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How to become a linux expert

Thursday, 20 September 2012

Introduction to Linux


what is operating system:

An operating system is a interface between user and computer
an operating system is a software layer between hard ware and software which actually you are
example: windows operating system and ms office is your software
in this case you are using ms office but without windows operating system you cant use ms
it mean that windows operating system is allowing to communicate with ms office software.
operating system manages the computers hardware and provides a convenient and safe
environment for running programs. It acts as an interface between User & Computer
what is Linux?
Linux is a operating system like all other operating systems, which allow users to access their
software applications.
From where Linux came ?
IN 1965-MULTICS (Multi placing in for comp. system) initially developed by AT&T Bell Labs.
It was written is assembly language in 1969 Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thomson Programmed in
After that Dennis Ritchie developed C language and then entire code of UNICS was rewritten
in C it was named as UNIX. It is an open O.S that everyone can download it and modify
according to our necessity.
In 1990 Linus Torvalds developed LINUX O.S. which is Independent of Systems. After
Commercialization of Unix different Companies/Organizations like IBM, HP, SUN etc.
developed O.S which supported only their systems.

OS versions available:
1. Free Edition
2. Commercial


1. Process Mgmt.
2. Memory Mgmt.
3. Data Mgmt.
4. I/O Mgmt.

Linux Architecture:

It is a set of functions that makes up of an Operating System. It is used to provide an application
Interface between programs and physical devices.

Services Provided by the Kernel:

1. Control Execution of Process.
2. Scheduling process fairly for execution cpu
3. Allocating memory for an executing Process.

It is the interface between the User & Kernel
Services provided by the Shell :
1. It interprets all the commands to the Kernel
2. The Kernel after processing the commands gives back to the shell.
Types of Shells
1. Bourne shell (sh)


Korn shell (ksh)

4. Bash


Z shell

3. C shell (csh)

Flavors of UNIX:
The following are the companies which makes different flavors of Unix supported only by their


Vendor Flavor:

History of Linux:
In 1990s Linus Torvalds, a graduate student designed UNIX like kernel on 386 Intel machine
and gave this to GNU Software Foundation. Linux Kernel was bundled with many s/w tools
from various distributors and it gave to many flavors.

1. Red Hat
2. suSe
3. Mandrake
4. Fedora
5. Debain GNU
6. Slackware
Versions: Fedora 1, 2 ...11 - RHEL 1, 2........5.2

Features of Linux
1. Open Source
2. Multi-Tasking & Multi User
3. Portability
4. Scalability
5. Reliability
* Biggest Servers running Linux without single second of down time from last 12 Yrs.

Security - In built Firewall (IP-tables)

Types of Files in Unix
1. Regular files or Ordinary files
2. Directory files
3. Device files

1. Regular Files
It contains both printable and unprintable charecters
Types of regular files
a. Text file

b. Binary file

a. Text files
It contains Printable charecters
Ex; Shell scripts, Perl scripts
b. Binary files
It contains both printable and unprintable charecters
Ex: Unix commands, Video files, Image files

2. Directory Files
It contains names and identification number of files and sub directories

3. Device Files
Unix treats each device as a file. Alll the device related files comes under this
Types of device files
a. Character Special Files
Ex: keyboard, monitor etc.
b. Block Special Files
Ex: Hard drive

Learning Linux System Administration

Linux - Docker - Ansible - Fedora - CentOS - Enterprise Linux - Python TCP/IP - DevOps - System Administration - Internet - Scaling - Hacking Load Balancing - Uptime - High Availability - Cloud - Puppet
Sunday, August 28, 2011
How To Install and Configure Splunk For Log Analysis
Splunk, in simple words, is a log analyzer, a powerful one. It understands machine
data like no one else and make it searchable and displays it in easy to understand
way with a web dashboard. This data is important not only for searches but also for
investigations, monitoring and making decisions regarding your infrastructure.
Large organizations like Motorola and Vodafone use splunk to keep an eye on their
server and now I am going to show you, how you can do the same.

How to install Splunk?

To install splunk just download the relevant installer from this page and use a
suitable package manager. I'll use Centos 5.6 for this post. So just do a "yum
install splunk-4.2.3-105575.i386.rpm". The rpm will be installed in /opt/splunk.
Chances are that it won't be in your path so either add it or just use the full path. If
the splunk is not in the /opt run a find on it "find / -name splunk". To start splunk
server just issue the command " /opt/splunk/bin/splunk start" and accept the
license. Don't forget to allow the port, usually 8000, from you firewall.
Adding logs for analysis
Let us add apache logs to the splunk for analysis. These logs are located at
/var/log/httpd/. Log in using the web console at http://localhost:8000 with
credentials id: admin and password: changeme. Click on the "Add data" button and
then on Apache logs link. Now you got to "Consume Apache logs on this Splunk
server", click next and specify the path to the apache logs directory and you are
Searching through the logs
From home page go to the welcome tab and launch the search app. Now you just
need to type the search query and the relevant parts from the logs will be
presented to you.

Building Reports

From the search app only, click on the "Build Report" link and just specify the
criteria and that is it. You'll get the report in no time.