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06-May-15

Course Code: EEE 305


Course Title: Building Service Design

Basic Electrical Technology


Course Teacher:
Md. Minarul Islam
Lecturer
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE)
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST)
Email:minarbuet@gmail.com
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CT: M.M. Islam

Make a List of Electrical Appliances at


Home

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Electrical Systems
Electrical systems are necessary because they make everything run.
Electrical Systems for Building:
A building has to be designed
with a precise electrical system
because the electric lines have to
connect to boxes that control
every switch and base-plate in
the entire building.

Electrical Systems for Machine:


A machine needs to have an electrical system because power needs to
reach the parts that make it run.

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CT: M.M. Islam

Overview of Electrical System


Power plant:
Generator:
Transformers
Transmission lines:
Distribution Lines:
Substation:
Protecting Devices
Relays:
Fuse:
Circuit Breakers:
Lightning Arrester

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CT: M.M. Islam

06-May-15

Power plant
A power plant produces electrical power.
Types of power plants:

Non-renewable

Renewable

Gas-turbine power plant,


Steam-turbine
power plant,
Nuclear Power plant,
Diesel-engine power plant

Hydro power plant,


Wind power plant,
Biomass power plant,
solar power plant, etc..

All power plants generate electricity and synchronize it with


national grid.
Some isolated diesel/Solar/Wind power stations are at remote places
and islands which are not connected with National Grid.
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CT: M.M. Islam

Power plant
Building up a power plant requires huge
investment.
Imagine the investment for establishing
of first nuclear power plant in
Bangladesh.

US$1.5-2.0 billion
The preparatory works include setting up of residential village for the
contractors personnel and an initial base for the power plant to be built at
Rooppur in northern Pabna district worth TK US$1.5-2.0 billion.

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CT: M.M. Islam

06-May-15

Power Generation in Bangladesh


Table 1: Power generation in Bangladesh
Power Generation Units (Fuel Type Wise)
Installed Capacity of BPDB Power Plants as on November 2014
Unit Type
Capacity (Unit)
Total (%)
Coal
250 MW
2.39%
FO
0 MW
0%
Gas
6719 MW
64.33%
HFO
1963 MW
18.79%
HSD
783 MW
7.5%
Hydro
230 MW
2.2%
Imported
500 MW
4.79%
Total
10445 MW
100%
Also, Solar, wind and Mini-hydro are producing Power in small scale/share

Terminal voltages of different generators in Bangladesh are


11 KV, 11.5 KV and 15.75 KV.
06-May-15

CT: M.M. Islam

Generator:
A generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.
Source of mechanical energy: A hand crank to an internal
combustion engine.
Generators provide power for electric power grids.
The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical
energy is done by an electric motor.
Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity.
There are two types of generators
(1) DC generator and
(2) AC generator.
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CT: M.M. Islam

06-May-15

Generator: Images of some generators

A big generator

Roof top Solar power plant

Wind turbine power plant

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CT: M.M. Islam

Diesel Generator

Transformer:
A transformer transfers energy between two or more circuits
through electromagnetic induction.
Transformers range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic
centimeter in volume to units interconnecting the power
grid weighing hundreds of tons.
Since the invention in 1885 of the first constant potential
transformer, transformers have become essential for the
AC transmission, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy.

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CT: M.M. Islam

06-May-15

Transformer:

Images of some transformers

06-May-15

CT: M.M. Islam

Transmission lines:
Transmission lines carry power from power plant to load centers.
There are several types of transmission lines based on their rated
voltage levels.
They are supported by towers much bigger than the wooden poles
near houses.
Transmission lines carry electricity to load centers at voltages
between 132 kV and 400 kV (132,000400,000 V) in Bangladehs.
It's extremely dangerous to approach these uninsulated high-voltage
transmission lines.

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CT: M.M. Islam

06-May-15

Transmission lines:

Transmission lines voltages between


132 kV and 400 kV in Bangladehs.

Transmission line voltage


ratings 44 kV to 735 kV.

For safety reasons, the transmission lines are located in cleared corridors of
varying widths, called rights-of-way.
06-May-15

CT: M.M. Islam

Distribution Lines:
An electric power distribution system is the final stage in the delivery of electric
power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers.
Distribution substations connect to the transmission system and lower the
transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 11 kV and 33 kV with the
use of transformers.
Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage power to distribution
transformers located near the customer's premises.
Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization voltage of
household appliances and typically feed several customers
through secondary distribution lines at this voltage.
Commercial and residential customers are connected to the secondary distribution
lines through service drops.
Customers demanding a much larger amount of power may be connected directly to
the primary distribution level or the subtransmission level.
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CT: M.M. Islam

06-May-15

Distribution Lines:
Images of some distribution lines

Presently BPDB's distribution network is comprising of 33 KV, 11 kV


and 11/0.4 KV lines.

06-May-15

CT: M.M. Islam

Substation:
A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission,
and distribution system.
Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of
several other important functions.
Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several
substations at different voltage levels.
A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high
transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two
different transmission voltages.
A substation may have transformer, current transformer (CT), potential transformer
(PT), Relay, Circuit breaker (CB), isolator, Lightning arrester etc

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CT: M.M. Islam

06-May-15

Substation:
Image of substation

06-May-15

CT: M.M. Islam

Protecting Devices
Relays:
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but
other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays.
Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power
signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled
circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.
The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers:
they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it
on another circuit.
Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early
computers to perform logical operations.
A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control
an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor.
06-May-15

CT: M.M. Islam

06-May-15

Protecting Devices
Relays:
Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead
using a semiconductor device to perform switching.
Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple
operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or
faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by
digital instruments still called "protective relays".

Main features of protecting devices:


Sensitivity
Selectivity
Reliability
Quickness:
Non-interference with future expansion

06-May-15

CT: M.M. Islam

Protecting Devices
Circuit Breakers
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect
an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit.
Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and interrupt current flow.
Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can
be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation.
Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an
individual household appliance up to large switch gear designed to protect high
voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

Classification of Circuit Breakers:


Electromagnetic-Type Circuit Breaker
Thermal-Type circuit breaker

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CT: M.M. Islam

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06-May-15

Fuse:
In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that
acts as a sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or
source circuit.
Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows
through it, interrupting the circuit that it connects.
Short circuits, overloading, mismatched loads, or device failure are the prime reasons
for excessive current. Fuses are an alternative to circuit breakers.
A fuse interrupts excessive current ("blows") so that further damage by overheating or
fire is prevented.
Wiring regulations often define a maximum fuse current rating for particular circuits.
Overcurrent protection devices are essential in electrical systems to limit threats to
human life and property damage.

06-May-15

CT: M.M. Islam

Fuse:
The time and current operating characteristics of fuses are chosen to
provide adequate protection without needless interruption.
Slow blow fuses are designed to allow harmless short term currents
over their rating while still interrupting a sustained overload.
Fuses are manufactured in a wide range of current and voltage
ratings to protect wiring systems and electrical equipment.
Self-resetting fuses automatically restore the circuit after the overload
has cleared, and are useful in environments where a human replacing
a blown fuse would be difficult or impossible, for example in
aerospace or nuclear applications.

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CT: M.M. Islam

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06-May-15

Fuse:
A fuse must fulfill following criteria:
During normal operating conditions fuses must not have any effect
over circuits.
A fuse must sense a short circuit or overload.
A fuse must open the circuit before any harm is caused to the
system.
Fuses can be classified as,
Edison Base Fuses
Type S Fuses
Cartridge-Type Fuses
Ferrule-Type Fuses
Knife Blade-Type Fuses
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CT: M.M. Islam

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