelegende.Sa
compositionestharmonieuseetdecorative;ilyaune
grandedignitedanslessquelettesdestroisrois.

DanslesEnfantsalafen&tre,deNielsSkovgaard,il
fautnoteravecqueltalentetquellesimpliciteestmisen
relieflecontrasteentrelesenfantsquisetiennentdansla
pieceetlepaysaged'hiverquis'etendaudehors.Dansson
OursdeDanby,Skovgaardatteintunbienplushautdegre
depuissanceetd'ampleur.C'estd'ailleursunegravure
rempliedemeritesdivers.Deplus,c'estuneceuvretouta
faitcaracteristiquedesonart.

Auderniermoment,nousrecevonsquelquesadmirables
gravuresdeJoh.Nordhagen,lecelebregraveurnorvegien.
Malheureuscmentnosdispositionsetaientdejaprises,de
tellesortequenousnepouvonsreproduirequ'uneseulede
cesplanches,laTeledevieillard,ceuvreoriginaleoille
soucidudetailn'oterienalapuissanceetal'expression.
Lefront,lesyeuxetlessourcissontdesetudesparfaites,
etl'executionmagistraleadonneacetteinteressantephy
sionomieunebeautepresqueplastique.

Nordhagen,quiaobtenulamedailled'ordelagravure
al'ExpositiondeParis,en1900,aetudie,aBerlin,sousla
directionduprofesseurKarlKoepping.Nonseulementil
acomposenombred'eauxfortesoriginalesdepreference
desetudesdetetesmaisilaaussireproduitengravure
lesceuvresdediversgrandspeintresnorvegiensetde
Rembrandt.Nousregrettonsvivementd'etreobligede
parleravecunebrievetesideplaceedeceteminentartiste.

GeorgBrochner.

L'EAUFORTEENFINLANDE.PAR
LECOMTELOUISSPARRE.
Commejcl'aidejaditdanslesuperbenumerodu
Studiodel'annederniere,dedieaudessinalaplume,en
matiered'arttoutestjeuneenFinlande.IIenestainsi
pourl'eauforteplusquepourtouteautremanifestation
dusentimentartistiquedanscepays.Lapremiereeauforte
afaitsonapparitionilyaunequinzained'annees.L'auteur
enetaitVictorWesterholm,unartistedepremierordre,
maisquidepuisnesacrifiequesurl'auteldelapeinture.
Cetartfutpeucomprisetpeuapprtkieparlepublicetsem
blait,memeaucommencement,n'eveillerqu'uninteret
mediocrechezlesartisteseuxmemes.Legoutdel'eau
fortes'estneanmoinsdepuispeuapeuinfiltre,graceaux
influencesvenuesd'autrespays,principalementdelaSuede,
leplusprochevoisin,oil1'artdel'aquafortisteesttenuen
hauteestime.

Plusieursdenosartistess'adonnentmaintenantal'ait
sipassionnantdelapointeetdel'acide.lisseprocurent
memedespressesettirenteuxmemesleursepreuves.

Edelfeltadte,jecrois,lepremier,apresWesterholm,d
traJuiresesimpressionsparl'eauforteet,avecsamai
triseordinaireetsonhabilete,resultatdetravailassiduet
degout,ilaajoutedebellespagesasonceuvredejasi
considerable.

Gallen,dontlarichessed'imagination,lasouplessede
talentetlesfacilitesnaturcllesnesontegaleesparper

sonnedanscepays,aproduitdejaunequantiterelati
vementgranded'eauxfortes.IImaniesapointeetmord
soncuivreaveclamemeaisancequ'ilbrosseune
esquisse,peintunefresque,tailleunegravuresurboisou
sculpteunmcuble.Sonautoritesursesdifferents
moyensd'expressionestprodigieuse.Tantotilaccentue,
dt^taille,fouillelesmoindrescoinsdesaplaque,tantot
samaniereestlargeetpleinedeforce.Etilsaitencore
etreelegant,leger,d'unefinesseremarquablecomme
danslVxlibrisduprofesseurFikkanenreproduitici.

LeseauxfortesdeSimbergsontempreintesdela
memeoriginalitypersonnelle,delamemeforced'imagi
nationbizarreetsouventmacabre,quisemanifestedans
sapeintureetsesdessins.SonPaysanalaportedu
royaumedelamortestunedesplusbellesexpressions
dutalentindividueldeSimberget,enplusdel'origi
nalitepersonnelledel'artisle,ilyadanscettepetite
ceuvrebeaucoupducaractereserieuxspeculatifetenclin
alamelancoliedupeuplefinnois.LeJardiudelamort
estunefantaisiemacabreethumoristiquealafois.

Untalentquidonnedejadebellespromessesestcelui
d'unetoutejeuneartiste,MlleHildaFlodin.Animeed'une
ardeurquineluiaccordeaucunrepos,ellepeint,dessine
etfaitdel'eauforteenfaisant,entout,preuved'intelli

23

L'EaufortemoderneetlaGravureenItalic

gcnceetdesensartistiquetresdeveloppe.Iiya,dans
sontraitementdel'eauforte,quelquechosed'ampleetde
robustcquirappelledeloinlesmeilleursmaitres.Son
dessinestsuretlarge,etTonsentqu'acequiluimanque
ducote"purementtechnique,MllcFlodinsaurabientot
remedier,graceadcserieusesetintelligentesetudes.

M1,uElienTheslefTfaitpreuve,dansseseauxfortes,de
lamemedelicatefsequedanssesdessins.LapetiteTcte
d'en/atitjquisetrouveici,temoigned'unesensibilite
charmante.

L'eaulorteproprementditeestlegenredegravuresur
metalpreconisejusqu'ici,aderaresexceptionspres,par
lesartistesfinlandais.L'eautorteencouleursn'aetpra
tiqueequ'atitred'essai,etlevernismou,lamezzotinie
ettuttiquaulircstentencoreterresviergesquiattendent
leurspionniers.Laforcevitaleetexpansivedujeuneart
finlandaisfaitespererquel'attenteneserapaslongueet
que,dececoteaussi,cetartsemontreradignedel'atten
tionmeriteequ'ontevetlleelesartistesfinlandaisalagrande
manifestationd'artinternationalaParis,en1900.

L.Sparre.

'EAUFORTEMODERNEETLA
GRAVUREENITALIE.PARRO
MUALDOPANTINI.

Bienquecettenoticenecomprennepaslesartistes
delunts,ilnoussembleconvenablederappelerlesnomsde
quelquesunsd'entreeux:AntonioFontanesi,Tranquillo
Cremona,TelemacoSignorini,troisnomsfameuxdansla
renaissancedel'artitalien.

Ussesontconsacresavecuneegaleardouralagravure
etalasolutiond'autresgrandsproblemesd'art,alatheorie
dupleinairenparticulier.Grandsartistesentoutce
qu'ilsentreprirent,l'expressiontechniquedeleursgravures

futdignedeleurstoiles.Fontanesis'etaitconsacreaux
paysagesetonsentcbezluirinfluencedel'ecolefraneaise
de1830.Cremona,lui,avecsatouchedelicateetlarge,est
resteoriginaletdelicieusementindependantdanssesplan
ches.Signorinietaitessentiellementgracieuxetrealiste.Ses
goutslitterairesI'inclinaientnaturellemental'illustration
deslivres,maislemeilleurdesonceuvresetrouvedans
l'albumdedouzeeauxfortesqu'ilaconsacreesauMcrcato
VecchiodeFlorence.LesentimentdeMoseBianchietde
LuigiConconi,tousdeuxdeMilan,serapprochaitde
celuideCremona,maisBianchiqui,danssespetiteseaux
fortes,sembleadopterlesmemosmotifsotlesmemes
methodesquelemaitre,montrclinecompleteindepondance
danssabellegravureMonacadeMoi/{a,d'apresundeses
tableaux.

LabeautedecorativedeLuigiConconiestremarquablo
danssesreproductionsd'anciensarcs,romains;ils'eleve
plushautdanssadelicateetsuggestivepieceintitulee
24

Solitudinc.Mentionnonsaussideuxautresartistesmila
naisdetemperamentnoble,maistresdifferents,Grubiciot
Beltrami.

VittorioGrubiciestunmaitre,unchefconinieaquafor
tisto,professeuretapotre.D'apresceprincipequela
plupartdeseffetsdelanaturedontlecharmeconsiste
engrandepartiedanslevigoureuxcontrasteduclair
obscurpeuventtresbienserendreenblancetnoir,ila
fait,enHollandeetdanslesAlpes,nombred'eauxfortos
quiontunenotetoutespecialedemelancolie.

LucaBeltramiestalafoisunarchitectetresbiendoueot
unhistoriendel'art,maissesseveresEtudesneFontpas
empechedeseconsacreravecassiduiteal'eauforteet
quelquesunesdosesceuvrosencegenreontetefort
gouteesdanslesSalonsdeParis.

SapetiteeauforteDans1'atelicrdcPascalestune
merveilledotraitementlumineuxot,parmid'autreschoses
dolui,ilfautcitersaRuedcChartresquimontrebien
sagenialefacilito.

ATurin,oncomptoungroupedegraveurs,tousbien
connusaPariscommehabilostraducteursdetoiles.
LosdeuxadmirablosaquafortistosCarloChossaotCclcs
tinoTurlottifigurentdanslesplondidovolumeouGiu
seppeGiacosaadecritlespaysagesetrappololessombres
recitsdescastelsdeValdostanietdeCanavesani.Ce
magnifiquevolumeest,aveclaMedusa,poemesd'Arturo
Graf,undesplusbeauxlivresimprimesenItaliedopuis
desannees.11estbienillustreparleseauxfortes.

Cottobellepartiedelagravureestcultiveeparbtaucoup
d'artistosvenitiens,parmilosquelslesplusimportantssont
CesareLaurentietGiuseppeMitiZanetti.

MarianoFortunijunior,l'undonosartisteslesplus
dolicats,exposedanslessalonsespagnols;iltravaillea
Vonise,sesmeilleureschosessontsesetudeslumineuseset
etr.:ngosdenufeminin.

LeprofesseurColombi,doBologno,agraveplusiours
grandeseauxfortesd'apressestableauxdegenre,etila
doployounesurotodetoucheetunsensetonnantdela
perspective.

AugustoSezanne,aussideBologne,agraveuneaqua
tintefraicheetlumineuse,lePrintemps,quiestpleinedo
sentimentotd'offetdecoratif.

AFlorence,iln'yapasd'Ecoledogravure,maiscette
villepossedeundesgraveurslesplusominents,Giorgio
Vrienerk,dontlespointossochessontremarquablespar
lourgracefacileotnervouse.

GiovanniFattori,endepitdesongrandago,resteincon
testablcmentalatotedosaquafortistositaliens.Larapidite
d'impression,lasuretedemouvement,lafermetedescon

tours,luidonnentuneplaceapartetaudessusdesautres.
LaCanipagneToscane,lesplainesdesoloesdesenvironsde
Rome,avecleschevauxd'artilloriequiymaneuvrent,lui
fournissentsessujetsfavoris.SesBataillesde1859
prouventlesbellesqualitestechniquesquifontdolui
notrepremier,sinonnotreseulartistemilitairo,

L'EaufortemodemeetlaGravureenSuisse

FattorifutlemaitredeG.Viner,G.MichelietPlinio
Nomelliris;cedernierabeaucoupdesonmaitredans
l'ehergfedelacomposition,maisilrestepersonnel.La
mysteYieuseformationdesesimagesetdesesvaguesest
remarquable;sonsensdelarealiteetsonsentiment
poetiqueseretrouventdanslaplupartdesesceuvres.

IIexisteaRomeuneRealeCalcografiaouEcole
royalededessin,richementsubventionneeparlegouver
nement,oudenombreuxartistesetartisansproduisent
desceuvresoriginalesoureproduisentlestoilesd'artistes
connus.Maisleprincipalobjetdecetteinstitutionestde
dormeral'eaufortemodernelagrandeuretlasimplicityde
lavieillegravure.Onavupoindrecetterenaissancel'an
dernier,lorsqu'auconcoursd'eauforteayantuncaractere
national,Biscoapresent^savigoureuseplanchesur
rheroi'quebatailledeBogali.

CesareBiscoafaitd'autreseauxfortespourLaReale
Calcografia,entreautresdesvuesdePalestineetdu
Colysee,dansunstylequirappellePiranesi,maisavecplus
desensdeFatmosphereetplusdepoesie.Seseauxfortes
prouventdesetudessoigneusesetunefineobservation.

FrancescoVitalinidepuislesdernieresexpositionsde
Rome,VeniseetLondres,s'estfaitapprecier,parlesen
timenthautementdelicatqu'ilamontredansseseaux
fortesromaines;ilfautaussisignalersatechniquesiorigi
naleetsipersonnelle.

Parmilesautresartistesromains,quisontaquafortistes,
nousciteronsleprofesseurMaccaietPioJoris,Filiberto
PetitietRossiniqui,tons,onteterepresentedsibrillamment
alarecenteexpositiondeblancetnoirdeLondres,etaussi
GiuloRicci,deBologne,quimaniesonburinavecdeli
catesseetpensee.BinoSavardodePadoue,etEnrico
Vezetti,deMilan,sontdejeunesartistesquimeritent
qu'onlessignale.

PaoloVetricontinue,aNaples,lestraditionsdeDome
nicoMorelli.IIareproduit,al'eauforte,avecunegrande
conscience,lapeinturedelaMaddalcnaetleKingLear,
quepeud'ltaliensconnaissent.IIsongeareproduire,en
gravuresurcuivre,toutel'ceuvredesonmaitre.

ROMALDUOPANTINI.

L'EAUFORTEMODERNEETLA
GRAVUREENSUISSE.PARROBERT
MOBBS.

DanslesArtsplastiquesdanslaSuisseallemande,
remarquablechapitredelaSuisseanxixesiicle,M.Brun
faitallusionaurolequedesartistessuissesvivants,comme
RobertLeeman,CharlesTheodoreMeyer,AlbertWelti
etHermannGateker,onteudanscemouvementdere
naissancedelagravure,quiacaracteriselasecondemoitie
dusiecledernier.IIn'estpasdouteuxquecesartisteset

d'autresencoreontbeaucoupcontribueadevelopperla
gravure,nonseulementenleurproprepays,maisaussi
enAHemagne,etqueleurceuvrepeutetrecompareea
toutcequis'estfaitdemieuxpendantcesdernieres
annees.

Alatetedecegroupeetcommetypedesgraveurs
suissesmodernessedresse,depuistreizeans,cetartiste
originaletpuissant,CharlesStauffer,deBerne.Samorta
eteunepertesensiblepourl'artSuisse.Pournousconvaincre
delavaleurdeStauffercommegraveur,ilnoussuffitd'etu
dierleportrait,sicaracteristique,desamere;ceux
deGustaveFreytag,ConradFerdinandMeyeretAdolphe
Menzelqui,commeleditM.Brun,aupointdevue
del'effetplastiqueplutotqu'aupointdevuepittoresque,
n'ontjamaisetcsurpasses.Staufferutilisaittousles
moyensqu'ilavaitasadisposition,saufl'aquatinte,etil
obtenaitdesresultatsetonnants.IIalaisseunoudeux
albumsd'eauxfortesd'unerarevaleurquicontiennentdes
ceuvresd'uneincomparablebeauteetd'unetechnique
parfaite.

EnpassantaAlbertWelti,nousnoustrouvonsenpre
senced'untypesuisseallemanddetemperamentartistique
toutdifferent.Doued'uneimaginationriche,inventiveet
quelquepeusombre,possedantunepredilectionmarquee
pourlessujetssymboliquesetphilosophiques,sonceuvre
portelamarqued'unepersonnalitenettementaccuseeet
elletient,pourainsidire,uneplaceapart.

Dansleportrait,Balmerestcertainementundesplus
grandsaquafortistessuisses.Nousregrettonsquelesceuvres
decetartiste,ainsiquecellesdequelquesautres,nous
soientparvenuestroptardpourfigurerici.Nousesperons
avoirplustard1'occasionderevenirpluslonguementsur
leurstravaux,dansleStudio.LagravuredeBalmerindique
l'acharnementpatientdel'artisteasonsujetjusqu'ace
qu'ilaitpenetredanslessecretslesplusprofondsdeson
caractereetdesabeaute.Sijamaisl'ceuvred'unartiste
aetel'expressiondeluimemeetdumeilleurdeluimeme,
e'estbien1'ceuvredeBalmer.Sesportraitsdefemmeset
d'enfantssontlesceuvresd'unartisteaussisensibleque
puissant.Nousavonssouslesyeuxuneaquatintedecet
artiste;leton,lesombresetlecaractereensontadmi
rables.

Silesartistessuissesallemandsontbeaucoupcontribue
audeveloppementdelagravure,leurscamaradesdelangue
francaisen'ontpaseteinferieurs.LeseauxfortesdeBur
nandetd'EvertvanMuydenpossedentlesqualitesde
maitresreconnus.CefutunjourheureuxpourMistralque
celuioililrencontraEugeneBurnandcommeillustrateur,
cartoutcequeTonpouvaitfaireparl'eaufortepour
rendrelabeautecaracteristiquedupaysagedelaProvence
etpourinterpreterlegrandouvragedupoete,l'artistel'.i
fait.

Dansunautredomaine,EvertvanMuydenagravela
vieanimate,dansunmilieusauvageetdeforet,avecune
grandevigueurnerveusedetraitement,unegrandeexpress

25

L'EaufortemoderneetlaGrayureenSuisse

sion,unremarquablesavoiret1'observationducaractere
etdeshabitudesdenosfrereslesanimaux.

L'albumd'eauxfortesdeRodolphePiguetatraitades
sujetschoisisdansl'ExpositionnationaledeGeneve,ilya
unanoudeux;c'estunecharmantecontributional'art
national.M.Piguetaeudegrandssuccesavecsespor
traits.S'ilmanquedessentimentsprofondsetdelapuis
sancedesmaitressuissesallemandsdontnousparlions,ses
portraitsontuneextremehabileted'execution;ilssont
gracieuxetcaptivants.

IIestaregretterqu'EdouardRavelnepuissepasconsa
crerplusdetempsal'eauforte,carlesplanchesqu'ila
executeessontd'unerarequaliteetpleinesdepromesse.

CommeCharlesGiron,GustaveJeannerets'estconsacre,
pendantnombred'annees,auxpaysagesdelaSuisseet
auxtypesnationaux;c'estundespavsagisteslesplusdis

tinguesdesonpavs.Peintreavanttout,ils'estinttiresse
ad'autresprocedesetlesspecimensdesonceuvreque
nousreproduisonsmontrentcommentilcomprendetcom
mentilinterpreteTundesessujetsfavoris.

TousceuxquiconnaissentlapeintureSuisseontapprecie
lecharmedesbeauxpaysagesdeMllcPaulinedeBeau
mont.Elleaapporteal'eaufortelamemepatience,la
memesensibilitedelicate,aveclesplusheureuxresultats.
Soninterpretationdessceneschangeantesetdesaspects
tranquilitydelanatureesttoujoursvraieeteffective.

Nousvoudrionsnousetendresurl'oeuvrereellement
remarquabled'AlexisForet,dontVAbsidedcNotrcDamc
deParis,laCathcdralcdcLausanneetcertaineseaux
fortesdepaysagesontdesmorceauxdemaitre.

Laplupartdesartistesdontnousvenonsdeparlersont
connusdupublicdepuislongtempsetilsontmeriteles
elogesqu'onafaitdeleurstravaux.Lanouvelleecole
d'artistessuissesadroital'attention.Elleporteenelleles
germesd'unbelaveniret,deplus,elleannonceunevoie
nouvelle,undeveloppementtresinteressantdel'artSuisse.

Lesmembresdecetteecole,telsqueBieler,Hodler,Vau
tier,Wieland,Annet,Giaccometti,Berta,Vallet,Dunki,
BaudRehfons,etd'autresontdestemperamentstresdivers;
ilssonttresfranehementpersonnels,ilsontunevisionper
sonnelledeschosesquileurestpluscherequelesformules
dupasse;leseulpointquileursoitcoramun,c'estledesir
deproduireunartnational,nonseulementparlesujet,
maisd'essence,d'espritetdetraitement.

Parmilessignesdevitalitelespluscertainsdecetteecole,
ilfautmentionnerl'affirmationdesafoiartistique,ramour
dumetier,larichessededons.Annet,avecsafacilitedede
gagerlecaracteredeschosessanslesdeformer;Hodler,au
burinrudeetvigoureux,temperamentdevieuxSuisse;
EdouardBerta,quitraiteavecdistinctionsessujetsetpos
sedeunesensibilitevisuelleexquise;HansWieland,talent
robustcetpersonnel,ainsiqueleprouventsesfineslitho
graphiesetsespuissantsdessins;Dunki,avecsessujetsmi
litairessiremarquables;Vallet,avecsesportraitsdepaysans
sicaracteristiques:tousnousprouventlavie,lasincerite,
l'avenirdelanouvelleecoleSuisse.Larecenteexpositionde
Vevevetl'expositionactuelledeLausannenousenappor
tentlapreuve.

Nousnetermineronspascetarticlesansparlerdel'oeuvre
deGiovanniGiaccometti,l'undesmeilleurselevesde
Segantini.Attacheavecunesortedepietenaturelleal'etude
desaspectsdelanaturedanslesGrisons,ilnousadonnedes
paysagesdemontagnesdontlecaractereaustereestrendu
avecuneremarquableoriginality.

L'unedesplusbellesgravuresdeGiaccomettirepresente
Segantini,.lesoirdesamort.Danscetteceuvre,l'elevea
faithonneuraugrandmaitre.

L'artisteSuissemoderneenabordanttouteslesbrandies
del'art,cherchearealiserlaconceptionaussicompleteque
possibleduroleetdesexigencesdecetart.

RobertMobbs.

26

PARIS,IMPR1MERIEA.KYMEOUD,2,PLACEL'UCAIRE.

L'ImpriineurGirant:aeymloud.

MODERNETCHING

ANDENGRAVING

EditedbyCharlesHolme

OFFICESOF4THESTUDIO,'LONDON,
PARIS,NEWYORKMCMII

INTRODUCTORYNOTE

ANeditor,whenreviewinganimportantworkwhichhasjustbeen
broughttocompletionunderhisguidance,cannotbutbesensibleof
thedisparityexistingbetweenathingdoneandathingsketched
outvividlyinprojectsin"enchantedcigarettes"asBalzaccalled
unrealisedschemes;forinbooks,asinallotherworksofart,many
unexpecteddifficultiesanddisappointmentsinterposebetweencon
ceptionandexecution,limitingthescopeoftheaiminview,and
lowering,moreorless,thequalityotcraftsmanship.Thefactthat
severalmodernworkersofreputeareunrepresentedamongstthe
illustrationsisonecauseofregret;thelargebutunavoidablereduc
tioninsizeofmanyoftheillustrationsisanother;alsoitisfelt
thattheabsenceoftheraisedlineoftheoriginalplatescausesaloss
ofdistinctioninthehalftoneplates,whichnoamountofcareinthe
selectionofpaperandintheprintingcouldentirelyremedy.There
are,however,othersidesofthequestioninthelightofwhichthe
veryfaultsofthevolumebecomevirtues;and,inspiteofinevitable
shortcomings,thehopeisentertainedthatthepublicationwilladd
somethingtothegeneralknowledgeofthesubjectofetchingand
willgiveanimpetustotherevivalofinterestinoneofthemost
delightfulandpersonalformsofartisticexpression.
THEEditor,havingreceivedmuchvaluedsympathyandhelpfrom
manyquarters,desirestoexpresshiscordialthankstohisforeign
correspondents,totheartistcontributors,andalsotothevarious
publisherswhohavesanctionedthereproductionofcopyright
etchings,especiallytoMr.C.KlacknerandMr.FrederickKeppel
ofNewYorkandLondon,Mr.R.GutekunstofLondon,Messrs.
FrostandReedofBristol,M.E.Sagot,M.C.HesseleandM.
AndreMartyofParis,andMessrs.AmslerandRuthardtof
Berlin.TheAmericanSectionowesmuchtoMr.J.M.Bowles,
ofNewYork,andtothehistoricalnotessuppliedbyMr.LouisA.
Holman,ofBoston.

TABLEofLITERARYCONTENTS

MODERNETCHINGAND
ENGRAVINGIN

GREATBRITAIN

By

A.L.Baldry

AMERICA

WillJenkins

FRANCE


GabrielMourey

GERMANY

>)

Dr.HansW.Singer

AUSTRIA

)j

WilhelmScholermann

HUNGARY

>>

AnthonyTahi

HOLLAND

55

Ph.Zilcken

BELGIUM

)>

FernandKhnopff

DENMARK&NORWAY

>5

GeorgBrochner

FINLAND

55

CountLouisSparre

ITALY

?5

Dr.RomualdoPantini

SWITZERLAND

5J

ProfessorRobertMobbs

ETCHERSANDENGRAVERS:
INDEXOFILLUSTRATIONS

BRITISHSECTION.

Baker,Oliver,R.E.

Plate

25

Herkomer,Prof.H.von,R.A.Plate

Ball,Wilfrid,R.E.

5)

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Bayes,A.W.,R.E.

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rioiroya,unaries,K.rL.

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riuson,1nomas,K.I.,k.il.

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Menpes,Mortimer,R.E.

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Cameron,D.Y.,R.E.

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Cameron,D.Y.,R.E.

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Reason,R.G.

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East,Alfred,A.R.A.

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East,Alfred,A.R.A.

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Robinson,SirJ.C,C.B.

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Ellis,Tristram,A.R.E.

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Roller,George,R.E.

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Finnie,John,R.E.

>>

35

Rowe,T.Trythall

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42

Goff,R.,R.E.

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Short,Frank,R.E.

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Goolden,Fred.W.

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Slocombe,Fred,R.E.

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Hartley,Alfred,R.E.

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Waterson,David,A.R.E.

36

Herkomer,Prof.H.von,R.A.

Waterson,David,A.R.E.

37

Herkomer,Prof.H.von,R.A.

Watson,C.J.,R.E.


>>

18

AMERICANSECTION.

Aid,GeorgeC.

Plate

12

Burleigh,SydneyRichmond,Plate

^7

Backer,OttoH.

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Duveneck,Frank

j)

21

Bauer,W.C.

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Getchell,EdithLoring

20

Beal,W.Goodrich

5)

18

Hovenden,Thomas

16

AmericanSection

continued.

Lathrop,W.L.

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Lewis,ArthurA.

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MacLaughlan,D.Shaw

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Dupont,R.


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Jrielleu,Jr.

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Huard,Charles

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Lafitte,A.

22

Leheutre,G.

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GERMANSECTION.

Fischer,Otto

Plate

22

Fischer,Otto

24

Gambert,Otto

,,

11

Graf,Oscar

,,

Graf,Oscar

,,

Halm,Peter

23

Hegenbart,Fritz

19

Hegenbart,Fritz

20

lilies,Arthur

25

Kalckreuth,LeopoldCount

Pennell,Joseph

Plate


13

Piatt,CharlesA.

22

Piatt,CharlesA.

23

Rix,Julian

15

StetsonCharlesWalter

Weber,OtisS.

i4

Whistler,JamesMcNeill

Whistler,JamesMcNeill

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Lepere,Auguste

Plate

Lepere,Auguste

,,

10

Lepere,Auguste

,,

11

Lepere,Auguste

,,

12

Monvel,Bernardde

,,

Paillard,Henry

,,

Paillard,Henry

,,

Robbe,Manuel

Robbe,Manuel

SchullerTCharles

16

Steinlen

23

Steinlen

24

Viala,E.

"

21

Klinger,Max

Plate

12

Klinger,Max

,,

13

Kollwitz,Kathe

,,

l6

Leistikow,W.

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Liebermann,Max

18

MeyerBasel,C.T.

MeyerBasel,C.T.

Overbeck,Fritz

21

Pankok,Bernhard

17

Stauffer,Karl

r5

GermanSectioncontinued.

Stuck,Franz

Plate

IO

Ubbelohde,Otto

Plate

T*1TT

1noma,Hans

>>

TXT1CCTT'*L

Wolff,Heinnch

>>

14

TTl_111J/"\..

Ubbelohde,Otto

>>

2.

AUSTRIANSECTION.

Cossmann,Alfred

Plate

Orlik,Emil

Plate

Cossmann,Alfred

>>

Orlik,Emil

>>

Cossmann,Alfred

>>

Schmutzer,Ferdinand

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Jettmar,Rudolph

>>

IO

Dcnmutzer,rercnnanu

>>

Lopieriski,Ignaz

>>

UllgCr,YVllilcUIl

>>

HUNGARIANSECTION.

Aranyossy,AkosF.

Plate

Raiischer,Lajos

Plate

Landsinger,Zsigmond

5)

Raiischer,Lajos

>>

Landsinger,Zsigmond

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Szekely,Arpad

>>

Olgyai,Viktor


5>

ozeiceiy,rvrpaa

>>

Olgyai,Viktor

>>

1am,A.

>>

DUTCHSECTION.

Bauer,M.

Plate

Nieuwenkamp,W.O.J.

Plate

Becht,Ed.

>j

Reicher,A.F.

}>

Bosch,E.

>>

11

Witsen,W.

>

Gravesande,Stormvan

)>

IO

Zilcken,P.

>>

Houten,MissB.G.van

>>

rj....TITJ

Zwart,W.de

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BELGIANSECTION.

Baertsoen,A.

Plate

>>

iviarecnai,r

relate

10

Cassiers,H.

>>

Lvicunierjin.

j>

Coppens,O.

>j

Romberg,M.

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Rysselberghe,T.van

>>

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Gailliard,F.

j>

Titz,L.

>>

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Laermans,E.

>>

12

DANISHSECTION.

T*1*l_T

kronen,JLorenz

Plate

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Lund,boren

Til1

Plate

11

Hansen,H.N.

55

Monsted,Peter

55

Hou,Axel

55

Niss,Thorvald

55

Krause,E.

55

Schwartz,Frants

55

12

Kroyer,P.S.

55

Schwartz,Frants

55

Locher,Carl

55

Skovgaard,Niels

55


Liibschitz,J.

55

NORWEGIANAND

FINNISH

SECTION.

Edelfelt,A.

Plate

Sparre,CountLouis

Plate

Edelfelt,A.

55

IO

Sparre,CountLouis

55

Flodin,Hilda

55

Thesleff,Ellen

>>

1
j

Flodin,Hilda

J>

Zorn,AndersL.

55

Gallen,A.

55

Zorn,AndersL.

55

Nordhagen,J.

55

11

ITALIANSECTION.

n1,*T

Beltrami,Luca

Plate

11

Nomellini,P.

TilA.

Plate

Biseo,Lesare

>>

Savardo,Dino

5)

!3

Chessa,C.

>>

Sezanne,Augusto

)5

14

Fattori,G.

55

Turletti,C.

>>

12

Fortuny,Mariano,Jun.

J)

15

Vegetti,Enrico

55

Grubicy,Vittore

5>

Vetri,Paolo

55

Kienerk,Giorgio

55

10

Vitalini,Francesco

55

MitiZanetti,G.

55

SWISSSECTION.

Amiet,Cuno

Plate

Muyden,E.van

Plate

Beaumont,Paulinede

55

Muyden,E.van

55

Burnand,Eugene

55

10

Piguet,R.

55

Forel,Alexis

55

Ravel,Edouard

55

Muyden,E.van

55

Vallet,E.

55

MODERNETCHING&ENGRAV

INGINGREATBRITAIN.ByA.L.
BALDRY.

Nexactdefinitionofetchingisnoteasy.In
thenarrowestsenseofthetermitwouldpre
sumablybelimitedonlytoworkwhichis
scratchedwithapointedtooluponametal
plate,tolinedrawingsuponcopperwhich,
whenrubbedwithink,willgiveanimpression
onpaper.Ifthisdefinitionisaccepted,there
|arebuttwokindsofetching,thatinwhich
thelinesmadebythepointaredeepenedand
strengthenedbybeingbitteninwithanacidwhichwilleataway
thecopper,andthatknownas"drypoint,"inwhichthereisno
accentuationofthelinesbytheuseoftheacid.Fromplatestreated
ineitherofthesewaysprintscanbeobtainedwhichhavecharacter
istictechnicalqualitiesandreproduceexactlytheoriginaltouchesof
thetool;andtheseprintsareprobablyentitledtoberegardedas
illustrationsofthepurestformoftheetcher'sart.
BUTitisquestionablewhetheritisquitepermissibletodrawso
sharpalinebetweenetchingandotherkindsofengraving.There
areprocessesalliedtoitwhichdifferfromitonlyinminordetails,
andthereareothersinwhichitactuallyplayssomepartinproducing
thefinalresult.Itisbettertomakethedefinitionasbroadand
comprehensiveaspossible,andnottoinsistupondistinctionswhich
onlyhampertheetcher'sactivity.Thattheworkersthemselves
desirefullfreedomtoexpresstheirideasinanywaythatsuitsthem
bestisprovedbythereadinessoftheRoyalSocietyofPainter
Etcherstoencourageallformsofengravingwhichgiveopportunities
forthedisplayoforiginalityofinventionandaccomplishment.One
oftherulesofthissocietydeclaresthat"allformsofengravingon
metal,whetherbytheburin,theetchingneedle,bymezzotintor
aquatint,orbywhateverotherform(ofengraving)theartistmay
chooseasameansoforiginalexpression,areunderstoodtobein
cludedintheterm'painteretching.'"Thisinclusivenessisnodoubt
dueinsomemeasuretotheanxietyofanexhibitingassociationto
makeitsshowsattractiveandvaried,butitcomesalsofromanob
viousdesireonthepartoftheartiststhemselvestobeallowedafree

AI

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choiceastotheparticulartechnicalmethodwhichwillbestinterpret
them.

INDEED,ifsuchasociety,foundedprofessedlytodeveloptheart
ofetchingandtopopulariseitamongallloversofinterestingaccom
plishment,weretoattemptanyexactregulationofexecutiveprocesses,
itwouldlosethegreaterpartofitsauthorityandwouldpractically
destroyitsrighttoexistence.Itsrealmission,whichitseemsfrom
thefirsttohavejudiciouslyrecognised,istogathertogetherallmen
whotakeanintelligentviewoftheirartisticresponsibilitiesandto
bestowapprovaluponalltypesofproductionwhichareplainly
inspiredbyalegitimatedesiretobreakawayfromthebeatentrack.
Toignoreanythingwhichborethestampofseriousoriginality
wouldbeasmistakenapieceofpolicyastoextendencouragement
tomechanicalandcommercialsubstitutesfortheartist'swork.
Everymanwhohassomethingfreshtosayisentitledtoahearing;
itwouldbefoolishtotryandsilencehimbecausehedoesnotuse
exactlythesameidiomsashispredecessors,orbecausehehappensto
havehituponanideawhichhadnotoccurredtothem.
OFalltheexpertswhohavegivenanopiniononthequestionor
terminology,perhapsthemostcatholicinhisviewsisProfessorvon
Herkomer.Hedeclared,inoneofthelectureswhichhedelivered
duringhistenureoftheSladeProfessorshipatOxford,thatheis
disposedtoapplytheterm"etching"toeveryformofworkon
metal,whetherbittenwithacidorindentedwithaburinorneedle,
solongasthisworkinitscharacterstrictlyrepresentsthefreest
expressionofanartisticnature.Hewouldmakethedistinction
betweenwhatisandwhatisnotproperlycalledetchingamatterof
aestheticsentimentratherthanoftechnicalmanner,andhewould
excludefromthecategoryofetchingsalllaboriouslywroughtplates,
eventhoughthemethodsofworkingfollowedinthemmightconform
absolutelytoexecutiveprecedents.Atthesametimeheadmitted
thatthereisnomeasurementandtherearenorulesbywhichthe
rightthingcanberecognisedoffhand.Personalfeelingmust
necessarilyplayanimportantpartintheguidanceofthemenwho
practisethissubtleart,anditmustequallyhaveasupremeinfluence
overpeoplewhoarehonestlyanxioustounderstandwhatmaybethe
typeofproductionthathasthestrongestclaimupontheirapprecia
tion.Ofcoursetherecanbenoprecisestandardifsomuchscope

isallowedtoindividualconviction,andinevitablytheremustbecon
flictsoftasteonmanymoreorlessvitalquestions,butthereisin
theseveryconflictssomethingstimulatingandencouragingtothe
activemind.

British

IFweaccept,asabasisforargument,theProfessor'sbroadstatement
astothecomprehensivenessofetchingandadopthisstandpointwith
regardtothefunctionsoftheart,itmayfairlybesaidthatthereis
withintheartist'sreachnoexecutivedevicewhichisatthesame
timecapableofgivingsomuchenjoymenttoproducerandobserver,
andsofullofexcitingpossibilities.Theetcher'ssuccesses,the
achievementsofamanwhohassecuredforonceanabsoluteagree
mentbetweenmindandhand,areexquisitethingswhichwill
fascinateeveryintelligentthinker,becausetheprocessbywhich
theyhavebeenbroughtintoexistenceisonethatallowsthemost
completerealisationofgreatimaginativeideas.Itaboundswith
subtletieswhichareinfinitelysuggestivetothepossessorofthetrue
artistictemperament,anditwillleadhimontoheightsofexpres
sionunattainablebyanyothermodeofpractice.Somanywaysof
arrivingathisresultsare,moreover,opentohimthatheneednever
fearthathewillbehamperedbytheunresponsivenessofthemedium;
thelimitationswhichhehastofeararethoseofhisownpersonality;
nothingwillcheckhisprogressmorethananyinabilityonhispart
toperceivethedirectioninwhichheshouldturninhisstriving
aftersuccess.

BUT,atthesametime,etchinginallitsformisanuncertainart,or
ratheritisuncertainwhenitisusedbyanartistwhoisambitious.
Ifitsprocessesaremademechanicalandkeptinregularsequenceby
acodeofrules,itwillgiveonlymechanicalresultswhichwillsatisfy
noonebutthemanwhoiscursedwithcommonplaceinstinctsandan
unimaginativenature.Itwillceasetobespontaneousandwill
becomemerelymanneredandpedanticallycorrect,losingthereby
someofitsnoblestqualitiesandgainingnothingbutanaspectof
superficialcompleteness.Inthehands,however,ofanartistwho
willinglyrisksfailuresinthehopethathemayachievesomething
ofmemorableimportanceitiscapableofendlesssurprises,foritwill
varystrangelyinresponsetohismoods.Itsresultsmaybefantastic,
exaggerated,contrarytoallprecedent,butevenwhentheyare
obviouslywrong,theywillbeneithertamenorstupid,andwhen
theyarerighttheywillprobablybeexquisitelyattractive.Atleast
theywillneverhavethesmugandsoullessperfectionofmechanism
whichtheunaspiringcraftsmaniscontenttoattain.
THEreasonsforthisuncertaintyaretobesoughtpartlyinthe
temperamentoftheetcher,andpartlyinthetechnicalcomplexities
oftheartitself.Thefirstessentialforsuccessisenthusiasm,alove
oftheworkforitsownsake,andaresolvetobedauntedbynodiffi
cultiesthatmayarisetohampertheworker'sprogress.The

British

enthusiast,whenthefitisonhim,willattackcheerfullythemost
complicatedproblems,andwilltriumphoverthembysheerbrilliance
ofinspirationandstrengthofwill,butevenamomentaryslackening
ofhisdetermination,ortheslightestyieldingtoafeelingofdis
couragement,willsufficetoputhimhopelesslyofftherighttrack
andtoinvolvehiminamazeofperplexitiesfromwhichthereis
noescape.Evenwhenhisenthusiasmisatitshighest,theremay
comedifficultieswhichhecannotsurmount,andhehastoconfess
himselfbeaten.Someetchers,indeed,professtoregardtheirartas
onethatismadeupofaccidents,happyandunhappy,andtofindits
veryunexpectednessasourceofdelight.Butsuchanattitude
towardsitisalittletoofanciful;thereisbeyonddoubtaverycon
siderableamountofknowledgeofitspeculiaritiestobeobtainedby
seriousstudy,andtherearemanypracticaldetailswhichcanbe
reducedtoorderbyamanwhomakesreasonablymethodicalinvesti
gations.Howheapplieshispracticalknowledgemust,ofcourse,
dependuponhimself.Ifheisofawaveringtemperamentand
inclinedtostrayabout,hemaymeetwithmorethanafairproportion
ofaccidents,butifhehasapassablystabledispositionhewillknow

wellenoughwhatlapseinhisownjudgmenthascausedhimtofail,
orwhatkeyingupofhisnervousenergieshasbroughtsuccesswithin
hisgrasp.

IF,then,thepersonalityoftheetcherhassomuchtodowiththe
characteroftheplatesthatheexecutes,itispossibletogivethe
Englishschoolcreditforthepossessionofanunusualnumberof
memberswhoareliberallyendowedwiththerightmentalqualities.
Duringthelastfewyearstherehasbeenproducedinthiscountry
averyconsiderableamountofetchedworkwhichsatisfiesallthe
necessaryconditionsofspontaneity,originalityandsympathywith
nature,andhasbesidesalargemeasureofadmirabletechnical
strength.Someofthisworkisworthytorankwiththebestthat
hascomefromanyschool,muchofitisdecidedlyabovetheaverage,
andevenamongthoseexampleswhichhavetobereckonedas
failuresthereisunquestionableevidenceofwellintentionedeffortto
avoidtheeasiercommonplacesthatcontentthemerejourneyman
engraver.Ofcoursethegoodthingshavetobesiftedoutofamass
ofstuffwhichmakesnopretenceofbeingoriginalinevenaminor
degree,butquiteenoughofthemcanbefoundtorepaythetrouble
ofinvestigation.

ONEexcellentpointwhichmustbenotedaboutournativeschool
atitsbestisthatitcoversaverywideground.Thevarietyof
inventionwhichisshownbythemenwhobelongtoit,andtheir

British

readinesstoseizeuponallkindsofmaterialthatseemssusceptible
ofartistictreatment,areworthyofthehighestpraise.Theydonot
merelyfollowinthetrackofoneortwomasters,norarethey
contentsimplytorepeatwhatothershavedone;theirobviousdesire
istogivefairplaytotheirownindependenceofthoughtandtheir
particularindividualitiesofexpression.Eventhoseetcherswho
plainlyreflectthepracticeoftheteachersfromwhomtheyreceived
theirgroundingoftechnicalknowledgeshowinanumberofcases
thattheyarecapableofgivingnewreadingsofthefactsthatthey
havelearned.Generally,indeed,thereistobeperceivedawhole
somespiritoforiginalitywhich,despiteoccasionalaberrations,has
calledintoexistenceanarrayofsoundandinterestingworksofart
illustratingwithcompleteadequacymostoftheworthierapplications
ofthecraftofetching.

ITisinfiguredrawing,perhaps,thatEnglishetchersareleast
successful.Wehavenooneinthiscountrywhoapproaches
M.PaulHelleuingracefuleleganceofdesignandsupplefreedom
ofexpression,andcertainlynoneofourartistscanbecomparedto
himasabrilliantexponentofwhatismostattractiveinthemodern
typeofhumanity.NorhaveweamasterlikeMr.AndersZornwho
combinesinperfectproportioncertaintyofdraughtsmanshipand
masculineconfidenceintheuseofthebestdevicesofetching.But
atleastwecanclaim,byvirtueofhislongresidenceamongstus,
M.Legrosasoneofourchiefartleaders,andwecanpointtoan
importantgroupofyoungerEnglishmenwhoowetohisexample
andinstructionsomeofthebestqualitiesoftheirpractice.Such
artistsasMr.W.Strang,Mr.CharlesHolroyd,Mr.Gascoyne,and
otherswhoweretrainedbyM.LegrosattheSladeSchoolorat
SouthKensington,takehighrankinthiscountryandillustratein
theirmethodsofworkingsomedecidedlyoriginalviewsaboutthe
applicationofaestheticprinciples.

THENthereisanothergroupofthepupilsandfollowersofProfessor
vonHerkomer,whichincludesseveralofthemostprominentof
presentdayworkersinvariousformsofengraving.TheProfessor
himself,byhisownperformancesasanetcherandamezzotinter,and
byhisinventionofaprocessof"platepainting,"whichmakes
possibletheexactreproductionofanartist'sownhandiwork,has
earnedanindisputablerighttobereckonedasoneofthemost
versatileandcapablemastersofthecraft,andbyhisabilityasa
teacherhehasmadeupontheartofthiscountryamarkwhichcan
neverbeeffaced.Hehasdonemuchtosimplifythecomplicated
processesofetchingbyingeniousadaptationsoftheoldertechnicalities;

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hehasdevisedvariousshortcutstoresultswhichwerepreviously
attainableonlybyprolongedandoftenuncertainlabour;andhehas
impartedtoothersafullshareofhiswelldirectedandintelligent
enthusiasm.Fromthesetwogroupsiscomingannuallyagreatdeal
thatisverysignificantanddecidedlypromisingartistically.
INDEED,thoughthereareamongtheetchersoffiguresubjects
onlyafewwhoareentitledtobeplacedinthefirstrank,thelistof
capablecraftsmenwhodeservetobeseriouslyconsideredisbyno
meansasmallone,anditisinitswaythoroughlyrepresentative.
ThereareMr.MortimerMenpes,Mr.JacombHood,Mr.R.W.
Macbeth,Mr.D.A.Wehrschmidt,Mr.NormanHirst,Mr.A.W.
Bayes,Mr.GeorgeRoller,Mr.WilliamHole,MissCormack,
Mr.E.G.Hester,Mr.J.C.Webb,Mr.J.B.Pratt,Mr.Macbeth
Raeburn,andotherswhoseunderstandingofdifferentformsof
engravingisdisplayedinalongseriesofplates,someoriginaland
somereproductionsofpictures.Everynowandagaintherecomes
fromoneorotheroftheseartistssomethingofrealexcellence,
somethingtoremindusthatthegreatidealswhichwererespected
inpastgenerationsarestillbeingkeptalive,andthatthedesirefor
admirableachievementisasactiveasever.

THEnumberofetcherswhooccupythemselvesprincipallyor
entirelywithlandscapesandstudiesofarchitecturalmotivesis
notablylarge,andtheirrecordismemorableforitscompre
hensivenessandforitsrevelationoftruesympathywithnature.
Muchoftheworkwhichcomesintothisclassisinspiredby
unusualunderstandingofrefinementsoflinecompositionandby
adelightfulappreciationofsubtletiesofatmosphericeffect,andis
especiallyhappyinitstranslationofgradationsoftoneandcolour
intosuggestiveblackandwhite.Whatmaybecalledthecommon
placeviewofnature,withitsexaltationoftrivialdetailandits
neglectofdecorativearrangementandfineadjustmentofmasses
oflightanddark,isnotoftentakenbythemenwhocanbe
regardedasrepresentativeofourlandscapeetchers.Theyaimby
preferenceatanoblertreatmentofthemotiveswhichtheyselect,
andiftheyfailitisbecausetheychanceattimestoattemptwhat
isbeyondtheirpowersofexpression.Theirsisthehonourable
failurewhichcanbeforgivenreadilyenoughonaccountofthe
splendidambitionwhichpromptedtheeffort;itdoesnotcome
fromwantofcourageorfromadispositiontobesatisfiedwithlittle
things.

BUTitwouldnotbedifficulttocollectinstancesofthefortunate
realisationofreallygreatintentions.IntheworkofMr.Frank

British

Short,withhisexcellentdraughtsmanshipandsoundsenseofstyle,
Mr.F.V.Burridge,withhislargefreedomoftouch,Mr.D.Y.
Cameron,Mr.E.W.Charlton,Mr.C.J.Watson,Mr.WilfridBall,
Mr.ThomasHuson,Mr.AlfredHartley,SirJ.C.Robinson,
ColonelGoff,Mr.R.E.J.Bush,andSirF.SeymourHaden,the
combinationofsensitivestudyandstrongexpressioniswholly
fascinating;andanotlesscorrectappreciationoftheetcher's
missionintheartworldistobecreditedtoartistslikeMr.T.Irving
Dalgliesh,Mr.FredSlocombe,Mr.J.G.Murray,Mr.OliverBaker,
Mr.AlfredEast,Mr.JohnFinnie,Mr.ArthurRobertson,Mr.
LawrenceB.Phillips,Mr.F.Laing,MissC.M.Pott,Mr.FL
VanRaalte,Mr.T.T.Rowe,MissC.G.Copeman,Mr.David
Waterson,MissM.A.Sloane,Mr.H.R.Robertson,MissM.
Bolingbroke,Mr.F.W.Goolden,MissC.M.Nichols,Mr.W.
Kiddier,andMr.JosephKnight.ThentherearemenlikeMrW.
HoleandM.Legros,whohandlelandscapesandfiguresubjectswith
almostequalpower.Inalldirectionscanbefoundgoodthings
whichareworthyofattentionfromallstudentsofcontemporaryart
historyandfromallloversofunaffectedandearnestendeavour.
ITisanencouragingsignthatthereshouldbenowamongthe
membersoftheEnglishschoolawidespreadbeliefintheimportance
ofagenerousinterpretationofthetechnicalresponsibilityofthe
etcher.Everyworkerisatlibertytochoosethemodeofpractice
thatsuitsbesthispointofviewandwillaidhimmostsatisfactorily
toconveyhisimpressionofnaturetootherpeople.Heisnot
rigidlybounddowntoobservenarrowrules,andheneednotfear
thathewillbedeniedrecognitionbecauseheisimpatientofall
restrictionslikelytolimithisfreedomofexpression.Manyofthe
olderconventionshavedisappeared,andwiththemthepedantic
insistenceupontheideathateveryonewhomighthavethewill

andtheabilitytostrikeoutforhimselfanewwayapartfromthe
beatentrackmustnecessarilybeahereticandanunbeliever.This
wideningofopportunityhasnot,however,ledtoanythinglike
extravagance.Thesincerityofthebettertypeofartistswho
practisethecraftisquitebeyondquestion;theyhavenotrelaxed
inthesmallestdegreetheirrespectforNature'sauthority,andplainly
theyvaluetheirfreedommostbecauseithelpsthemtorealise
somethingofherinfinitevariety.

A.L.Baldry.

British

"INWESTPRINCE'SSTREETGARDENS,
EDINBURGH."FROMTHEETCHINGBY
SUSANF.CRAWFORD,A.R.E.

Plate2

British

Plate4"theslipway"

FROMTHEETCHINGBYE.W.CHARLTON,A.R.E.

"STUDYOFANARABHEAD."FROM
THEHERKOMERGRAVUREBYPRO
FESSORH.vonHERKOMER,R.A.

Plate5

British

Plate6"wildweather"fromthedrypointbyprofessorh.vonherkomer,r.a.

Plate7"inthefurrowedland"fromtheetchingbyminnabolingbroke,r.e.

5^2

"JOHNPHILLIP,R.A."
FROMTHEETCHING
BYA.W.BAYES,R.E.

Plateg

British

Plateii"anEssexstream

FROMTHEETCHINGBYALFREDHARTLEY,R.E.

uWESTMINSTERABBEY."fromtheetchingbyAXELHERMANHAIG,R.E,

British

"EVENING,MOUSEHOLEHARBOUR"
FROMTHEETCHINGBYREGINALD
E.J.BUSH,A.R.E.

Plate13

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"THEPHILOSOPHER."FROM
THEDRYPOINTBYH.B.van
RAALTE,A.R.E.

Plate20

"NIGHT."ADRYPOINT
STUDYOFAHEADBY
CHARLESHOLROYD,R.E.

Plate21

SUiOlO

"GUNANDSHOTWHARF,SOUTH
WARD"FROMTHEETCHINGBY
CONSTANCEM.POTT,R.E.

Plate27

"THEMILLINTHEWIRRAL."fromtheetchingbyFRED.BURRIDGE,R.E.

British

"ROSLIN."FROMTHEETCHINGBYD.Y.CAMERON,R.E.

British

Plate35"abendinamountainstream'fromthemezzotintbyjohnfinnie,r.e.

(BypermissionofthePublishers,Messrs.FrostandReed,Biistol)

British

PS%

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Plate40"thehillside

FROMTHEDRYPOINTBYT.IRVINGDALGLIESH,R.E.

ML

.cyjo

^o

H
<!
I

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Plate45"oldbatterseabridge"fromtheaquatintbyfrankshort,r.e.

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ADOCKYARDONTHETHAMES"
FROMTHEETCHINGBYFRANK
BRANGWYN

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1r<ft

Plate4S"onthegrandcanal,venice"

FROMTHEETCHINGBYL.B.PHILLIPS,A.R.E.

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"PORTRAITSOFTHELATECECIL
RHODES."FROMTHEETCHINGS
BYMORTIMERMENPES,R.E.
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ft

MODERNETCHING&ENGRAV
INGINAMERICA.ByWILL
JENKINS.

HEmanyandvariedartisticpossibilitiesofline
haveeachyearbeenmoreintelligentlypractised
bytheAmericanartistandbetterappreciated
bythegeneralpublic,andabrilliantschoolof
woodengraversfollowedbyayetmorebrilliant
schoolofpendraughtsmenwhoseworkhas
appearedinwellprintedperiodicalsoflarge
circulation,hasproducedabetterpublictasteand
arapidlyincreasinginterestinthegraphicarts.
ADEFINITErevivalofinterestinetchingmeansamovetowards
raisingthestandardofpublictastebyawiderdiffusionofthingsof
realbeautyandofsufficientmonetaryvaluetopromptacareful
considerationoftheirmerits.Again,agoodetchingbesidesbeinga
thingofbeautyisalwaysanintellectualtreat;itisso"autographic,"
socloselycharacterisedbytheartist'sactualtouchthatthestudent
ofitisalmostabletofeelthecharmofthestudiocircleandto
understandsomethingofsuchasubtleatmosphere.
MR.WHISTLERhassaidthat"inArtitiscriminaltogobeyond
themeansusedinitsexercise."Thisisacanonwhichhehasnotonly
preachedbutconscientiouslypractised,andbysodoinghehasexerted
verygreatinfluenceontheworkofAmericanetchers.Many
sidedworkerandenthusiast,hehasbysheervirtuosity,coupledwith
nobilityofconceptionandconscientiouslyseriousaims,triumphantly
reachedandmaintainedahigherpositionasanetcherthananyartist
ofhistime.Hehasnotreachedhispositionwithoutopposition.It
hasbeengiventofewmodernartiststomeetsuchunfairandbitter
criticismfromthehighestinauthority(atonetimeinEngland)as
hehasinyearspasthadtobattleagainst.Nowhappilyhisgreat
nessisfullyacknowledged,andnomodernartistcanjustlyclaimso
manyappreciativeanddevotedadmirers.Hehasearnestlystriven
withthegreatestdevotiontohisideals,unhamperedbyweaknessof
conceptionorlackofpower,toexpressthefullrealisationofany
messagehehasdesiredtoimpart.Totheartistorconnoisseurhis
worksarethehighestexamplesofloftypurposeandgracefulpoetic
expressioninmodernetching.Equallyversatileaspainter,etcheror
lithographer,heseizeswithsupremeandmasterlygracetheinnermost

BI

American


characterofhissubjects,andpowerfullyprojectshisstatementswith
invariablerefinementandbythemosteconomicalandeffectivemeans.
Heissometimesalmostepigrammaticinhismannerofsayingso
muchwithsofewlinesortouches,andhisworkglowswiththe
dramaticintensityofrichmasses.Itisnowmorethanfortyyears
sincethe"FrenchSeries"TheCabaret,TheUnsafeTenement^
andotherswerefollowedbythebetterknown"Thames
Series,"eachplateofwhichisaveritablegemof"portraiture"of
thepicturesqueriversubjectsofthattime.Thesefirstgroups,
masterlyastheyare,werebutthebeginningofthemostremarkable
numberofplatesproducedbyanymodernetcher,towhichyear
byyearhehasaddedsomethingfrommanyanddiversemotives.
Shipping,buildings,figures,portraits,canals,docks,streetsof
London,Paris,Venice,Holland,Belgium,ortheFrenchProvinces,
haveallbeensubjecttothemagicofhistouch.Thetotalnumberof
pageshereavailableforAmericanworkwouldnotaffordsufficient
spaceforevenabrieflyannotatedcatalogueofhisimportant
achievementsinetching,tosaynothingoftheotherbranchesof
artinwhichhehaswithsomuchdistinctionexertedhispersonality.
Happilyheistodayasvigorousandasactiveaforceinartasever.
INtheforemostgroupofAmericanpainteretchersstandsthework
ofCharlesA.Piatt.Distinguishedalikeforvigorousbrilliancyand
richnessofeffects,itshowsthathehaseveryvarietyoftechnical
meansathisdisposal,andisamasterofeachinsomespecialway.
Exceptionallygiftedwithversatility,hehasemployedhisskillinmany
differentdirections.

STEPHENPARRISHisanetcherwhoseworkteemswithinterest
regardlessoftheparticularsubjectdealtwith.Whetherheis
renderingtheclearsunlightofPennsylvaniaorthedeepernotesof
thelowerCanadianProvinces,hisstyleisalwaysfullofinterestand
richineverylineandmass.NoAmerican'sworkshowsmore
forciblyhowtheircountryaboundsingoodsubjects.Thereisa
certainpaucityofnativesubjectintheworkofmostAmerican
paintersandetchers,probablyduetolackofexamplesuchasthe
Europeanartisthasconstantlyathiselbow.IftheEuropeanbe
paintingthisorthatphaseofalandscape,hecanwithlittletrouble
studymasterlyexamplesandtraditionsofhowtosolvehisproblems.
HemayseehowDaubignydidthisorRousseauthat;howcarefully
Constablestudiedthevariousstagesofthegrowthofatreefrom
monthtomonththroughouttheseasons,orwithwhatdecisive
strengthhepaintedacloudformorabitofforeground.The
Americanetchershavehadtolookfortechnicalexampleinwork

American

basedonsubjectsforeigntotheirowncountry,andhaveinconse
quencegreatlyneglectedpossibilitiesnearerathand.Mr.Parrishis
oneofthemenwhohasbeenabletobothseeandfeelthegreatness
oftheoldmasteretchers,andtograsptheirtechnicalmethodswith
sufficientunderstandingtoenablehimtopractiseonanythemewith
equalforceandenthusiasm.

THATbrilliantpendraughtsmanillustrator,OttoBacher,has
practisedetchingwithaccomplishedskillandwithasimplicity
ofexecutionwhichgiveshisworkunusualforcewithnolackof
effectiveness.HisVeniceplatesareamongthebestperformances
byanyAmerican.Hisgripoflocaleandabilitytomanagewith
easethecomplicatedgroupingsofboats,masts,cordageandthe
dazzling,fascinatingundulationofwaterreflectionsinbrilliantsun
light,haveenabledhimtoproduceplatesthatareneverlackingin
eitherpictorialortechnicalinterest.

FRANKDUVENECKisanartistwhohasaccomplishedmany
importantplates.Versatiletoadegreebothaspainterandetcher,
hehasamasterlycommandoflineandisalwaysabletoexpress
himselfwithintensedignityandpolishedgraceofhandling.Much
ofhisbestworkhasbeendoneinItaly.

SEVERALmembersofthattalentedfamily,theMorans,havefound
adistinguishedpositionaspainteretchers.ThomasMoranmaybe
styledtheartisticdiscovererofthebeautiesofthesouthwestof
America.HisdramaticpicturesoftheYellowstoneRegionhave
earnedhimanuniquepositioninAmericanart.Adreamerlike
Turner,hehaspaintedVeniceandtheOrientwithimaginative

fervour.Hisetchingsareconspicuousfortechnicalfacilityand
rhetoricalforce.Hislinehasawonderfulqualityofnervous
vitalitythataddsinteresttoallhisplates.PeterMoranhas
alsodevotedhimselftothesouthwest,andhaspaintedmuchfrom
thepicturesquelifeofthePueblos.Inmostofhisworkanimalsare
animportantpartofhissubject.Hislandscapeswithcattleare
happilyrenderedandconspicuousforgooddrawing.Thelate
MRS.NIMMOMORANalsoattainedapositionofdistinction
asanetcher.Herworkisastrikingexampleofhowmuchcanbe
accomplishedwithsimpleundisguisedline,softenedonlybysuch
mellownessasthepaperandtheglowofrichinkswillgive.
WALTERL.LATHROPisanetcherwhoknowshowtomake
themostofline,andinhandlingittoshowmuchversatilegrace
andvariety.HissplendidseriesofConnecticutcountrylandscapes
areteemingwithbothtechnicalinterestandthecharmingatmosphere
ofapicturesquenativelocality.

American

JOSEPHPENNELLhasnotonlyshownhisabilityasanetcher,
butalsoasawriter.Asablackandwhitedraughtsmanfewmen
haveequalledhisoutputforthepasttwentyyears.Atthelast
ParisExhibitiontheonlygoldmedaloftheistclassawardedinthe
Americansectionfelltohimasanetcher.

MRS.ANNALEAMERRITTfirstattaineddistinctionasa
portraitpainter,andafterwardsasthewriterofthelifeofherlate
husband,HenryMerritt,artistandauthor.Sheturnedherattention
toetchingasameanssuitedtotheillustrationofherownwork.She
hasexecutedmanycharmingplates,principallyportraitsofdis
tinguishedmenandwomenofthetime,withanoccasionalplateot
riverscenery,landscape,orinterpretationsofherownpaintings.
HervigorousportraitsofMissEllenTerryandalargeheadofMr.
LeslieStephenarestrikingexamplesofgoodetching.
ELLENOAKFORDhasdonemuchthatisgoodinlandscape
etching;strongintonality,herworkhasmuchofthesubtleglowing
charmofmoistgrowthandoutdooratmosphere.Moreofan
exponentofpaintymassesthanofflowing,sparklinglines,herwork
isalwayssatisfyingandcharminginitsownespecialway.
ESSENTIALLYapractitionerofthebrilliantusesofline,the
workofEdithLoringGetchellisvigorous,originalandeffective
withoutaffectation.Shehaspractiseddrypointwithmuchsuccess,
andfoundhermotivesinHollandandFrance,aswellasinherown
NewEnglandscenery.Herhandisparticularlysympathetictoall
thatisbeautifulinfoliationandgrowthoftrees,atmosphericor
climaticconditionsoflight,andthosesubtletiesofnaturebestadapted
toexpressionwiththepoint.

D.SHAWMACLAUGHLANisanaccomplishedyoungartist
whofirststudiedintheusualacademiccourses,buthasfoundinthe
artofetchingaformofexpressionfarmoresuitedtohisartistic
bent.DeeplyconsciousofthetoweringgreatnessofRembrandt,
Durerandtheoldermastersofline,hehassethimselfthetaskof
learningallinhispowerofthegoodthatappealstohiminthe
worksofsuchgreatmen.Itfollowsthatsuchdevotedenthusiasm
toanidealisboundtoproducegoodwork;Mr.MacLaughlanhas
provedthisalreadybyhismanycharmingandvigorouslyoriginal
plates.AwellknownexhibitorbothinAmericaandEurope,
honoursandmedalshavealreadybeguntocometohim.Insuch
anacomplishedartistandconscientiousstudentofgoodetching,great
thingsmaybeexpectedfromhiscleverhandintheyearstocome.
ARTHURA.LEWISisanotheryoungartistwhoisdevotinghis
talentstothebestidealsofpureetching.Stronginhisuseofline,

American

heisalsomosthappyinachievingavelvetyrichnessinhiswork
withveryconscientiousandcleverstyleinhiscomposition.Heispar
ticularlyhappywithfiguresubjects.Keenlygraspingalltheessentials,
hedrawsthemwithcharminggraceandstrikingoriginalityofstyle.
GEORGEC.AIDstrikesamodern,gracefulnoteinhiswork,
permeatedwithmuchartisticthoughtandsympathywithnature.
Athoroughstudentofhisart,hehasmostconsistentlystudiedthe
subject,andpractiseswithconvictionandmuchpromiseforthefuture.

ITisnotsurprisingthatsotalentedawatercolourpainterand
illustratorasSidneyR.Burleighshouldturnhishandtoetching
withconspicuoussuccess.Withunusualrefinementofdraughtsman
shipandbrilliancyofhandlingsuchashepossessesinallmediums,
Mr.BurleighmightbeamongtheforemostofAmericanetchers.
CHARLESW.STETSONisanartistwhoisexceptionallygifted
withindividualityandpowerasacolourist.Morestronglyimaginative
thanmostmenofhisschool,whateverhetouchesisatoncemarked
withthoseindescribablequalitieswhichmakesuchworksstand
alone.Heisvoteda"genius"amonghisfriends,andsoheis;no
school,noteaching,nothingbutanaturalfundofdeeporiginality,
candowhathehasdonewithrich,deep,glowing,radiantcolour.
THElateThomasHovenden,whoreachedsuchaprominentposition
asapainterofAmericangenre,practisedetchingwithmuchsuccess.
Essentiallyanexponentofcharacter,hisfigureplateswerealways
handledwithbothbreadthandrichnessofdetail.
JULIANRIXasanetcherhasdonemanycleverplates,always
handledwithmuchfertilityoflineexpressionandwithsympathyfor
toneandrichcolour.

W.C.BAUERisstronginhisgraspoflandscapedrawinginallits
differentphases.Dignifiedincomposition,withanintimateknow
ledgeofhissubjects,hisplatesarealwaysseriouslymanagedand
pleasinginfinaleffects.

OTISWEBBER'Swork,richintonality,ishandledwitha
sympatheticlinewellexpressingthedifferentmoodsofnature.
C.F.W.MEILATZpossessesapowerofrenderingagreatvariety
ofsubjectmatterwithsuccess.Bulkandmassesofarchitecture,
characteristicsofstreets,peopleandbuildings,hesetsdownalways
withgraceandconviction.

THElateW.GoodrichBealwasmostaccomplishedinhisland
scapeplates;everytree,rock,hillside,cloud,orbitofforeground
foundconscientiousconsiderationfromhimastoitsplacing,size,
relationandcharacter.Hiscompositionswerealwaysmanagedwith
akeengraspoftherelationofallthepartstohismotive.

American

J.A.S.MONKShasdoneexcellentworkwiththeetchingneedle.
Abrilliantpainteroflandscape,sheepandcattle,hisetchingsare
basedonsolidknowledgeandarehandledwithskillandtaste.
EDMUNDH.GARRETT,painter,author,illustrator,and
designer,hasdevotedhimselftoetchingasameansofillustrating
acertainbeautifulseriesofbooks,andhasachievedhispurposewith
markedartisticability.

R.SWAINGIFFORDhasdonemanyexcellentplates,ashasalso
J.D.Smillie,whohassuccessfullydevotedhisabilitytomanypro
cessesline,softground,aquatint,mezzotint,anddrypoint.Oneof
theclassesattheNationalAcademyisemployedinetchingfromlife
underhisabledirection.

THOSEexcellentpainters,RobertBlumandW.Chase,areboth
accomplishedetchers,buthaveproducednothingrecently.
ROBERTF.BLOODGOODhasdonesomeveryartisticplates,two
ofwhichhewasgoodenoughtocontributetothisnumber.These,
togetherwithonebyE.H.Garrett,itwasfoundimpossibleto
reproducesatisfactorily,andtheywereregretfullyomitted.That
clevermarinepainter,CarltonChapman,alsosentsomeexcellent
things,asdidFrederickW.FreerandJ.A.S.Monks,allofwhich
unfortunatelyarrivedtoolatetobeincluded.

ITisnotpossibletoincludeherethenamesofallthosewhomight
justlyclaimmentionunderthetitleofAmericanetchers,neither
woulditserveanydefinitepurposetodoso.Thefollowingartists,
inadditiontothosealreadymentioned,havebeenmoreor
lessprominentasetchersatvarioustimesinthepastdecade,
andtheirexamplesandteachingswillbeapowerfulinflu
encetowardstherevivalofthisart,arevivalwhichnowseemsmore
possiblethanwasthecaseafewyearsago.

J.M.GAUGENGIGL,AlfredBrennan,J.W.Twachtman,
CharlesCorwin,C.A.Vanderhoof,BernardWalterPriestman,
GeorgeL.Brown,T.W.Wood,J.M.Falconer,F.S.Church,H.
Farrer,J.C.Nicoll,F.Dielman,H.P.Share,WalterSaterlee,Otto
Schneider,B.Lauder,HamiltonHamilton,ErnestHaskell,JamesS.

King,J.Lauber,SamuelColeman,FrankWaller,C.Volkmar,
ErnestC.Post,C.A.Walker,CharlesH.Woodbury,H.D.Murphy,
W.G.Glackens,W.H.H.Bicknell,FrankBicknell,SidneySmith,
H.R.Blaney,G.G.McCutcheon,FrankWaller,G.D.Clements,
ElliotDangerfield,KatherineLewin,W.H.Skelton,J.Fagin,
KrausmanVanElten,J.J.Calaghan,J.G.L.Ferris,FrankM.
Gregory,J.F.Sabin,W.St.J.Harper,StephenJ.Ferris,Herman
Hyneman,W.E.Marshall,C.F.Kimball,EricPape,andR.Coxe.

WillJenkins.

American

"CAMEONO.i."FROMTHE
ETCHINGBYJ.MCNEILL
WHISTLER

Plate2

American

Plate

4"TWILIGHT

FROMTHEETCHINGBYELLENOAKFORD

(BypermissionofMr.C.Kiackner)

American

Plate7"thehourofrest"

FROMTHEETCHINGBYPETERMORAN

(BypermissionofMr.C.Klackner)

American

Plate15"autumnonthepassaicriver"

FROMTHEETCHINGBYJULIANRIX

(BypermissionofMr.C.Klackner)

American

American

Plate17"studyofahead"
fromtheetchingbysydneyrichmondburleigh

Plate18"onthemerrimac'

FROMTHEETCHINGBYTHELATEW.GOODRICHBEAL

(BypermissionofMr.C.Klackner)

American

Plate19portraitoflouisagassiz
fromtheetchingbyannaleamerritt

Plate20"afisherman'sfortune'

FROMTHEETCHINGBYEDITHL.GETCHELL

(ByPermissionofMr.C.Klackner)

American

American

(BypermissionofMr.FrederickKeppel)

"THEMARKETSLIP,ST.JOHN,N.B.,
ATEBBTIDE."FROMTHEETCHING
BYCHARLESA.PLATT

Plate23

MODERNETCHING&ENGRAV
INGINFRANCE.ByGABRIEL
MOUREY.

URINGthepastfewyearsengravingonmetal
inFrancehasbeengoingthroughanevolution
analogoustothatinlithography.Etchingin
colourisgraduallyandalmostentirelyreplacing,
intheesteemofconnoisseurs,etchingstrictlyso
called,drypointetchinginmonochrome,and
theworkdonewiththeburinorgraver.Nor
hasitbeenotherwisewithlithography;public
tastehasrecentlyveeredroundtodrawingson
stone,ofwhichthemoreorlessaudacious,andmoreorlessrich
polychromaticeffects,constitutethesolemerit,sothatthestudiesin
monochromeofaSteinlenoraWilletteimpressmanyasbelonging

toatimelonggoneby.

INthecourseoftwoarticlesonColouredEtchingsinFrance,
whichappearedin"TheStudio"forFebruaryandMarch1901,I
endeavouredtodefineinafewwordsthedifferentmethodsfollowed
inthetechniqueofthisspecialbranchofart.MayIbepermitted
torevertheretoaquestioninterestingforsomanyreasonsnot
onlytoartiststhemselvesbuttoconnoisseursandcollectors?I
was,moreover,atconsiderablepainstomaketheinformationI
gavelastyearcomplete,byaddressingmyselftothemanwhois
bestacquaintedinFrance,ifnotinthewholeofEurope,with
thesecretsofetchingincolour.IalludetoEugeneDelatre,the
engraverandprinter,sonofAugusteDelatre,ofwhomCastagnary
justlysaidthatifhehadlivedatthetimeofRembrandt,thatgreat
etcherwouldnothavehadtotakeimpressionsofhisengravings
himself;AugusteDelatre,towhomFelicienRopswrotethat
curioustreatiseonGravureauvernismou,oretchingonasoft
ground,whichservesasanappendixtohisEauforte,PointeSeche
etVernismou(etching,drypoint,andsoftgroundetching),which
everyetcherorengraveroughttoread.

M.EUGENEDELATREwas,withM.CharlesMaurin,oneof
thefirstengraverstoyieldtothefascinationofetchingincolour;
heitiswhohasstruckoffthegreaternumberofetchingsincolour
whichhavesofarappeared,foratthepresentdayartistswhoprint
theirownetchingsarequiteintheminority.

c1

French

THEREarethreedistinctprocessesofetchingincolour.Inthe
firstonlyoneplateisused,thecolourislaidoninthemanner
knownasalapoupee*andthenumberofimpressionsthatmaybe
takenispracticallyillimitable.

INthesecondprocesstwoplatesareused,onefortheoutlineand
theshadows,theotherforthecolourorcolours,carebeingtakento
printfromtheplatewiththecolourfirst,andthatwiththeoutline
andshadowslast.

INthethirdprocessoneplateisrequiredforeachcolour,andasmany
impressionsaretakenasthereareplates;butIwastoldbyM.Delatre
thatwithfourplateseverycombinationofcolourcanbeobtained.
THEREstillremainsthesocalledmonotypeprocess,whichis,asis
wellknown,apaintingonmetal,generallyoncopper,whichispassed
throughthepressbeforethecolouriscompletelydry.Itwould
appearthatmonotypescanalsobeproducedonzinc.Thedrawing
isdonewithlithographicchalk,andsimilarcolouringisusedasin
etchingincolouralapoupee.Thechalkdrawingcanonlybearthe
takingoffiveorsiximpressionsatthemost,fortheoutlinesbecome
moreandmoreeffacedineachproof.

FORreasonswhichwillbereadilyappreciatedIwillnotdwell
longeronthesetechnicalquestions.Thosewhoactuallypractise
anycrafthave,ofcourse,anexperienceimpossibletoanoutsider,and
thecriticwhopretendstobringhispersonalopiniontobearonthe
subject,layshimselfopentoachargeofpedantry.Andafterallwhat
dotheprocessesemployedmatter?itistheresultswhichcount,the
resultswhichspeakforthemselves,anditisourmissiontostatewhat
thoseresultsare.Theartoftheengraverisindeedofallthegraphic
artsthemostinvolvedinmystery,themostunique,and,atthe
sametime,onaccountofitsinfiniteresources,themostwidereaching
initsresults.WhatagulfyawnsbetweenthestyleofaMeryonand
aGaillard,aLepereandaRops,aJacquemartandaWhistler,a
BraquemondandaHelleu."Menachievegoodresults,"saysFelicien
RopsinthelettertoAugusteDelatre,alludedtoabove,"bytheuse
ofthemostdiverse,themostoppositemeans.Thatwhichsuitsone
willnotsuitanother.Ithinkmuchthesamemaybesaidofall
dogmas,academicformulasandrecipesforsuccessasthedictumofa
celebrateddoctor,who,aftergivingitduetrial,declaredofaremedy
forcholerathatitwasexcellentformasonsbututterlybadfor
cabinetmakers."

AMONGSTtheengraverswhohavedevotedthemselvesmostexclu

*Thepoupeeordollisabunchofragsusedinthisprocess.

French

sivelytomonochromaticetchingafirstplacemustbegivento
AugusteLepere.Ihavenofearthatanyartistorconnoisseurwill
reproachmefornaminghimasoneofthemastersofFrenchetching,
ifnotthemasterparexcellenceoftheday.Lepereisincomparable
inhisknowledgeofhowtoexpressmotionandlife,heisadraughts
manofthehighestrank,andhasamostadmirablegraspoftechnique.
Everyfreshplateengravedbyhimproveshimtobeayetmore
completemasterofhiscraft,andshowsthathisoutlookisever
widening,hisexecutionevergainingfreshease,hisartbecoming
evermoreandmoreoriginalandpersonal.Theseriesofetchings
hebroughtbackfromHollandlastyearisanillustrationofthe
constantprogressIhavedescribed.Howevergreattheexcellence
attainedbyLepereinhiswonderfulengravingswearequitesureto
findhimtakingonestepfurtherinadvanceinhisnextproductions.
HowexquisitelybeautifularehisviewsofAmsterdam;whatlife,
whatgo,thereisinthem;whatdecisionoftouch,whatvarietyof
effectinthebitingin;whatintensityofcolourtheydisplay.
WEdiscussedsorecentlyin"TheStudio"thetalentofM.Edgar
Chahinethatitisnotdesirabletosaymoreherethanisnecessary
todojusticetothemorerecentplatesofthatveryoriginalartist.
HisPortraitofMdlle.Delvair,oftheComedieFrancaise,whichis
fullofrefinementandinsightintocharacter,theFeatherBoaand
Jahy,thelastrepresentingtheexquisitefaceofayounggirlleaning
onherelbowandrestingherchinonherhands,herbeautifullight
haircrownedbyabiggreyhat,provehimtobeendowedwiththe
greatestversatility.Buthoweversensiblehemaybeofthecharms
ofthewomenoftheday,EdgarChahineisnolesssuccessfulinhis
studyoftypicalscenesinpopularresorts.

THEREis,perhaps,lesssharpnessanddistinctnessabouttheParis
scenesofEugeneBejot,buttheyareevenmorepleasing.Heexcels
incatchingmomentaryeffects,especiallyonthebanksoftheSeine,
whicharefullofunexpectedsurprisesincolourandperspective.
GUSTAVELEHEUTREisanotherartistdevotedtocharacteristic
cityscenes:theoldstreetsandquaintoldhouses,&c,whichhe
seeswiththetrueetcher'seye,withthedrypoint,sotospeak,and
hehasproducedanumberofetchingsfullofcharm.Aconscientious
draughtsman,hewieldstheetchingtoolswithadelicacyofexecution
combinedwithadecisionoftouchwhichoftenresultinthepro
ductionofrealmasterpieces.Howdelightful,forinstance,arehis
MaisondeGarde,TanneriesaMontargis,VImpasseGambey,Troyesy
Eclusedu^report,andBateauxparisiensaAuteuil,fullastheyareof
audaciouseffectsofperspective.

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HELLEUisaseverthefascinatingwielderofthediamondpoint
whomweallknowsowell,themasterlyinterpreterofthegrace
andeleganceofthefashionablewomanoftheday.Wearenever
Wearyofadmiringhim,forheisalways,ashasbeenjustlysaid,
equaltohimself;nay,evensuperiortohimself.Whatcouldbe

moreexquisitethanhisrecentstudiesoftheDuchessofM,one

ofthegreatladiesoftheEnglisharistocracy,especiallythatof

LaDuchessedeMEndormie,withherfavouritefoxterrieronher

knees;or,toquoteanotherexample,thestudyofMme.MadeleineC,

fulloftypicallyParisiandistinction;or,again,thatmostadmirable
sceneofmaternalaffection,yeanHelleuembrasseparsaMere,and
LesSaxes,whichisafittingpendanttothecelebrateddrypoint
calledtheDessinsdeWatteauauLouvre.

GREATindeedandfullofstrangefascinationisthecontrastwhen
weturnfromHelleutoconsidertheworkofSteinlen,fullasitis
ofprofoundmelancholy,eventragedy;for,withhisdeepinsight
intothelifeofthepeopleofParis,hetransportsusintothevery
atmosphereofthefaubourgs,revealingtheviceandmiseryunder
lyingthebrilliantsocietyofthecapital.

STEINLENis,inmyopinion,especiallysuccessfulinhisetchings

inblackandwhite.HisAmoureuxdeVillage,PauvreHere,LeBouge,
RentreeduTravail,AConcertintheStreet,andcertainofhisland
scapes,suchastheEffetdeSoleilcouchantsurunPont,areespecially
noteworthy,sofullaretheyofentrancingcharm.Theseetchings,
infact,simplypalpitatewithtruthandemotion;theirdrawingand
compositionarealikeexcellent.

VERYdifferentinstyle,butequallysincereintheirinterpretation
ofnature,aretheengravingsoftheDutchman,M.P.Dupont,who
residesinParis,andonthataccounthasarightwiththeArmenian,
M.Chahine,tobenoticedhere.

M.DUPONThasassimilatedthetechniqueoftheGermanmasters
inengravingofthefifteenthandsixteenthcenturieswithrareskill
andintelligence,butatthesametimehehasgivenathoroughly
personalimpresstohisownwork.ExceptforoneAmsterdam
scene,theGrooteToren,Ihavescarcelyseenanythingofhisbut
studiesofhorsesallstrongdrayorfarmanimalsnotablyThe
FallenHorse,UOutillage,andtheChevaltnangeant.Inthemtheartist
hasshownhimselfthoroughlyintouchwithhissubjects,interpreting
ineachcaseexpression,gesture,attitudeinawordthespecialego
ofeveryoneofhismodelswithareallytouchingtenderness;for
hishorses,whetherintheopencountryoronthequaysof
Paris,arefullofindividuallifeandcharacter.M.Dupontis,

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infact,anartistofthefirstrank,andhisnamedeservestobe
remembered.

INhisetchingsinblackandwhiteandincolourCharlesHuard
continuestointerpretwithgreatsuccessthelifeoffisherfolk,
sailors,oldcountrywomen,andothertypesofprovinciallife,
observingtheirpeculiaritieswithinfinitecare.HisVieilleFemme
reprisantpresd'unefenetreandIntheSnowatBelAirareamongstthe
bestofhissignedworks.

M.GASTONEY'CHENNEhasalsoproducedsomestudiesof
animalswhicharereallylittlemasterpieces.HisLaCarpe,Papillon
jaune,andPetitePantherearespeciallynoteworthy.Heisathorough
loverofdelicateandsubtleeffectsofcolour,anearneststudentof
nature,andeverythingfromhishandhasapermanentcharmof
itsown.[Aswegotopresswehaveheard,withthegreatest
regret,ofthedeath,attheearlyageoftwentynineyears,ofthis
verytalentedandsympatheticartist.Editor.]

M.CHARLESHOUDARDconfineshimselfmoreandmorestrictly
astimegoesontotheeffectsofsunset,inwhichhehasattainedsuch
wonderfulrichnessofcolouring.

M.MULLERisanartistofconsiderablepowerandversatility.
Hisportraitsofactresses,especiallythatofCleodeMerode,arevery
quaint.Formyself,however,IpreferhisBaigneusesouslesSaules;
RueSt.VincentawintersnoweffectfullofforceandcharmPort
duPollet,andhisPromenadeaHydePark,etchingsincolourin
whichhehasobtainedeffectsofraredelicacyandsubtlerefinement.
M.CHARLESMAURINisoneoftheveryfewartistswhohas
attemptedtotreatthenudefigureinthemediumofetching.His
morningandeveningtoilettesofyounggirls,hisstudiesofgirlsor
womenbathing,chattingtogetherindeshabilleintheprivacyof
theirownrooms,andscenesfromthehomelifeofmothersand
children,arefullofthegreatestcharm.TheonlyfaultIhaveto
findwiththemisthattheyare,perhaps,toopreciseindrawingand
incolouring,butsomefewofthemhavealltheinterestofthemost
charminggenrepaintings,notablytheRubandeCoiffure,Nouvelle
educationsentimentale,PremiereToilette,andtheBaindelafillette.
M.MANUELROBBEpossessesintheveryhighestdegreethe
samemasteryoftechniqueasM.CharlesMaurin,butheisless
perfectasadraughtsman.Someofhissignedproofsarefullof
incomparablecharm,especially,inmyopinion,thoseinwhichthere
istheleastcolourLacritique,forinstance,inwhichayoungwoman
isstandinginadelightfulposeinfrontofaneasel.TheDameala
chaiselonguealsopleasesmegreatly.TheversatilityofM.Robbe's

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talentisjustasclearlydisplayedasinhisscenesofintimatehome
lifeinhislandscapeswithfigures,suchastheMarcheaMontmartre,
DanslePare,LeverdeLune,theVieilArbre,andAuxchamps,allfine
renderingsoftypicaloutdoorsubjectsfullofadmirableeffectsoflight.
THEscenesofParisianlifeofM.RichardRanftarefullofhumour
andimagination.InsuchtypicalworksashisMarchealaVolatile
andLaCharretteanglaisehedelightsinstrikingschemesofcolour*
fullofcheerfulharmony.

M.FRANCISJOURDAINcontinuestoseekhiseffectsby
contrastingmassesofdarktone,achievingevermorestrikingand
impressiveresults,butatthesametimealwaysretainingthedecorative
characterofhiswork.Asanetcherincoloursheoccupiesanunique
position,andIknownothingmorecharmingthanhisFemmedans
rOmbre,Femmelisant,orhisFemmeaucanape,thelastacharming
studyingreyandpink,relievedbythedullgoldofthehairandthe
softblackofthevelvetcollar.

M.BERNARDDEMONVELhasproduceditltleduringthelast
year.IfIamnotmistakenonlytwoplates,namely,theBarone
ofthosecuriousstudiestowhichheoweshiscelebrityandhis
BeforetheStorm,whichresemblesalittletoomuchhisHaleursy
althoughthecolouringisdifferent.

THEplatesengravedbyM.EugeneDelatrearesimplyperfect,so
wonderfullystrongishistechnique.Inmyopinion,itwouldbe
quiteimpossibleforanyonetoattaintogreaterdelicacy,refinement,
softness,anddepthoftone.Itisanabsolutedelighttoturnoverhis
seriesofLandscapes,vibratingwiththelightofearlymorningwith
themistsofthedawnstillclingingtothem.Tocitebutafew*
howcharmingaretheEntreeduVillagedeSaintJulienlePauvre,the
MoulindeUTLpais,thePommiers,andtheBrumessurlaSarthe.Very
different,butequallystriking,arethePontSoljerino,anighteffect,,
withthelightsreflectedinthehumidgloomofthereddishfog;and
mostcharmingarethetwostudiesofcats,MoumouneandMarquis,
whilstintheVieilleFemmeauxChatsisdisplayedinanequaldegree
thewonderfulinsightintocharacterandpowerofobservationwhich
distinguishsomanyfineworksfromthehandofM.EugeneDelatre.
AMONGSTthemorerecentplatesofM.JacquesVillon,allof
whoseworkbearstheimpressofdistinction,themostpleasingare
thoseinwhichhecontentshimselfwithsimpleeffectsofcolour,in
otherwordsthosewhicharetheleastpolychromatic.Specially
noticeablearehisParisienneseatedinapinkarmchair,withherface
turnedawayfromthespectator,thewholesubjectveiledinakindof
greyhaze,fromwhichemergestheexquisitelydelicateandrefined

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profileoftheyounggirl,andthatmostdaintystudy,fullofthe
eleganceoftheSecondEmpire,LesPremiersBeauxyours,withthe
figureinthebluesucharavishingbluecostume;veryamusingtoo
aretheplatestowhichtheartisthasgiventhenamesoftheNegre
enbonneFortune,theCabaretdeNuit,andtheOmbrellerouge.
THEimpressionistpainterM.Dezaunayendeavours,withmarked
success,togivetohisetchingsthesamefreshnessandbrightnessof
colourasdistinguishhiscanvases.HisstudiesofBretonwomen,
suchasthePaysannedeRosporden,thePetitemendiantedePleyben,and
theFemmeetJillettedePloogastelDaoulas,aresimplydelightful.
TOM.Dubucweowesomeverypowerfulstudiesinetchingofsea
effects.NowherenderswithrareskillinhisMourillonthegleam
ingluminousMediterranean,asascintillatingstretchofbluewater,
nowhebecomestragicandgrandinhisVaisseaudeGuerre,amighty
manofwar,breakingthehugewavesoftheoceanatnight,withits
smoketrailingbehinditanditslampsallaglow.
EQUALLYhighlymustbecommendedthelandscapesofM.E.
Viala,etchingsinblackandwhite,orveryslightlytingedwith
colour.Theyareallcharacterisedbybroadmassesoftone,and
thereisaboutthemacertainmysteryreflectingtheirartist'speculiar
modeoflookingatnature.TheplatecalledHumblesTerresisa
noteworthyexampleofM.Viala'sspecialexcellences.
M.ROUXCHAMPIONseeshissubjectsinalessromanticandless
cheerfullight.HisPardonisoneofhismostsuccessfulefForts,and,
inmyopinion,thereismuchtoadmireinthecolouringoftheRobes
rouges,theMoulin,andthepleasingimpressionistviewofthe"Jardin
duLuxembourg.

M.HENRIPAILLARD,theillustratorofBrugeslamorte,is
evidentlynotverymuchinlovewiththeprocessofetchingin
colour.HisQuaisdelaSeine,however,isaverypleasingplate,but
itiseasytoseethattheartistismoreathomeinblackandwhite
engraving.

M.L.PIVET'SCoqisasuccessfulbitofdecorativeworkin
harmoniouscolouring;M.SchullerinhisDeuxCoqs,andM.J.
AngelvyinthetwoplatescalledDebutsandFind'unMaraudeur,have
turnedtheresourcesofpolychromaticetchingtoverygoodeffect
intheirrenderingsofanimals.

MANYotherworksdeserverecognitionandexamination,fullas
theyareofinterestalikefromthepointofviewoftheirartisticandof
theirtechnicalvalue.Imustbecontent,however,withmentioning
thefinestudiesofwomenbyM.GastonDarbour,especiallythe
Parisienneinareddresslookingatadrawing;theDameauHibou;

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theInteneurforainalaFoiredeNeuillybyM.Betout,displaying
considerableobservationandskillofexecution;theexquisiteScene
d'InterieurofM.V.Dupont,inwhichamotherisseatedsewingnear
herchildperchedinahighchair;thefinestudiesofflowersby
Mdlle.Voruz,whichareperhapsrathertooJapaneseinstyle;the
seriesoftypicalinhabitantsandscenesfromthestreetbySunyer,
notablythePlacedeFAbreuvoiraMontmartre,GroupesassisauLuxem
bourg,whichrecallnotveryhappilythemannerofSteinlen;the
landscapesofM.A.Lafitte,suchasSoiraOnival;thePromenadeaprer
laCoursebyM.R.Canals,acharacteristicSpanishscene;theland
scapesofthesouthofFrancebyM.RalliScaramang,which
vibratewithlifeandcharacter;thestudiesofwomenbyM.E.
Roustan,interestingalthoughtheexecutionisratherfeeble;andthe
PaysageduBourbonnaisofM.P.Maud.Lastly,Imustnotomitto
mentionespeciallytherecentengravingsincolourofM.Auguste
Delatre,theSolitudeMarais,thebeautifulMoonlightEffectinScotland^
andabovealltheStormEffect,amagnificentetchinginblackandwhite,
inwhichthismasterinengravinghasattainedtoatragicgrandeur
trulyadmirable.

WHATrichandvariedresultshavebeenachievedinthisnewartof
etchingincolour,howmanyartistsofwidelydifferingtemperaments
havebeenenticedtoproducebyitsmeansworksstampedwiththeir
ownindividuality!Inthecollectionsofengravingsandmuseumsof
thefutureanimportantplacewillbeoccupiedbyetchingsincolour.
Frenchengraversmaywellpridethemselvesonhavingwidenedthe
fieldofmonochromaticengravingonmetal,andofhavingrevivedthe
artofpolychromaticetching;inaword,ofhavingconverteditintoa
prolificandsuppleprocess,lendingitselftoaninfinitevarietyof
expression,andcapableofbeingadaptedtoeverykindofartistic
temperament,everypeculiarityofstyle.

INconclusion,letusofferourbestthankstoM.Ed.SagotandM.
CharlesHessele,theownersorpublishersofthevariousetchings*
reproductionsfromwhichformtheillustrationsofthisarticle.

GabrielMourey.

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MODERNETCHING8?ENGRAV
INGINGERMANY.ByHANSW.
SINGER.

HEREwasarenaissanceofetchingin
Germany,asofmostoftheotherformsof
art,duringthelastquarteroflastcentury.
Amongthemenwhopliedthepointseriously
beforethen,andstillremainintheforemost
ranks,C.A.MeyerBaselandP.Halmare
perhapsthebest.Bothareknownbyalarge
numberofdelicatelandscapes,showingviews
ofSuabia,thenorthernboundarylinesof
SwitzerlandaroundLakeConstance,andsimilarregions,seenwithan
eyewhichdoesnotfeelattractedtolandscapeinitsaspectsof
grandeurorinitsromanticphases,butwhichlovesnaturepureand
simple,evenifitbebutafewstepsbeyondthegatesofacity.
OFthetwoHalmhassomespecialclaimsuponourinterest,even
aboveMeyerBasel.Hehaswithexcellentfidelityandgracerepro
ducedtheworkofotherartists,anddesignedornamentalwork.One
ofthebestproofsofhisabilitiesinthisdirectionistobefoundinthe
magnificentvolumesdealingwiththecollectionsofFredericthe
Great,whichwereonexhibitintheGermanPavilionoftheParis
Exhibitionof1900.MoreoverHalmis,afterafashion,inspiteof
hiscomparativeyouth,theNestorofmodernetching.
FORitwashewhogavetechnicalinstruction,asafriend,toKarl
StaufFerBern,andonthepathuponwhichStaufFerledthereafter
wardsfollowedKlinger.ToKlinger'sgenius,again,aswellas
tohissuccess,whichcalledforthawidespreadinterestintheart,the
recentrevivalisdue.

STAUFFERcommencedasaportraitpainterandetcher.Hewas
asculptoratheart,butunfortunatelyhedidnotfindthatoutmuch
beforethecalamitybefellhimwhichendedhislife.The
wearisome,torturingprocessofelaboratinghisownideal,offinding
thedirectioninwhichhistechnicaltalentandthebentofhis
geniuslay,wasallevolvedonthefieldofetching.Hehadakeen
eyeforform,lovedtofolloweachslightelevationanddepression,and
continuallysoughtforthebestmeanstowardsafullandconscientious
expressionofform.Thiscausedhimfirsttodropthestronglinein
etching,thentorelinquishthepointaltogetherandtotakeupthe.

d1

German

graverinitsplace.Buthedidnotuseitinthemanneredfashionto
whichthethoughtlesssuccessorsofMercuriandToschihadreduced
it.Hegaveuptheset"system"andusedthegraverwithasmuch
freedomasetchersdothepoint.Thedifferenceineffectisthat
thequalityofhisdelicatelinehelpshimtoobtaineffectsofpre
cisionand"colour"thatthepointandbittenlinedonotyield.As
anattainmentinthedirectionofsuperb"modelling,"suchplatesas
Stauffer'sportraitofhismotherandtherecliningnudemodel,have
rarelybeensurpassed.

KLINGER,originallyanetcherintruespirit,underwenttransforma
tionslikeStauffer,buthaslivedtocompletethem.He,too,inthe
endhasbecomeasculptoratheart.Whenhewasyoungthe
exuberanceofhisfancyimpelledhimtotaketoetchingandpendraw
ing,forhehadmoreideas,allstrugglingtobeputtothetest,than
hecouldcomfortablyhavepainted.Fromthestandpointofthe
connoisseurofetchingpureandsimple,Klinger'searliestwork,such
asthesetsonOvidandthefableofCupidandPsyche,arethemost
pleasing.Theyaretantalisinglyfullofoddfancies,butthis"literary"
characterisneverthelesskeptinthebackground.Thelatterseries,
suchastheStoryofaLove,StoryofaLife,OnDeath,areover
whelmingaslucubrationsofamindthatmustbetakenseriously.
Yetheisbeginningtoneglecthisstyle,owingtotheearnestness
withwhichheendeavourstoenforcewhathehastosay.Thelatest
series,abovealltheBrahmsphantasie,consideredaspureart,showa
decline.Hispowersasadraughtsmanareasgreatasever,hisfancy
asvividandpowerfulasbefore,yethiscrafthasfallenofflamentably.
Hecombinesononeplatemethodsthatlackharmony.Hekeeps
thedesiredeffectinview,andmakesforitwithoutconsideringthe
characterofhismedium.NowthatKlingerhasturnedsculptor
altogether,hehaslostthepatience,conscientiousness,andlightnessof
handwhichcharacterisedtheearlyperiodofhiscareer.
OFthemenwhomheparticularlyimpressed,Greiner,Kolbe,Dasio,
andHofer,nonebutDasiohasdevotedmuchtimetoengravingand
etching.Dasiohasdonenotablework;buthehasallowedhimself
tobecarriedawaybyasortofspiritofromancewhichdelightsin
paradingadegreeofculturegreaterthanhereallypossesses.And
inpresentinghisallegories,hisphilosophicalsets,hehasneglected
todevotesufficienttimetothetechnicalpartofhisartandtohis
draughtsmanship.

THEREarenoschoolsofetchinginGermany,anymorethanthere
formerlywere.Moremenapplythemselvestoit,andthequalityas
wellasquantityofworkproducedisverymuchhigherthanitwas

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sometwentyfiveyearsago.Yeteveryonegoeshisownway,more
orless.Muchoftheworkisinteresting.Itshowsuspainters
strivingafteraimssimilartothosetheyhavealreadyachieved
withthebrush.Uponthewhole,veryfewmenetchfromanetcher's
standpointpureandsimple.AmongthemtheDresdenartistsUnger,
Fischer,andPietschmannareinthelead.Theirworkrunsmorethan
anyotheruponthelinesthatlegitimateetchinghasfollowed,since
thedaysofCallot;itismostlikethatoftheirEnglishcomrades.
Theyhaveatruesenseofthevalueofpowerandline.Theyemploy
thesimplestraightforwardprocess,anddonotfritterawaytimewith
experimentsinsearchofneweffects.Fischerhasproducedsome
verybeautifullandscapes,sketchesfromthebanksoftheElbe,from
theshoresoftheBalticatBornholmorRiigen,andfromtheheights
oftheSilesianMountains.Therearefewamongusthathaveso
muchsenseforasimple,grandstyleashe.

THEHamburgartistsaretheveryreverse.Theystudiedfrom
booksallthemethodsandtricksofthetrade.Theyhaveproduced
notverymany,butverycleverplates,anddisplaydextrousfeatssuchas
otheretchershavearrivedatonlyafteryearsofwork.Yetthisisthe
bestonecansayofEitner,lilies,Kayser,&c.Perhapstheyhave
beentooapt,tooclever.Theyhavesuckedtheorangeofetchingand
seemtohavefounditdryverysoon,fortheyhavealmostgivenit
upalready.Seriousartpresupposesearnestwork;thatisbeyond
dispute.Themanwhogetsnohelp,whohastofindouttheways
andmeansallforhimself,generallyproducesthemostlastingwork,
andstickstowhathehaslearned.TheseHamburgartistshavefound
lifetooeasy.

ATBerlinwefindthetwobestreproductiveetcherswemaysafely
sayitinallEurope,A.KriigerandK.Koepping.Koepping'setchings
ofRembrandt,FransHals,andMunkacsyhavegainedhimworldwide
fame.Thereisnothingtoequalit.Hepreservesnotonlythe
characterofthepainter'swork,butimageseventhequalityofthe
brushwork,nay,eventhestateofpreservationofthepicturebefore
him.BothKriigerandKoeppinghaveattemptedoriginalwork,
huthavefailedtoattractasmuchapplausewithitaswiththeirother
productions.

ATBerlin,too,wefindMaxLiebermann,certainlyamostinteresting
artist.Ifweadmitthatsuchathingaspleinairorimpressionist

etchingisfeasiblewemustadmitthatLiebermannhasattainedtoit.
SuchplatesastheCartintheDowns,theGirlHerdingGoats,theBeer
gardeninRosenheim,theDutchGirlsSewinginaLittleGarden,are
.astonishingandinterestingenough.I,formypart,preferanumber

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ofdelicatedrypointsonzincbyLiebermann,littleDutchviews,
whichbetrayafinesenseofthebeautyofthematerialsemployed.
LEISTIKOW,ofBerlinalso,turnsetchingintoanaltogetherdecora
tiveart,justashedoespainting.Hisstyle,farremovedfrom
naturalism,isverypersonalandengaging,fromthefactthathesimpli
fiesnotonlythecoloursbutalsotheformsofnature.
THEworkofMrs.Kollwitzisthelastonewouldexpectfroma
woman.Thereisallbutbrutalrealisminherdelineationofthe
lowesttypesofhumanityYetsuchpowerfulcreationsasthe
weirddanceabouttheGuillotinearewonderfullyimpressive.Unfor
tunatelymostofherplatestheseriesontheWeavers,theRiot,&c,
savourtoomuchofpolitics.

ATKarlsruhethereareThomaandKalckreuth,whohaveetcheda
gooddeal.Whatinterestsusintheirplatesisthepainter,orrather
theartist,whomweknowthroughhispaintings.Theyhavenotas
yetturnedoutworkthataddsanyimportantnewtouchestotheir
characteristicsaswealreadyknowthem.Itisthesamewiththelate
Leibl,orwithStuck,orwithMenzeleven.Wewouldnotcare
tomisstheiretchings,andyetwhenwepassjudgmentontheseartists,
ouropinionoftheiretchingswillnotweighheavilywithus.Stuck,
perhaps,ofallthefivetouchesusnearest.HisPoolinaTroutStream
isabeautifulplate,makingthemostofawonderfultechnique.
BeforeleavingKarlsruhemention,atleast,shouldbemadeof
WaltherConz.

MUNICH,onceuponatimetheundoubtedmetropolisofGermanart,
strangetosay,hasnevergivenbirthtoaschoolofetchersinanyway
comparablewiththatofitspainters.Oneofthemostinterestingamong
theyoungermen,HeinrichWolff,receivedacalltoKonigsberg,
justwhenhewasbeginningtobeknown.Hehasdoneportraits
principally,andhasusedtherouletteinanextremelyinterestingway.
Hegenbart,whohasjustbeguntoworkuponthisfield,promisesto
succeedexcellently,whenwekeepinmindwhathehasalready
achievedwithhisfirstfewplates.Hehasdonedelicatelinework,
slightlytooreminiscentofpurepenandinkdrawing,buthehasalso
completedsomeexcellentsurfacework,notablytheReadyforFlight*
THOSEetcherswhoprefertoemploysurfacetechniques,andaim
atthepictorialchiaroscuroofthepainters,areeitherMunichmen
ortraceabletoMunichinfluence.Theyarealllandscapists,andI
shouldplaceGampert,withhisfinemoorlandscenes,attheheadof
thelist.Grafapproacheshimclosely;sodoesPankok,who
employsmezzotint,whereastheothertwouseaquatintandsoftground
etchingpreferably.The"Worpswede"artists,Mackensenand

German

Overbeckwouldfallwithinorneartothiscategory,atleastas
regardstheiraimifnottheirtechnique,whichisprincipallypure
lineetchingdependinguponthehelpoftheprinterandofretroussage
forthetonality,,

THEREare,ofcourse,alsolinelandscapeetcherssuchasUbbelohde,
whohasproducedbeautiful,sunnywork,withsweepingstrokes,great
delicacy,andawellthoughtouttranslationofthesurfacesinnature
intoaschemeofline.RaschandHagen,ofWeimar,aswellas
Hirzel,whoisatthesametimeawellknownbookplateetcher,show
moreorlesssimilaritytoUbbelohde.

PERHAPSIoughtnottopassbyGeygerandR.Muller,and
Vogeler,thelatterofwhomhasproducedanumberofwellknown
platesbuttheyareaffectedandsingularlyweakinsentiment.
Geygerisremarkablyskilful;butthishasledhimintosogreata
degreeofoverfinishthatsomeofhislaterworkisalmostpainfulto
behold.R.Midler'sabsolutewantoffancyorrefinedconception
unfortunatelyrenderhistechnicallyexcellentplatesasdevoidof
interestasphotogravures.


THESEarethenamesofthegreaterpart,though,ofcourse,notall
ofthemodernGermanetchers.Uponthewholetheywillbear
comparisonwiththoseofothercountrieswellenough.Ifthereis
notsomuchfeelingforpurityofstyleinevidenceastheremightbe,
thisis,perhaps,somewhatcounterbalancedbythegreatvariety
andfreshnesstobefoundinGermanworkoftheday.There
hasbeenlessofimitationandmoreoforiginalityinrecentGerman
etchingandengravingthaninanyoftheotherformsofGermanart

HansW.Singer.

German

Plate3"anidyll'

FROMTHEDRYPOINTBYHANSTHOMA

"THEREAPERS."FROMTHE
ETCHINGBYLEOPOLDCOUNT
KALCKREUTH

Plate4

German

"INTHEORCHARD"FROMTHE
AQUATINTBYOSCARGRAF
Plate5

German

Plateg"nearstarnbekgi:

FROMTHEETCHINGBYC.T.MEYERBASEL.

"APOOLINATROUTSTREAM."FROM
THEETCHINGBYFRANZSTUCK

Plateio

German

Plateii"ariversceneaftersundown"fromtheetchingbyottogampert

Plate12"adamandeve,satananddeath"fromtheetchingbymaxklinger

German

Plate17"theviolinist

FROMTHEMIXEDETCHINGBYBERNHARDPANKOK

"ARTANDMAMMON."ETCHEDAND
AQUATINTEDBYFRITZHEGENBART

Plate19

"ROCKSONTHEISLANDOF
RUGEN."FROMTHEAQUA
TINTBYOTTOFISCHER

Plate22

"THEREADER."FROMTHE
ETCHINGBYPETERHALM

Plate23

German

Plate25"returninghomeinthesnow

FROMTHEDRYPOINTBYARTHURILLIES

MODERNETCHING&ENGRAV
INGINAUSTRIA.ByWILHELM
SCHOLERMANN.

^RODERNArtinAustria,properlyspeaking,is
butayoungthoughrapidlygrowingplantof
recentcultivationandsuccess.Its"nativity,"
ifImaybeallowedtousetheterminits
twofoldsense,scarcelydatesbackmorethan
halfadecade.Evenaslateas1896,whenthe
greatInternationalExhibitionofGraphicArt
tookplaceatVienna,Austrianetchers,withthe
exceptionofafewengraversoftheoldmasters,
wereconspicuousbytheirabsence.Itisnotsurprising,therefore,if
wefindthatthenoblestbranchofthegraphicarts,which,perhaps,
aboveallothersisbaseduponsevereandtimehonouredtradition
theworkofthesteelpointuponthecopperplatehasnotranked
foremostamongthelatterproductionsofAustrianartists.
THEREmay,perhaps,befoundstillanother,andevenmorepsycho
logicalexplanationtoaccountforthis.Theaveragetalentofthe
Austrianartisthisartistictemperamentlies,onthewhole,ina
differentdirection.Itisinthefreedevelopmentoffancyandtaste,
inthehappyadaptationofformandcolourtodecorativepurposes,
thathegenerallyfindsthebestopportunityfordevelopinghispowers.
Heisaborndecorator.Severeandpenetrativeartisticconceptions
arenot,asarulehisstrongestside;buthedelightsinmulti
colouredpageantsafieldnotaltogetherencouragingforthedevelop
mentofthegentleandpatientartofetching.


MOREOVER,thatessentiallymodernphaseofetching,which,
whileunitingthehardanddiggingscrapeoftheburinorthelighter
strokeofthedrypointwithavarietyofdaintycolourschemes,has
contributedsolargelytotheperfectionofcolourprintingoflate
aprocesssosuccessfullyinitiatedbyFrenchartistsofhighrankthis
newprocessofcolouredetchinghasnot,tomyknowledge,beenhitherto
practisedtoanyextentbylivingpainteretchersinAustria.Yetthe
movementseemseveninViennatogaingroundbydegrees,though
limitedforthepresenttoreproductiveengraving.
WILLIAMUNGER,thoughnotanAustrianbybirth,hastaken
uphisabodeintheAustriancapital,andholdsaprofessorship
attheViennaAcademyofFineArts.Hisetchings,aftertheold

Austrian

DutchandFlemishmasters,RembrandtandRubensinparticular,
areuniversallyappreciated,thoughitmustbeadmittedthattheyare
notallofequalstrengthandvalue,someofhisnumerousplates
failingtodofulljusticetothebreadthandspiritoftheoriginals,
whileothersareextremelygood.HislargeplateafterTitian's
paintingofthesocalledHimmlischeundIrdischeLiebe(Profaneand
DivineLove)maybenamedamonghismostsuccessfultransmuta
tionsofcolourintothemelloweffectsofthemezzotintplate.
PROFESSORUNGERisgenerallyregardedasthesenioretcher
andtutorofagenerationofgifted"juniors."Infacthehasinspired
quiteanumberofyoungermentoworkwiththeengraver'stools,
anditwouldappear,fromtheentirelyindependentwayinwhich
severalofhispupilsandfriendshavedevelopedindifferentdirections,
thathistuitionandadvicehavenotexercisedanyrestrictiveinfluence
upontheindividualityofthetalentsplacedunderhiscare,but,on
thecontrary,havebeenhelpfulinallowingfreescopeforeachtalent
tofinditsownwaybyfollowingitspeculiarinclinations.
AMONGtheyoungergeneration,Mr.AlfredCossmann,apupilof
Unger,hasbeendevelopinghistalentinadecidedlyindividual
manner.Hewasbornin1870atGrazintheSteirmark,and,after
studyingattheSchoolofArtsandCraftsoftheOesterreichische
MuseumfurKunstundIndustrieinViennaprincipallyinthe
ceramicdepartmenthebeganetchingunderProf.Unger'sdirections,
andhasnowbeenworkingindependentlyforthelastthreeyears,
afterastrictcourseoftechnicaltraininginthevariousmethodsof
reproductiveengraving.

INtheplateentitledATumultA?iunluckyDemocrat,theartisthas
takenupamoderntheme.Thereissuggestiveforceofaquiteex
ceptionalcharacterinit,ahotbreathoffeverishagitation.Thereis,
infact,anabundanceofimaginativeexpression,which,whileintensely
true,stopsonlyjustshortofcaricature.Workofthiskind,
thoroughlymoderninspiritandcutoutfromlifeinthisearnest
manner,isdeservingofattentionnotmerelyfromatechnicalpoint
ofview,butinahigherandbroadersense.Thisyoungartistis,in
myopinion,giftedwithmorethantalent.Thereisanelementof
stronghumansympathyinhim,mingledwiththatscarcelypercep
tibleironicalveinwhichmarkstheartistofgenius.
COSSMANNemploysavarietyoftechnicalmethods,combining
themasthesubjectmayrequire.Theabovementionedplatewas
etchedcompletely,andthentheaquatintwasputinforbackground,
middletonesandsomepiecesoftheclothesandhair.
ANOTHERartistofuncommonparts,Mr.FerdinandSchmutzer,

Austrian

memberoftheSecessionists,hasoflatebeenverysuccessful.He
studiedsomeyearsinParis,wherehisstrongsenseofthepicturesque
wasrapidlydevelopedtogetherwiththatfinefeelingfortherelative
valuesoflightandshadeandbrokenlightswhichmarkstheborn
painteretcher.Hisnewestplatesareexcellent,somebeingofun
usuallylargedimensions.Hehasoflateturnedtoportraitetching,
andgainedagoldmedalattheParisandDresdenExhibitions.
Schmutzeralsomadetheexperimentofetchingthefigureofalady
justabouttomountahorse,nearlyhalflifesize,perhapsthelargest
plateinexistence.Thismaybenotedforacuriosity,thoughthe
practicalandartisticvalueofsuchtoursdeforceseemsquestionable.
SCHMUTZERiscertainlyaverystrongetcher,withanexcellent
senseofatmosphericeffectandharmoniousdesignquiteinunity
withhisfixedpurposeanduncompromisingvigourofperformance

Hehasstudiedwelltheoldmasters,enteringdeeplyintotheir
secrets,butneverthelessremainingtruetohimself.Oldmasters,in
caseslikethese,insteadofdeprivingtheyoungermenoftheirper
sonality,haveapeculiarpowerofwideningtheirrangeofvision.
ThisisthecasewithSchmutzer,andwemaylookforwardtohis
futureworkwithincreasedinterestandconfidence.
EMILORLIKisalreadywellknowntoreadersofTheStudio.
Heistoday,takeitallinall,perhapsthemostskilfulallround
draughtsmanamongtheAustrianartistsasabody.Heis
giftedwithacapacityforchangingfromonemood,manneror
methodintoanotherwithanervous,quickmentalreceptivityquite
marvellous.Heknowsnolimits,noprejudices,nopreferences.If
hemakesuphismindtotakeinthespirit,say,oftheartofJapan,
hefeelsanddrawsandpaintsorlithographslikeaJapanese.The
varietiesofhistechnicalmethodsareatoncesubtleandfree,delicate
andstrong,andheveryseldomrepeatshimself.

OFtheworkofMr.RudolfJettmarasanetcheranddraughtsman
Ihavehadtheopportunityofspeakingonaformeroccasion(see
TheStudio,Vol.xix.No.85).Hisimaginationseemstobe
perpetuallyatworkinafree,fantasticspiritofmind,formingand
dissolvingformslikestrainsofmusicwithoutend.Heisanativeof
Galicia,havingbeenbornatKrakauin1867.Hehasstudiedin
Vienna,Karlsruhe,Italy,andLeipzig,andin1897returnedtoVienna
asamemberoftheVereinigungbildenderKilnstlerOesterreichs.
THEartofengravingproperhasbeentraditionallypractisedamong
Austrianartistsforgenerations,andsowefindalsoamongthe
modernmensomeveryableartistsusinglineengravingasamedium
fortheinterpretationofthetouchofthepainter'sbrush,reduced

Austrian

tothesimplegradationsofblackandwhite.Thereproductive
engraverrepresentsforthefineartswhatthetranslatordoesfor
literature:hemustbeaboveallaninterpreter.Hemustpenetrate
intothecentreofanother'spersonalityandalsointothetechnical
spiritoftheoriginalthatpeculiarmediumofindividualexpression
sofrequentlyoverlooked,yet,intruth,inseparablefromanyart
worthyofthename.

AMONGthecontemporaryreproductiveetchersandengravers,the
Polishartist,Mr.IgnazLopiehskihasattainedahighstandardof
technicalexecution,combinedwithaverydelicateartisticfeeling
forwhatmaybetermedthesoulofthepictureheistranslating.
LOPIENSKIwasbornatWarsawin1865.Hebeganhisstudies
atfirstasasculptorandmedallistinViennaunderthedirectionof
ProfessorBengler,thenattheEcoledesArtsDecoratifsinParis,
whencehereturnedtoVienna,andfinallyagaintoWarsaw.
HEisaboveallaninterpreterofhisnativeland,thatlowdesert
plainofwildflatcountry,wherethepoorpeasantpeopleare
stillheldinserfdombytherichlandowners,thosebroadspacesof
wilderness,withillfedhorsesandstarvingvegetation,commonly
knownbythenameofPoland,comprisingpartsoftheRussian,
German,andAustrianEmpires.Theplateheregiven,entitled
AWinterNight,isengravedafterapaintingbyanotherPolishartist,
Prof.WieruszKowalski.Itshowsawideexpanseofsnowin
amoonlitwinter'snight,renderedmorelonelystillbyafew
stormtornpinesandfirs,loomingspectrelikeagainstthesky,with
itstwinklingstarshalfextinguished,asitwere,bytheglaring
reflectionofthesnow.Thegroundshowsthefootprintsofapack
ofhungrywolvesassembledinthebackground,asifholdingasort
ofcouncil.Thesolitarybeastintheforeground,withhistaildrawn
in,issniffingupintothestarryheavens,andonemayjustfaintly
discernhiswarmbreathlikeavapouragainstthestill,icycoldair.
Thereisaweirdlonelinessinthescenewhichwordsfailtogive.
THEmasterfultechniqueoftheplateinquestionisevident.There
areunityandconcentration,combinedwithelaborateexecution,
thoughbynomeansanyoverminuteness.

INconclusion,wemaysaythat,althoughexperimentsoutsidethe
sphereofblackandwhitedonotyetfigureamongtheachievements
ofAustrianetchers,yetwhattheygiveisgoodgenuinework.
Whatevertheresultsoftheireffortsintheoldmedium,theyare
deservingofourearnestattention.

WlLHELMSCHOLERMANN.

Austrian

"PORTRAIT."FROMTHEETCHING
BYWILLIAMUNGER

Platei

Austrian

"PEASANTGIRLSEWING"
FROMTHEETCHINGBY
FERDINANDSCHMUTZER
Plate2

Austrian

"THEWATCHMAN."FROMTHE
ETCHINGBYALFREDCOSSMANN
Plate5

Austrian

\Plate8"windontheplainthecomingofautumn'

fromtheetchingbyemilorlik

Austrian

"READINGTHENEWS"
FROMTHEETCHINGBY
FERDINANDSCHMUTZER
Plate9

Austrian

"THECLIFFS."FROMTHEETCHING
BYRUDOLPHJETTMAR
Plateio

MODERNETCHING8?ENGRAV
INGINHUNGARY.ByANTHONY
TAHI.

HEetching,especiallythecolouredetching,

canhavenohistory,boastnotradition,with
apeoplewhosewholeartisticdeveopmentis
stillsorecentasthatoftheHungarians.In
thosecountries,however,wheremodernarthas
attaineditsgreatestheight,suchasEngland,
France,andGermany,thelineengraving,
togetherwiththefarinferiorsteelplate,has
heldthefieldthelongest.Thewholetendency
ofarthasbeensostronglyopposedtopureline,thatreallyitisno
wondersuchaprocessasetching,demandingasitdoeseminently
efficienttreatmentandhandlingshouldhavebeenaltogetherneglected
bymanyartists.

WITHthebirthofaricher,amorehighlycolouredvision,and
particularlysinceourartistsbegantoabandontheirrigidbiasand
nolongerscornedtointerestthemselvesinallvarietiesofartistic
work,thegraphicartsetching,lithographyandoccasionallyxylo
graphyoncemorecameintofavour.

CERTAINitis,sofarasHungaryisconcerned,that,fromone
causeandanotherthedifficultiesoftheprocess,andnotablythe
indifferenceofthepublicthenumberofartistswhohaveapplied
themselvestocolouretchingisstillquiteinsignificant.Ourartists
aregreatlytoblameforthisstateofthings,forthemajorityofthem
makelightofeverythingsaveeaselwork,andthinknothingelse
worththeirnotice.

WHILEinothercountries,suchasEngland,Belgium,Franceand
Germany,etchingAssociationshavebeeninexistencefornearly
twentyfiveyearspast,withthehappiestresults;while,moreover,
thepublictastehasbeenstimulatedandraisedbythepublicationof
admirablereproductionsofthisclassofwork,weinHungaryhave
beenabsolutelywithoutanythingofthesortuntillastyear,whena
"GraphicClub"wasfounded;anduptillnowithasproduced
notangibleresults.

THEpoorfigurewecutinregardtothegraphicartsmustbe
largelyattributedtothefactthatHungaryhasreallynoartmarket
ofitsown,andthatitliesremotefromalltheinternationalartcentres.

Hungarian

ASIhavealreadyobserved,thenumberofHungarianartistsengaged
inproducingoriginaletchingsisverysmall.Mostoftheseare
painters,whorecognisethenecessityofexpressingthemselvesin
morethanoneartisticmedium,andofhavingmorethanoneoutlet
fortheirenergies.

WHEN,nearlyaquarterofacenturysince,thewriteroftheselines
desiredtolearnthetechniqueofetching,therewasinthewhole
countryonlyonemancapableofgivinghimpracticalinstruction
therein.ThiswasthecopperengraverJenoDoby,atpresentthe
doyenofHungarianetchers;forhehasabandonedlineengraving
anddevotedhimselfexclusivelytoetching.Still,evennowhe
cannotgiveupthegraver:thus,hisetchingsaremarkedbyastrong
andwelldisciplinedsenseofline.Hisoriginaletchingsarevery
few.DobyoccupiestheChairofEtchingattheBudapestApplied
ArtSchool,whereamonghispupilswereB.Chabada,A.Szekely,
andEdviIlles.

ETCHINGowesmuchalsotoProfessorLajosRaiischerofthe
BudapestPolytechnic,whobyhisexamplehasarousedandfostered
aloveoftheartamongmanyoftheyoungartistsstudyingunder
hisguidance.Atfirst,especiallyinhisviewsofBudapest,the
architectbetrayedhimselfbyhisstiff,precisedrawingofthearchi
tecture,andhissubordinationofthepicturesquesideofhisscenes;
butsoontheseblemisheswereovercome,andhisfinenaturalstyle
asserteditselfwitheffect,especiallyinhisaquatints,whicharefullof
expression.Anotablefeatureofallhisplatesisthecarehebestows
onhissubjectinordertobringoutitsentirevalue.
ZSIGMONDLANDSINGER'SfirstetchingwasArnoldBocklin's
HeiligerHain,whichhedidinFlorence.

HEREtoooriginatedthePortraitofHock/in,thatenergeticand
powerfullydesignedlifesizeplate,whichsocharacteristicallyand
vividlyreproducestheheadofthegenialSwissPainter.Theinti
matefriendshipwhichsprangupbetweenBocklinandLandsinger
resultedalsointheproductionofanotherplate,FafnerderDrachey
executedbyBocklinhimselfasamonotype.Landsinger'setchings
areconspicuousforthoroughmasteryofmaterial,andfordaintyyet

forcefulhandlingoffleshtints.

VIKTOROLGYAIstudiedunderWilliamUngerinViennaand
underTheodoreAlphonseinParis.Asheoriginallyintendedto
devotehimselfentirelytothegraphicarts,andonlylatertookup
oilpainting,histechnicalknowledgeofetchingisremarkable.He
ispreeminentlyadraughtsman,andthoughhisplatesarefinely
toned,themostnotablethingaboutthemistheirsenseofline.

Hungarian

Someofhisbestworksarecontainedinanalbumoftenplates
entitled"Winter,"andothernotableonesareTheOak,TheMill,
andWayofCypresses.

ALADAREDVIILLESisanadmirablewatercolourist,this
beingclearlyseeninhisetchedplates,whichareremarkableforthe
strongtoneheinfusesintohiscolours.InhisCemeterythecolour
inthewarmautumnalfoliageisveryhappilyrealised,whilehis
powerfultreatmentofthestormladenskymakesthewholeplate
reallydramatic.

AMANIFOLDandaneminentlyrichtalentwasthatofAkosF.
Aranyossy,whodiedalltooyoungafewyearssince.Hestudied
inMunichwithRaabandtreatedwithequalcertaintyfiguresand
landscapesalike.InhisPortraitofBishopBubicsthedelicate
carefulmodellingofthefleshisparticularlynoticeable;whilein
hisplatesentitledTheWasherwomanandGeeseitisthewaterthat
chieflyattractsone'sattention.Hisprematuredeathwasaheavy
losstoHungarianetching.

ONtheplatesbyArpadSzekelythedraughtsmanshipiscon
spicuous;moreoverheshowsanobviousdesiretoimpartstrong
tonetohismethod.Hestrives,oftenwithsuccess,totreatthe
variousaspectsofnaturesoil,water,cloud,orvegetationeach
initsownparticularmanner.Themotivesheespeciallyaffects
mayperhapsbeconsideredtodemandmorecolourintheirtreatment,
consequentlythereisoftenacertainlackofharmonybetweenthe
subject,anditsrealisationinhisplates.

ERNOBARTAinhisvariousplatesshowsadecidedtalentin
thedirectionofthemezzotint.Hismannerispowerfulanddeep
andwarmintone.Perhapshewouldbestillmoresuccessfulwere
hismodellingsomewhatsimplerandbroader.

BELACHABADAconcernshimselfchieflywiththereproduction
oftheworksofmodernHungarianartists,whohavefoundinhim
amostcapableandintelligentinterpreter.Hisoriginalmezzotints
aremarkedbyamistydelicacywhichismostattractive.
OTHERofourartistswhohaveappliedthemselvestoetchingare
KalmanDery,HenrikPap,andJozsefRipplRonai,thelattera
pupilofKoppingandofRaab.Latterlyhehasbeendevotinghis
energiesexclusivelytolithography,whichofrecentyearshasbeen
gainingmoreandmoreadherentsamongartists.

AnthonyTahi.

"FEBRUARY."FROMTHEETCHING
BYVIKTOROLGYAI

Platei

MODERNETCHING&ENGRAV

INGINHOLLAND.ByPHILIP
ZILCKEN.

URINGtheearlypartofthenineteenthcen
tury,etching,whichhadflourishedsosplendidly
inHollandinRembrandt'stime,wasalmost
completelyabandoned.About1850some
paintersMollinger,JanWeissenbruchand
Roelofsmadeanumberofinterestingplates,
whichneverthelesslackedthefreeandartistic
treatmentthatmakesetchingssodelightful.
ITwasthewellknownAustrianetcher,Unger,
whoonceduringasojourninHollandinducedJosefIsraels,Mauve,
andsomeotherpaintersofthesamegroup,tovarnishcopperplates,
andtomakeonthemrapidormoreelaborateimprovisations,many
ofwhichhaveallthecharmofthesubtlestetchings.Mostofthese
platesareexceedinglyrare,andtheycauseregretthatthoserefined
artistsdidnotoftenerpractisethisdelicateart.

C.STORMVANGRAVESANDE,whoseworkofthiskindis
wellknown,livedatthattimeinBelgium,whereheworkedunderthe
guidanceofFelicienRops.Herapidlygainedsogreatareputation
thatPhilipGilbertHamerton,inhisbookonEtchingandEtchers,
devotedaconsiderablenumberofpagestothispainteretcher.
Hamertonsaysofhim,in1876,speakingofhisprint,Aubord
duGems,presdAbcoude\"Thisisoneofthemostperfect

ETCHINGSPRODUCEDBYTHEMODERNSCHOOLS,SOPERFECTINDEED,
THATIFIWERERESTRICTEDTOTHEPOSSESSIONOFSIXMODERN

etchings,thisshouldbeoneofthem."StormvanGravesande
hasproducedagreatmanyplates;actuallyaboutfourhundred.In
recentyearshehasabandonedpureetchingandhasdevotedhimself
almostentirelyto"drypoints."InthisclassofworkIthinkhis
mosttypicalprintsaretobefound.Inthemhesucceedsinexpressing
perfectlytheslowflowingwatersoftheplacidDutchstreams,the
quietsurfaceoftheLagunaofVenice,andsometimestherough
wavesoftheNorthSeabeatinguponthesandylowlandbeaches.
Withbutafewlinesheexpressesmuch,andhisworksuppliesa
verycompletesurveyofHolland'spicturesquelandscape.
STORMVANGRAVESANDEtakesaplaceapartinthisschool
ofetching.HehasworkedchieflyinHolland,butlivedmany

GI

Dutch

yearsinBelgiumandGermany,anditwasonlyafewyearsagothat
hereturnedtohisnativecountry.

ISRAELShaskeptuphisetchinginrecentyears,andagood
numberofprintsofhisexist.Theyarealltrueetchings,inthe
sensethattheyconsistofpurelinework,sometimescarriedout
direct,sometimeselaboratedindifferentstates.Thisgreatartisthas
interpretedinthiswaysomeofhisfavouritesubjectsluminousand
harmoniousinterioreffects,andbright,brilliantbeachscenes,with
fishermen'schildrenplayingonthesands.Alltheseworksbetray
apersonal,expressivetechnique,withmasterlycontrastsoflightand
shade,andarefullofintense,penetratingfeeling.

JAMESMARIS,whenhecommencedetching,madeaboutfourvery
smallplatesabridge,acoupleofmills,andaprintshowingasketch
ofhiswifeandhiseldestdaughter.Theseplateshaveallthequalities
ofsimilaronesbyRembrandt.Thedelicateandexpressivedrawing,
thefewwellplacedlines,arequitemasterly.Mauvemademoreplates,
manyofwhicharelost,*amongthemsomelittlegemscontaining
allhispersonalqualitiesoffeeling,tone,andexpressivedrawing.
MATTHEWMARISexecutedatthattimeoneverysmallplate
nowexceedinglyrareagirlwithalambandababy;butyears
afterwardsheundertooktomakeareproductionofthecelebrated
"Semeur,"byMillet.

INordertotrainhimselfagaininetchinghethencommenceda
numberofplates,buthehimselfconsiderstheseremarkableprints
thathavealreadyattainedhighpricesmereessaysoflittleorno
importance.Theplateafterthe"Semeur"isamarvellousinterpreta
tion^notamerecopy^ofamasterpiece,byagenius,andinthisrespect

itiscertainlyoneofthemostremarkableplateseverproduced.
Marishasaddedhisownindividualfeelingtothegrandconception
ofMillet,andthus(arareevent)twoartistsofthesamehighrank
havecollaboratedincreatingaworkofuniquequality.
JONGKIND,atthesameepoch,madehiswellknownrapid,,
expressive,andcharacteristicviewsofHonfleurandLeHavre,and
hislivelysketchesofParisandHolland.ButmodernDutchetchings
owesitsrenownchieflytotheyoungermasters,whohavedevoteda
greatpartoftheirtimetothisart,suchasBauer,Witsen,Dupont,.
MissvanHouten,andothers.Since1889theyhaveregularly
exhibitedtheirworksattheGreatParisExhibitions,atChicago,,
Venice,andinGermany,withmuchsuccess,whilein1900they
madeastriking"hit"attheExpositionUniverselle.

*TheNewYorkPublicLibrarycontainstheonlyexistingcompletecollectionofthese
2

Dutch

HEREithappenedthattheDutchsectionofengraving,withabout
twentyfourexhibitors,obtainedanumberofawardsasconsiderable
ascountrieslikeEngland,Germany,andtheUnitedStates,thathad
twiceasmanyrepresentatives,whilstoneofthethreechiefawards
inthissectionfelltoBauer.

EXCEPTJosefIsraels,thecelebratedartistwhohasnowattainedhis
seventysixthyear,butwhoseyouthfulnessisasgreatasfiftyyears
ago,thepainteretchersare"younger"artists,allofthembetween
thirtyandfortyyearsofage,andnotoneofthemdevoteshiswhole
timetoetching.Theyallpaintaswellasetch,andtothisis
certainlyduethefactthattheiretchedworkhasqualitiesofavery
genuinecharacter.

BAUERisaremarkabletypeinmodernart.Sincehisearlyyouth
hehashadwhatTheophileGautiercallslanostalgiede/'Orient,and
hehasscarcelypaintedanythingelsebutscenesinConstantinople,
Cairo,orHindustan.Nearlyeveryyearhespendsaboutsixmonthsin
travellinginEasterncountries,andheseesthosecountries(asheonce
wrotetome)"notastheyare,butastheywereacoupleofhundred
yearsago."Andhesucceedsinexpressinghisvision!
NUMEROUSarenowhisetchings,consistingofabout200small
plates,rapidandslightthoughperfectlycompletesketches,and
severallargeprints,likehisProcession,The^ueenofSaba,Aladdin,
MorningontheGanges,ThePersianFeast,Sec.&c,wellknownto
collectorsofetchings.

BAUERhasallthequalitiesthatcharacterisetherealetcher,and
whenviewinghisworksoneisfrequentlyremindedofRembrandt,
becausehehasananalogoushabitofcomposition,thesamesimple
contrastsoflightandshade,thesameeasy,subtleexecutioninsimple,
direct,neverhesitatinglines.Bauerhavingaverypersonalindi
viduality,nootherDutchorforeignetchercanbecomparedtohim.
Giftedasheiswithatalentforcomposition,andstrongimagination
andexpression,hetakesveryhighrankamongstmodernetchers.
CONSIDERABLEimpulsewasgiventotheartofetchingin
HollandwhentheDutchEtchingClubwascreatedin1880.
Yearlyexhibitionswereheld,andanannualportfoliowasissuedby
theclub.Thisimpelledsomeoftheyoungerpainters,whowould
otherwisehaveabandonedetching,toapplythemselvestoit.
ASthesecretaryoftheEtchers'Club,Ihavebeeninaposition
tofollowcloselyforthepasttwelveyearsthebrilliantandremarkably
"sincere"developmentofDutchetching.Inusingtheword
"sincere,"ImeanthatinHollandeveryseriousartisttakeshis
owncoursequietly,withoutanyideaofimitation.Itisa

Dutch

characteristicofDutchartiststhattheyworkintheirownway,
followingtheirownpersonalconvictions,withoutpayingattentionto
outsideinfluences.Andtheresultisindividuality.
AMONGsuchartistsWillemWitsenandP.Dupontarenotabletypes.
WITSENisthepainterofthesluggishDutchwatersofAmsterdam
andDordrecht,reflectingtheold,picturesque,manycoloured
buildings,oftendrearyandgloomy,butalwaysfullofcharm.Of
allthesubjectschosenforhiswatercolourshemakesetchings,and
theyareasthoroughlyelaboratedashisotherwork.Addingsome

timessulphurtintsheobtainspowerfuleffects,neverabandoninga
platebeforehavingcompletelyexpressedinittheeffect,thecolour,
andtheharmonioustoneheseeks.Forhimeveryoneofhisplates
mustbeaworkofart.

DUPONT,whobeganhiscareerwithrapid,expressiveetchings
afternature,chieflyviewsofAmsterdamanditssurroundings,has
entirelychangedhismannerinrecentyears.

NOTsatisfiedwiththebrillianteffectsachievedinhisetchedplates,
hetriedhishandsomeyearsagoatengraving.Thisworkofhis
attractedconsiderableattentionattheParisExhibitionin1900.He
hassincecontinuedthismostdifficultworkwithincreasingsuccess,
andnowheisworkingonportraits,oneofwhich,thatofSteinlen,
isworthyofparticularmention.Hestilletches,buttheseplatesare
forhimmerepreparatorystudiesforhisengravings.Beingyoung,
admirablygifted,andfullofenduranceandenergy,muchcanbe
expectedfromhiminthefuture.

MISSB.VANHOUTEN,thoughlittleknown,isamoststriking
etcher,too.SheisanieceofthemarinepainterMesdag,andso,from
herearlyyouth,shehaslivedinanartisticmilieu.Whenherstudies
werefinished,shebegantomakesomelargeplatesaftermasterpieces,
byCorot,Delacroix,CourbetandDupre.Afterthelastnamed
artistshemadeaverybeautifulplate,socarefullyandconscientiously
elaboratedthatitgivesexactlythetone,andthevalues,ofthe
original.Inthisfineplatenothingislefttochance,buteverytouch
isinterpretedwithrareanddelicateskill.MissVanHoutenhas
alsocompletedaboutahundredoriginalplates.

THESEplatesshowgreatstrengthandvigour.Whensheetches
birds,tulips,sunflowers,orinterioreffectsorheads,sheworkswith
deeplybitten,broad,stronglines.Suchworkcouldeasilypro
duceblack,heavyprints,butherdelicatesensibility,herintense
feelingforthethingsinterpreted,saveitfrom.thatevil,andher
platesalwaysexpressmarvellouslythetendersubstancesofflower
petals,thesoftplumageofbirds,andtheaerialdistancesinlandscapes.

Dutch

TOaddafewwordsaboutmyself,Ihavecompletedduringthe
lasttwentyyearsaboutfourhundredandfiftyplates,ofwhichabout
twohundredarereproductionsaftertheMarises,Mauve,Israels,
AlfredStevens,Rembrandt,VermeerofDelft,&c.&c,whileothers
areexclusivelyoriginallandscapes,mostofthemafternature,and
studiesindrypointaftermodels,andafewportraits.
THEartistsIhavementionedaretheprincipalfiguresinmodern
Dutchetching.Aroundthemareworkingagoodnumberofothers,
ofvariousbutrealmerit.Myspacebeinglimited,Imustcontent
myselfwithameresketchoftheirvariouscharacteristics.
AMONGthepainterswhohavemademanygoodandinteresting
etchings,mentionmustbemadeofW.deZwart,acleverand
brilliantlandscapeandfigurepainter,whoseexpressiveetchingsare
numerous.

TOOROPhasdoneinthelastfewyearssomeextremelydelicate
drypoints,chieflyfigurestudies.Hisetchings,likeeverythinghe
produces,areverystrikingandpersonal.

JANVETH,oneofourmostdistinguishedportraitpainters,has
donemanylithographsofcelebratedDutchmen,andalsosomefine
etchings,ofuncommonfeelingandability.

IMUSTnotforget,inthistooshortandtoorapidenumeration,
EtienneBosch,whoproducedagreatmanyplates,mediaeval
subjectsandviewsofHollandandItaly,amongwhichtheviewof
Sorrentsisexcellentinstyleandcomposition.

MISSETHAFLEShasdonesome"pure"etching,suchasher
StaircaseatRothenburg.Ed.Karsen,thesomewhatMaeterlincklike
painterofgloomy,almostfantastic,Dutchdwellings,hasdonesome
platesofverypeculiarandsubtleinterest.Ed.Bechthasmadesome
importantsoftgroundetchings,amongwhichhisRisingMoonisa
veryinterestingplatedonebymeansofararelyusedprocess.
REICHERisapainterwho,besidesacoupleofverycarefullymade
platesafterBreitnerandafterM.Maris,hasdrawnoriginalland
scapesandsomestilllifesubjectsofstrikingdirectnessofexecution.
W.O.J.NIEUWENKAMPwasoneofthefirstDutchpainterswho

wenttoJava.Havingaverypersonalstyle,hebroughtfromthere
somecharacteristicandinterestingviews.

A.KOSTER,afterdoingsomeviewsofthePyrenees,applied
himselftoDutchlandscape,andreproducedviewsoftheneighbour
hoodoftheHagueandLimburg,renderingthecharacterofthose
partsofHollandinaremarkablytruthfulmanner.
ANDnowtocompletethisshortsketch,Imustaddthenamesof
someetchersofmeritwhohavedoneanumberofimportantplates

Dutch

afterourancientandmodernmasters,butscarcelyeveranyoriginal
work.

INthefirstplace,VanderWeele,apainterinthestyleofMauve,
hasdonesomeveryharmoniousandlovelyinterpretationsafterthat
master.Someoriginalsofhisareofverygoodquality,forinstance
TheDeadLambandPigsDrinking.Thesamecanbesaidofthelittle
viewsofHaarlemandsurroundingsbyGraadtVanRoggen,ahard
workerwhohasalsomadeveryelaborateandcarefullytreatedrepro
ductionsafterJ.Maris,Vermeer,&c,whichdisplaymuchpatient
labour.

PROFESSORC.DAKE,ofAmsterdam,hasmadeanumberof
importantplatesafterMauve,Israels,Maris,Mesdag,&c,inabroad
manner,fullofability,thathavemetwithgreatpopularity.

Ph.Zilcken.

Dutch

Plate2"astudyofdutchhouses1'

FROMTHEETCHINGBYVV.WITSEN

(BypermissionofMr.E.vanWisselingh)

Dutch

(BytermissionofMr.E.vanWisselingh)

"LEAVINGTHEMOSQUE"
FROMTHEETCHINGBY
M.BAUER

Plate5

Dutch

"ADUTCHCHURCH."FROM
THEETCHINGBYW.O.J.
NIEUWENKAMP

Plate6

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"PAULVERLAINEINTHEACTOF
WRITING."FROMTHEETCHING
BYP.ZILCKEN,AFTERASKETCH
BYJ.TOOROP

Plate7

Dutch

Plate9"anoldcottage"

FROMTHEETCHINGBYE.BECHT

"VESPERS."FROMTHE
ETCHINGBYSTORMvan
GRAVESANDE

Plateio

Dutch

"THEBAYOFSALERNO"
FROMTHEETCHINGBY
E.BOSCH

Plateii

MODERNETCHING&ENGRAV
INGINBELGIUM.ByFERNAND
KHNOPFF.

ELGIANetchersheldanExhibitionin1901in
theGalleriesoftheCercleArtistiqueatBrussels,
atwhichwerereceivedexamplesoftheworkof
allartistsinterestedinetchingwhetherwiththe
drypointorwhattheFrenchcalleauforte.
INholdingthisremarkableExhibitionthe
primaryaimoftheBelgianSocietyofEtchers
wastocelebratethefifteenthanniversaryofits
foundation,andtoprovethesuccessofitseffortstorecoverthe
positionitformerlyheldunderthemanagementofFelicienRops.
TOfoundinBelgiumanInternationalSocietyofEtcherswasthegreat
ambitionofRops;buthissuccesshadbeenlongdelayedbymaterial
difficulties.Hedid,however,atlastmanagetoconstitutetheSociety,
anditwasdecidedtoissueanalbumwithaportfolioofetchings,the
firstnumberofwhichappearedin1875.

HERRoyalHighnesstheCountessofFlandershadacceptedthe
positionofHonoraryPresidentoftheInternationalSocietyofEtchers,
andthetwoplatesshesuccessivelypublishedinthealbumdeservedly
rankamongthebestofthemanyfineetchingswhichappearedin
thatpublication.

THEgreaternumberofthosewhoexhibitedattheSalonoftheSociety
ofEtcherswerepaintersaswellasetchers,anditwasveryinterest
ingtonotethegreatvarietyoftheirstyles.Somefewhadinsisted

ongoingthroughwhatmightalmostbecalledaclassictraining,
masteringtobeginwitheverytraditionalprocessofthecraft.Others
hadendeavouredtoadapttheprocessesofetchingtotheirownpar
ticularmodeofpainting;yetothershadsettoworktodiscovernew
methods,usingtheiretchingtoolsinahaphazardwayandtrying
experimentsinbitinginongroundsneverbeforeused;whilstothers
contentedthemselveswithmerelytransferringsomestudytocopper.
THEetchingsofM.Baertsoentakerankamongstthemostremark
ableoftheworksexhibited.Theyarecharacterisedbybroadmasses
oflightandshade,andtheirexecutionisthoroughlysuitedtothe
effectofchiaroscurowhichitwasevidentlvtheaimoftheartistto
produce.Itcannotbedeniedthatthereisnowandthensomething
almostcoarseandharshabouttheexecution,butthisverypeculiarity

h1

Belgian

resultsinthebetterdistributionoftheinkwhentheimpressionsare
beingstruckoff,andenablesM.Baertsoentosecureeffectsbythe
retroussageonwhichhesetssuchstoreandturnstosuchgoodaccount,
withoutgoingtotheextremesindulgedinbysomanyofhisfellow
etchers.

MESSIEURSWYTSMANandVanRysselberghe,ontheother
hand,appeartoscorntoavailthemselvesofthetooskilfulaidofthe
printer,andwhentheirwellpreparedandcarefullyexecuteddrawings
havebeenreproduced,theyhaveallthevalueofconscientiouswork.
InhisetchingsM.Wytsmangivesproofofhisthoroughstudyof
thelandscapesceneryofBrabant,anddelightsinrepresentingthe
nobleanddignifiedlinesofthegrandmassesofforesttreescharacter
isticoftheundulatingcountrydistricts.M.VanRysselberghe,too,
inhisportraitsandseapiecesavoidsallsuperficialexpedients,and
endeavoursineverycasetofaithfullyinterprethissubject.
ITisqualitiessimilartothesewhichgivevaluetotheworksof
Messrs.CoppensandBartholome.M.Ensorhasalreadywon
considerablereputationasanengraver,andhisetchingsofseapieces
andlandscapes,inspiredbythesceneryofOstendeanditsneigh
bourhood,areremarkableforadelicacyoftouch,whichdoesfull
justicetothesubtleeffectsofsilverylightsocharacteristicofthe
Belgianseaboard.

THEworksofMessrs.LaermansandDelaunoisareremarkablefor
theirverycrudeappearance.TheetchingsofM.Laermans,indeed,
givetheimpressionofhavingbeenengravedwiththeaidofavery
oldnail,whilethoseofM.Delaunoisdonotappeartohavebeen
bittenin,buttohavebeenvitriolised.Forallthat,however,the
engravingsofboththesecelebratedartistshave,sofarasartessentials
areconcerned,thesamefinequalitiesastheirpaintings.Itisthe
samewiththeAntwerpmaster,M.Hens,whoseseapieces,inspiteof
theirsomewhatroughexecution,arefullofluminousbrightness,and
attractedspecialattentionattheExhibitionoftheSocietyofEtchers.
MESSRS.Heins,Gailliard,Mignot,Romberg,Titz,andH.Meunier
haveallbroughttobearupontheirworkwiththeetchingneedle
thatsamefacilityofexecutionwhichtheyhavegainedbypractice
inmakingdrawingsforbookillustrationorindesigningposters.
LASTLY,thereisonlyoneBelgianpainteretcherwhocultivates
exclusivelytheprocessknownasdrypoint,andthatoneisthewriter
ofthesenotes,whohasengravedinthatmediumseveraldrawings
orstudiesinoutlineorshade.

INhis"HistoryoftheFineArtsinBelgium"CamilleLemonnier
definesveryaccuratelythatwhichspeciallydistinguishesMessrs.

Belgian

G.BiotandA.Danse,whomaybesaidtobeatthepresenttime
thetwoengraversbyprofessionwhodominatetheSocietyofEtchers:
"FROMtheveryfirsttimeheexhibited,Biotmanifestedthose
qualitiesofdistinctionandgracewhichhavesincegraduallydeveloped
intoacompletedindividualstyleofgreatdistinction.Delicacy,
balance,andsimplicityofeffect,graceofsentiment,withsomething
oftimidityandreserveinthegeneralscheme,thesearethesalient
featuresofanartwhichisatthesametimepleasingandsevere,
modifyingclassicstiffnessbyitscontactwithagracealtogether
modern."


"THEartofDanse,onthecontrary,iscomparativelycoarse,passion
ate,feverish.Thehastydashinessofthesketchisretainedeven
inhiscompletedwork;helovestoneswhichclashwithoneanother,
unrelievedblack,sharpeffectsoflight,ruggedexecution.Ofthe
schoolofJ.B.Meunier,onwhosestyleheformedhisown,he
hasretainednothingbutthedecisionofstrokeoftheburin,witha
certaingraspoftheprocessesemployedandsomeskillofhandling.
Withhimtheetchingneedleisalmostalwayspressedintotheservice
assupplementarytothegraverorburin;itisitwhichgivestohis
platestheirsharpnessoflineandrichnessoftone;eventohismost
severelycorrectengravingsitlendsacertaincapriciousnesswhich
wouldberepudiatedbythosewhousetheburinpureandsimple."
M.DANSE,however,isnotcontentwithproducingavastnumber
ofengravings,healsoaspirestoformingengravers;andwhilsthewas
ProfessorofDrawingattheRoyalAcademyofMonsin1871he
foundedaschoolofengravinginthattownathisownexpense.From
thisschoolissued,amongstothers,Messrs.Lenain,Bernier,L.
Greuze,andLucq,withMeIlesWeiler,Wesmael,L.Danse,and
Mme.DestreeDanse,thetwolastnamedthedaughtersofthemaster.
M.LENAINmayjustlybesaidtotakefirstrankamongstcontem
porarylineengravers.Hehandlestherigidgravingtoolwithease
andsubtlety,resultingsometimesintheproductionofeffectsmore
variedthanthosetobeobtainedinetching.Alongstudyofthe
masterpiecesofFrenchengravinghasdonemuchtoaidhimin
thedevelopmentofhispeculiarexcellencedelicacyofexecution.
Moreover,acertainindefinablenaturalinstinct,theresultofhis
nationality,hasledhimtointerpretwellthegrandproductionof
thepaintersoftheFlemishRenaissance,andhehasbegunaseries
offineengravingsaftertheworksofRubens.

THEworksoftheengraver,F.Marechal,ofLiege,havealready
beencriticisedintheStudioinanarticlepublishedtwoyearsago,
andinanotherarticlewhichcameoutinthesamemagazine

Belgian

in1898,undertheheading,"SomeArtistsofLiege,"theremarkable
arttalentofM.A.Rassenfosse,thefaithfulfriendanddevoted
discipleoftheextraordinarygeniusFelicienRops,wascommented
uponwithconsiderableappreciation,andattentionwasdrawnto
hisprofoundknowledgeofalltheprocessesoftheengraver'scraft.
TWOotherartistsofLiege,Messrs.DonnayandDeWitte,have
attractedattentionbysomeetchingsfulloforiginalityandcharacter.
AMONGSTtheengraverswhohaveturnedtheirattentionto
takingimpressionsincolourmustbenamed,asespeciallysuccessful,
M.Q.DESAMPAYO,anartistofPortugueseextraction,whomay
befitlyincludedinthisarticleonlivingBelgianengraversonaccount
ofhishavingstudiedunderM.Rassenfosseandproducedmostof
hisworkinBrussels.M.DeSampayohashimselfcarefullysuper
intendedthetranslationintocolourofhisetchings,andwiththe
aidofM.VanCampenhout,theskilfulprintertotheSocietyof
Etchers,hehascolouredseveraldelicateplatesalapoupee.
ITwasalsobymeansofthisprocessthattheplatesofMessrs.
Romberg,Coppens,Gaudy,andthoseoftheauthorofthesenotes
werecoloured,whereasthoseofMessrs.TitzandSchlobachwere
printedandcolouredbywhatisknownasthesuperpositionprocess,
thatistosay,bytheuseofasuccessionofseveralplates,each
markedwiththemostminutecareandcapableofbearingas
manyasthreecolours,providedthosecoloursareverystrictly
deliminated.Nodoubtthisprocessisdecidedlyeasierforthe
printer,but,ontheotherhand,itiscertainthatgreaterdelicacy
andsubtletyofcolouringcanbeobtainedbytheprocessalapoupee.

FernandKhnopff.

"ADUTCHWINDMILL"
FROMTHEETCHINGBY
H.CASSIERS

Platei

"AROMANOUTCAST."FROMTHE
ENGRAVINGBYA.DANSE,AFTER
THEPAINTINGBYE.WAUTERS
Plate2

Belgian

Plate4"fantasia

FROMTHEDRYPOINTBYM.ROMBERG

Belgian

Plateii"nocturne"fromtheengravingbyt.vanrysselberghe

MODERNETCHING8?ENGRAV
INGINDENMARK&NORWAY.
ByGEORGBROCHNER.

JLTHOUGHtheDanishSocietyofEtchersthis
yearcelebratesthefiftiethanniversaryofits
foundation,andalthoughDenmarkboaststwo
veteranetchersofmorethansixtyyears'stand
ing,itis,broadlyspeaking,onlyduringthe
lastdecadethatDanishpaintershavetaken
toetching,afactnodoubtconnectedwith
theattentionbestowedupontheetchingsof
CarlBloch,bothinhislifetimeandmore
especiallyafterhisdeath.Duringthelastfewyears,however,
etchinghasbecomeextremelypopularwithanumberofDanish
artists,amongstwhomoneortwohaveeven,atleastforthetime
being,laidasidethebrushandtakentotheetchingneedleinstead.
IbelievethatallDanishetchersarepainters,andthat,withoutany
significantexceptions,theyonlydooriginalwork,sothatofwhat
maybecalled"professional"etchersDenmarkhasnone.Itcanunder
thesecircumstancesbenomatterofsurprisethatmuchofwhatis
characteristicoftheirworkinoilbeitforgoodorbeitforevil
alsoinfluencesthenatureandthequalityoftheiretchings,inchoice
ofsubjects,intemperamentandinotherrespects.Thuslandscapes
andseascapes,figuresubjectsandhomelyinteriors,predominate;
imaginarysubjectsaredealtwithcomparativelyrarely,andwith
manyartists,honest,soberworkismoreinvoguethanstriking
effectivenessortechnicalsubtleties.Danishetchingsmaynot
alwaysimpressthebeholdergreatlyatfirstsightoratacursory
inspection;notsomuch,probably,aswillthosehailing,forinstance,
fromEnglandandFrance,butdueappreciationofthatloveof
nature,ofthatsincerityanddelicatestudywhichmanyofthem
betray,willnotbelongwithheld.

TOtheskill,talentandunusualenergyofCarlLocher,Danish
etchingisgreatlyindebted.ForthreeyearsLocher,thenalreadya
manturnedfortyandboastinganexcellentreputationasamarine
painter,studiedinBerlinunderProfessorHansMeyer,andhaditnot
beenforLocher'sguidancefewofhisconfrereswouldprobablyhave
takentotheetchingneedle.AtthecourseswhichLochersubse
quentlyarranged,celebritieslikeAnnaandMichaelAncherand

Danish

Kroyerwereamongsthispupils,andIbelieveitwasamatterof
generalregretwhenhebroughthisteachingtoaclose.Locherwas
alsothefirstinDenmarktoproducelargeetchings,andthatsomeof
thesearenotmorewidelyknownoutsidehisowncountryisno
doubtduelargelytothefactthattheplates,inordertoensurethe
absolutelimitationoftheissues,wereinseveralinstancesdestroyed.
ITmaynotbeoutofplacetomentionherethat"TheStudio,"in
itsselectionforreproduction,haswishedtogivemostprominence
toworkinwhichthelinehasbeenalloweditsfullswayasagainst
toomuch"network"or"tone."Inoneortwoinstancesthe
etchingshaveunfortunatelybeenreceivedtoolatetoallowoftheir
beingreproduced.Ishouldalsoliketotakethisopportunityof
acknowledgingthecourtesyextendedtome,notonlybytheartists,
butalsobythepublishingfirmsofWinkelandMagnussenandStender.
LORENZFROLICHdivideswithVilhelmKyhnthehonourof
beingtheGrandOldManinDanishArt,notonlyasapainterbut
alsoasanetcher.Ibelievetheimmensespanofsixtythreeyears
liesbetweenFrolich'sfirstetchingandhismostrecentone,which
noonewouldsuspectofbeingtheworkofanoctogenarian.
Hisrighthandhasnotyetbyanymeanslostitscunning,andhis
intimateknowledgeofanimallifeisaptlydemonstratedinthislittle
etchingintheinnatebadtemperofthesmallerdogandthegood
natured,halfplayfulindifferenceofthelarger.It,however,illustrates
butonesideofFrolich'sart,forhehasetchedanumberofcharming
illustrationsreligious(TheLord'sPrayer),poetical(Cupidand
Psyche)andhistorical.Theseshowhimasadesignerofthehighest
rank,fullofimaginationandpower,andthepossessorofaneverfailing
senseofthebeautiful.Hiscontoursareespeciallyexquisite,onemight
almostsayinvariablyso,butthedetailsdonotalwaysseemtohave
interestedhimmuch,andIbelievemechanicalgroundworkhas
insomecasesbeenresortedto.Inthislatterrespecthediffersfrom
hisoldfriend,thatmostdelightfulandtalentedoflandscapepainters,
VILHELMKYHN,whoprefersresponsibilityfortheentireeffect
himself,leavingnothingtothemercyoftheprinter.Kyhnhas
doneagreatnumberofetchings,noneveryambitiousindimensions
andsomealmostdiminutiveinsize,butmostofthempossessedof
thatcharmwhichisessentiallypeculiartoKyhn,arisingoutofa
deep,oneistemptedtosaytender,lifelongloveofnature,ofsincere
study,ofasusceptibletemperament,andsupportedbyawell
schooled,andattimesconsummate,technique.

ITisamatterofregretthatthecleverpainters,AnnaandMichael
Ancher,havenotdevotedmoreattentiontotheetchingneedle.

Danish

Theformer'sOldWomanReadingisveryattractive,andherhusband's
'ThreeFishermenisentirelycharacteristicofthispainter'sart.No
oneissofamiliarwiththehardy,weatherbeatenSkawfishermen
ashe,anditgoeswithoutsayingthathisstudiesareadmirable.
Hehashandledhisneedlewithbothskillanddiscretion;andit
isapitythatithasnotbeenallowedtoperpetuatemoreofhistrusty
friends.

PROFESSOROTTOBACHE,theeminentanimalpainter,has
onlyjustmadehisdebutasanetcher,buttheoutcomeTwoDogs'
Headsaugurswell.Thewonderfulverveandforceandthekeen,
observantstudywhichdistinguishsomuchofhisworkinoiland
withthepencil,willnodoubtstandtheProfessoringoodsteadas
anetcher.

H.N.HANSENhasawiderscope,andamorepregnant
imaginationthananyotherDanishetcher.Hehasoflateyears
almostleftoffpainting,andhasdonesomeadmirableworkwith
theneedle,fullofindividualityandinvention.Truethathislineis
attimessomewhaterraticandthatagooddealoftheeffectin
suchcasesisduetotone,buttheresultisoften,moreoftenthan
not,singularlyhappy,andsomeofhisetchingspossessawarmth
andacolour,apoeticand,insomecases,analmostplasticbeauty
onlyrarelymetwith.ThefinepowerfulheadofhisFlorentine
willbearoutthis.Inhismostrecentetching,PotipharsWife,the
treatmentismoredelicate,andahappyblendingofrefinement

andhumourisobservableinit.Someofhisetchingscharmby
theirclassicbeauty(Firenze,forinstance),othersbytheirgenerous
humour[DonBartolo);othersagain,andperhapsthebestofthem,
bythefulnessoftheirpoeticmoodandtheirgreatdecorative
effect{TheCestiusPyramidinRome,WildFliestheHawk,TheOld
Mill,andmanyothers).

SIGVARDHANSENalsoinhisetchingsdemonstrateshispreference
forthesnowcoveredlandscape,andhedepictsawintrysceneably
andeffectively.

PROFESSORHASLUNDonlynowandagaintakesuptheneedle
atlongintervals.Hisworkisonasmallscale,buthislineisgood
andtrue,andanimallifeishisfavouritedomain.
PROFESSORFR.HENNINGSENhas,numerically,perhapseven
lesstohiscredit,butoneortwolittlefiguremotifsofhisarevery
deftlydone.

AXELHOUhasetchedforaconsiderablenumberofyears.Heis
entirelyselftaught,hasexperimentedagooddeal,andalwaysmakes
hisownneedlesandotherrequisites.Hislineisinsomeofhis

Danish

"workbothstrongandcharacteristic,andhiseffectissolelyobtained
byetching.Hisportraitportraitsarehisfavouritesubjectsof
N.Hansenfacobsen,thewellknownDanishsculptor,nowlivingin
Paris,isnotonlyofmuchmeritasalikenessportrayingasitdoes
Jacobseninanappreciativemanner,andunderliningthepowerful
individualityofhismodelbutitisacapitaletchingeffectively
designed.Theintroductionofsomeofthesculptor'sworkisdone
withdiscretionandskill.

PETERILSTEDmustbecountedamongstthebestofDanish
etchers,anditisinterestingtoseehowcloselyhisworkwiththe
needleresembleshisworkinoil.Heisofteninclinedtogomuch
intodetail,butinspiteofthishebecomesneithersleeknorinsipid.
Inhis"Interiors,"ofwhichtheLuxembourghasrecentlysecured
one,thesimplicityofmotifandthesinglenessofcolourtendto
produceaneffectofchasterefinement,lackingalittleperhapsin
freshness,buttellingtheirowntalewithanearnestandcharming
sincerity.Thesequalitiesonefindsagaininhisetchings,most
pronouncedperhapsinGirlattheP.iano,althoughIpreferhis
portraitofhisfather.

E.KRAUSEisayoungetcherofmuchpromise,anditwasquite
bychancethathebecameone.Hisworkispossessedofavery
pronouncedpicturesqueness.Thereiswarmthinhistoneandhe
isaverycleverdraughtsman.Hefavoursoldtimebuildingsof
topographicalinterestandbeauty,andhepreferssombrenightor
lateeveningeffects,whicharemostlyrenderedbytheaidofline
work,nowandagainsustainedbyalittletone.HisTheSixSisters
sixoldhousesinCopenhagenjustdemolishedillustratesinanideal
manner"aharbourcity."Thedark,rollingclouds,thewaning
lightmirroredintherowofoldwindowsandinthewetpavement;
theeffectivesilhouetteofmastsandriggingstandingoutblack
againstthenocturnalsky,andtheclusterofseamenanddockhandsin
theforeground,combinetorenderadmirablytheexactmoodofthe
picturesquescene.

KROYER'Sportraitofhimselfaffordsampleproofofwhatthe
artistcandoasanetchershouldhe,asitissincerelytobehopedhe
will,againfindtimeandinclinationtobusyhimselfwiththe
etcher'sneedle.Hislightnessoftouch,hisfreedomandsubtletyof
treatment,areevidencedinthisportrait,inwhichhehasreliedsolely
ontheline,whichiscleverthroughout,althoughperhapshereand
therealittlecapricious.Thelikenessisexcellentfrank,genial
straightforward.HisportraitofOldKyhnwhatanidealartist's
headitis,withthebeautifuleyesandthelongwhitehairand

Danish

beard!isdelightful,andhisetchingofGriegandhisWife,done
fromhispictureboughtbytheNationalGalleryofSweden,isinits

bestimpressionssimplyadmirable,butmuchofitseffectandtone
dependsupontheprinting.

ADOLPHLARSENhasoflateyearsbecomeaveryskilfuletcher;
heiscarefulandpainstaking,alittletimidperhaps,anddeficientin
temperament,inspiteofwhich,however,hehasseveralverygood
landscapesandinteriorstohiscredit.Heisprobablybestinsomeof
hislandscapes,inwhichthechaste,rarefiedlightofaneveningsky
hasbeenrenderedwithmuchsincerityandfeeling.Thereisalsoa
veryclever,althoughnotaltogetherpleasing,portraitofhimself,and
ifhisextremeconscientiousnesswereonlycoupledwithalittlemore
breadthandwarmthhewouldnodoubtattaintostillbetterresults.
CARLLOCHERIhavealreadymentionedasoneofthepillarsir
nottheheadcornerstoneoftheartofetchinginDenmark.He
combinesacarefullytrainedtechniquewithanopeneyeforthe
picturesqueandathoroughknowledgeofhissubject,whichisnearly
alwaysthesea,initsmanyandvariedmoods.Thereisaconvincing
breadthand"go"inhiswavetreatment,andthemirroringinthe
recedingbreakersisdonewithamaster'shand.Inhisbestwork
itvariesconsiderablyinmeritLocherhasprovedhimselfanetcher
ofveryhighrankindeed.

SORENLUNDisveryadequatelyrepresentedbyhisetchingof
TheOldHorseanillustrationtoawellknownDanishverse.The
toilsomelifeofthepooroldlonelyhorsehasrunitscourse,andthe
ManwiththeScytheanaerialandphantasticmowerisreadyfor
him.WithinasmallcompassLundhasproducedquiteaweirdand
patheticeffect,anditwillbeseenthatthelineworkisgoodand
solid.

J.LUBSCHITZisanenthusiasticetcher,whohasgivenmuch
timeandstudytohisart,bothathomeandinParis.Hehas
inventedalightvarnish,andhispositiveprocessclaimstobean
improvementonHamerton's;thereisalsoaspecialLiibschitz
needle.Insomeofhisetchingsheconfineshimselfentirelytodry
point,inotherspartlyso,asforinstancetheskyinhisrecentlarge
marine,exhibitedatthisyear'sDanishRoyalAcademyastriking
andeffectiveseascape,thelargestoriginalDanishetchingyetpub
lished.Liibschitzisastrongbelieverinthesupremacyoftheline,
andunaidedbytoneprintinghehasproducedexcellentatmospheric
effects.InfluencedbyTolstoy,Liibschitzdecidedtogoinfor
largeretchings,whichmightgladdentheheartsandembellishthe
housesofthepeople,andthishehassucceededindoingtothefull.

Danish

IbelieveitisowingtohisinitiativethatmenlikeProfessorBache,
ProfessorJerndorfFandProfessorHenningsenhavetakentoetching,
anditisamatterofsoredisappointmenttohimthatProfessor
HansTegner,thefamouspenandinkdraughtsman,ofHolbergand
Andersenfame,didnotpersevere.

ITwouldhavebeenamatterofconsiderablesurprisehadnotPeter
Monstedprovedhimselfanaccomplishedetcher,inasmuchasheis
anadmirabledraughtsman,andhandleshisbrushwiththeutmost
virtuosity.Theaccompanyinglandscapeproves,however,thathe
has,andfewDanishetchersarecapableofproducingafinereffect
thanMonsted.Ithasbeenlaidathisdoorthathewassomewhat
lackinginsincerity;bethisasitmay,onedoesnotfeelitin
hisetchings.Inthese,too,heshowswithwhatskillhehandles
trees,singlyorinclusters,nakedorinthefulnessoftheirsummer
garb,againstanoftenwellchosenatmosphericmotif,orstagnant
waterinpondorditch.Heaccountsinthedeftestmannerpossible
forthetripleeffectofwhatappearsonthebottomthroughthe
cloudytransparencyofthewater,ofwhatismirroredinthewater,
andofwhatmaybefloatingonitssurface.

THORVALDNISS'SDanishLandscapeisthoroughlycharacteristic
ofthishighlygiftedpainter'sart.Itgivesmuchofhisdashand
boldnessandofthatdirectnessofthatinstinctivedirectnesswith
whichheknowshowtorendertheexactmood,andoftenanawkward
mood,ofthesubjectbeforehim,beitlandorsea.Histreatmentis
effectiveandconvincing,althoughheisnotbyanymeansabove
takingliberties,fromthestrictetcher'spointofview;butinallhis
workthereispersonalityandmanliness,whichfullycondoneforany
merelyacademicshortcomings.WheninhishappymoodNiss
standsheadandshouldersabovemostofhisfellows,andtheNational
GalleryofCopenhagen,aswellasoneortwoprivatecollections,

areindebtedtohisbrushforsomeoftheirfinestlandscapesand,
moreespecially,marinesubjects.

TOMPETERSENhasafinesenseofthecharmofquaintoldtime
views,severalofwhichhehastreatedwithveryfairsuccess.
FRANTSSCHWARTZonemightbetemptedtocallthearistocrat
amongstDanishetchers;heisselfcontainedandcomplete,possessed
ofathoroughcontrolofthetechnique.Hehasdoneagreatmany,
overahundred,etchings,themajorityofwhich,perhaps,arerather
intendedforthecollector'sportfoliothanforamoreorlessindis
criminatingpublic.Heoftenfavoursdrypoint,andinsomeof
hisworkconfineshimselfentirelytothismethod.Inmanyofhis
studieshedemonstratesthekeennessofhispowerofobservation,at

Norwegian

othertimesheshowshowwellheisabletocomposeapicture.
InTheAnnunciationthefigureofMaryischarminglysimpleand
maidenly,andanexcellenteffectisproducedbycomparativelysmall
means,afewlinessufficingforthesoftfoldsofhergarmentsand
kerchief.TheThreeKingsaptlyillustratesthatpassageofHeine
whichhasbeenchosenforamotto.Itisdecorativeandharmonious
initsarrangement;andthereismuchdeadman'sdignityaboutthe
threeskeletonkings.

INNielsSkovgaard'sLookingattheSnowthecontrastbetweenthe
childrenwithinandthewintrylandscapewithoutiscleverlyand
simplytold.

NORWAY.

ATtheeleventhhoursomeadmirableetchingswerereceivedfrom
JOH.NORDHAGEN,thewellknownNorwegianetcher.Our
arrangementswere,however,sofaradvancedthatweareonlyableto
reproduceone,thePortraitofaGentleman^anoriginalwork,inwhich
theattentiongiventodetaildoesnotdetractfromitspowerand
effectiveness.Theforehead,theeyes,andtheeyebrows,forinstance,
areperfectstudies,andthemasterlytreatmenthasendowedthis
interestingheadwithanalmostplasticbeauty.

NORDHAGEN,whoreceivedthegoldmedalforetchingsatthe
ParisExhibitionof1900,hasstudiedunderProfessorKarlKoepping
inBerlin,andhehasnotonlydoneanumberoforiginaletchings
studiesofheadsbeinghisfavouritesubjectsbuthehaswithhis
needlereproducedtheworksofseveralprominentNorwegianpainters
andofRembrandt.Wemuchregrettheinadequateandcursory
mannerinwhichwearecompelledtodealwithsuchaprominent
artist.

THEbrilliantworkofANDERSL.ZORNhasbeensofrequently
illustratedandfavourablycriticisedby"TheStudio"thatitis
unnecessarytodwellfurtheruponithere.Twoadmirableand
characteristicexamplesofhisetchingsareillustrated,namely,Maja
andAMother.

GeorgBrochner.

Danish

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THEETCHINGBYHIMSELF

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Plate4

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Plate6"bollemosen,efteraar

FROMTHEENGRAVINGBYJ.LUBSCHITZ

(BypermissionofMessrs.V.WinkelandMagnussen)

Danish

"ARISINGWIND."FROM

THEETCHINGBYPETER
MONSTED

Plate7

Plateg

i"thesixsisters"

FROMTHEENGRAVINGBYE.KRAUSE

Danish

Plateio"dogsatplay"fromtheetchingbylorenzfrolich

Plateii"theoldhorse1'

FROMTHEETCHINGBYSORENLUND

MODERNETCHINGENGRAV
INGINFINLAND.ByCOUNT
LOUISSPARRE.

SIhavealreadyremarkedinmyarticle
inthespecialnumberoftheStudioon
PenandinkDrawings,artofeverykind
isinitsinfancyinFinland.Thisisespe
ciallytruewithregardtoetching,whichwould
appeartobebehindeveryotherbranchof
artproductioninthatcountry.Infact,the
firstetchingofnativeorigindidnotappear
thereuntilfifteenyearsago.Theauthorof
thisnewdeparturewasVictorWesterholm,anartistoffirst
rank,whohadpreviouslydevotedhimselfexclusivelytothe
practiceofpainting.Theartofetchingwas,infact,littleunder
stoodorappreciatedbythepublic;indeed,itreallyseemedsome
timesasifartiststhemselvestookbutaverylukewarminterestin
it.Byslowdegrees,however,atasteforetchingshas,sotospeak,
filteredintoFinland,thankschiefly,itistrue,totheinfluences
broughttobearonthatlandbyothercountries,notablySweden,
itsnearestneighbour,wheretheartofetchingisheldinvery
highesteem.

NOWmanyartistsofFinlandappeartobequitepassionately
devotedtotheetchingneedleandthebitinginacid,andevenhave
theirownpressessetupathome,sothattheymaystrikeoff"their
proofsforthemselves.

IFANCYEdelfeltwasthefirsttofollowtheexampleofWesterholm
anduseetchingasamediumforexpressinghisartimpressions,and
bydintofcontinuouswork,combinedwithhisusualmasteryof
handlingandrefinementoftaste,hehassucceededinproducing
admirableresults,andaddingconsiderablytothemanyfineexamples
ofhisskillalreadygiventotheworld.

GALLENalsowhosevividimagination,suppletalent,andnatural
skillofexecutionareunsurpassedbyanyofhisfellowcountrymen
hasalreadyproducedaverygreatnumberofcomparativelyfine
etchings.Hehandleshisetchingneedleandbitesinhisplateswith
muchthesameeaseashedisplaysindashingofFasketch,paintinga
fresco,cuttinganengravingonwood,orcarvingapieceoffurniture..
Hisversatilityindealingwithdifferentmediumsofexpressionis

kI

Finnish

reallyextraordinary.Nowheaccentuateseverytinydetail,giving
theminutestattentiontoeverycornerofhisetchingplate,thenhis
mannersuddenlybecomesbroadandfullofforce.Moreover,hecan
also,whenhechooses,adoptalightandelegantstyle,displayinga
trulysurprisingdelicacyoftouch,asintheexlibrisofProfessor
Tikkanen.

THEetchingsofSimbergaremarkedbyasimilaroriginalityand
individuality,byanequalpowerofquaint,sometimesevengrotesque,
imagination,asarehispaintingsandhisdrawings.Oneofthevery
finestexamplesofSimberg'speculiartalentandoriginalityofcon
ceptionishisPeasantattheGateoftheKingdomofDeath;butthe
charminglittleworkismorethanthat,itisatypicalexpressionof
thegraveandspeculativecharacter,withitspredilectiontomelan
choly,ofthepeopleofFinland.TheGardenofDeathisaphantasy,
alikegrotesqueandhumorous.

MISSHILDAFLODINisanartistwho,thoughstillquite
young,givespromiseofveryconsiderabletalent.Fullofeager
ardourforwork,sheisunwearyingintheproductionofpaint
ings,drawings,andetchings,everythingshesetsherhandtobeing
markedbyrealintelligenceandtrueartfeeling.Thereissomething
alikebroadandforcibleinherstyleofplyingtheetchingneedle,
andsomeofherworkrecallsthatofthebestmastersofthepast.
Shedrawswellandaccurately,anditiseasytoseethatincreased
masteryoftechniqueisreallyallsheneeds,sothatthereisnodoubt
ofhersoonremedyingherfaultsofexecution,bydintofearnestand
continuousstudy.

THEetchingsofMissEllenThesleffdisplaythesamedelicacyof
touchasdoherdrawings.HerFinnishLandscapeWinterrepro
ducedhereisfullofrefinmentandcharm.

ETCHING,properlysocalled,isatpresent,withfewexceptions,
theonlymodeofengravingonmetalpractisedbytheartistsof
Finland.Etchingincolourhasnothithertobeenattempted,and
thesocalled"softground"etching,mezzotintand"tuttiquanti"
processesarestillunbrokenground,awaitingtheirpioneers.So
virileandreadyofexpansion,however,isthenewbornartof
Finland,thatitisnotunreasonabletohopethatinthesedirections
alsoitwillproveitselferelongworthyoftheattentionwhichwas
attractedattheGreatInternationalExhibitionatParisin1901by
theworkofartistsofFinnishextraction.

LouisSparre.

Norwegian

(BypermissionofMr.R.Gutekunst)

"MAJA."FROMTHEETCHING
BYANDERSL.ZORN

Platei

Norwegian

(BypermissionofMr.R.Gutekunst)

"AMOTHER."FROMTHE
THEETCHINGBYANDERS
L.ZORN

Plate2

Finnish

Plate4"agoodbook"

FROMTHEETCHINGBYMISSH.FLODIN

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BYJ.NORDHAGEN


Plateii

MODERNETCHING&ENGRAV
INGINITALY.ByROMUALDO
PANTINI.

LTHOUGHthescopeofthisarticledoesnot
includedefunctartists,itseemsfittingneverthe
lesstorecallthenamesofsomeofthem.
AntonioFontanesi,TranquilloCremona,Tele
macoSignorini,arethreenamesfamousinthe
reformationofItalianart.Theydevoted
themselveswithasmuchardourtoetchingas
tothesolutionoftheothergreatartproblems,
notablythepleinairtheory.Andastheywere
realartistsinalltheydid,thetechnicalexpressionoftheirengravings
wasequaltothatrealisedintheircanvases.Fontanesiwasespecially
devotedtolandscapemotives,anddidnotremainindifferenttothe
influenceoftheFrenchschoolof1830;whileCremona'sfine,bold,
broadtouchgaveoriginalityanddelightfulfreedomtohisplates.
Signoriniwasessentiallygracefulandrealistic.Hisliteraryleanings
inclinedhimnaturallytobookillustration;buthisbestworkisto
beseeninthealbumoftwelveetchingsdedicatedtothe"Mercato
Vecchio"ofFlorence.

AKINtothesentimentorCremonawasthatofMoseBianchiand
LuigiConconi,alsoofMilan.ButBianchi,whileinhislittle
etchingsseemingtofollowthesamemotivesandthesamemethods
asthemaster,revealscompleteindependenceinhislargeMonacade
Monza,afteroneofhisownpaintings.

LUIGICONCONI'Sdecorativebreadthisconspicuousinhis
impressionsofancientRomanarches;herisestoevengreaterheights
inhisfinelysuggestiveetchingSolitudine.Mentionmustalsobemade
ofothertwoMilaneseartistsofnoblebutverydiversetempera
ment.IrefertoGrubicyandBeltrami.

VITTORIOGRUBICYisamaster,aleader,alikeinetching,in
teaching,andinpropagandism.Startingfromthelogicalconception
thatmanyeffectsofNaturewhoselovelinesslargelyconsistsinthe
vigorouscontrastofitschiaroscurocanbeexpressedadequatelyin
blackandwhite,hehasexecutedinHollandandintheAlpsa
numberofetchingspossessingacertainspecialnoteofmelancholy.
LUCABELTRAMIisatonceamostgiftedarchitectanda
historiographerofart;buthissevererstudieshavenotprevented

l1

Italian

himfromdevotinghimselfassiduouslytotheeauforte,someofhis
worksofthiskindhavingbeengreatlypraisedintheParisSalons.
Hislittleetching,DansPatelierdePascalisamarvelofluminous
treatment,andamongothergoodthingsofhismustbenamedthe
RuedeCliartres,whichwellillustrateshisgenialversatility.
INTurinthereisquiteagroupofetchers,allwellknowninParis
asable"translators"ofcanvases.Thetwoadmirableeaufortists,
CarloChessaandCelestinoTurletti,figureinthesplendidvolume
whereinGiuseppeGiacosahasdescribedthelandscapesandrecalled
thedarktalesoftheCastelliValdostaniandCanavesani.Thisportly
volumeis,likethelargeeditionofthe"Medusa"(poemsbyArturo
Graf),oneofthemostbeautifulbookspublishedinItalyforyears
past;itiswellillustratedbyoriginaletchingsandeditedbyM.Roux.
THISnoblebranchofengravingiscultivatedbymanyVenetianartists,
prominentamongthembeingCesareLaurentiandGiuseppeMiti
Zanetti.

MARIANOFORTUNY,Junr.,oneofourfinestartists,whostill
exhibitsintheSpanishSalons,isalsoworkinginVenice,his
bestthingsbeinghisstrangebutluminousstudiesofthefemale
nude.

PROFESSORCOLOMBI,ofBologna,hasproducedseveraletchings
afterhisowngenrepaintings,displayingconsummatecertaintyof

touchandawonderfulsenseofperspective.

AUGUSTOSEZANNE,alsoaBolognese,hasdoneafreshand
luminousaquatint,styledSpringtimeacharmingthingfulloffeeling
anddecorativespirit.

INFlorencethereisnoSchoolofEtching,butthecityboastsone
youngexponentoftheart,GiorgioKienerk,whosedrypointsare
markedbyagileandnervousgrace.

GIOVANNIFATTORI,however,despitehisadvancedage,
remainsaneminentmasterofourItalianetchers.Hisrapidityof
impression,surenessofmovement,andboldnessofoutline,give
himaplacequiteapartfrom,andfarabove,theothers.The
TuscanCampagna,orthedesolateRomanplainsandmarsheswith
artilleryhorsesfiguringtherein,formhisfavouritesubjects;andhis
broadvisionofthebattlesof1859servestoreassertandreaffirmthose
technicalqualitieswhichgotomakehimourforemost,ifnotour
only,militaryartist.

WITHFattoristudiedG.Viner,G.MicheliandPlinio
Nomellini,thelastnamedofwhomhasacquiredmuchofhis
master'senergyofconception,whileretainingadistinctpersonality.
Themysteriousformationofhiscloudsandhiswavesareespecially

Italian

toberemarked,whilehiskeenvisionofrealityandhissenseof
poeticsignificanceareplainlyseeninmanyofhisworks.
THEREexistsinRomea"RealeCalcografia"orRoyalSchoolof
EtchingsubsidisedbytheGovernment,whichemploysnumerous
artistsandcraftsmenwhoproduceoriginalworkorreproducethe
canvasesoffamousartists.But,unhappily,theprincipalobjectof
thisRoyalInstitutionistoinvestthemodernetchingwiththe
studieduniformityoftheoldengravings.Someevidenceofrevival
wasseenlastyear,whenintheprizecompetitionsforetchingsof
nationalcharacter,wehadfromBiseohisvigorousconceptionof
theheroicbattleofDogali.

CESAREBISEOhasdoneotheretchingsforthe"RealeCalco
grafia"notablyviewsofthePalatineandtheColiseuminastyle
thetechniqueofwhichrecallsPiranesi,butwithmoresenseof
atmosphereandpoetry.Hisetchingsshowproofofdiligentstudy
andacuteobservation.

FRANCESCOVITALINI,sincetheexhibitionslastyearin
Rome,VeniceandLondon,hasgainedwidepopularitybythehighly
delicatesenseofcolourdisplayedinhisRomanetchings;and,to
avoidconfusion,itiswelltodrawattentiontohiswhollyoriginal
andpersonaltechnique.

OTHERRomanartistsworkinginthemediumoftheeauforteare
ProfessorMaccariandPioJoris,alsoFilibertoPetitiandSignor
Rossini,allofwhomwereworthilyrepresentedattherecentBlack
andWhiteExhibition;alsoGiulioRicci,aBologneseetcher,who
handleshisgraverwithgreatdelicacyandsuggestiveness.Dino
Savardo,ofPadua,andEnricoVegetti,ofMilan,aretwoyoung
menwelldeservingofnotice.

PAOLOVETRIcarriesonatNaplesthetraditionofhiskinsman
DomenicoMorelli.Withgreatconscientiousnesshehasreproduced
ineaufortethepictureoftheMaddalena,andthesuggestiveand
originalKingLear,withwhichfewItaliansareacquainted.He
isalsothinkingofreproducingoncopperalltheworksofhis
reveredmaster.

ROMUALDOPANTINI.

Italian


Plate2"castellodigraines

FROMTHEETCHINGBYC.CHESSA

Italian

Plate3"castelfusano'fromthecolouredetchingbyFrancescovitalini

Plate4"evening"fromtheetchingbyvittoregrubicy

Italian

Italian

Plate8"astormydayintuscany

FROMTHEETCHINGBYP.NOMELLINI

Italian

Plate15"sunlightinadarklagune:'

FROMTHEETCHINGBYMARIANOFORTUNY,JUN.

MODERNETCHING&ENGRAV
INGINSWITZERLAND.By
ROBERTMOBBS.

BRUN,inhisvaluablechapteron"LesArts
plastiquesdanslaSuisseallemande"in"La
SuisseauXIXmeSiecle,"touchesuponthe
relationofsuchlivingSwissartistsasRobert
Leemann,CharlesTheodoreMeyer,Albert
WeltiandHermannGatikertotheremark
oablerevivalofinterestinetchingwhich
characterisedthelatterhalfoflastcentury.
Therecanbenodoubtthattheseandother
Swissartistshavecontributedinnoinconsiderabledegreetothe
developmentofetchingnotonlyintheirowncountrybutalsoin
Germany,andthattheirworkwillcomparefavourablywiththe
bestthathasbeenaccomplishedinthisbranchoflateyearsinany
othercountry.

FOREMOSTinthisgroup,andfitlyservingasatypicalexample
ofmodernSwissetchers,stood,tillsomethirteenyearsago
thaterratic,original,powerfulSwissartistCharlesStaufferof
Bern.HisdeathwasawidelyfeltlosstoSwissart.Toconvince
ourselvesofStaufFer'sgreatnessasanetcherwehaveonlytostudy
hischaracteristicallybeautifulportraitofhismother,orthose
portraitsofGustaveFreytag,ConradFerdinandMeyerandAdolphe
Menzelwhich,asM.Brunsays,"have,intheirplasticratherthan
pictorialeffect,neverbeensurpassed."Staufferutilisedevery

meansathisdisposal,excepttheaquatint,obtainingwonderful
results.Hehasleftbehindhimoneortwoalbumsofetchingsof
rarevalue,containingworkofextraordinarybeautyandtechnical
perfection.

WHENweturnfromthisartisttoAlbertWeltiweareconfronted
byquiteanothervariantoftheSwissGermantypeofartistictem
perament.Endowedwitharich,inventive,andinsomesense
sombreimagination,andpossessingamarkedpredilectionforsym
bolicandphilosophicconceptions,hisworkbearsthestampofa
stronglyaccentuatedindividuality,andoccupies,insomesense,aplace
apart.

INthetreatmentortheportrait,Balmerisundoubtedlyoneofthe
greatestlivingSwissetchers.Weregretthatexamplesofthis.

MI

Swiss

artist'sachievements,aswellasthoseofoneortwootherartists,
havecometohandtoolateforreproductioninthisNumber.We
hope,however,thatweshallhavetheopportunityofreferringat
lengthtotheirworkinthepagesof"TheStudio."Balmer's
etchingsrevealapatientdwellinguponthesubjecttillithas
yieldeduptheinnermostsecretofitsdistinctivecharacterand
beauty.Ifeveranartist'sworkwasexpressiveofhimselfandhis
bestself,Balmer'sis.Hisportraitsofwomenandchildrenreveal
theworkingofanartistictemperamentassensitiveasitispowerful.
Wehaveunderoureyesanaquatintbythisartist,thetone,shading
andcharacterofwhichareadmirable.

IFtheartistsofSwissGermanoriginhavecontributednotalittle
tothedevelopmentofetching,theirfellowworkersintheFrench
speakingpartofthecountryhavebeenbynomeansbehindhand.
TheetchingsofEugeneBurnandandEvertVanMuydenpossess
thequalitiesofacknowledgedmastersinthisbranchofart.It
wasahappydayforMistralwhenhelighteduponsuchanillus
tratorasEugeneBurnand,forallthatcouldbedonebymeansof
*'eauforte"toevokethecharacteristicbeautyofProvencal
landscape,andtointerpretthepoet'sgreatwork,thisartisthas
accomplished.

INanotherdomainEvertvanMuyden'setchingsofanimallifeina
wild,sylvanenvironmentrevealanextraordinarilynervousvigourof
treatmentandconcentrationofexpression,andaremarkableknow
ledgeandobservationofthecharacterandwaysof"ourbrothers
theanimals."

RADOLPHEPIGUET'Salbumofetchings,dealingwithsubjects
chosenfromtheNationalExhibitionopenedinGenevaayearortwo
ago,isadelightfulcontributiontonationalart.M.Piguethas
obtainedmarkedsuccessindealingwiththeportrait.Ifhelacks
thedeeperfeelingandpoweroftheSwissGermanmasterstowhose
workwehavereferred,hisportraitsrevealgreatskillasfaras
executionisconcerned,andaregracefulandcaptivating.
ITisamatterforregretthatEdouardRavelhasnotbeenableto
devotemoretimetoetching,fortheplateshehasalreadyexecuted
areofrarequalityandpromise.

LIKECharlesGiron,GustaveJeannerethasformanyyearsdevoted
himselftothepaintingofSwisslandscapeandnationaltypes,andisone
ofthemostdistinguishedlandscapistsinthiscountry.Thoughpre
eminentlyapainter,hehasalsoturnedhisattentiontootherprocesses.
ALLwhoareacquaintedwithpresentdaySwisspaintinghavefeltthe
charmofMile.PaulinedeBeaumont'simpressivelandscapes.Shehas

Swiss

broughttoetchingthesamepatientstudyanddelicatesensitiveness,
andwiththehappiestresult.Hertreatmentofthepensivemoods
andquietaspectsofNatureisalwaystrueandeffective.
WEshouldliketodwellatlengthuponthereallyremarkable

achievementsofAlexisForel,forhisUAbsidedeNoireDamedeParis,
AGustofWind,Morbihan,andcertainotherofhislandscapeetchings,
aremasterpieces.

MOSToftheartistswehavetoucheduponuptothepresenthave
longbeenbeforethepublic,andhavehadtheirdueandwellmerited
meedofpraise.TheworkoftherisingschoolofSwissartistscalls
foranequallyjustappreciation,notonlybecauseitholdsinitselfthe
promiseofthefuture,butbecauseitisexpressiveofanewdeparture,
afreshandmostinterestingdevelopmentofSwissArt.The
membersofthisschool,suchartists,forexample,asBieler,Hodler,
Vautier,Wieland,Amiet,Giacometti,Berta,Vallet,Dunki,Baud
Rehfous,andothers,areofwidelydifferingartistictemperaments;
theyareintenseindividualists,with"apersonalvisionofthings"
whichisdearertothemthantheformulasofthepast,andwithbut
onebondofunion,viz.,theendeavourtoproduceanArtthat
shallbenationalnotmerelyinsubject,butinessence,spirit,and
treatment.

AMONGSTthesurestsignsofthevitalityofthisschoolmaybe
mentionedtheunremittingsearchofitsmembersforamore
adequateexpressionoftheartisticfaiththatisinthem,theirfrank
delightintheir"metier,"andtheversatilityoftheirgifts.Whether
weturntoAmietwithhispowerofextractingthecharacterof
thingswithoutdeformingit;toHodlerwithhisrude,butvigorous
workmanshipandoldSwisstemper;toEdouardBerta,withhis
distinctioninhandlingasubject,andhisexquisitevisualsensitiveness
tocolour;totherobusttalentandpersonalnoteofHansWielandas
displayedinhisfinelithographicplatesandpowerfuldrawings;to
Dunki'ssplendidtreatmentofmilitarysubjects;ortoVallet's
characteristicportraitsoftheSwisspeasant,weseesignsofvitality,
sincerity,andpromiseintherisingschoolofSwissartists.
WEcannotconcludethisarticlewithoutreferringtotheworkof
GiovanniGiacommetti,oneofSegantini'sbestpupils.Devoted
withakindofnaturalpietytothestudyoftheaspectsofNaturein
hisnativeGrisons,hehasalreadygivenusinterpretationsofmountain
landscapeinwhichtheausterecharacterofhissubjectisrendered
withindisputableoriginalityandfeeling.

ONEofthefinestetchingswehavehadunderstudyisbythis
artist.ThesubjectofitisSegantiniontheEveningofhisDeath.In

Swiss

thisworkthepupilhasrenderedworthyhomagetothegreat
master.

THEmodernSwissartististurningwithzealtomanybranchesof
art,andseekingtorealiseascompleteaconceptionaspossibleofhi&
vocationanditsrequirements.

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