SCIG BASED WIND TURBINE

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4, DECEMBER 2014

739

Grid-Connected Wind Turbine Induction

Generators With Back-to-Back

AC/DC/AC Converters

George C. Konstantopoulos, Member, IEEE, and Antonio T. Alexandridis, Member, IEEE

wind generator system consisting of an induction generator

connected to the grid through a full power frequency converter

is conducted. To this end, a nonlinear modeling of the entire

system is used in a manner that permits a novel controller

design with common structure for both the generator- and gridside converters. The proposed controller, acting directly on the

duty-ratio inputs of the converters, ensures the boundedness

of the duty-ratio signals in the permitted range although its

structure is independent from the system parameters and open

to different control objectives. Therefore, maximum power point

tracking and power factor correction are easily implemented.

Furthermore, the controller is proven to guarantee stability of

the whole system under field- or near-field-oriented conditions

without needing any flux measurement or estimation. Hence,

the main contribution established by this approach is that a

rigorous stability analysis taking into account the generator,

converters, dc link, and controller dynamics is presented on

the basis of a complete system modeling and controller design

approach. The theoretical analysis and controller effectiveness are

confirmed via extended simulation results for a commercial size

2-MW induction generator operating under varied wind speed

conditions and are further validated on a similar system with

real-time results.

Index Terms AC/DC/AC converter bounded control,

nonlinear analysis, squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG)converter modeling, stability, wind power systems.

I. I NTRODUCTION

the electrical power systems has lead wind energy to

represent one of the mainstream and most promising solutions

in modern power systems applications. This fact has an

immediate impact on the analysis, modeling, and design of

grid-connected wind turbines (WTs) with basic aim being, the

May 4, 2014. Date of publication May 19, 2014; date of current version

October 29, 2014. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor

B. Shao.

G. C. Konstantopoulos is with the Department of Automatic Control and

Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, U.K.

(e-mail: g.konstantopoulos@sheffield.ac.uk).

A. T. Alexandridis is with the Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26500, Greece (e-mail:

a.t.alexandridis@ece.upatras.gr).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available

online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2325676

speed is the standard technique for the WT operation, a backto-back ac/dc/ac converter is used as a basic circuit structure in

the link between the wind generator and electric grid [1][4].

Particularly, in variable-speed mode, induction generators are

widely used in two basic types: 1) the squirrel-cage induction

generator (SCIG); and 2) the doubly fed induction generator

(DFIG) [1], [5][11]. Although until now, DFIG WT schemes

constitute the majority of variable-speed applications, SCIG

schemes is expected to be the most important in the near

future due to the following facts: 1) the high-efficiency and

the low-cost installation and maintenance of the SCIG; and

2) the continuing reduced cost of the power electronic devices

even in higher power levels, since the SCIG connection to the

grid is implemented using a full-scale back-to-back ac/dc/ac

frequency converter.

Both the generator-side and grid-side converters consist of

three-phase IGBT controlled ac/dc switching power devices.

In this scheme, the converters control inputs, namely the dutyratio signals of each converter, are actually used to drive the

system at the desired operation. As pulse-width-modulation

(PWM) is the standard technique used to implement the dutyratio performance, it becomes evident that the controller design

has to satisfy all the constraints imposed by such an operation,

i.e., to create a bounded signal [12] that in the frame of linear

modulation [13] can effectively achieve the desired performance. On the other hand, the induction generator dynamics

should be taken into account. As it is well-known, the most

common control technique for an induction machine is the

indirect rotor field-oriented control (IR-FOC) method that has

been widely used in the induction motor case [13], [14].

IR-FOC is a complex and demanding technique, which has

been developed on the dq synchronously rotating reference frame. According to this method, the reference frame

alignment with respect to the rotor flux state is required

in order to simplify the electromagnetic torque expression

as in a separately excited dc machine [13][15]. In this

way, the maximum power extraction is achieved from the

optimum torque as determined by the WT aerodynamics.

To this end, several techniques have been used [16][18],

known as maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques

that eventually provide the rotor speed reference with respect

to the wind speed. This task is realized at the generator-side

2168-6777 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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IEEE JOURNAL OF EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2014

achieve unity power factor operation and dc-bus voltage regulation. In both sides, proportional-integral (PI) controllers

are often used in a single and cascaded structure as well

[19], [20], whereas external (dynamic) limiters are important

for maintaining a desired PWM operation for each converter

(i.e., linear modulation [13]). Additionally, decoupling terms

are also introduced to simplify the analysis of the complete

system; a fact that increases the system sensitivity to parameter

variations.

Although several control methods have been proposed for

a grid-connected WT energy system, to the best of our

knowledge, the stability of such a system has not yet been fully

considered. The converter dynamics are often omitted from the

analysis [21][26], whereas in cases where they are included

in the complete system, small-signal model and linearization

methods are used, which decrease the validity of the stability

analysis. Since both the induction generator and converter

dynamics are nonlinear, it becomes clear that nonlinear control design and analysis is essential for guaranteeing global

stability for the required WT operation. Nonlinear Lyapunovbased and passivity-based techniques have been proposed

for ac/dc converter systems [27][29], but they cannot be

analytically expressed when the induction generator dynamics

are included in the system. Intelligent techniques have been

also applied [30], but their structure cannot guarantee stability

for the closed-loop system and are not suitable in this case

where the system model, though nonlinear, is well-known and

an operators experience does not exist.

In this paper, a nonlinear system analysis is developed for

the complete system consisting of a SCIG wind generator and

a back-to-back ac/dc/ac converter connected to the grid. The

analysis is based on the full-scale nonlinear model of the entire

system and on a novel bounded design for the controllers in

both the converters sides. As shown in this paper, the controller

design is based on a common module structure for both the

converters sides (generator side and grid side), although the

control objectives are different. It is proven that the proposed

controller is fully independent from the system parameters and

directly provides the duty-ratio input of the converters exactly

in the permitted range that ensures linear modulation. These

controller features are essential since they maintain a simple

and parameter-free structure while they significantly improve

the performance with respect to the traditional PI and cascaded

PI controllers, which require external dynamic limiters. In our

case, adopting for the generator-side converter, the IR-FOC

technique through steady-state conditions, the main tasks of

the duty-ratio d, q components are determined as current

and speed regulations that ensure flux orientation in steadystate and MPPT operation, respectively. In a similar way,

adopting voltage-oriented control techniques for the grid-side

converter, the main tasks of the duty-ratio d, q components

are determined again as current and voltage regulations that

achieve unity power factor and constant dc-voltage operation,

respectively. Additionally, closed-loop system stability, firstly

in the sense of input-to-state boundedness and secondly as

convergence to the desired equilibrium, is proven for the

complete converter-generator system, even in cases where,

achieved [31]. According to the best of our knowledge, this is

the first time that nonlinear stability is proven for the complete

dynamic system of a grid-connected SCIG with a back-toback power converter operating under bounded controllers and

without needing any flux measurement or estimation. Extended

simulation results of a 2-MW SCIG system are provided by a

detailed model, developed by us on a MATLAB/SIMULINK

environment, to verify the efficiency of the proposed controller

under different wind speed values. To further evaluate the proposed controller performance, real-time results are additionally

presented as these are extracted using a similar SCIG, in pu,

using the OPAL-RT system.

In the following sections and particularly in Section II, the

dynamic model of the grid-connected SCIG with a back-toback converter is obtained using nonlinear average analysis of

the switching devices. In Section III, the WT aerodynamics

and IR-FOC theory are briefly presented. In Section IV,

the nonlinear controller is proposed and its properties are

analyzed. In Section V, the analysis of the closed-loop system

is given under the proposed control scheme wherein a rigorous

stability analysis is included. In Section VI, simulation results

of a 2-MW SCIG system and additional real-time results are

presented. Finally, in Section VII, some conclusions are drawn.

II. C OMPLETE SCIG AND BACK - TO -BACK

C ONVERTER M ODEL

Fig. 1 shows the WT system of a SCIG connected to the grid

through a back-to-back ac/dc/ac converter. The power converter system consists of two conventional three-phase ac/dc

voltage source converters linked through the dc-link capacitor

C. The dc-link resistance Rdc represents the parasitic resistance (in M) of the capacitor combined with the resistance

of the dc-chopper that is often applied in real applications.

A boosting inductor L g with series resistance Rg are assumed

between the grid-side converter and grid bus.

In order to study the dynamic behavior of the whole SCIGconverter system, the widely used dynamic equations of the

induction machine are used in the synchronously rotating dq

reference frame, after applying Park transformation [13]

Rr L 2m

Rr L m

+ Rs i ds + e i qs +

dr

i ds =

2

Lr

L r2

Lm

+

pqr r + 2m ds Vdc

Lr

Rr L 2m

Rr L m

iqs =

+

R

qr

s i qs e i ds +

2

Lr

L r2

Lm

pdr r + 2m qs Vdc

Lr

Rr L m

Rr

i ds

dr + (e pr )qr

dr =

Lr

Lr

Rr L m

Rr

qr =

i qs

qr (e pr )dr

Lr

Lr

3L m

3L m

Jm r =

pqr i ds +

pdr i qs br Tm (1)

2L r

2L r

where = L s L 2m /L r . States i ds , i qs , and dr , qr are

the d-axis and q-axis components of the stator currents and

KONSTANTOPOULOS AND ALEXANDRIDIS: GRID-CONNECTED WT INDUCTION GENERATORS WITH BACK-TO-BACK AC/DC/AC CONVERTERS

Fig. 1.

741

m ds = Vds /(2Vdc ), m qs = Vqs /(2Vdc ) are the d-axis and

q-axis duty-ratio components of the grid-side converter with

Vds and Vqs representing the d-axis and q-axis components

of the stator voltage. Parameters Rs and Rr are the stator and

rotor resistances, respectively, e is the synchronous speed

(reference frame), r is the rotor speed, and p is the number

of pole pairs. The stator and rotor inductance are noted as

L s and L r , respectively, whereas L m represents the mutual

inductance. Finally, Jm is the total SCIG-WT inertia, b is the

friction coefficient, and Tm is the mechanical torque at the

rotor of the induction generator.

Continuing with the dynamics of the back-to-back converter

with the dc-link, in the synchronously rotating dq reference

frame, the following nonlinear model is added to the SCIG

model:

L g id = Rg i d + s L g i q 2m dg Vdc + Vd

L g iq = Rg i q s L g i d 2m qg Vdc + Vq

voltage

m qs

m qg

, g = arctan

.

(5)

s = arctan

m ds

m dg

Additionally, in most converter applications, it is preferred the

converter to operate with linear modulation [13] in order to

avoid the existence of higher harmonics. This means that

m as 1, m ag 1

Vdc

(2)

Rdc

where i d , i q , Vd , and Vq are the d-axis and q-axis components

of the grid currents and voltages, respectively, and s is

the grid frequency. Parameters m dg = Vdg /(2Vdc ), m qg =

Vqg /(2Vdc ) are the d-axis and q-axis duty-ratio components

of the generator-side converter, where Vdg and Vqg are the

d-axis and q-axis components of the grid-side converter output

voltage.

Assuming that the phase-a grid voltage is aligned with the

q-axis, which is the common scenario for the grid-side converter, it holds true that Vd = 0 and Vq = Vm , where Vm is

the peak value of the grid phase voltage.

By combining (1) and (2), one can easily show that the

complete system, shown in Fig. 1, can be described in the

nonlinear dissipative Hamiltonian form

C Vdc = 3(m dg i d + m qg i q m ds i ds m qs i qs )

M x = (J (x, m ds , m qs , m dg , m qg ) R)x +

skew-symmetric; and 3) R is constant, symmetric, and positive

definite.

Finally, the duty-ratio d, q components of the control inputs

can be combined to provide the modulation indexes of the

generator- and grid-side converter, respectively

(4)

m as = m 2ds + m 2qs , m ag = m 2dg + m 2qg

(3)

= [ 0 Vm 0 0 (2/3)Tm 0 0 0 ]T is the external uncontrolled input vector, whereas the control inputs are the four

duty-ratio signals m ds , m qs , m dg , m qg . Matrices M, J , and

R are shown in the Appendix and satisfy the properties:

constraints

m 2ds + m 2qs 1, m 2dg + m 2qg 1.

(6)

A. WT Aerodynamics

The aerodynamics of the WT are characterized by the power

coefficient C p , the tip speed ratio , and the blade pitch angle

[17]. There have been several references on the theoretical

background of the WT aerodynamics, where the reader can

be referred to [10] and [17]. According to [10], C p can be

approximated by the function

116

12.5

0.4 5 e i

(7)

C p (, ) = 0.22

i

with

i =

0.035

1

3

+ 0.08

+1

=

r Rb

ng v

(8)

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IEEE JOURNAL OF EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2014

and v is the wind speed. By choosing the optimal opt for the

maximum power coefficient C popt , maximum power can be

extracted from the wind by setting the reference rotor speed

opt vn g

rref =

(9)

Rb

and the torque

1 Rb5 C popt ref

r

2

3opt

Tmax =

(10)

it is calculated that opt 6.325.

The controller design for the generator-side ac/dc converter

is based on the IR-FOC technique as modified in Section III-B

for steady-state operation and the MPPT technique as determined from the WT aerodynamics. Therefore, the control

objective is to regulate the rotor speed r to a reference

value rref as given from (9), with respect to the wind speed

in order to achieve MPPT and to regulate the d-axis stator

ref = i

current i ds to a reference value i ds

ds as given from

induction generator. Hence, the following nonlinear controller

is proposed:

IR-FOC technique relies on operating the induction generator as a separately excited dc machine. In most applications, the indirect field orientation is applied when the total

rotor flux r is aligned on the synchronous rotating d-axis,

particularly

r = dr and qr = 0.

(11)

leading to simplified control design. Applying (11) to the

nonlinear dynamic model (1) and assuming steady state operation, one can determine the desired slip frequency from the

fourth equation of (1) as

Lm

i qs

(12)

e pr sl =

r r

where r = L r /Rr is the rotor time constant. Since the rotor

flux cannot be measured, the amplitute of the flux is usually

estimated from the third equation of (1) as

+ = L i

(13)

r r

m ds

Assuming that the induction generator is operated below the

rated power, the rotor flux should be maintained constant and

therefore the reference signals are the desired speed rref and

the rotor flux r .

Assuming steady-state operation, r = r , one can define

from (13) the constant d-axis current ids as follows:

r = L m ids .

(14)

as given by (13) in order to ensure stability. Instead of (13), we

adopt IR-FOC at steady-state and therefore (14) is adequate

for flux determination. This becomes possible since, as it is

proven in the next sections, stability is guaranteed with the

proposed controller scheme independently from the dynamic

estimation of the flux. Moreover, cascaded controller schemes

or other assumptions necessary for linear designs are avoided.

IV. N ONLINEAR C ONTROL D ESIGN

Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the complete system (3),

a nonlinear controller, fully independent from the system

parameters, is proposed that fulfills the basic control objectives

for each converter.

m ds = z 1

(15)

m qs = z 2

(16)

z 123 = Agen (i ds , r , z 123 ) z 123

(17)

Agen

ref

0

0

k1 i ds i ds

ref

= 0

0

k

2 r r

(18)

ref k ref c z 2 + z 2 + z 2 1

k1 i ds i ds

2 r

1 1

r

2

3

where z 123 = [ z 1 z 2 z 3 ]T is the controller state vector, k1 ,

k2 are nonzero constants, and c1 is a positive constant. It is

clear that the proposed controller is fully independent from

the system parameters.

In order to achieve field orientation for the induction

generator, the synchronous speed is obtained as

e = pr + sl

(19)

1

i

ref qs

r i ds

(20)

where

sl =

ref in the denominator,

the measured i ds with the desired i ds

because field orientation is only required at steady state.

This substitution simplifies the controller implementation and

achieves the same goal, whereas the analysis described in the

following section guarantees a stable nonlinear operation during transient. Note that conventionally sl is given from (12)

with r estimated according to (13).

Even though the control scheme seems to depend on the

value of r , as it will be explained in the stability analysis,

closed-loop stability is guaranteed independently from the

value of r used, thus proving robustness of the proposed

scheme with respect to variable changes or inaccurate knowledge of r (certainly within the induction generator ratings).

This case represents a near field-oriented operation. This represents a significant advantage compared with the traditional

IR-FOC techniques, where field orientation is crucial for a

desired performance.

B. Grid-Side Converter Control

The control tasks for the grid-side converter is the regulation of the dc-bus voltage Vdc to a desired constant value

KONSTANTOPOULOS AND ALEXANDRIDIS: GRID-CONNECTED WT INDUCTION GENERATORS WITH BACK-TO-BACK AC/DC/AC CONVERTERS

Vdc

complete system. As mentioned in Section II, the phase-a grid

voltage can be aligned with the q-axis resulting in Vd = 0 and

Vq = Vm . Taking into account the fact that the real and reactive

power injected to the grid are

3

(21)

P = Vd i d + Vq i q

2

3

(22)

Q = Vq i d Vd i q

2

then unity power factor operation, i.e., Q = 0, can be achieved

by simply controlling the d-axis grid current i d to be zero [27].

Note that the minus signs that appear in the expressions of P

and Q are to ensure that the power flow direction is from the

generator to the grid.

Recalling the same nonlinear controller structure as that

given for the generator-side converter, the following controller

is proposed:

m dg = z 4

(23)

m qg = z 5

(24)

(25)

with dynamics

Agrid

0

=

k3i d

0

0

ref

k4 Vdc Vdc

k3i d ref

k4 Vdc Vdc

2

2

2

c2 z 4 + z 5 + z 6 1

(26)

k4 are nonzero constants, and c2 is a positive constant. Once

again, the proposed controller is fully independent from the

system parameters.

C. Controller Properties

Since the proposed controller has the same structure for

both converters, the following analysis will be restricted for

the generator-side converter. From the

dynamics structure

(17),

it can be observed that the term c1 z 12 + z 22 + z 32 1 in (18)

implies that the control law acts as an attractive limit cycle for

the controller states z 1 , z 2 , z 3 on the surface of a sphere Cr1

with center the origin and radius equal to 1, particularly

Cr1 = {z 1 , z 2 , z 3 : z 12 + z 22 + z 32 = 1}.

After being attracted on the surface of sphere Cr1 (c1 is the

rate of attractiveness), states z 1 , z 2 , z 3 will stay on this surface

for all future time, independently from their initial values.

Particularly, according to the convergence definition [32], there

exists a time instant T 0, after which the controller states

have practically converged on sphere Cr1 , where they remain

thereafter.

As a conclusion of the aforementioned controller analysis,

we point out that after an initial time period, the following

hold true.

Control states z 1 (t), z 2 (t), and z 3 (t) are bounded each in

the range [1, 1], as a demand of sphere Cr1 . Hence, it holds

true that

z 12 (t) + z 22 (t) = 1 z 32 (t)

Fig. 2.

743

disk D with radius r = 1 (see Fig. 2).

Thus, the duty-ratio input becomes

m as = z 12 (t) + z 22 (t) = 1 z 32 (t).

(27)

Hence, it is guaranteed that always: 0 m as 1.

The controller acts as a three-state oscillator with angular

velocity depending on the difference between the measured

and the desired values for i ds and r . Furthermore, assuming

ref and ref , there exists an equilibrium

that i ds i ds

r

r

point for the closed-loop system corresponding to some dutyratio signals m ds = z 1 and m qs = z 2 .

Thus, the proposed controller provides a bounded duty-ratio

control input, exactly in the range permitted by the linear

modulation of the PWM applied on the ac/dc converter. The

attractiveness of the controller operation guarantees robustness

of the controller states response on the sphere Cr1 . In order

for all these controller properties to hold, it is essential to

ref

prove that i ds and r are bounded while as i ds i ds

ref

stable solution of the entire system at the desired equilibrium.

A similar analysis holds for the grid-side converter, where the

controller states z 456 are attracted on a similar sphere Cr2 in

z 4 z 5 z 6 space, particularly

Cr2 = {z 4 , z 5 , z 6 : z 42 + z 52 + z 62 = 1}.

V. C LOSED -L OOP S TABILITY A NALYSIS

A. Closed-Loop System Dynamics

After incorporating the proposed nonlinear control strategy

(15)(17) and (23)(25) to the complete system (3), the resulting closed-loop system can be also written in the dissipative

Hamiltonian form

x +

M x = ( J(x)

R)

T

T

T

and matrices

with state vector x = x T z 123

z 456

R

086

M

086

, R=

M =

068

I6

068 Rc

T

T

=

016

(28)

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IEEE JOURNAL OF EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2014

with

Rc = diag 0, 0, c1 z 12 +z 22 +z 32 1 , 0, 0, c2 z 42 +z 52 +z 62 1

and J as given in the Appendix.

B. Stability Analysis

To begin with the stability analysis, consider first the

unforced closed-loop system ( = 0)

x

M x = ( J(x)

R)

(29)

2

1

1

V x = x T M x + z 12 + z 22 + z 32 1

2

4

2

1 2

2

+ z 4 + z 5 + z 62 1 .

4

Fig. 3.

Wind speed.

TABLE I

(30)

1

V = x T M x + z 12 + z 22 + z 32 1 2z 1 z 1 + 2z 2 z 2 + 2z 3 z 3

2

1

+ z 42 + z 52 + z 62 1 2z 4 z 4 + 2z 5 z 5 + 2z 6 z 6

2

2

= x T Rx c1 z 12 + z 22 + z 32 1 z 32

2

c2 z 42 + z 52 + z 62 1 z 62 0

(31)

which proves that (29) is Lyapunov stable. Since (29) is a

nonlinear autonomous system and the Lyapunov function (30)

is radially unbounded with nonpositive derivative over the

whole state space, then according to the Global Invariant Set

Theorem 3.5 described in [33], all solutions uniformly globally

asymptotically converge to the largest invariant set N in E.

Set E is defined as the set, where V = 0 and since R > 0, then

it consists of the union of x = 0 and z 123 and z 456 constrained

on spheres Cr1 and Cr2 , respectively.

J, and R,

it becomes clear that the SCIG-converter system (plant) and

the controller system can be handled separately. The controller

system operates as two attractive spheres for the states z 123 and

z 456 , respectively, as shown in the previous section, independently from the plant states i ds , r , i d , and Vdc . This is a very

important property that distinguishes the proposed controller

operation from the existing approaches. In this manner and

returning to the system with the external input vector , the

controller state vector z can be considered as a bounded timevarying vector for the plant system

M x = (J (x, z(t)) R)x +

(32)

system with external input vector .

For (32), consider the Lyapunov function candidate

W=

1 T

x M x.

2

(33)

W = x T Rx + x T .

(34)

Then, it can be easily shown [32] that there exist 0 < < 1

such that

W (1 )min (R) x2

x

min (R)

(35)

positive-definite matrix R. Inequality (35) proves that (32) is

input-to-state stable with respect to the external input [32].

Therefore, since the external input vector is a bounded

signal consisting of the grid voltage and the mechanical torque,

then the SCIG-converter system is stable in the sense of

boundedness, i.e., x is bounded. Furthermore, since z 123 and

z 456 are attracted on a closed set described by spheres Cr1

and Cr2 , then it is concluded that the whole closed-loop state

vector x is bounded.

Assuming that the reference signals and external input

vector are provided in a manner that technically result in an

equilibrium point (certainly within the SCIG-converter system

requirements), then for the closed-loop system, which is given

in the Hamiltonian-passive form [31] and under some common

assumptions mentioned in [31], it is proven that the bounded

states x will eventually converge to the desired equilibrium.

KONSTANTOPOULOS AND ALEXANDRIDIS: GRID-CONNECTED WT INDUCTION GENERATORS WITH BACK-TO-BACK AC/DC/AC CONVERTERS

Fig. 5.

745

MATLAB/SIMULINK under several wind speeds that correspond to a hard real-life scenario. The wind speed is initially

assumed 11 m/s. At time instant t = 50 s, it drops to 8 m/s,

at time instant t = 150 s, it changes to 10 m/s, and finally

at time instant t = 250 s, it becomes 11.5 m/s. It is assumed

that the wind continuously changes around each one of the

previous values in order to represent an actual wind response,

as shown in Fig. 3. The complete system parameters are shown

in Table I, whereas the controller gains take the following

values during the whole demonstration:

k1 = 0.03 A1, k2 = 0.003 s/rad, k3 = 1 A1

k4 = 0.01V 1 , c1 = c2 = 100.

Fig. 4.

Simulation results of the complete SCIG-converter WT system.

(a) d-axis stator current ids . (b) q-axis stator current iqs . (c) d-axis rotor

flux dr . (d) q-axis rotor flux qr . (e) Rotor speed r . (f) DC-bus voltage

Vdc . (g) d-axis grid current id . (h) q-axis grid current iq . (i) Generatorside converter modulation index m as . (j) Grid-side converter modulation

index m ag .

VI. R ESULTS

A. Simulation Results Using MATLAB/SIMULINK

In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed

nonlinear controller, a complete system consisting of a

2-MW SCIG and an ac/dc/ac converter is simulated using

ref = 1600 V constant, whereas the d-axis

voltage is set at Vdc

grid current should be regulated at zero in order to achieve

unity power factor operation for the complete system. For the

generator-side converter controller, the reference speed of the

rotor is calculated from (9) according to the wind speed value

and it is shown in Fig. 4(e), whereas the reference value of

ref = 286 A. As it can be

the d-axis stator current is set at i ds

seen from Fig. 4(a) and (e), the nonlinear controller for the

grid-side converter regulates the d-axis stator and the rotor

speed at the desired values in order to achieve maximum

power injection. Due to the field-oriented technique that holds

at steady-state, the q-axis rotor flux qr is expected to be

around zero as it was explained in the analysis of Section

IV-A. In Fig. 4(f), it is shown that the dc-bus voltage is

suitably and rapidly regulated at the desired value, whereas

the d-axis grid current i d is controlled at the zero value to

achieve unity power factor operation [see Fig. 4(g)]. This is

also verified by the time response of the reactive power Q g

injected at the grid, which is regulated at zero (see Fig. 6).

The rest of the system states are suitably regulated to their

steady-state values corresponding to the desired equilibrium

(see Fig. 4), a fact that verifies the theoretical stability analysis

described in this paper. The time response of the real power

injected to the grid for several changes of the wind speed

is shown in Fig. 5 with respect to the power delivered

by the wind. Finally, from the modulation index responses

shown in Fig. 4(i) and (j), it is verified that both converters operate in the linear modulation area as it is expected

from the controller properties analyzed in Section IV-C.

746

Fig. 6.

IEEE JOURNAL OF EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2014

Fig. 9.

Fig. 7.

Fig. 10.

Fig. 8.

a bounded control output for the modulation indexes in order

to guarantee operation in the linear modulation area, whereas

it effectively regulates the complete system at the desired

equilibrium.

real-time results have been obtained using the real-time system

of OPAL-RT for a SCIG system with similar parameters

(in pu). For this SCIG-converter system, the control tasks

are again the maximum power extraction from the wind,

unity power factor operation of the complete system, and

ref = 0.3 pu

accurate regulation at the reference values i ds

ref

and Vdc = 0.9 pu. During this scenario, the wind speed is

changing between 8 and 10 m/s to represent an actual wind

change and the power flow is considered from the generator

to the grid.

Fig. 7 shows the measured and reference generator rotor

speed. The reference speed is always calculated from (9)

according to the value of the wind speed and it is clear that

the proposed controller suitably tracks the desired value in

order to achieve maximum power extraction. The responses

of the d-axis and q-axis currents of the generator (i ds and i qs )

and the grid (i d and i q ) are shown in Fig. 8. It is verified

1 1 2

2

M = diag , ,

, , Jm , L g , L g , C

Lr Lr 3

3

Lm

0

e

0

0

L r pqr

0

0

0

LLmr pdr

e

e pr

0

0

0

0

Lr

p

e

r

0

0

0

0

Lr

J =

L m pqr L m pdr

0

0

0

Lr

Lr

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2m ds

2m qs

0

0

0

2

Rr L m

+ Rs

0

RrLL2 m

0

0

0

L r2

r

Rr L 2m

R

L

+ Rs

0

rL 2 m

0

0

0

L r2

r

Rr L m

Rr

0

0

0

0

L r2

L r2

Rr L m

Rr

R=

0

0

0

0

L r2

L r2

0

0

0

0

0

3b

0

0

0

0

0

Rg

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

J

081

081

081 ref

018

0

0

k

1 i ds i ds

ref

018

0

0

k

2 r r

ref

ref

k2 r r

0

J =

018 k1 i ds i ds

018

0

0

0

018

0

0

0

018

0

0

0

that i ds is regulated at its desired value i ds

d

always regulated to zero in order to achieve unity power factor

operation. Additionally, depending on the wind changes, the

q-axis currents of the generator and grid are suitably regulated

to their steady-state values corresponding to the closed-loop

system equilibrium. The regulation of the dc-bus voltage Vdc

ref = 0.9 pu is verified in Fig. 9,

to its reference value Vdc

which is maintained independently from the wind changes.

Fig. 9 also shows the real and reactive power of the grid along

with the power delivered by the wind. The reactive power Q g

injected to the grid is always maintained to zero verifying

the unity power factor operation and the real power Pg is

regulated just below the wind power. This proves that the

proposed controller effectively extracts the maximum power

from the wind. Finally, in Fig. 10, the steady-state values

of the instantaneous phase-a voltage and current of the grid

are presented to verify that they have the same phase and

achieve the desired Q g = 0. As a result, the real-time results

effectively validate the performance of the proposed nonlinear

controller in order to support the rigorous theoretical analysis.

VII. C ONCLUSION

A Hamiltonian-passive formulation has been used for modeling a SCIG-converter WT system in a manner that effectively

incorporates novel nonlinear duty-ratio controllers for both the

0

0

0

0

0

0

s L g

2m dg

0

0

0

0

0

0

s L g

0

2m qg

0

0

Rg

0

0

0

0

081

0

0

0

0

0

k3i d

3

2Rdc

747

2m ds

2m qs

2m dg

2m qg

0

081

0

0

0

0

0

ref

k4 Vdc Vdc

081

k

i

3 d ref

k4 Vdc Vdc

0

paper, the proposed approach is parameter free and can achieve

MPPT operation for the induction generator, whereas it can

regulate the dc-bus voltage and achieve unity power factor

operation for the complete system. Using nonlinear Lyapunov

methods, stability and convergence to the desired equilibrium

of the closed-loop system have been proven as well as robustness with respect to field orientation and parameter variations.

Extensive simulation results for several wind conditions verify

the fast and very good system performance, which is further

validated using a real-time system.

A PPENDIX

The system matrices are shown at the top of this page.

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the Diploma and Ph.D. degrees in electrical and

computer engineering from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of

Patras, Rion, Greece, in 2008 and 2012, respectively.

He has been with the Department of Automatic

Control and Systems Engineering, The University of

Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K., since 2013, as a Research

Associate. His current research interests include nonlinear modeling, control, and stability analysis of

power converter and electric machine systems with emphasis in microgrid

operation, renewable energy systems, and motor drives.

Dr. Konstantopoulos is a Member of the National Technical Chamber of

Greece.

Diploma degree in electrical engineering from the

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of

Patras, Rion, Greece, in 1981, and the Ph.D. degree

from the Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown,

WV, USA, in 1987.

He joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Patras in 1988,

where he is currently a Professor and the Head of

the Power Systems Division. In 1998, he joined the

Control Engineering Research Centre at the City University London, London,

U.K., as a Visiting Researcher. He has authored more than 130 international

journal and conference papers. His research interests include control theory,

nonlinear dynamics, optimal control, eigenstructure assignment, passivity, and

advanced control applications on power systems and drive systems. His current

research interests include renewable power generation control and stability

(wind generators, PV systems, and microgrids).

Prof. Alexandridis is a Member of the National Technical Chamber of

Greece.

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