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Wounds & Haemorrhage.

Fractures, Dislocation & Sprains.


Burns & Scalds.

Asphyxia & Insensibility.


Foreign Body in Eye, Ear, Nose.

Wounds & Haemarrhage


Wounds
Break in the continuity of Skin
resulting in the escape of Blood.
Haemorrhage
Escape of Blood from injured
blood vessel ( artery, vein or
capillaries).

Types of Wounds
Contused Caused by Blunt Weapon.
Lacerated Caused by Shell or animal claws.

Incised

Caused by Sharp Weapon.

Punctured Caused by Pointed Weapon.


Shot

Caused by Bullet or Gunshot.

Contused Caused by Blunt Weapon.

Types of Haemorrhage
Arterial

Blood is Bright Red


& comes out in jets.

Venous

Blood is Dark Red &


comes out in
continuous stream.

Capillaries Blood OOZES out


continuously.

Signs & Symptioms

Rapid loss of strength & giddiness.


Face & Lips become pale.
Skin becomes cold & clammy.
Breathing is hurried.
Pulse progressively faster & weaker.
Patient becomes thirsty.
Restlessness & hunger.
May lead to unconsciousness.

Treatment External Bleeding

Keep the patient in suitable position.


Elevate the bleeding part.
Apply pressure, Direct OR Indirect.
Do NOT disturb the blood clot.
Remove the Foreign Body, if seen.
Cover the wounded part.
Immobilise the injured part.
Treat for shock.

Treatment Internal Bleeding

Give warmth & handle gently.


If any organ protrudes, protect by
covering with linen or soft towel.

Treat for Shock.


Do NOT give stimulants.
Remove the Patient to Hospital.

Fracture, Dislocation & Sprains

Fractures
Breaking, Bending & Cracking of
Bone.
Dislocation
Displacement of one or more
bones of a joint.

Fracture, Dislocation & Sprain


Sprain
Injuries to joints resulting in stretching
or tearing of surrounding Tissues,
Ligaments or Tendons.
Strain
Overstretching of Muscles or
Tendons by over exertion..

Causes of Fractures
Direct Violence.

Indirect Violence.
Muscular Action.

Types of Fractures
Simple
Only bone breaks, but No other
damage.
Compound
Bone breaks and penetrates
surrounding Tissues. Sometimes it
protrudes through the skin & is
accompanied by bleeding.

Types of Fractures
Complicated
Bone breaks and penetrates internal
organ/s.
Impacted
After the break, the ends of the bone
penetrate each other.

Types of Fractures
Comminuted
Bone breaks into number of
pieces.
Green Stick
Bending of bone ( Seen in case
of children).
Depressed
Only depression of bone.

Signs & Symptioms

Pains.
Loss of use of limb.
Swelling.
Deformity and Irregularity.
Unnatural position & mobility.
Broken bone is seen.
Crepitus (sound of grating).

Treatment FRACTURE

Fix the bone, if possible.


Re-assure the patient.
Apply Sling or Splint.
Control the movement.
Treat the wound.

Treatment Fracture

Avoid Unnatural movement.


Remove the Patient to the
Hospital.

Ensure treatment for shock.

Treatment DISLOCATION

Never attempt to fix the joint.


Support the limb.
Treat for Shock.
Apply cold compress, if bleeding
Do NOT apply cold compress on
SWELLING.

Remove the Patient to Hospital.

Treatment SPRAIN

Put the joint to rest.


Support & Immobilise the
limb.

Bandage firmly.
Treat for Shock.
Arrange the Medical help.

Treatment SPRAIN

Massage the site of injury.


Support the part with firm
Bandage.

Treat for Shock.


Arrange the Medical help.

Burns & Scalds


Burns
Caused by DRY Heat, such as
Fires, Electricity, Acid, Rubbing
etc.
Scalds
Caused by WET Heat such as Hot
water, Oil, Tar & Boiling Water.

Types of BURNS
1st Degree
Superficial burns. Only skin is affected.
Sometimes blisters are formed.

2nd Degree
The skin as well as underlying bones
are affected.
3rd Degree
The internal organs are affected.
Survival difficult.

Treatment

Do NOT break the Blister.


Wash the part in running water.
Do not remove the stuck cloth.
Do not apply any lotion or cream.
Assure the patient.
Treat the wound.
Remove the patient to Hospital.

Special Treatment

In case of burns due


to Acid
Wash the injury with
Alkali such as diluted
Caustic Soda or Lime
Water.

Special Treatment

In case of burns due


to Alkalis
Wash the injury with
Lemon Water or
Vinegar or running
water.

Special Treatment

In case of burns due


to Radiation
Remove the patient to
the Hospital speedily
to avoid bacterial
contamination.

ASPHYXIA

Definition

The deprivation of oxygen to


the lungs.

ASPHYXIA - Causes
Pressure on air passage.
Obstruction of air passage.

Inhalation of poisonous gases.


Swelling of throat.
Opium or other narcotics
Nerve affliction.

Treatment

Remove the cause.


Alternately, remove the casualty.
Loosen tight clothing around
Neck, Chest & Waist..

Assure free supply of air.


Start Artificial Respiration.
Remove the patient to Hospital.

INSENSIBILITY

Definition

The temporary Starvation of


oxygen to the Brain.

INSENSIBILITY- Causes

Asphyxia.
Electricity or Extreme Heat.
Injuries to brain..
Opium or narcotic.
Uremia (Kidney Trouble).

INSENSIBILITY - Treatment

Lay down the patient with


head turned to one side.

Arrest hemorrhage, if any.


Loosen tight clothing around
Neck, Chest & Waist.

Treatment

Assure free supply of air.


Start Artificial Respiration.
Give nothing by mouth.
Remove the patient to
Hospital or arrange Medical
help.

Foreign Body in Eye, Ear & Nose

In the EYE
May be washed out by tears.
Do NOT rub Eye.
Remove the Foreign Body
using corner of
handkerchief

Foreign Body in Eye, Ear & Nose

In the EYE
Put a drop of Castor Oil or
Liquid Paraffin.
Never remove the foreign
body from Eye-ball.

Foreign Body in Eye, Ear & Nose

In the EAR
Put a drop of Castor Oil to allow
the insect, if any to float.
Never try to remove the foreign

body from Ear.


Arrange Medical Help.

Foreign Body in Eye, Ear & Nose

In the NOSE
Never try to remove the foreign
body from Nose.
Direct the patient to breath by

mouth.
Arrange Medical Help.

Casualty Labelling
Every Casualty should be labelled.
X Remove to the Hospital.
T Tourniquet applied.
H Severe Haemorrhage.
M Morphine given.
A Atropine given.
C Contaminated Casualty.

Casualty Labelling
Hospitalisation TRIAGE

RED
YELLOW

GREEN
BLACK

RUSH to Hospital

Await
Hospitalisation
Allowed to
go home
Dead Casualties