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20

The NERC CIP


Evolution

38

Customer Trust
and Data Security

42

Connecting the
Grid to DG

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Summer 2011 Energy

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POWER-GRID.COM
____________ : AUGUST 2011

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THE WORLDS NEWSSTAND

We need partners that

understand our vision


for the Smart Grid.

Aclara leads.
Aclara understands that utilities need to do more
than collect data. We are driving a future that
integrates AMI, SCADA, distribution automation,
and more into an Intelligent Infrastructure with
the capability for communications and control.
With the strength of our solutions for electric,
gas, and water utilities, we understand your
vision. With our network we will take you there.
Aclara Leads.

Create Your Intelligent Infrastructure


Find out more at Aclara.com
1.800.297.2728 | info@aclara.com

Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.

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Distribution Automation That Fits


SEL offers a wide range of distribution automation solutions to t every application.
From high-speed, peer-to-peer systems to system-wide distribution automation
controls, SEL has years of experience improving the performance and reliability of
power systems around the world.

Recloser Control

Voltage Regulation

Fault Indication

Capacitor Control

Wireless Communication

Switch Control

Explore our complete solutions for distribution protection,


automation, and control at www.selinc.com/DA.

www.selinc.com | +1.509.332.1890

Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.

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AUGUST 2011 VOLUME 16.08

28 Demystifying Satellite for the Smart

Grid: Four Common Misconceptions

No longer hampered by early latency or reliability issues,


satellite can provide backup communications and easily
support core smart grid applications.

34 Preventing Water Penetration in Cable


The author tests the ability of the superabsorbent in cable
tivated.
to hold water over time once activated.

16

38 Consumer Trust and

Data Security: Three Issues

Advancements in smart grid add one major


item to the power network: data.

42 Connecting the Grid to

NERC Reliability
Standards Compliance

Nine CIP standards exist for your utility. CIP001 deals with sabotage reporting and CIP-002
through CIP-009 deal with cyber security.

From the Editor 6


Notes 8
The NERC CIP Evolution 20

NERC CIP continues to grow and adapt


to the industry and the smart grid.

Successful IP/MPLS and 24


Microwave Network
Performance for Teleprotection
The communications foundation utilities
implement today must support current
and future applications.
PowerGrid International: ISSN 1547-6723,
is published 12 times per year (January,
February, March, April, May, June, July, August,
September, October, November and December)
by PennWell Corp., 1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa
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2011 by PennWell Corp. (Registered in U.S.
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Distributed Generation

Many reasons exist for encouraging inclusion


of DG assets into the distribution network.

48 Are GIS and EAM Systems


Smart Grid-ready?

Are the systems that underpin network operations sufficiently


integrated to support and enable effective operations?

54 Resolving Discrepancies with the

NERC Facilities Ratings Methodology

NERC released an industry alert on Oct. 7, 2010,


identifying possible discrepancies between as-designed
and as-built transmission line conditions.

58 Products
59 Calendar/Ad Index
60 Perspectives
(international air mail). Back issues of PowerGrid
International may be purchased at a cost of
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2 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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Defy the constraints of time and technology. Deploy Itrons OpenWay solution
and you turn the grid into an interoperable, enterprise-class network powered by
Cisco. Smart metering. Customer engagement. Advanced distribution applications.
Youll be able to seamlessly connect applications, devices, infrastructure, customers
and whatever else your future may bring.
START HERE

itron.com
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.

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__________________________

POWER-GRID.COM
_______________________________________

EDITOR IN CHIEF
Teresa Hansen
918.831.9504 teresah@pennwell.com

SENIOR EDITOR
Kathleen Davis
918.832.9269 kathleend@pennwell.com

Get daily news and up-to-date industry


information online at our website. The site
features topic centers across multiple areas,
including metering, smart grid, demand
response and transmission. Online Editor Jeff
Postelwait posts fresh news every weekday
morning to give you the insiders scoop on
industry leaders and laggards. Got a lead?
Drop him a line at jeffp@pennwell.com.

SENIOR EDITOR
Kristen Wright
918.831.9177 kristenw@pennwell.com

ONLINE/ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Jeff Postelwait
918.831.9114 jeffp@pennwell.com

PRESENTATION EDITOR
Deanna Taylor
918.832.9378 deannat@pennwell.com

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATOR
Angie ODea
918.831.9431 angieo@pennwell.com

OCTOBER 28:
Projects of the Year Deadline

CIRCULATION MANAGER

Nominate your project for our 2012 Projects of the


Year Awards online. Awards will be given for best
smart grid project, best smart metering project,
best demand response/energy efficiency project
and best renewable grid integration project, with
winners recognized at DistribuTECH 2012 in San
Antonio next January.
Rules and nomination form: Visit www.power________
grid.com
and
look
for
the
Projects
of the Year
_____
call for entries. Send questions to Kathleen Davis,
senior editor, at kathleend@pennwell.com.

Janet Orton
918.831.9191 janet@pennwell.com

CIRCULATION DIRECTOR
Gloria Adams
603.891.9479 gloriaa@pennwell.com

SUBSCRIBER SERVICE
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PUBLISHER
Michael Grossman
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PENNWELL CORP. IN EUROPE

Tweet All About Us


Follow POWERGRID International on Twitter at the
username @POWERGRIDmag.
You dont need a Twitter account to view our
updates, but if you have one, send us a message
so we know youre out there.

PennWell House, Horseshoe Hill, Upshire


Essex EN9 3SR, United Kingdom
phone +44.1992.656600
fax +44.1992.656700
pennwelluk@pennwell.com

CHAIRMAN
Frank Lauinger

PRESIDENT/CEO
Robert F. Biolchini

Go Social
Follow POWERGRID Internationals favorite electric
T&D conference, DistribuTECH Conference &
Exhibition, on Facebook. Become a friend today.
Link: http://facebook.com/pages/
DistribuTECH/161409009309
__________________

SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, FINANCE


& ADMINISTRATION (CFO)
Mark C. Wilmoth
1421 S. Sheridan Road, Tulsa, OK 74112
PO Box 1260, Tulsa OK 74101
Phone 918.835.3161 Fax 918.831.9834
pgi@pennwell.com
http://pennwell.com

POWERGRID International is the


agship media sponsor for

4 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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What is your Smart Grid Vision?


Ask anyone to define the smart grid and you wont get the same answer twice. Thats because no two utilities
have the same requirements. Sensus lets you define the smart grid in your own terms. Our FlexNet system
gives you a secure, utility-owned data highway for mission critical applications like smart metering, distribution
automation, demand response and more, each communicating over its own dedicated channel. So you can build
your smart grid of today with flexible, expandable technology to accommodate tomorrows needs. No matter how
you define it, the smart grid is only as smart as the people who build it. So lets build it together.

Sensus customers already have over 9 million endpoints deployed and communicating. Learn more at sensus.com/buildit

Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.

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FROM THE EDITOR

EDITOR IN CHIEF

TERESA HANSEN

After Summers Heat and Washingtons


Dysfunction, Weve Still Got D-TECH
I usually love summer, but Ive had a hard time
embracing this summer. I read recently that the
website thedailybeast.com ranked Tulsathe location
of PennWells corporate officeone of the five hottest
cities this summer. I knew it was hot here, but because
most of the country has been sweltering in the heat, I
didnt feel especially bad, at least not until I read that
Ive been sweltering more than most.
If the heat isnt enough to get a person down,
the political dysfunction in Washington, D.C. over
the debt ceiling and deficit might be. As I write
this, the United States is less than a week away
from defaulting on its loans, and our lawmakers
still havent reached an agreement on how to move
forward. In the meantime, the stock market is down
and many doom-and-gloom scenarios are being
predicted. Im not going to suggest the best way to
handle the debt situation. Im thankful thats not my
job, but it is the job of those in Washington, and I
wish theyd come up with something before we must
get second jobs to fund our retirements.
This difficult summer has a couple of bright
spots, though. The DistribuTECH Conference
Advisory Committee met in Minneapolis in midJuly to plan the 2012 program. A respite from the
extreme heat and the evening (mostly bad) news
was nice, but seeing the conference come together
was better. The 2012 conference will be the largest
in DistribuTECHs history. The outstanding advisory
committee members worked hard to put together

another stellar program. They reviewed more than


550 abstractsa record numberand created 76
paper and panel conference sessions distributed
across 14 tracks. Im excited about the quality of
papers and speakers for 2012, and Im grateful to
the hard-working committee members for their help.
Preparation is also underway for POWERGRID
Internationals Projects of the Year Awards, which
will be announced at DistribuTECH. The awards
entry form is on the POWERGRID International
website. We are accepting entries in four categories:
Smart Grid, Smart Metering, Demand Response/
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Grid Integration.
Please think about the projects youve worked on
during the past year and consider entering one
or more of them. Entry deadline is Oct. 28, and
the winners will be recognized at DistribuTECHs
keynote session Jan. 24, 2012.
When the conference kicks off in San Antonio in
January, the summer heat will be behind us, and,
if our lawmakers do their jobs, so will the debt
ceiling dilemma. If you submit your project to the
Projects of the Year Awards contest, your efforts
also could pay off with an award at DistribuTECH.
One thing Im sure of: You will reap the benefits of
the DistribuTECH Conference Advisory Committee
members hard work if you attend DistribuTECH.
The registration page is live, so go ahead and sign
up. Its never too early to make your plans or to start
dreaming of cooler days. I hope to see you there.

6 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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DuPont
Viewpoint

and

Streamline

herbicides

Count on DuPont

to help keep your customers out of the dark


New DuPont Viewpoint and Streamline herbicides can help keep the lights on by limiting
service interruptions caused by unchecked brush. Measured in ounces instead of pounds, these
products can increase worker productivity and control hard-to-manage species. Viewpoint offers
the broadest spectrum of brush control in a single product. Streamline manages tough brush
while promoting grass understory. Contact your local DuPont representative for more information.
countondupont.com/viewpoint
countondupont.com/streamline

Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.


DuPont Streamline and Viewpoint are not available in all states.
See your DuPont sales representative for details and availability in your state.
Always read and follow all label directions and precautions for use.
The DuPont Oval Logo, DuPont, The miracles of science, Streamline and Viewpoint
are trademarks or registered trademarks
of DuPont or its affiliates.
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com
for more information.
Copyright 2011 E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. All Rights Reserved. LANDM019113P514AVAR1

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NOTES

DR PILOT PROJECT RESULTS FROM OKLAHOMA, ONTARIO


Energate Inc., a provider of residential demand response home
energy management solutions,
revealed the results of two successful pilot projects undertaken in
Oklahoma and Ontario, Canada.
These projects are among more
than 25 smart grid pilots across
North America featuring Energates
technologies.
In its pilot project with
Oklahoma Gas and Electric Co.
(OG&E), Energates Pioneer Smart
Thermostats enabled residential
consumers to achieve a peak reduction of 1.92 kilowatts (kW) per
home representing a peak reduction of more than 50 percent, far
surpassing the goal of 1.3 kW.
Energate partnered with Silver
Spring Networks, a provider of
smart grid platforms, and OG&E
to roll out technology that allowed
consumers to manage energy for
optimal use with in-home devices,

Internet portals or both to get pricing and usage information.


In the Ontario pilot, more than
99 percent of Energates on-line
devices responded to load control
signals, with verification of data
collected and reporting in realtime, meeting the advanced criteria
of the Ontario Power Authority
(OPA) pilot.
Energate also completed a sixmonth pilot project with the OPA
to deploy its Consumer-Connected
Demand Response (CCDR) solution platform for residences in
the Peterborough, Hamilton and
Kitchener-Waterloo-Cambridge
areas to control home energy use
via the Internet while giving consumers access to smart meter data.
The project used smart thermostats
on air conditioning units, load-control switches on water heaters and
pool pumps, and energy displays
paired with smart meters to share

real-time data. A Web-based portal


enabled consumers to easily pro-

gram thermostats remotely to


manage home
comfort
and
energy use.
Even though
the OPA pilot
has ended, fewer
than 10 percent of the homeowners
have opted to return the Energate
devices. Participants keeping the
Energate smart thermostat can test
new and advanced features that
were not used in the pilot.

J.D. POWER AND ASSOCIATES REPORTS


ON CUSTOMERS, SMART METERS
240V

kWh

Although
implementation of smart
grid utility
systems is still
in its infancy in
most of the United
States, satisfaction is higher among electric utility customers whose households are equipped
with smart meters, compared with
customers without them, J.D. Power
and Associates announced at the
Edison Electric Institute (EEI) 2011
Annual Convention in Colorado

Springs, Colo., in June.


While only 8 percent of electric
utility customers indicate their home
has a smart meter, overall satisfaction among these customers averages 667 (on a 1,000-point scale), 43
points higher than among customers whose homes are not equipped
with smart meters. Research by J.D.
Power also indicates that customers who are aware of smart grids
and smart meters, as well as their
utilitys efforts to implement them,
are notably more satisfied than are
customers without this awareness.

While this marks an auspicious


beginning for smart meter and smart
grid programs, gaining widespread
consumer acceptance is incumbent
upon successful consumer education, adoption and engagement
with the technology, said David
Steele, senior director of the smart
energy practice at J.D. Power and
Associates. Its imperative for energy
providers to understand the actual
drivers of effective program design
and customer communications that
will lead consumers to engage with
these new options and services.

8 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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SMART GRID HIGHLIGHTS


FROM SOUTH AMERICA
In June, Northeast Group
released its latest report titled
South America Smart Grid
Market Forecast (2011-2020).
The report lists a number of key
findings, including:
The smart meter market
in South America may hit
104.5 million meters by
2020 and be worth $25.1
billion.
Brazil is the largest market,
expected to reach 71.4 million meters and $17.1 billion
by 2020.
Argentina (8.3 million meters
and $2 billion dollars by 2020)
and Chile (6.1 million meters
and $1.5 billion by 2020) are
the next most attractive smart
meter markets.
South America has strong
potential to become a dynamic
market for several key smart
grid technologies, but to date the
market has shown only pockets
of development, the report states.
The report notes, however, that the
smart grid offers benefits to South
America beyond the consumption

and efficiency issues important


in the U.S. and Europe, namely
in the areas of theft reduction,
reliability
and
distributed
generation connections. In fact,
the report notes that electricity
theft reduction is a cornerstone of
the smart grid business case in the
region. (In some areas in Brazil,
theft rates top 40 percent; Paraguay
averages a distribution loss rate of
over 30 percent, according to the
Northeast Group.)
More information on this report
can be found online at northeastgroup.com.

MICROSOFT, GOOGLE CALL OFF


TWO CUSTOMER-ORIENTED DEVICES
Microsoft and Google placed
major smart grid products on the
endangered list this summer.
Microsoft is discontinuing the customer energy management-based
Hohm service effective May 31,
2012. The feedback from customers
about the online tool was positive
but the product was a victim of

slow overall market adoption of the


service, according to the Microsoft
announcement on its blog.
Microsoft isnt exiting the market
entirely, however. It noted that the
company would focus on items
more capable of supporting
long-standing growth within this
evolving market.

_______________

Go to http://uae.hotims.com for more information.

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NOTES
The blog continues, Microsoft
Hohm has helped demonstrate
the critical role of information in
helping people and organizations
improve how energy is generated,
distributed
and
ultimately
consumed. Microsoft will continue
to focus on developing products,
solutions and partnership that span
a wide spectrum of industries, such
as power generation, distribution
grids, buildings and transportations
systems.
Microsoft listed energy-smart city

solutions, its smart energy reference


architecture and a climate organization as examples of how it is still
making a footprint in this arena.
About a week before the
Microsoft
announcement,
Google declared the death of its
PowerMeter energy management
product on its blog as well.
Since our launch, theres been
more attention given to this notion
of people easily accessing their energy data, the blog states. But, apparently, its not enough attention to

save the PowerMeter product.


The blog continues, Were
pleased that PowerMeter has helped
demonstrate the importance of this
access and created something of a
model. However, our efforts have
not scaled as quickly as we would
like, so we are retiring the service.
PowerMeter users will be able
to use the product until Sept. 16,
2011.
Both Microsoft Hohm and
Googles PowerMeter are approximately two years old.

EYE ON EUROPE
ENTSO-E says summer OK if it doesnt get too hot
The European Network of Transmission System
Operators for Electricitys (ENTSO-E) Summer
Outlook Report 2011 finds that, in average weather
conditions, the balance between generation and
supply is expected to be maintained in Europe
through the entire summer, although some countries
will rely on imports over the whole summer period
(Finland, Hungary, Poland and Latvia). In case of heat
wave or drought, generation output in Europe is

expected to be constrained. In France, where power


plants cooled by river water may need to be reduced
or turned off in such situations, a heat wave could
lead to reduced margins. In September 2011, 6000
MW of imports to France could become necessary
to cover the minimum required margin. In case of
extreme weather conditions over extended periods
and over a large geographical area, a stressed system
balance might result for all of Europe.

EURELECTRIC talks smart grid evolution


EURELECTRIC, the association representing
the common interests of the electricity industry
on a pan-European level, released a short report
titled European Commissions Communication
on Smart Grids: from Innovation to Deployment
this summer. In it, EURELECTRIC reiterates
the associations belief that a successful
implementation of a smart grid requires placing
customers at the very heart of the new system.
Equally, EURELECTRIC sees the smart grid as a
key enabler for achieving the European Unions
ambitious energy targets, in particular integrating
renewable energy sources and meeting energy
efficiency targets. They noted that the smart
grid will lead to a real win-win situation for both
customers and the electric system as a whole,

but warned that the smart grid is not an end


in itself and should require an evolution toward
a smart energy system that also incorporates
generators, distribution system operators (DSOs),
suppliers and customers. The association urges
the development of a mindset that sees the
smart grid as more than a technical infrastructure
operated by DSOs. Once in place, this market
platform will enable suppliers to offer new
products and services to the benefit of customers.
To do so, however, the association believes that
regulatory incentives for investments must be
delivered together with a sound market model
which underpins customer engagement. This
report is available for download on the Eurelectric
website at eurelectric.org.

10 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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A new tool for your rig:

The super-connected,
rugged ARMOR X10gx.
ARMOR is made by DRS Technologies,
a leading manufacturer of rugged systems.

The new ARMOR X10gx is loaded with connectivity. Like Gobi mobile broadband, RF
switching, Bluetooth wireless and integrated GPS. Plus it features a sunlight-readable,
high-intensity LCD display and is MIL-STD-810G and
IP67 certied. Load one on your rig today.

Visit drsarmor.com/utilities to schedule a


live demo.
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NOTES
COMMENTARY
BY KATHLEEN DAVIS, SENIOR EDITOR

ALL THE PRESIDENTS MILLIONS


This summer, the Obama
Administration unveiled new plans
for the 21st century grid they envision, along with some millions in
potential funding.
Ok, yes, the big news is that were
not talking billions here. A couple
of years ago, those pennies to support grid development stacked to
the ceiling and toppled over into the
big B money pool. But, it is a new,
less-spending environment in D.C.
these days.
America cannot build a 21st century economy with a 20th century
electricity system. By working with
states, industry leaders and the private sector, we can build a clean,
smart, national electricity system
that will create jobs, reduce energy
use and expand renewable energy production, said U.S. Energy
Secretary Steven Chu at this smart
grid plan unveiling.
Fabulous. So, were going to build
a whole new system that helps us be
energy efficient and get in those solar
panels and wind turbines. Good
deal. So, whats our budget? A mere
$250 million in loans for smart-grid
technology deployment as part of
the U.S. Department of Agricultures
Rural Utility Service. They want to
upgrade rural America.
Well, thats nice, but the grid does
range outside of rural America. It
goes urban. It goes through the desert. It hits tundra and sneaks around
landmarks. And, 80 percent of the
American population doesnt live in
those rural areas. We live in heavily

populated areas. What about us?


Now, we do have those old billions in stimulus funds granted a few
years ago, but this new push for the
smart grid from the Administration
doesnt really bring any new cash to
the table besides those loans to help
establish smarter tech in areas on the
outskirts. Now, thats understandable. Most utilities will be working
in urban areas to start the smart grid
transformation process. So, yes, the
rural areas will likely get the short
end of the smart grid stick.
Still, it is a rather sad sign of
the times that all this talk about
the smart grid isnt bringing much
cash with it, just lots of discussions
about public-private partnerships,
which is often code for someone
else needs to fund this.
According to the White House,
these new efforts are building upon
the historic $4.5 billion in grid modernization investments provided for
in the Recovery Actmatched by
contributions of more than $5.5
billion from the private sectorto
modernize Americas aging energy
infrastructure and provide cleaner
and more reliable power.
The new efforts include a lot of
consumer issues and paperwork.
First, theres the mention of the
Gridwise Alliances new spin-off,
Grid 21, which is all about getting
the consumer into the talks about
smart gridhelping quell fears,
educating them about tools and savings. Second, the president promises that the Department of Energy

promises to look at how to get


etter data
those consumers better
and info. He mightt
even have crossed his
is
heart on this one.
Basically, the plan
an is
this: They want too tell the
kiddies through student
tudent programs and have them
hem bring that
information home so you can be
lectured by your children about
power consumption the same way
youre currently lectured about how
to properly use the DVR and your
iPhone. I have to hand it to them,
though, kids are the perfect combinations of know-it-alls and pestering
to get this job done. Those parents
will assimilate, eventually, if just to
make the mini lectures stop.
Also on the agenda: Everyone
gets to talk about smart grid stuff
at http://smartgrid.gov. There will
be sharingand maybe even some
caring. It will be like an industry
12-step program, but without
gulping down cold coffee in a room
filled with chain smokers. Everyone
will learn stuff about themselves
and others and programs and
consumers. And, if it werent all
online, it might end in hugs.
My favorite smart grid idea
from the Administration might the
Renewable Energy Rapid Response
Team. I had in my head this bevy
of Black Hawk helicopters swooping
into a site, dropping ropes down into
a field where commandos would
sneak in with solar panels strapped
to their burly backs and a solar farm

12 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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w
would
be set up in seconds.
T
Then, theyd be out like the
w
wind, leaving the community
over morning coffee
to wonder
w
just w
what happenedas they enjoy
their new
n partial freedom from fossil
fuels, of course. But, alas, this is not
true. T
The team is basically a group of
peeps to speed up paperworkthe
smart grid geek squad, of sorts. They
promi
promise to ensure that the feds all
talk to each other and review stuff
promptly. I like the vision of my
response team much better.
Those ideas, and a report, are
pretty much what happened
between speeches during this White
House smart grid shindig.
A 21st century grid is essential to
Americas ability to lead the world in
clean energy and win the future, said
John P. Holdren, President Obamas
science and technology advisor and
director of the White House Office
of Science and Technology Policy
during the hubbub. By unlocking
the potential of innovation in
the electric grid, we are allowing
consumers and businesses to use
energy more efficiently even as we
help utilities provide cleaner energy
and more reliable service.
While I understand the limitations
that the Administration is under
these days from all sides of the
political fence, rural loans for the
greener pastures of America and red
tape clipping alone will not unlock
the potential of that 21st century
grid we all want. What the grid
really needs is another outlay of
cold, hard cash.

But, the government purse


is now zipped tight, with a hand
over the clasp to ward off prying
fingers. Well, at least we can all

still talk about things and share on


smartgrid.gov. Weve got that going
for us. Weve got the chatter, if not
the cabbage.

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August 2011 | 13
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NOTES
BY TERESA HANSEN, EDITOR IN CHIEF

CIRED 2011 KICKS OFF WITH OVERVIEW


OF GERMANYS POWER GRID BUSINESS
Germany is facing distribution
challenges, Dr. Egon Westphal, Eons
senior vice president of networks,
said during the opening forum
at the 21st CIRED International
Conference and Exhibition held
in Frankfurt, Germany, in June.
The event, which drew a crowd of
1,284 participants from 64 countries, focused on global electricity
distribution. The opening forum,
however, emphasized Germanys
power grid business.
Westphal said that climate targets
in Germany and other European
Union (EU) countries will require
grid changes. The EUs climate plan
includes 20 percent electricity supply from renewable sources and
20 percent increase in energy efficiency by 2020. Germanys goal is
even more challenging35 percent from renewable sources and 20
percent energy efficiency by 2020.
Westphal said changes in electricity
consumption have been initiated
by new smart applications, such as
smart meters, e-mobility/vehicle-togrid and other customer programs.
Bigger changes are coming, however, including changes in the electricity business environment and
security of supply.
Westpahl
also
addressed
Germanys plan to phase out nuclear
power in the next 10 years. Nuclear
energy will be replaced with offshore wind coming from Germanys
northern areas. The electricity must
be moved south to the population
centers, requiring an adjustment
to the transmission grid. To date,

only 100 kilometers (km) of new


transmission line have been built,
Westpahl said. He said about 3,600
km of extra high-voltage line will
be needed. In addition, he said 20
billion of grid investment is needed
to meet Germanys 2020 goals.
Achim Zerres of Germanys
Federal Network Agency, who also
spoke during the opening forum,
said that 35 percent renewable energy by 2020 is ambitious, but if the
goal is met, it will allow Germany
to replace its nuclear power. Like
Westpahl, Zerres said that Germany
must expand its transmission grid.
He said the grid must be expanded
by 25 percent, but he doubts that
the new lines will be built by 2020.
Zerres discussed the impact of
Germanys nuclear moratorium on
its grid. The fall 2010 moratorium
resulted in the shutdown of 8,500
MW of electricity generation. In
addition, it declared nuclear power
a bridge power to renewable energy.
Zerres said nothing indicates that the
moratorium is putting system security at risk. He said, however, that
operators are having trouble keeping the network reliable and stable,
but this instability is due to market
conditions. He said transmission
operators are using procedures created for emergencies, not for longterm use. Zerres said 1,000 MW
of reserve capacity will be needed
by winter to keep the transmission
system safe and secure. Germany is
looking at thermal plants for extra
capacity but may not find it there.
The last resort, Zerres said, would

be to keep one
of the shutdown
nuclear plants on
reserve.
Zerres reiterated the need for new
transmission capacity in Germany.
He said new transmission construction is not popular with Germans.
Everyone wants renewable energy, but no one wants new transmission, Zerres said.
Zerres cost estimate for new
transmission lines in Germany
was higher than Westphals. He
said transmission investment in
Germany will be 30 billion to 55
billion by 2020. In addition, he
said the cost of new transmission in
Europe will top 1 trillion by 2020.
He said distribution system operators face three main challenges that
will remain through 2020. They are
replacing assets built in the 1970s,
connecting renewable energy to the
grid with full access at all times and
making the network fit for smart
market design.
After the opening forum, the
audience adjourned to the exhibit
hall for the opening reception.
The remainder of the week was
filled with technical paper presentations, poster sessions, exhibiting company demonstrations and
networking opportunities, including a walking gala dinner held at
the Kurhaus of Wiesbaden. The
organizing committee announced
that the 22nd CIRED International
Conference and Exhibition will
be held in Stockholm, Sweden, in
June 2013.

14 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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Stand
BY SAM BRATTINI, KEMA

n June 18, 2007, the electric utility industry in


North America experienced an epic change. Thats
the day the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
(FERC) mandated that all users, owners and operators
of the bulk electric system (BES) comply with the
North American Electric Reliability Corp.s (NERC)
reliability standards or be subject to civil penalties
for non-compliance. NERC had been appointed by
FERC as the electric reliability organization (ERO) with
authority to develop and enforce the standards. The
standards cover fourteen general topics or families that
impact fifteen functional entities defined in the NERC
functional model of the BES. (The BES is defined as
all circuits operating at 100kv and above.) All users,
owners and operators of BES facilities must register with
their regional entity as one or more of the functional
entities of the model. Each standard is applicable to a
subset of the functional entities. Presently, there are 111
standards each including multiple requirements and
sub-requirements.
The standards are enforced through periodic audits
conducted by the eight regional entities and by selfcertification and self-reporting of non-compliance by
the registered entities. The eight regional entities cover
the contiguous U.S. states, the neighboring Canadian
provinces and the Baja of Mexico.

FERC expects each registered entity will develop a


compliance program. Salient points to be addressed in
a comprehensive compliance program are described
in FERCs revised policy statement on enforcement,
May 15, 2008. These points include organization and
management, training, documentation, policies and
procedures, compliance tracking and non-compliance
reporting and mitigation. The main reason for a documented compliance program is to direct the Registered
Entity to develop a compliance culture that is sustainable
and that includes all resource levels of the corporation
from senior management to procedure implementers.
CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION
Compliance with the critical infrastructure protection
(CIP) standards is a good example of the effort necessary
to meet the requirements. There are nine CIP standards.
CIP-001 deals with sabotage reporting, and CIP-002
through CIP-009 deal with cyber security.
CIP-001 has been one of the most violated standards. Registered entities need to have a comprehensive, up-to-date plan to handle a potential sabotage
situation if detected for any company facility. The plan
must include processes and procedures for identifying
a potential sabotage situation and for notifying appropriate personnel. Appropriate personnel include entity

16 | August 2011
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dards Compliance
employees, parties within the Interconnection, and
proper law enforcement authorities.
CIP-002 deals with the identification of critical cyber
assets. This standard has gone through a number of
revisions over the last four years. Currently, version No.
3 is in effect but version No. 4 has been approved by the
FERC and will be implemented in April 2013. Version
No. 5 is now in development. In general, CIP-002
is the entry point for the remaining CIP standards. If
critical cyber assets are identified, then compliance to the
remaining CIP standards, CIP-003 through CIP-009, is
mandatory. Compliance to CIP-002 requires three steps:
first, the identification of critical assets; second, the identification of cyber assets supporting the critical assets;
and third, the identification of those cyber assets that
are critical to the operation of the critical asset. In addition, the cyber security senior manager must approve
the list of critical assets and critical cyber assets annually.
Initially, the method for identifying critical assets was
left to the entity. However, to eliminate subjectivity by
entities over what is critical, NERC decided to establish
bright line criteria for all entities to follow. This is the
basis for version No. 4. The bright line criteria consist
of 17 criteria to be used to identify critical assets.
The implementation of CIP-003 through CIP-009 is
dependent on the identification of critical cyber assets
from CIP-002. The exception is CIP-003, Requirement
2, which requires the identification of a senior manager
to take overall responsibility for adherence to CIP-002

through CIP-009. This requirement must be complied


with even if critical assets or critical cyber assets are not
identified.
The title of each CIP standard dealing with cyber
security gives an insight into its purpose:
CIP-002: Cyber SecurityCritical Cyber Asset
Identification. Standard CIP-002-4 requires the
identification and documentation of the critical
cyber assets associated with the critical assets that
support the reliable operation of the BES.
CIP-003: Cyber SecuritySecurity Management
Controls. Standard CIP-003-4 requires that
Responsible Entities have minimum security management controls in place to protect critical cyber
assets.
CIP-004: Cyber SecurityPersonnel & Training.
Standard CIP-004-4 requires that personnel having authorized cyber or authorized unescorted
physical access to critical cyber assets, including
contractors and service vendors, have an appropriate level of personnel risk assessment, training and
security awareness.
CIP-005: Cyber SecurityElectronic Security
Perimeter(s). Standard CIP-005-4a requires the
identification and protection of the electronic
security perimeter(s) inside which all critical
cyber assets reside, as well as all access points
on the perimeter.
CIP-006: Cyber SecurityPhysical Security.

August 2011 | 17
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Standard CIP-006-4 is intended to ensure the implementation of a physical security program for the
protection of critical cyber assets.
CIP-007: Cyber SecuritySystems Security
Management. Standard CIP007-4 requires Responsible
Entities to define methods,
processes, and procedures for
securing those systems determined to be critical cyber
assets, as well as the other
(non-critical) cyber assets
within the electronic security
perimeter(s).
CIP-008: Cyber SecurityIncident Reporting and
Response Planning. Standard CIP-008-4 ensures
the identification, classification, response, and
reporting of cyber security incidents related to
critical cyber assets.

CIP-009: Cyber SecurityRecovery Plans for


Critical Cyber Assets. Standard CIP-009-4
ensures that recovery plan(s) are put in place for
critical cyber assets and that these plans follow
established business continuity and disaster recovery techniques and practices.
Version No. 5 of the CIP standards will categorize the criticality
of all cyber assets and systems.
Registered entities will need to
categorize all their cyber assets
and cyber systems supporting BES
assets as to having high, medium
or low impact on the reliable operation of the BES.
COMPLIANCE IMPACT
The registered entity must prepare not only for an
audit, but it also must show it has been conscientious

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in practicing compliance between audits on a consistent


basis. This is done by developing comprehensive
evidence and a robust compliance program. It should be
remembered that it is not enough to have good processes
and procedures, but it is also necessary to have evidence
that these have been followed. To accomplish this, the
entity should consider performing the following:
Pre-audit evidence assessments to determine evidence gaps,
Compliance program development, assessment,
and updates,
Evidence collection, recording, and storage,
Process and procedure development and updates,
Compliance database development and
maintenance,
Cyber vulnerability assessment,
Mock audits after assessments and evidence updates
are complete,
Compliance training, and

Periodic compliance monitoring of new and


revised standards, evidence development projects and resolution of action items resulting
from assessments.
The standards are here to stay. NERC is now in the
process of revising existing standards to remove ambiguity and to strengthen requirements. The Standards
development and revision process is now rooted in a
results-based approach that concentrates on performance, risk and competency. NERC is committed to
improving the standards and the FERC expects all registered entities to fully comply with them.
Sam Brattini is an executive consultant at KEMA Inc. with extensive
experience in the electric utility industry. He currently is KEMAs director
of compliance services and was the chair of the NERC Drafting Team for
recently approved Standard EOP-008 for backup facilities. In addition, hes
the chair of the new Real-Time Monitoring and Analysis Capabilities Standard
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The NERC CIP


BY KATHLEEN DAVIS, SENIOR EDITOR

he
North
American
Reliability Corp.s (NERC)
critical infrastructure protection
rules (CIP) continue to impact
power utilities. That is about to
change, but not lessen. Its only
bound to get more detailed and
restrictive as NERC CIP grows
and adapts to the industry and
the smart grid.
Security and compliance
are spelled differently in the
English language because they
actually mean different things,
said Tim Roxey, director of risk
assessment and technology
division for the NERC at a session during the UTC Telecom
Conference in Long Beach,
Calif., May 10-13, 2011.
We have a culture of compliance when we should really
have a culture of security, he
added, noting the continuing discussion about whether adhering
to the CIP rules really makes a
utility more secure. But, Roxey
said, the industry needs to work
with what its got at the moment,
which is compliance and thats
where NERC CIP comes into the
related security equation.
Theyre starting with compliance and hoping to evolve into
real security protection as versions change to meet smart grid

needs. That process can be painful, complex and problematic.


But, there has been progress.

VULNERABILITIES AND
VERSIONS ACCORDING
TO NERC
Do I really gotta? Yeah I
really gotta, Roxey joked, rolling through a short history
of the CIPs. Version No. 1 of
the NERC CIP standards was
approved in 2008. Version No.
2 removed reasonable business
judgment and acceptance of
risk in 2009. Version No. 3,
the current version, brought a
visitor control program and was
approved in 2010. Version four
is in the works.
There are a lot of very heated
conversations on these issues,
Roxey said.
Version No. 4 replaces language like risk-based assessment methodology with brightline criteria. It still maintains
the concept of critical asset and
critical cyber asset. It eliminates
subjectivity by entities over what
is critical. And, it ties brightline criteria to operational standards, Roxey said.
Once approved, utilities would
have about 21 months to work
toward compliance with this new

version, which is expected to be


land in July 2013.
The drafting team still has a
number of development goals to
go, most mandated by the Federal
Energy Regulatory Commission
(FERC). So, there is a version
No. 5 on its way.
Roxey also showed the growing complexity of communications specifically. And the more
stuff it gets, the more that has to
be covered by CIP.
When I started in this industry, the communications infrastructure was a guy named Joe
who basically lived in the substation and had a phone, he
said. Now its this incredibly
complex system.
Its almost impossible for a
company to remain compliant,
let alone secure, because of the
complexity, Roxey said, noting
that the complexity moves past
just communications and that
guy named Joe to all other areas
covered by CIP.
Details and differences are the
history of NERC CIP, noted the
panelist that followed Roxey. And
those differences and details created the complexity issue, which
is connected to the compliance
vs. security argument.
NERC CIP is all about

20 | August 2011
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P Evolution
complianceandnotaboutsecurity,
said Jerome Farquharson, practice
manager at Burns & McDonnell.
Eighty to 90 percent of what a
utility is doing with NERC CIP is
paperwork.
Compliance doesnt necessarily make you secure, Farquharson
said. But, as we grow and change,
we are trying to put more emphasis on security.
Farquharson noted clarity
about critical assetswhat they
are and where they start and stop
in the utility structureis a huge
dream of the industry, though the
standards havent quite gotten to
that point of clarity yet. But, both
Farquharson and Roxey do see
that clarity coming.
COMPLIANCE
VS. SECURITY
Prudence Parks, vice president
and legislative counsel for UTC
discussed how the industry is
dealing with the NERC CIP versions in a session that followed
Roxey and Farquharson at the
UTC Telecom Conference.
Weve been following this
very closely, she told the audience. Cybersecurity is very sexy
right now. Youre going to have a
lot of masters.
The UTC did an informal set

of interviews about NERC CIP


compliance, according to Parks.
The interviews produced a list of
challenges, including:
Managing the paperwork,
Dealing with constant changes and revisions,
Getting employees to accept
security,
Consolidating threat infor-

mation from government


sources,
Dealing with vendors who
claim CIP compliance but
the product doesnt produce,
and
Understanding what the standards specifically require.
One of the final challenges that

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spoke heavily to Parks was a hesitance to make certain security


enhancements because it might
reveal potential non-compliance,
which returns to the heart of
the compliance vs. security issue
with NERC CIP.
This also fits into some of the
findings from those interviews,
including the idea that NERC
CIP doesnt increase security and
that there needs to be a way to
filter information and consolidate interpretations.
FOCUS AREAS
NERC CIP is growing, and
perhaps having a few pains
with that cultural evolution.

Currently, a utility needs to


focus on whats in front of them.
At the end of the day, it is
what it is, Farquharson said,
stressing that compliance is
required, despite some issues
with clarity. We may not like
the system. Thats fine, but we
need to do it. Farquharson
does see NERC CIP becoming the de facto standard in
this area. So, a utility shouldnt
expect the standards to just go
the way of the dodo.
NERC CIP is very real,
said Bud Voss, chief technology officer at Comverge during an earlier session at UTC
Telecom. He added that a util-

ity has three things to worry


about right now: user authentification, electric perimeters and
audit logging. So, get used to
paperwork.
We audit trail everything
every button click, every data
filed change, out to the communications network as well. Once
we put data on a pipe, thats all
completely logged, Voss noted.
So, for the moment, its all about
compliance. Security may come
later in the NERC CIP process,
but the issue right now is writing everything down.
Perhaps someone should call
Joe down at the substation and
make sure he has a pencil.

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Renewable Generation and Products
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Worker

SMART GRID/OPERATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS


LATENCY PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

LMR/PMR

Grid

Video
Surveillance
Teleprotection

Server
Access
Smart
Metering

Distribution Energy Resources & Storage


Electric Vehicles
Distribution Automation

Low

High

BY DAVE CHRISTOPHE, ALCATEL-LUCENT

Successful IP/MPLS and Microwave


Network Performance for Teleprotection
P

ower utilities around the world are transforming


their transmission and distribution (T&D)
systems into smart grid networks. As part of this
transformation, smart metering and substation
automation applications are being deployed to shave
demand peaks, improve efficiency and provide
reliable, quality power. The full range of applications
required to optimize smart grid networks to meet
future requirements continues to evolve. However,
it is clear that communications and information
management will be a key part of the overall
solution. Therefore, the communications foundation
utilities implement today must support current
applications and those of the foreseeable future.
Emerging communications and information
management applications tend to be Internet

protocol (IP) or packet-based. Therefore, smart


grid communications networks must be able to
support a growing volume of IP traffic, as well as
legacy time division multiplexing (TDM) traffic
that is expected to remain on the network for many
years. These converged communications networks
must also support the bandwidth, latency, security
and availability requirements of operational and
corporate applications. Teleprotection is one such
application and, from a latency perspective, one of
the most demanding (see Figure 1, above).
Teleprotection systems detect faults in high-voltage
power lines by using distance relays. Distance relays
monitor and compare conditions at each end of a
high voltage circuit to determine if there is a fault on
the protected line section. When a fault is detected,

24 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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teleprotection relay tripping signals will activate


the protection equipment to isolate the affected
part in the adjacent substation to prevent damage
to expensive substation equipment and instability
in the power system. To ensure the power system
is protected, relay signals need to be transferred
between distance relays with minimal delay. This
end-to-end delay includes the latency of the telecom
network as well as the detection and activation time
of the protection circuits.
The latency requirement is often described by
engineers with two different perspectives. T&D
engineers typically focus on the fault clearing time
the maximum delay for a fault to be isolated. This
requirement often depends on the voltage class and
can be stated as an absolute value or in terms of a
number of cycles. Starting with the maximum fault
clearing time target latency, T&D engineers will
subtract the fault detection time of the local relay,
the processing time of the local and distant relays,

the time for fault resolution at the distant equipment


to identify the residual amount of latency that is the
maximum for the telecom path.
Telecom engineers tend to focus on the latency for
the telecom path (see Figure 2, below).
At the Canadian Utilities Telecom Council (UTC)
annual conference on September 30, 2010, Clinton
D. Struth, M.Sc., Principal Engineer, discussed how
AltaLink, a transmission operator in Alberta, Canada,
successfully completed two pilot deployments that
demonstrated why the companys IP/Multiprotocol
Label Switching (IP/MPLS) network is more than fast
and reliable enough to support teleprotection.
AltaLink is converging its asynchronous
transfer mode (ATM) and TDM operational and
corporate applications traffic onto a single Internet
protocol/multiprotocol label switching (IP/MPLS)
infrastructure. This traffic is being migrated to the
new infrastructure from three organization-specific
networks along with new applications traffic. By

TELEPROTECTION TELECOM PATH LATENCY

Substation

Substation

Time: Telecom Path Latency


Teleprotection
Relay

Teleprotection
Relay

Communications Network
IP/MPLS Router,
Mux, etc.

IP/MPLS Router,
Mux, etc.

August 2011 | 25
www.power-grid.com

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converging traffic onto a single network, AltaLink


expects to reduce operating costs while improving
performance, visibility and service flexibility.

including teleprotection, will be supported over the


converged IP/MPLS network. The convergence of
applications and/or organization-specific networks

IP/MPLS AND MICROWAVE PRODUCTION NETWORK


TELEPROTECTION PERFORMANCE PILOT

GPS

Test
Unit
Relay

MPLS Router

3-hop
Microwave Radio
Transport

Test
Unit
MPLS Router

Relay

IP/MPLS Network

The AltaLink pilot deployments included a mix


of hardware from relay equipment vendors, as well
as communications interfaces, interface speeds and
IP/MPLS networks with one and three microwave
hops. For each pilot, a test set was connected
to each relay and synchronized using the global
positioning system (GPS). The test set injected a
fault into the relay and the total time to detect,
process and communicate across the entire network
was observed. The target interval was less than two
cycles, or 33.333 milliseconds (ms). (See Figure 3,
above.)
The pilot test that included an IP/MPLS network
with three microwave hops delivered results of 30.9
ms and 25.45 ms when interface speeds of 19,200
baud and 38,400 baud were used between the relay
equipment and IP/MPLS routers.
Where fiber exists between substations,
teleprotection is expected to remain on its own
separate fiber path, while new and other legacy
operational traffic is converged on an IP/MPLS
network that uses a separate set of fibers. Where
separate fiber is not available, all operational traffic,

with dedicated equipment and operations into a


single IP/MPLS network helps enhance efficiency and
flexibility as the mix of traffic evolves from TDM to IP.
The results of the AltaLink tests are significant
because they represent an important industry
milestone. They offer production network validation
that IP/MPLS networks can be deployed today
to satisfy the latency requirements of the most
demanding operational applicationsincluding
teleprotection. For utilities that lack fiber facilities
between adjacent substations, or want to consolidate
all traffic onto a single infrastructure, this provides a
new option for support of teleprotection along with
other operational traffic on an IP/MPLS network that
includes several microwave hops.
As a result of the AltaLink deployments, several
utilities are testing teleprotection support on an
IP/MPLS infrastructure, while others have already
begun the transition.
Dave Christophe is a marketing director with the Strategic Industries
Group at Alcatel-Lucent. Write to him at david.christophe@alcatellucent.com.

26 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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When it comes to seeing, comparing and testing the equipment and


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SATELLITE ENABLING CURRENT SMART GRID APPLICATIONS

Back Up
Communications
Substation

A satellite broadband
network can seamlessly
handle network activity if
a primary network fails.

Fiber Ring
Corporate HQ

Connecting Remote
Substations

Substation

At a remote substation, sarellite


connectivity can support SCADA
monitoring and run broadband
applications like video surveillance,
voice over IP, and access to the
internet and to corporate networks.

BY CHRISTIAN BERGAN, IDIRECT

Demystifying Satellite for the Smart


Grid: Four Common Misconceptions
Today, utility companies are making significant
progress in developing a next-generation communications network capable of supporting the
smart grid. But many utility companies still struggle
with how to affordably and reliably extend this
communications network to 100 percent of their
service territory, especially to remote substations
and customer locations that are beyond the reach
of primary networks.
hile an IP-based satellite platform can
provide utilities with the real-time data
exchange, operational visibility and broadband
reach required for a smart grid communications
system, there are several common misconceptions
about the reliability, latency, cost and security that

satellite provides.
The reality is that since its humble beginnings as a
one-way distribution mechanism used primarily for
back-up systems and consumer television service,
satellite communications has undergone a major
transformation.
Todays satellite networks have advanced to
become two-way, enterprise-class platforms that
provide terrestrial-like broadband connectivity. They
are high-speed communications systems that are
built on IP and integrate seamlessly with core
communications technology. No longer hampered
by early latency or reliability issues, satellite is a
cost-effective and secure solution that can provide
backup communications and easily support core

28 | August 2011
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smart grid applications like SCADA, telemetry, AMI


backhaul and distribution automation.
RELIABILITY
Myth: Satellite does not provide the necessary
reliability/availability utilities need to run core
applications.
Reality: Technological advancements have
made satellite highly reliable and capable of
providing up to 99 percent availability.
As utilities build out the smart grid and extend
broadband connectivity to remote locations, they
need a communications solution with comparable
reliability to a fiber-based network thats capable of
handling critical applications such as SCADA without missing a beat.

Advancements
have made satellite
highly reliable.
Satellite has evolved into a highly reliable platform, in part due to the arrival of the second-generation digital video broadcasting standard (DVB-S2)
in combination with adaptive coding and modulation (ACM). With these advancements, outbound
throughput performance is guaranteed even during
inclement weather.
On the return path, the satellite industry has seen
improvements made to demodulators and the incorporation of a significant new inbound coding technology, 2D 16-state forward error correction (FEC),
which also protects link availability during rain fade
and further enhances throughput.
Unlike other communications technologies, satellite is a private network, which inherently makes it
more reliable. At the same time, IP-satellite platforms
utilize time division multiple access (TDMA) technology to efficiently share capacity across different

locations within an organization. The establishment


of quality of service (QoS) guarantees based on
application, remote site and sub-network, preserves
reliability by protecting critical applications against
congestion.
When choosing a satellite platform, its important
that utilities consider built-in features that can help
them efficiently manage bandwidth and configure
and prioritize traffic. One such feature thats offered
by some satellite platforms is Group QoS (GQoS).
When combined with the ACM capability of DVBS2, Group QoS allows utilities to specify committed
information rates (CIRs) for different geographies
and applications based on the service level required
during inclement weather. GQoS qualifiers can
also mirror the throughput characteristics of single
channel per carrier technology, effectively creating
a dedicated outbound link for bandwidth intensive,
constant applications.
LATENCY
Myth: Satellites latency is too high to support
core smart grid applications such as SCADA.
Reality: While satellite is slightly more latent
than terrestrial broadband, the difference is only
a few hundred milliseconds. The latency of an IP
satellite broadband platform is still low enough
to meet the requirements of nearly every core
utility and energy application.
Developing a smart grid requires precise monitoring of energy supply and demand patterns as well as
real-time fault detection in distribution networks, no
matter the location. Several operational applications,
therefore, require a timely response message from
equipment assets.
Since all communications systems, even terrestrial, have some degree of inherent latency, as packet
transport is not instantaneous, this delay must be
accounted for as applications are designed. While
terrestrial latency is a minimal 200ms or less, satellites latency, approximately 600ms-700ms mark, is
August 2011 | 29
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_________

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suitable for nearly every utility application, including SCADA, substation automation, distribution
automation, AMI, voice and video.
Due to advancements in IP satellite technology,
each control message or alarm can be delivered
within a guaranteed time frame. Specifically, a
methodology called deterministic TDMA (d-TDMA)
designates bandwidth per remote site based on an
established time limit. And iDirects GQoS allows for
applications like video surveillance and VoIP to run
without interrupting the deterministic bandwidth
allocated for SCADA.

a result, utilities can ensure toll-quality digital telephony over a cost-effective shared medium.
COST
Myth: Deploying satellite is cost prohibitive.
Reality: Satellite offers flexible options for utilities to own, manage and deploy networks with
low upfront capital investment and minimal
operational expenses.
IP satellite platforms extend high-speed broadband
and advanced communications applications to the
most remote locations. For utilities, this means reach-

SATELLITE ENABLING EMERGING SMART GRID APPLICATIONS

Smart
Meters

AMI Backhaul
In remote locations,
satellite connectivity can
backlaul smart meter data from a
satellite antenna mounted on an AMI
concentrator to the operations center.

AMI
Concentrator

Fiber Ring
Corporate HQ
Distribution
Automation
With satellite connectivity, utility
companies can backhaul
distribution automation data
from DA sensors to their operations
centers

DA Concentrator
DA Sensors

To further optimize real-time applications, like


voice, which can be detrimentally affected by delay,
utilities can take advantage of real-time traffic management and optimization features that some of
todays satellite platforms provide. These features
can reduce jitter by evenly spacing time slots across
a shared platform and enable the system to interrupt large data frames to prioritize voice traffic. As

ing the furthest points on the grid in a more costeffective way than other core network technologies.
Several satellite options offer flexibility related to
up-front capital expenditures. For some utilities,
owning and operating their own virtual private
network (VPN) may be the best option for security
reasons or performance control. In this scenario,
the utility is responsible for purchasing and

30 | August 2011
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implementing the satellite infrastructure, including


a hub, line cards and remotes.
For utilities looking to reduce upfront capital
expenditure, some satellite solutions offer a costeffective option called a virtual network operator
(VNO) model. As a VNO, a utility company still
buys and manages satellite equipment, including
remotes and line cards, and is able to maintain control and visibility over the performance and security
of its own closed network. However, with a VNO
model, the utility doesnt have to invest in a satellite
hub or teleport infrastructure, since they co-locate
capacity in an existing hub hosted by a satellite service provider.
Alternatively, for even lower capital expense, a
utility could fully outsource its satellite capacity,
allowing a service provider to configure and manage
the network at an operational expense thats competitive with monthly cellular costs.
Whether a utility chooses to own or outsource
capacity, it can leverage a network management
systems (NMS) to configure, monitor, control and,
in some cases, automate components of its satellite
network. NMS tools allow the satellite network to be
managed from a central location, and some satellite
solutions offer real-time and historical statistics to
provide a deeper view into network performance
and alert utilities to potential issues before they
occur.
SECURITY
Myth: Satellite isnt as secure as other technologies such as fiber and therefore isnt adequate
to protect the smart grid.
Reality: Satellite is a highly secure technology
that supports private networks, AES encryption
and provides enhanced security features.
As utility systems become more reliant on an
always-on broadband connection, security can be
a concern. New industry regulations, including
NERC-CIP standards, and the ability to centrally
access substations are two of the drivers for more

stringent protections against intrusion, while emerging applications like smart metering are making data
security paramount.
A satellite platform configured as a closed VPN is
inherently secure. Adding support for concurrent
two-way AES 256-bit link encryption makes packet
transmission via satellite just as secure as other communication technologies, including terrestrial and
wireless.

Satellite is a highly secure


technology that supports
private networks and
provides enhanced
security features.
Creation of a virtual local area network (VLAN)
allows users in a broadcast domain to be grouped
together logically and not physically. They do not
have to be in the same location. Satellite support
for VLAN tagging provides the security needed to
segregate traffic by these defined groupings on a
shared infrastructure. Permission is required for
access. Additionally, the NMS must authorize satellite devices before they can operate on the network,
which guards against outside attacks and makes
IP-satellite more secure than WiFi.
To provide even higher levels of security, some satellite systems offer features like frequency hopping
and tunnel-mode IPsec that make it more difficult to
eavesdrop or intercept data over the network. The
former allows remotes to switch in route channels
based on traffic, while the latter creates an encrypted
point-to-point tunnel between substations and the
control center.
Christian Bergan is director of the energy and utility markets at
iDirect, a manufacturer of satellite communications technology. Bergan
is responsible for the market strategy and works closely with iDirects
global network of service providers to promote the value of VSAT
technology throughout the industry.

32 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com
_________

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BY CLINTON E. CLYBURN III,


STEWART SUPERABSORBENTS LLC

Preventing Water Penetration in Cable


D

ry water-blocking materials
for cables come in many
forms, including powder, coatings, binders and tapes. In power
cables, water-blocking materials
have replaced mastics around the
conductors and concentric wires.
The benefits of using dry waterblocking materials are numerous:
cost savings in manufacturing
and installation, effectiveness and
reduction in cable weight.
Previous investigations of dry
water-blocking materials in cable
designs have found that the materials meet current cable performance standards. These standards measure the performance
of the superabsorbent in a dry,
virgin state, prior to activation by

water from cable damage. This


certainly has relevance in the ability of the materials to immediately
stop water. What has not been
examined is the ability of the
superabsorbent to hold the water
over time once activated.
CURRENT REQUIREMENTS
AND ISSUES
Water penetration requirements
vary depending on the cable type
and application. Previous studies
have shown some superabsorbent
polymers to be quite stable in a
dry state under aging at 80 C.
They are still capable of meeting
water penetration requirements
after prolonged heat exposure.
Other superabsorbents show

degradation in performance after


aging, typically in reductions
of swell height and capacity to
absorb water. These are usually
superabsorbents characterized by
initial high swell capacities and
expansion ratios. Conventional
thinking in the industry is that
those superabsorbents that absorb
more and at a faster rate are better candidates for use in cables.
However, testing has shown that
the actual penetration distance
in a cable does not depend solely
on the swelling speed or expansion of the superabsorbent. Other
characteristics of the polymer
(and its carrier) are important
factors. So, the proper selection of
material can ensure long-term dry

34 | August 2011
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performance if a cable jacket is


cut many years after installation.
The long-term stability of
the superabsorbent blockage, a
hydrated gel, is an important factor in preventing the migration of
water down the cable over time.
SUPERABSORBENT
POLYMERS AND TESTING
Current superabsorbent polymers used in cable applications
are typically crosslinked acrylates,
neutralized with sodium or potassium salts. Differences in manu-

Additionally, the resulting superabsorbent hydrated gel must be


strong enough to hold the head
of water and prevent migration
over time.
Superabsorbents for cable
water-blocking require a combination of these performance
metrics to block water within
requirements. However, the best
performing materials in a dry virgin state may not be the best in an
aged hydrated state.
To measure the gels integrity
and stability to replicate real-life

VISCOSITY DROP OF AGED


HYDRATED SUPERABSORBENT

16000
14000
SAP-1
SAP-2
SAP-3
SAP-4
SAP-5
SAP-6
SAP-7

Viscosity (mPas)

12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

10

12

14

Days

facturing methods determine performance characteristics such as


absorption capacity, absorption
speed and ability to swell against
pressure. For a cable application, a superabsorbent must be
able to swell enough to block the
interstitial spaces of a cable core
with sufficient speed to stop the
water ingress within one meter.

conditions of the blocking mechanism in a hydrated state, tests were


conducted. Measurements included viscosity, extrudate and flow.
Eight different commercially
available superabsorbents currently used in cable water-blocking were selected. These grades
are incorporated in cable designs
through direct powder applica-

tion, water-blocking tapes and


binders. Not all samples were
used in every test.
AGED GEL VISCOSITY
The first test examined the viscosity change of a hydrated gel as
a function of aging. For each sample, the maximum water absorption capacity in deionized water
was determined using an industry standard test. Each superabsorbent was then hydrated in
deionized water to 50 percent of
maximum for a total test volume
of 250 cc. A beginning viscosity
was obtained using a Brookfield
viscometer (Spindle 5, 20 rpm).
Afterwards, the samples were
put into a closed container and
placed in an oven at 80 C to
simulate aging. The viscosity of
each sample was tested after one,
five, six, 10, 14 and 76 days.
The samples were removed from
the oven and allowed to cool
to room temperature. Afterward,
the viscosity of each sample was
measured and the samples were
returned to the oven.
The change in viscosity was
used as the indicator of gel stability. If the superabsorbent exhibited a large drop in viscosity it was
considered to have low gel stability and vice versa. The results
of the aging experiment showed
dramatic differences in gel stability over time (see Figure 1).
All samples tested exhibit
high viscosity when first made
in the laboratory. However, after
only one day in the simulated
August 2011 | 35
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aging conditions, six of the


superabsorbents being tested
showed a significant drop in their
viscosity. Samples SAP-4 and 6
retained only about 20 percent of
their viscosity from the day before
and samples SAP-1, 2, 3 and
5 dropped to near-water levels.
By day five, sample SAP-4 also
showed no gel structure. After
14 days, sample SAP-6 viscosity
decreased to near-water value.
The dramatic decrease of viscosity
with aging at 80 C is interpreted
as a sign of low gel stability and
increase of the water-front inside
the cable.
Only the sample SAP-7 displayed resistance to the simulated
aging conditions. In fact, its viscosity was stable for at least two
weeks. Even after 76 days of 80 C
aging, sample SAP-7 displayed a
viscosity of 2500 mPas.

Similar to the viscosity test,


dramatic differences in flow times
were observed after the first day
of aging (see Figure 2).
All initial samples exhibited low
propensity to flow and were quite
slow to exit the funnel. After only
one day, samples SAP-1, 4 and

GEL FLOW TIME


In similar fashion to the viscosity test, samples were hydrated to 50 percent of maximum
absorption in deionized water.
The hydrated gel was carefully
poured into a polyethylene funnel
with a 120 mm top inner diameter, 12 mm bottom exit diameter
and 45 degree walls. After settling three minutes, the gel was
allowed to flow out of the funnel
and the total time to empty was
recorded. The gel was then placed
into a closed container and aged
at 80 C. Samples were removed
every 24 hours for four days and
allowed to cool to room temperature before repeating the test.

5 flowed immediately out of the


funnel. Sample SAP-8 displayed
more resistance after 24 hours but
was also water-like after 48 hours.
Only sample SAP-7 maintained
similar exit times across the test
period with a high resistance to
gravity flow. One would expect
similar resistance to the pressure
head experienced in a water penetration test.

C oven. At 24 hour intervals, a


sample of each was removed from
the oven and allowed to cool to
room temperature.
The hydrated gel mass was
poured into a conical wire mesh
filter with 100 micron openings.
Any liquid extrudate from the

GEL FLOW TIME


3500

Time to Exit Funnel, Sec.

3000
2500
2000

SAP-1
SAP-4
SAP-5
SAP-7
SAP-8

1500
1000
500
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Hours at 80C

EXTRUDATE DRAIN
Four samples of each test
superabsorbent were prepared as
per the previous tests, 50 percent
of maximum absorption in deionized water. These were placed in
closed containers inside an 80

gel was allowed to drain for three


hours and collected. The liquid
extrudate was weighed and compared to the original gel mass to
determine the percent lost. The
gel with higher stability retains
more of its absorbed liquid under
aging and subsequently prevents
further water propagation (see
lead art for this story as an example of the test).
After only 24 hours of aging,
sample SAP-5 released 96 percent
of the water it had absorbed.
Other samples released up to
40 percent in the first day. Lost
extrudate continued to climb each
subsequent day such that samples SAP-1 and SAP-4 had also

36 | August 2011
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drained most of their absorbed


liquid by day four. Sample SAP-8
was relatively stable at first. It
retained about 80 percent of its
water after 96 hours but showed
an increased rate of water release
at day four. Only sample SAP-7
showed consistent extrudate
weight with only 3 to 4 percent
loss during the test period (see
Figure 3).
DISCUSSION AND
CONCLUSIONS
The samples contained various
types and levels of crosslinking, indirectly characterized by their absorption capacity. Our initial hypothesis
suggested the superabsorbent with

be true as sample SAP-7, the most


reticulated polymer, showed the
least deviation from initial testing.
In addition to crosslink density, it is thought that the type of
crosslinker used in the superior
performing superabsorbent offers
more resistance to hydrated aging,
thus holding the polymer network
together. As most superabsorbents
are produced for the diaper/hygiene
market, hydrolytic stability of the
crosslinker is not a major concern.
These materials see a short service
life of less than one day upon which
they are disposed and replaced.
Only a superabsorbent chemically
tailored for hydrated stability would
use an appropriate crosslinker.

GEL MASS LOST FROM AGING


120
100

% Gel Mass Lost

80
SAP-1
SAP-4
SAP-5
SAP-7
SAP-8

60
40
20
0
20
0

20

40

60

80

100

Hours at 80C

the highest degree of crosslinking


would display more stability in
the tests. Heat is one factor which
degrades polymers and a higher
number of beginning links in the
polymer network would take more
time to revert to linear form. Results
basically showed this outcome to

Shape of the expanded


superabsorbent can also have
an impact. The jagged edges of
the crystalline particles lodge to
each other more than spheres
or cauliflower morphologies,
resulting in better viscosity and
flow numbers. Even as the gel

ages, this increased resistance to


movement can help in prolonging
superior test results and waterblockage.
Results of the tests were very
consistent in ranking the integrity
of the aged superabsorbent gel.
By far, the worst performer in
viscosity drop, flow and extrudate
drain was a fast swelling suspension polymer commonly found
in water-blocking tapes. With a
low crosslinking density and high
surface area morphology, this
superabsorbent was very sensitive
to hydrated aging conditions and
rapidly lost its gel integrity.
The best candidate was a crystalline-shaped solution polymer with
the highest degree of crosslinking
density and a hydrolytically stable
crosslinker. This reticulated polymer displayed very stable performance through the aging study and
showed little change in gel formation for the first two weeks, while
the other samples suffered major
degradation.
For a full consideration of waterblocking performance employing superabsorbents, the proper
candidate must encompass the
dry swelling criteria outlined by
the relevant cable requirements.
However, this must be balanced
by hydrated gel stability to ensure
that the superabsorbent maintains a secure block in the case of
an undetected jacket breach.
Clinton E. Clyburn III is division manager for
Stewart Superabsorbents. He previously worked
in the R&D departments of Raychem, Alcatel and
Siecor before joining Stockhausen (now Evonik
Stockhausen) for superabsorbent development.

August 2011 | 37
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Three Issues

BY KATHLEEN DAVIS, SENIOR EDITOR

Consumer Trust and Data Security:

he advancements in smart grid


add one major item to the
power network: tons and tons of
data. That data trickle comes from
multiple endpoints, technologically
advanced distribution equipment
and newer, smarter appliances.
While the utility often asks What
are we going to do with all this
data? the consumer has another
question, Are you keeping all my
data safe?
THE FIRST LAYER: BEEF UP
YOUR INFRASTRUCTURE
To a consumer, all data connected

to their usage is personal and private and should be treated with kid
gloves. Before a utility can discuss
data security with a customer, however, it has to have and hold the
data itself.
Data was the center point issue
of all the sessions at UTC Telecom
2011 in Long Beach May 10-13.
From use to security, it was all
about those small little slices of very
important information.
During the case study on data centers on Wednesday, May 11, experts
questioned whether current data
centers have the capacity to support

the data thats about to hit with the


smart grid, specifically smart metering and demand response pilots and
programs---all that information that
impacts a consumer.
Were adapting our infrastructure
for a very bright smart grid future,
said Bud Voss, chief technology officer at Comverge during the session.
With smart grid advancements, our
data center needs and our back
office needs are ever-changing.
Comverge works with more than
500 utilities with those changing
data needs for communications
and the smart grid. The company

38 | August 2011
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currently operates a data center


in Pennsylvania for their demand
response program, though they are
now building a main location in
Atlanta, leaving the Pennsylvania
operations as a back-up.
With the smart grid, there is a
shift in data collection from oneway to two-way with info coming
in and going out every 15 minutes.
Voss noted that this creates a massive change, and, now, Comverge
needs to analyze business data in
real time, which requires expansion.

that customer data starts with


making sure your infrastructure
and data center is up to snuff,
that the house holding that data
is solid.
THE SECOND LAYER:
SECURING THE TRANSFER
Once a utility updates the data
center and the infrastructure itself is
tough and ready, whats the next step
to keeping customer data secure?
How about making sure the way
that data flow is not just safe in the

Many available network solutions


require too much knowledge.
Comverge suggests adopting an
architectural approach to improve
security and scalability with the bigger and better data center the smart
grid may requirenot just for
themselves, but for all smart gridrelated utilities and vendors. This
shiny process is all about creating a
solid grid design capable not just of
data use and sorting but which also
takes into account potential disaster
issues and even federal requirements like NERC CIP.
You have to allow for access
points and higher levels of traffic with the smart grid, said
Sanket Amberkar, senior manager
of smart grid with Cisco Systems,
which worked with Comverge on
the data center update. Amberkar
also stressed a need for robustness
in this type of system and making
sure they are scaled even with
field deployments.
So, the first step to securing

center and end bits like a consumer


meter, but also safe as it travels as
well? How do we do that? We go to
the cloud.
Michael Sanderson, vice president
of engineering with Proximetry, feels
that utilities overlook one area that
utilities could really use to secure
data: software that makes better
decisions. He spoke to POWERGRID
International at the UTC Telecom
Conference.
Security can be input into
cloud formatting, allowing for
automatic security perimeters via
software. Utilities with network
clouds could flip a switch and
tell those cloud data guardians
that networks used to transmit
data must have specific attributes
or it cannot use that network.
In this way, the software takes
over the decision for engineers,
making security-based encryptionlevel decisions in a split second

and translating a older, slower and


manual concept of security to a
more automatic one.
In the end, its faster to take
out the manual process, Sanderson
said. The engineer doesnt need to
know the underlying network. And,
you reduce errors that inevitably
come about with manual decisions.
Andres Carvallo, Proximetrys
chief strategy officer and the man
who coined the term smart grid
while at Austin Energy a few years
ago, chimed in that security at
this level should work more like a
home router. The average consumer
bought the router, plugged it in and
set it up, but has no idea how it
functions on a specific, engineering
level. And, they dont have to.
Many available network solutions require too much knowledge,
Carvallo said. Now that everything
has to be managedespecially
securitywith the smart grid, its
just too much.
We need to bring the simplicity
of home Wi-Fi to power, he added.
Painless self-healing of networks
is key.
So, you shore up the infrastructure, prep the data center and switch
to software that can self-heal and
protect data automatically. Thats the
end, right? Youre done and secure.
Not quite.
THE FINAL LAYER:
COMMUNICATE YOUR
COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY
The customer must remain in this
equation. Even if youve shored up
the data center and infrastructure
and lined up all your clouds in a
August 2011 | 39
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delightful, neat little row with silver


linings of ultimate security, none of
that matters if you dont pass on that
good info to the consumer.
And, sometimes, the consumer
doesnt really want to listen.

change, but the consumer didnt


know that. The consumer thought
their data was wrong, explosive, out
in the open or manipulated by the
utility or a third party entirely.
ONCOR offered free indepen-

McNair and the other panelists


see the people problem as one of
the more simple security solutions.
You dont have to beef up data
centers or program smart network
clouds. This level of communica-

ONCOR, the T&D utility in


Texas began a smart metering
program in 2009 in the Dallas/Ft.
Worth area and beyond. But, they
developed a problem in the middle
of this replacement plan, according
to Kelly McNair, director of telecom
strategy at ONCOR during a UTC
Telecom session. There was a bit of
a convergence with a cold winter,
a record snowstorm, a few minor
meter reading errors and longer
billing periods. All of this lead to
significant complaints from consumers, who were unaware of any
of those things. Now, the data didnt

dent testing of smart meters to


prove they were working properly
and sorting the data correctly.
Now, ONCOR has not found
any inaccurate metersno stray
data, no neighbors plugging into
personal consumer databut that
doesnt mean the consumer believes
that. Navigant Consulting came in
independently and said the data
was correct and the communication system used by ONCOR was
working fine. In the end, this wasnt
a problem of data accuracy or security. It was a customer and a people
problem, McNair noted.

tions is all about personal discussion: Talk to the customer. Let them
know what youre doing to protect
their data. Theyll listen.
So, making sure that consumer
data is protected isnt just about
cybersecurity itself. Its prepping data center for a smart grid
onslaught, shoring up the pathways
the data travels and letting the consumer know just how their local
utility is working to keep everything updated and safe. Keeping an
eye on communications runs the
spectrum from technology to consumer and back again.

40 | August 2011
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We need an AMI partner


that will deliver on promises.

Aclara delivers.
No over-hyped vendor promises just results.
Aclaras scalable AMI solutions prove
themselves everyday by handling millions of
meter reads for over 500 utility customers.
Whether your utility needs a complete AMI
turnkey solution, or answers to specic
challenges, Aclara delivers.

Create Your Intelligent Infrastructure


Find out more at Aclara.com/delivers
1.800.297.2728 | info@aclara.com

Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.

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BY KEVIN CORNISH, ENSPIRIA SOLUTIONS

Connecting the Grid


to Distributed Generation

ow that the initial smart grid


hype is beginning to fade,
utilities, regulators, politicians
and other stakeholders are closely
examining the real opportunities
that smart grid solutions provide.
Distributed generation (DG) represents a viable benefit area. As
utility-scale and smaller renewable
DG systems become more popular, cost-effective and widespread,
utilities can no longer regard the
installation and operation of these
assets as one-off, specialized engineering efforts.
Many reasons exist for encouraging inclusion of DG assets into
the distribution network, and with
opportunities come challenges for
providing safe and reliable power.
Although the generation source
may be owned and managed by
a customer or third-party operator, the utility ultimately remains
responsible for the overall system
operation. This raises questions
about interconnectivity between

DG resources and the grid. The


smart grid provides answers to
some of those questions, and
areas related to safety impacts,
islanding scenarios, power quality
impacts, infrastructure asset management, and system planning
and operations requirements,
can be positively addressed with
smart grid solutions.
SAFETY
In the event of a fault condition,
DG systems must ensure safety
for utility system operations,
personnel, customers and other
third parties. Utilities employ a
variety of protection schemes at
distribution substations and on the
distribution system itselffuses,
reclosers, sectionalizers, etc.
that are predominantly designed
to operate in a radial power flow
fashion. Although DG resources
can introduce a remote source
that negatively impacts standard
protection scheme operations, new

low cost monitoring devices help


address the problem. By leveraging
smart meter communications
networks, private or public Wi-Fi
and WiMAX solutions, or cellular
telecommunications networks,
smart grid devices can detect
reverse power flow, abnormal
operating conditions and the
status of the DG resource. Smart
grid communication solutions,
combined with standards-based
controls and monitoring devices,
thus help protect operations
integrity by providing valuable
system information and insight that
was not previously available.
ISLANDING SCENARIOS
Because islanding scenarios
typically prevent the utility from
ensuring the delivery of adequate
voltage and proper power
frequency, utilities seek to prevent
situations where a DG asset serves
an isolated load and operates in
an islanding capacity. Therefore,

42 | August 2011
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utilities need additional protection


schemes to ensure prompt
and reliable disconnect of DG
resources. Transfer trip solutions,
which send a signal from a remote
initiating device to the DG asset,
have long been used to address
islanding scenarios, but their
dependence on dedicated highreliability communication circuits
incur high costs. The advent of
smart grid networks presents
reasonably priced and available
communication solutions. As an
example, utilities deploying service
area-wide private WiMAX solutions
can use this high-speed channel to
support transfer trip at a fraction of
the cost of traditional solutions.
POWER QUALITY IMPACTS
DG sources can create voltage
fluctuations (high and low), excessive harmonic content, transient
disturbances and other conditions
that detrimentally affect power
quality and impact customers adjacent to the DG source. Additionally,
older DG devices have been identified as the root cause of negative
impacts to utility devices, including voltage regulators that operate outside their normal operating
range and prematurely fail. The
transient nature of DG devices
devices that do not possess their
own power factor correction
forces utilities to examine other fast
acting solutions such as D-VAR,
SVC or STATCOM devices.
Additionally, utilities have traditionally relied on a combination
of advanced engineering studies to identify potential system

impacts and subsequent customer


complaints to gauge the existence
and severity of those issues. With
remote monitoring devices, including the service quality monitoring
capabilities of smart meters, utilities can monitor and detect negative impacts from DG resources.
Proactive attention and remediation eliminates the impact on adjacent customers and better enables
utilities to maintain service commitments. Evolving technology
solutions also provide tools for
the utility to identify and support
issue resolution at problem generation facilities.
INFRASTRUCTURE ASSET
MANAGEMENT
Most utilities have some level
of distribution automation or
substation SCADA solutions that
provide high-level indications
of system load flows and status.
However, problems can arise when
a DG resource is installed on lesser
monitored portions of the grid:
Output from the DG source may
result in an overloaded infrastructure
during minimum or maximum
generation conditions. While
under maximum load conditions
when load generation more closely
matches local loads the impact
may be smaller, understanding the
impact on local infrastructure is
difficult without the granularity
of local measurements and status
information. As more renewable
DG resources are installed, the
interaction and combination of
the individual generation sources
may aggravate the impact. smart

grid sensing and monitoring


solutions applied on top of a
telecommunications network can
provide the information necessary
to understand these impacts and
interdependencies.
Utilities are also investing in
intelligent smart grid distribution
management systems (DMS) for
their control centers. DMS provides intelligent alarm processing
and load management applications
that better enable the safe operation
of grids with high quantity of DG
resources. DMS also help optimize
a heterogeneous mix of connected
DG resources, such as wind, solar,
bio-mass, fuel cell, etc.
Energy storage technologies can
potentially match the generation
capability of DG resources with
system load serving requirements.
Storage solutions, such as compressed air energy storage (CAES)
or battery technologies, which have
the ability to charge or discharge
at variable levels and rates, can act
as either a source or a load. These
devices store energy obtained during off-peak, then distribute the
energy back onto the grid during
peak conditions. As the distributed
resources multiply, the impact of
data inputs from smart grid and
other technologies will need to be
examined from both the load and
generation perspectives, requiring
more complex planning studies in
the future that examine multiple
contingencies.
SYSTEM PLANNING AND
OPERATIONS REQUIREMENTS
The increasing penetration of DG
August 2011 | 43
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________________________

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resources heightens the significance


of scheduling, dispatching, availability, capacity factor, spinning
reserve, and voltage and frequency
support. Renewable, solar or wind
DG has an additional complexity
in that most systems have a higher
degree of variability in generation
output, requiring more insight
into real-time status and generation output. Performing long-term
generation planning, substation
and distribution system upgrade
design and routine load flow analysis requires insight into all available
DG resources. This in turn requires
that these sources provide real-time
information to the utilities that can
be fed into the new generation of
DMS power flow applications for
both planning and system operations. This provides the information
that utilities need to plan and operate the gridsafely and reliably.
A key enabler for effectively integrating, monitoring and managing
DG sources within the smart grid
lies with the utilitys ability to ingest,
route, process and act upon the
increased levels of instrumentation
data from DG sources and the larger
grid. With the increasing deployment of information technology
solutions such as enterprise service
buses (ESBs) and stream processing
tools, the latency between sensory
and actionable information has
the ability to be dramatically compressed, consequently reducing the
time between grid stimulus and
effective utility response.
Distributed generation, and
especially
renewable
based
technologies, will continue to gain

in popularity due to technology


advances, environmental benefits,
political support and growing
energy awareness. Utilities need
to prepare themselves for this
increased penetration of renewable
DGs through the investigation

value beyond supporting DG.


By proactively embracing these
changes, utilities can begin to
shape the myriad of planning and
operating approaches that maximize
the potential long term benefits to
the utility and its customers.

DG OVERVIEW OF CHALLENGES, SOLUTIONS


Challenges of DG

Addressing with Smart Grid


Solutions (Examples)

Safety

DG can impact the ability of


the normal protection scheme
to function optimally.

Leverage new low-cost remote


monitoring devices to detect reverse
power flow, abnormal operating
conditions and DG status.

Islanding
Scenarios

Potential for non-utility DG


to operate in an islanding
fashion, with utility unable to
ensure adequate voltage and
proper power frequency.

Utilities deploying service areawide private WiMAX solutions can


support transfer trip at a fraction of
the cost of traditional solutions.

Power Quality
Impacts

DG can have detrimental


impacts on adjacent utility
customers re voltage,
harmonic content, and
transient disturbances.

Use the monitoring capabilities of


Smart Meters to monitor and detect
negative DG impacts.

Infrastructure
Asset
Management

DG output can result in


overloaded distribution
network conductors,
distribution transformers,
fuses, etc.

Distribution management systems


(DMS) provide intelligent alarm
processing and load management
applications, allowing safe operation of
a distribution grid with large numbers
of DG installed and optimization of the
mix of connected DG.
Energy storage solutions, such
as CAES or battery technologies,
provide a tool to match the DG
generation capability with the
system load serving requirements.

System
Planning and
Operations
Requirements

Increasing penetration of DG
(and especially renewable)
brings significant system
planning and operations
issues and complexity.

Enterprise service buses and


stream processing tools enable
the utility to ingest, route, process
and act upon the increased levels
of instrumentation data from DG
sources and the larger grid.

and application of smart grid


solutions such as smart metering,
smart communications solutions,
distributed monitoring and control,
and DMS applications (see table).
These solutions have far-reaching

Kevin Cornish is an executive consultant


and the smart grid consulting practice lead with
Enspiria Solutions, a Black & Veatch company.
He has more than 25 years of experience in
the utility field, with particular expertise in smart
metering and smart grid initiatives. Reach him at
kcornish@enspiria.com.

46 | August 2011
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CEO of the Year


Nominate your CEO today!
Electric Light & Power magazine will name
two utility CEOs of the Year during the
Electric Light & Power Executive Conference,
Jan. 22-23, 2012, in San Antonio. Nominations
will be accepted in two categories:
Small Utility CEO of the Year
(fewer than 400,000 customers)
Large Utility CEO of the Year
(400,000 customers or more)

The CEO of the Year will be selected


based on essays that address:
How does the CEO help the industry?
What sustainability initiatives
does the CEO support?
How does the CEO maintain profits?
How does the CEO keep employees
happy and engaged?
How does the CEO support philanthropic
causes or help others outside of work?
What is the CEOs company vision?
What else sets the CEO apart?

Deadline for nominations is Oct. 14, 2011


Full rules and nomination form are available
online at http://elp.com
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.

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BY JEFF HANNA AND PAUL YARKA, ACCENTURE

Are GIS and EAM


Systems Smart Grid-ready?
A

s electric utilities around


the world continue to pilot
and implement smart grids, many
are facing a pivotal question that
will shape their approaches and
impact the speed at which they
can progress: Are our systems
and databases that enable transmission and distribution (T&D)
business operations smart gridready? More specifically, are the
geographical information systems (GIS) and enterprise asset
management (EAM) systems that
underpin and support network
operations sufficiently integrated
to support and enable effective
smart grid operations?
KEY CONSIDERATIONS
This is a complex and challenging question. It raises a wide
array of considerations, including a number of core operationsenabling systems, associated
data and integration issues that
more and more utilities are now
encountering in their smart grid
programs. Our experience with
these projects has highlighted at
least seven considerations that are
especially relevant in determining
smart grid readiness. These are:
100 percent network model
connectivity: Todays utilities need to think a little

differently about their data. It


is important that an organization now has an as-built network model connectivity of

system calculations, such as


volt/VAR optimization, away
from engineering tools to
real-time systems requires

KEY ASSET BUSINESS PROCESS OPTIONS


Procurement

Procurement

Design/
estimate

Design/
estimate

As-built

GIS

EAM

Maintenance &
Inspection

EAM

As-built
Maintenance &
Inspection

GIS

EAM

Maintenance &
Inspection

Procurement
Design/
estimate

As-built

GIS

nearly 100 percent, such that


a fully connected model ties
transmission to substation to
distribution primary and distribution secondary accurately. Connectivity models of the
smart grid must encompass a
complete system.
100 percent phase and
engineering data: In addition, phase information and
engineering data, such as
wire size, impedance, cable
lengths, configuration and
other information, must be
available. Transitioning power

?
that more network engineering details are captured as
part of the as-built network.
This poses a challenge to the
traditional GIS model when
determining where and how
device control settings get
captured.
Comprehensive asset register: It is vital to have a
comprehensive asset register
containing not only the information needed to support
technical maintenance and
inspection but also data that
are required to integrate with

48 | August 2011
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other asset systems. The asset


register should contain an
inventory of all assets requiring maintenance with attribute data that supports differing care regimes, as needed.
It is important that all technical maintenance policies
and strategies leverage the
asset register as the system
of record for the asset to be
maintained and inspected.
Network and maintenance
model for smart sensors and
equipment: This is a common gap for utilitieshow
to add or relate sensors and
intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) with other assets
requiring maintenance. A
variety of decisions will need
to be made to properly maintain sensors and IEDs (i.e.,
changing batteries, upgrading firmware). Where to store
and maintain smart meters is
a common industry question.
The ultimate system of record

maintenance model entities


for smart sensors and smart
equipment be stored? What
attributes can be stored? And
what do the processes for
creating and maintaining that
data look like?
Synchronized, integrated
asset information and comprehensive asset performance data: Has the organization synchronized and
integrated its asset information? This is important when
integrating high latency asset
data with real-time data for
condition-based monitoring
and maintenance and asset
analytics. Synchronization of
asset register data with spatial
asset data is required. Having
synchronized its asset information, the utility is now able
to create new assets once,
replicate them using automation, and then use the composite asset data for diverse
applications across the utility.

The integration of utility assets


across GIS and EAM systems
is a powerful enabler of
smart grid readiness.
for utility maintenance is the
enterprise asset management
(EAM) system and a preferred
asset data location is the asset
register. Typical questions
include: Where should the
power system model and

Synchronized linkage to
temporal, historical and realtime data: Has the utility
developed the ability to link
assets in their databases that
support T&D operations
to temporal, historical, and

real-time data in the smart


grid operational data store,
originating from devices such
as remote terminal units
(RTUs), network sensors,
IEDs and smart equipment?
Consistently sharing an asbuilt network model across
the enterprise: Finally, a common consideration is whether
the utility has assembled a
complete and authoritative as-built power system
model, and then shared the
model with consuming applications, such as a distribution management system
(DMS), outage management
system (OMS), a network
analysis/system planning tool
and other applications that
require a transformed, asbuilt network model as an
input.
MULTI-DIMENSIONAL ASSET
INTELLIGENCE
Although this may appear to be
a daunting list of requirements,
multi-dimensional asset intelligence provides one of the keys
to meeting the afore-mentioned
requirements. The integration of
electric utility assets across GIS
and EAM systems is a powerful
enabler of smart grid readiness,
and the foundation for a multidimensional asset intelligence
capability.
Optimal EAM and GIS integration consists of the following five
key elements:
A shared asset data model
August 2011 | 49
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with data ownership and systems of record for each asset


and attribute.
Integrated workflows and
business processes to manage the creation, update and
viewing of asset data across
EAM and GIS.
A capability for administering the asset, attribute and
relationship mapping across
EAM and GIS, along with
process-enabling configuration in support of the shared
asset data model.
Application integration components to automate, validate
and maintain the integration
of asset data between EAM
and GIS
Composite EAM and GIS
services
for
reporting,
analysis and enabling other
applications.
With these elements in place,
EAMGIS integration allows asset
information to be leveraged across
several desired dimensionsspatial, technical, financial, real-time
and performance. Unfortunately,
our experience suggests that most
organizations have yet to properly
solve the challenge of asset-level
data integration.
ASSET LIFECYCLE BUSINESS
PROCESS OPTIONS
To achieve the required degree
of integration, a utility can choose
from multiple business process
options (see Figure 1). The option
at the top left is an enterprise
resource planning- (ERP-) centric

model, where a utility creates


new assets in conjunction with
the design/estimating process,
the as-built process, and through
the maintenance and inspection

in Figure 1, illustrates an integrated approach. Procurement,


design/estimating, as-built, and
maintenance and inspection processes are involved in creating

ASSET MANAGEMENT LIFECYCLE LEVERAGING


EAM-TO-GIS INTEGRATION

;






+
Prr
" "



!
$!
"<

<
r<

!"#

r


$" 

GIS
=

"?
;!

 " >? !#

"*


process. In this case the utilitys


EAM system is a system of record
for new assets, and the GIS learns
of a new asset subsequent to
its creation in EAM- which is
frequently integrated with a
broader ERP environment.
The GIS-centric model at the
top right in Figure 1 works quite
differently, and involves a different approach for process-enabling
integration. With ERP-based EAM
systems, this approach may prove
difficult, as the ability to trigger
asset creation in the EAM system
from an external system may not
be supported. Assets are introduced solely through the design/
estimating and as-built processes.
The GIS is the system of record
for new assets, and the EAM
system is made aware of assets
requiring technical maintenance
as they are introduced to it.
The third option, bottom left

$"
'*



RT-ODS


 

 

Wr

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assets, using a balanced, integrated approach across EAM and


GIS. The system of record can
be either EAM or GIS depending
on the business process involved,
the individual asset class and specific asset attributes. As the vertical arrow between EAM and
GIS indicates, information is also
exchanged in an automated, synchronized manner between the
two core enabling systems.
The choice between these
workflow options is not always
clear-cut. While one of the models might fit a particular utility,
it is possible that none of them
will do so. Alternatively, a hybrid
version might be required. We
focus on helping utilities solve
this conundrum by using roughly
twenty configurable, pre-built
EAM-GIS integration components. Throughout, the key objective is to assemble and configure

50 | August 2011
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CALL FOR ENTRIES

Nominate your project today.


Dont miss your opportunity to participate in the 2012 Projects of the Year Awards sponsored
by POWERGRID International magazine.
Awards will be given in the following categories:
Smart Grid Project of the Year
Smart Metering Project of the Year

Demand Response/Energy Efficiency Project of the Year


Renewable Grid Integration Project of the Year

Winners will be recognized in a 2012 issue of POWERGRID International magazine and onstage at DistribuTECH 2012
in San Antonio Jan. 24-26. A representative from the winning utility must be present at DistribuTECH 2012 to accept
the award at the opening keynote session on the morning of Jan. 24.

Deadline for nominations is Oct. 28, 2011


Full rules and nomination form available online at www.power-grid.com

Questions about the awards


should be sent to Kathleen Davis
at kathleend@pennwell.com

Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.


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the puzzle pieces in a way that


meets the utilitys business process requirements and enables
flexible integration between EAM
and GIS. Flexibility is extremely
importantand we believe it will
become even more so as smart
grid-driven process change accelerates.
EAMGIS INTEGRATION
THROUGH THE ASSET
MANAGEMENT LIFECYCLE
Integration of EAM and GIS
starts with the core asset business processes, and then extends
outward to encompass enhanced
asset information, applications
and analytics. From the perspective of the asset management
lifecycle, it is clear that both
EAM and GIS play critical roles
across the design, build, operate, maintain, and retire stages.
Figure 2 illustrates these roles at
various points in the lifecycle. It
also shows that, while EAM and
GIS progress along the lifecycle
against the same assets or sets of
assets, they fill slightly different
purposes and provide differing
perspectives at each point.
During the design stage, EAM
supports estimate creation based
on the materials, resources and
costs involved in a particular
network design. EAM and ERP
may then support procurement
of the required materials. In contrast, the role of GIS during the
design stage is to plan and lay out
the work from a spatial network
perspective. Moving on to the
build phase, EAM supports the

scheduling of the work and its


management during field construction. Once construction is
completed, the EAM asset register
entries are created, along with the
equipment records and the financial information that is associated
with the task. GIS is used to produce the construction drawings
for the field, and then is used to
determine whether the information held in the GIS reflects what
was actually built.

The point of as-built, when the


assets become real is the trigger
for full integration. At this point
the assets exist in the field, are
on the network and energized,
and enter the maintenance and
operation cycle. This enables the
information to be linked and synchronized between EAM and GIS.
As utilities approach the
smart grid era, they know that
an accurate and consistent view
of network infrastructure is a

Utilities know that an accurate


view of network infrastructure
is a foundational underpinning
of any effective smart grid.
During the operate phase,
EAM supports activities including
maintenance, inspections, surveys, repairs and replacements,
while the GIS can be used to
produce inspection and survey
maps and routes and is the system of record for maintaining the
as-built record of the network. At
the retire stage, EAM will be used
to deactivate or archive the asset
at the end of its life, whereas the
GIS will be employed to abandon
or remove the retired asset.
From the diagram, it is clear
that the integration between EAM
and GIS operates through the
lifecycle, as indicated by connecting yellow bars between
them. Exceptions occur during
the design and build phases,
where EAM and GIS both maintain separate views of the assets.

foundational underpinning of any


effective smart grid. They also
understand that, in the future,
new transformation drivers
will emerge requiring flexible
asset-level integration that can
be adapted to support ongoing
and incremental process change.
Both imperatives demand deep
and agile integration of a utilitys
GIS and EAM systems, as they
are used to support an evolving
asset management lifecycle. In
Accentures view, such a capability
will differentiate and drive the
high performers in the smart
grid-enabled utility industry of
tomorrow.
Paul Yarka is the global lead for Accenture
Smart Grid Services T&D asset management
practice. Jeff Hanna is a senior manager, T&D
asset management, with Accenture Smart
Grid Services.

52 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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Introducing the All-New


iPhone App
WATTS HAPPENING?
Plug into breaking news, in-depth articles and features about electric utilities around the world.
Get the facts for free as theyre posted dim is never in.

APP FEATURES:
Read the Latest News from Electric Light &
Power and POWERGRID International
Sort by Most Viewed
Watch Editor in Chief Teresa Hansens
Weekly Energy News Wrap-up
Read Kathleen Davis Eye on the Grid blog
Sign up for e-newsletters
Save your favorite articles
Share with friends

Available NOW

on the iTunes App Store!


GET THE LATEST ON:
Transmission and distribution
Energy policy
Finance
Generation
Renewables
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Smart grid
Energy efficiency and demand response

Brought to you by:

Published by:
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.

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BY PAUL RICHARDSON,NETWORK MAPPING

Resolving Discrepancies with the


NERC Facilities Ratings Methodology
N

ERC released an industry alert on Oct. 7, 2010,


identifying possible discrepancies between asdesigned and as-built conditions of transmission lines.
For example, the use of ruling span approximation
between dead ends can lead
to a discrepancy. Those discrepancies, however, can
often be resolved with use of
readily available technology.

and lead to increased sag (and hence reduced


clearances). On non-homogenous conductors, such
as ACSR (aluminum conductor, steel reinforced), high
temperature operation may also involve operating above

PLS-CADD AND LIDAR


Ruling span is an approximation which considers the
tension in each span between
dead ends to be equal. This
approximation is reasonable for
normal temperature operation in
reasonably flat terrain where span
lengths tend to be consistent. It
fails, however, to predict conductor sag accurately under high temperature operation or where there
is a large variation in span length
through the section. In the case of
older installations it was common
for a single ruling span to be applied
to the whole line. In this case it serves
to magnify the drawbacks
inherent with the ruling span
approach.
High
temperature
operation/annealing can
affect the mechanical
properties
of
some
conductor systems (such as
all aluminum conductors)
54 | August 2011
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the knee point of the stress/strain graph where the


aluminum goes into compression. Both can be modeled,
however, in PLS-CADD (power line system-computer
aided design and drafting) to accurately depict the
effects of these conditions on clearances to ground and
underlying objects.

TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE RATINGS


For Cct DM1234
Current (Amps)

8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

50

100

150

200

Time (Minutes)

In some cases, site modifications may not be reflected


in the design documentation. During the construction
of lines, decisions were often taken to move the station
of a structure10 feet for example, to avoid a boulder
or other difficult ground conditions. In a large number
of cases this information was either never recorded on
the design drawings or was marked as a change but
never re-engineered to check clearances or validate ratings. The same situation may be produced where poles
or towers have been replaced due to storm damage, or
conductors replaced.
Furthermore, the development of new land uses along
a right-of-way (ROW) may have changed the required
minimum clearances of the transmission line and therefore invalidated the design ratings. For example, it is
possible new buildings may have been constructed close
to the line or that areas once accessible only to pedestrians are now regularly accessed by vehicles.
Crossing lines are often added or moved/modified in
the ROW or at street crossings, and these may invalidate
ratings if not reviewed for potential clearance violations.
Furthermore, the weather can also contribute to
variations. For example, extreme wind and/ or ice loading can cause a conductor to sag more than predicted,

thereby reducing available clearances and invalidating


design ratings.
Using traditional survey techniques, profiles were
taken at each point of discontinuity along the center
line, on average one point every 10, 20 or more feet.
Significant differences right and left of center line would
be picked up as side profiles. These side
1
profiles were often not under the actual
outside phases and may not have considered clearances under blown out conditions. LiDAR (light detection and ranging)
survey techniques, explained below, will
pick up tens of thousands of points in each
span, precisely identifying all objects within
the ROW. The actual clearances immediately under the left and right circuits or
250
phases are particularly affected and may be
considerably different to those as designed.
A COMPREHENSIVE SOLUTION
Aerial LiDAR is a rapid airborne surveying technique
that is used to capture large swaths of topographic data
and surface features as a digital 3-D model. The speed
of survey is typically 75 to 100 miles per a day using a
helicopter acquisition platform, and only one technician
is required to operate a base station within each 15 mile
radius of the survey area. LiDAR collects high accuracy
and high resolution data indiscriminately for the survey
area, with survey point densities in excess of 20 points
per square meter. With adequate ground control, the
absolute accuracy of a single geo-referenced point will be
less than 0.33 feet. The relative accuracy between two
points will be even greater.
Features within the LiDAR dataground, vegetation
and terrain features such as water bodies and objects
occupying the terrain such as roads, transmission structures, and conductorsare coded so that the computer can discriminate between these features and their
assigned clearance radii. The data is then rapidly imported into PLS-CADD for engineering design applications.
The as-surveyed conductor location is captured during
the survey and used for modeling conductor location
in PLS-CADD. The as-surveyed conductor temperature
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is calculated from readings taken from a local weather


station, a meteorological data logger onboard the aircraft
and line load data and then added to the PLS-CADD
model before the line is sagged to maximum operating
temperature (see lead art for this story for an example of
an aerial LiDAR system).
Once the LiDAR survey has been used to model the
line in PLS-CADD, the steady state and transient ratings
can be determined for any given condition. The steady
state rating is based upon the maximum allowable
operating temperature (long term emergency rating or
LTE), which is determined by a thermal rating report
in PLS-CADD. The transient temperatures (short-term
emergency ratings or STEs) are based upon the heating
curve from ambient to maximum allowable over time
(see Figure 1).
To take advantage of a dynamic ratings approach it is
only necessary to modify the input variables for weather
and temperature. The software can produce graphs for
any number of conditions, thus determining ratings
under a range of operating and weather conditions.
Additionally, aerial LiDAR is superior to ground based
visual clearance assessments in terms of accuracy, coverage and speed. While it is time consuming to take a single point measurement using conventional techniques,
the latest aerial LiDAR sensor will emit 200,000 pulses
for range measurement every second. The coverage will
be indiscriminate and record survey points for the entire
ROW and all objects that occupy the ROW, capturing
objects that may not appear to be a potential hazard
upon visual inspection.
COMPARISON WITH VISUAL,
CONVENTIONAL SURVEYS
Visual and photographic aerial patrols suffer from
similar limitations to that of conventional ground
survey as they rely on the subjective interpretation of
a conductor position and whether any objects within
the ROW are truly infringing. While they will provide
a more rapid means of inspection than ground based
point measurements, and aerial photographs will
provide a record of the patrol, they will suffer from
the inability to take accurate measurements of the
conductors and infringing ground or features.

Conventional survey approaches are inherently


subjective, as they rely on an initial visual interpretation
best estimate of the distance between two objects that
are unlikely to be at their minimum distance apart, due
to thermal variation and wind. Infringement locations
will be missed for this reason and due to the coarse
spatial coverage of this manual technique.

A LIDAR DERIVED PLS-CADD MODEL

The LiDAR/ PLS-CADD approach removes


the subjectivity inherent in several aspects of a
conventional ground or aerial survey. The complete
mapping of all features in the ROW precludes the
requirement for an initial judgment on whether
a particular feature or ground surface may pose a
threat. The PLS-CADD model is used to quantitatively
determine the location of the conductor at maximum
rated temperature in relation to surrounding features
and terrain, before an automated algorithm detects
an infringement.
The LiDAR survey provides a dataset that can be
used by line engineers to identify infringements and
to design solutions that remove the infringements,
all fully recorded within the software (see LIDAR
Derived PLS-CADD Model above).
Paul Richardson worked as a transmission line designer with National Grid
before being a founding member of Network Mapping in 2001. He is now
technical director of Network Mapping, providing LiDAR survey and analysis
to power utilities worldwide (http://network-mapping.com). Reach him at paul.
richardson@network-mapping.com.

56 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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January 24-26, 2012

Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center

San Antonio, Texas

distributech.com

Join us in San Antonio for the DistribuTECH Conference and Exhibition. DistribuTECH is the utility industrys leading transmission
and distribution conference and exhibition, covering the smart grid, automation and control systems, energy efficiency, demand
response, renewable energy integration, advanced metering, T&D system operation and reliability, power delivery equipment and
water utility technology.

SAVE $200 ON FULL CONFERENCE REGISTRATION WHEN YOU REGISTER BY NOVEMBER 11.
Use this promotional code when registering: DTP

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PRODUCTS

EV Consumer Guide

and repair of cable connections. FPL worked with

The Electric Power Research

manufacturers to improve the installation practice

Institute (EPRI) has published a

and changed to Thomas & Betts/Homac connec-

basic consumer guide that address-

tors with removable keepers in 2004. In 2009, FPL

es questions about electric vehicle

adopted a unique Thomas & Betts/Homac design

technology and performance. With

to improve its installation requirements, the new

a variety of electric and hybrid

ZBK connector. The staggered Z configuration of

technologies now available com-

the new ZBK connector provides the equivalent of

mercially, potential buyers are looking to under-

two back-to-back connectors in one. Its narrower

stand which options might best match their needs.

design also reduces cabinet density. All set screws

The eight-page guide, Plugging In: A Consumers

are tightened from one side, which increases the

Guide to the Electric Vehicle, defines and brief-

phase-to-phase and phase-to-cabinet clearance,

ly compares driving range, charging times, fuel

making installations easier. Additionally, FPL found

requirements and effects of weather and driving

that the ZBK connector also addressed all of its

conditions. It also highlights vehicles available

cable size requirements thereby reducing its inven-

for purchase today and models scheduled to be

tory of connectors from four to one.

available later in 2011 and in 2012. A question and

Thomas & Betts/Homac

answer section explores and answers a number of

GO TO HTTP://PGI.HOTIMS.COM
____________ FOR MORE INFORMATION.

the most common questions asked about electric


vehicle technology compared to hybrid and plugin hybrid electric vehicles. Charging and purchas-

Video Walls

ing considerations are among the topics covered

Matrox Graphics Inc. and

in this section. The guide offers a basic overview of

Trenton Systems announced

hybrid vehicles, plug-in hybrids and electric vehi-

a new technology partnership

cles, and is not intended to be an exhaustive report

to deliver video wall solutions

about the technologies or the manufacturers and

beginning with the Trenton

vendors supporting this industry. The guide can be

TVC4401 4U rackmount system.


The new Matrox-certified system can combine up

downloaded for free from the EPRI website.

EPRI

to six, single-slot Matrox Mura MPX display control-

GO TO ____________
HTTP://PGI.HOTIMS.COM FOR MORE INFORMATION.

ler boardsfor up to 24 high-definition inputs and


outputswhile leveraging the boards 64 Gbit/sec
duplex data transfer to ensure flawless display of

Cable Connectors

HD input captures, at full resolution and frame rate.

The demand for higher power loads led Florida

Matrox Mura MPX hardware can be controlled using

Power and Light (FPL) to look for new technolo-

network commands or a fully-integrated video wall

gies for connecting power cables in three-phase,

software suite. Designed to enable AV integrators

pad-mounted transformers. Because the cables

deploying video wall solutions across a wide range

used by FPL range in size from 1/0 to 750 kcmil,

of project sizes, Trenton systems with Matrox Mura

FPL needed to stock four sizes of connectors in its

MPX boards meet digital signage configurations to

inventory to accommodate the range of cable sizes

large-scale control rooms.

that field personnel encountered. FPL sought solu-

Matrox/Trenton Systems

tions that would provide more efficient installation

GO TO HTTP://PGI.HOTIMS.COM
____________ FOR MORE INFORMATION.

58 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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DistribuTECH 2012: The industrys most comprehensive


conference on automation, smart grid and T&D
engineering. Jan. 24-26, 2012. San Antonio, Texas.
Phone 918.832.9265 http://distributech.com

CALENDAR
ADVERTISER. ............................. PG#

DUPONT DE NEMOURS .........................7

CEO OF THE YEAR AWARD .................47

SALES DIRECTOR &


INTERNATIONAL SALES MANAGER
Candice Doctor
918.831.9884 fax 918.831.9834
candiced@pennwell.com

ELSTER ................................................... C4

WEST REGIONAL SALES MANAGER


Shawn Sejera
918.831.9731 fax 918.831.9834
shawns@pennwell.com

ICUEE ..................................................... 27

NORTHEAST REGIONAL SALES MANAGER


Kathleen Wackowski
98 Spit Brook Road : Nashua, NH 03062
603.891.9129 fax 603.891.0514
kathleenw@pennwell.com
SOUTHEAST & MIDWEST
REGIONAL SALES MANAGER
Tom Leibrandt
918.831.9184 fax 918.831.9834 toml@pennwell.com

ISRAEL SALES MANAGER


Daniel Aronovic
Margola Ltd.
1/1 Rashi Street, Raanana 43214 Israel
phone/fax +972.9.899 5813
aronovic@actcom.co.il
DISTRIBUTECH EXHIBIT &
SPONSORSHIP SALES MANAGER
Sandy Norris
918.831.9115 fax 918.831.9834
sandyn@pennwell.com
REPRINTS, CLASSIFIEDS ACCOUNT MANAGER
Glenda Harp
918.832.9301 fax 918.831.9776
glendah@pennwell.com

13 16

25 28

Autovation 2011
Utilimetrics
www.utilimetrics.org/Autovation2011i.
aspx
__
Washington, D.C.
4

ICUEE
AEM
www.icuee.com
Louisville, Ky.

GRID WEEK .............................................33

12 15

28th Annual International Linemans Rodeo


International Linemans Rodeo
Association
www.linemansrodeokc.com
Kansas City

INMARSAT...............................................31
ITRON ........................................................3

MAYSTEEL ...............................................13
MJ HARDEN ...........................................21

2
N TRON ...................................................23

POWERGRID INTERNATIONAL
WEBCASTS .............................................18

CHINA & HONG KONG SALES MANAGER


Adonis Mak
ACT International
Unit B, 13/F, Por Yen Building
478 Castle Peak Road, Cheung Sha Wan
Kowloon, Hong Kong
+86.138.252.678.23 fax +852.2.838.2766
adonism@actintl.com.hk

SEPTEMBER

DRS TECHNOLOGIES............................11

OCTOBER

ADVERTISING TRAFFIC MANAGER


Molly Carlson
918-831-9454 mcarlson@pennwell.com

DOW WIRE & CABLE .............................15

ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER

GridWeek
Clasma
www.gridweek.com/2011
Washington, D.C.

World Smart Grid India Week 2011


SZ&W Group
www.szwgroup.com/2011/sgindia/
Mumbai, India

DISTRIBUTECH 2012 ..............................57

NOVEMBER

PRODUCTION MANAGER
Daniel Greene
918.831.9401 danielg@pennwell.com

COMPUTAPOLE .......................................9

POWERGRID INTERNATIONAL
IPHONE APPLICATIONS .......................53
POWERGRID INTERNATIONAL
POTY AWARDS.......................................51
POWERGRID INTERNATIONAL
WEEKLY NEWS WRAP UP ......................22

SAIC ....................................................... C3
SCHWEITZER ENGINEERING LABS. .1,19
SENSUS METERING SYSTEMS ...............5

TELVENT USA, INC............................44-45

2011 AWEA Wind Energy Fall Symposium


AWEA
www.awea.org/events
Carlsbad, Calif.
8 10

Gridwise Global Forum


Gridwise Alliance
www.gridwiseglobalforum.org
Washington, D.C.
DECEMBER

PUBLISHER
Michael Grossman
918.831.9500 michaelg@pennwell.com

ACLARA ............................................ C2, 41

13 15

POWER-GEN International
PennWell
www.power-gen.com
Las Vegas
22 23 2012

JANUARY

1421 S. Sheridan Road, Tulsa, OK 74112


P.O. Box 1260 : Tulsa, OK 74101
918.835.3161, fax 918.831.9834
http://pennwell.com

12 15

EL&P Executive Conf.


PennWell
www.elpconference.com
San Antonio
24 26 2012

Utility Products Conf. & Expo


PennWell
www.utilityproductsexpo.com
San Antonio

August 2011 | 59
www.power-grid.com

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PERSPECTIVES

BY VIVEK JOSHI, LUMASENSE TECHNOLOGIES

It Takes More Than a Meter


The concept of smart grid has become a misnomer in the United States. When people in the U.S.
say smart grid, most of the time they really mean
smart meters.
The demand side of smart grid, namely smart
meters, has dominated the conversation in the U.S. for
several years now, and with good reason. Educating
consumers in general about how the electric grid
affects their daily lives is critical to making the overall
smart grid a successful venture. Focusing on AMIrelated technologies and the demand side of the equation, however, had led to an unfortunate side effect:
the perception that smart meters equals smart grid.
What gets lost in that conversation?
The supply side.
The infrastructure.
The transformers.
In other words, the parts that will actually make the
smart grid work. To keep the electric grid working
efficiently at varying capacities, you need to have both
a smart demand and smart supply side. After all, what
good is the smart grid if demand cannot be met? No
smart meter in the world can keep the lights on.
The importance of a smart supply is very well
understood in many other regions of the world where
smart grid is considered critical to economic growth.
Countries like Brazil, India and China are spending
billions of dollars improving their infrastructures.
These countries have something in common; they are
investing just as heavily in modernizing their transmission and distribution infrastructures as they are in
AMI. The supply side receives just as much attention
as the demand. Many would argue that supply side
receives even more attention.
This is not, however, the case in the United States
where meters have been the primary conversation
starter around smart grid. All it takes is looking
where vendors are focusing their advertising dollars

and where the government is focusing subsidies and


grants to see proof of this trend. Transformer instrumentation companies are seeing great instrumentation
opportunities for T&D assets in foreign countries.
The fact that theyre not as great in the United States
should concern everyone who wants to see the smart
grid succeed.
Transmission and distribution assets must be properly maintained and monitored to continually and
cost effectively meet demand. This means ensuring
that utilities can keep constant tabs on information
regarding the health of those critical energy assets.
Transformers have always been and will continue to
be the keys to understanding whats happening on the
supply side of the equation. When accurate and realtime information (such as winding hot spot temperature) about transformer operations is known, utilities
can optimize grid performance. This leads to the
ability to maximize load while reducing unexpected
failures, and to an extended transformer lifetruly a
long-term approach for what needs to be a long-term
solution.
Instrumenting the electrical infrastructure is especially important in the U.S. for two key reasons:
1) Many older transformers that were installed
30-40 years ago are reaching the end of their
useful lives, and
2) We tend to run our transformers to maximum
capacity.
The health of our transformers is a viable indicator of the health of the power grid. It behooves us to
ensure we devote the resources to building a more-stable and truly smart gridsupply and demand sides.
If were serious about wanting to make smart grid a
reality, now is the time to ensure that we are looking at
the complete system. It is time we put the grid back
in smart grid.
Vivek Joshi is founder and CEO of LumaSense Technologies.

60 | August 2011
www.power-grid.com

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Utilities rely on SAIC to help solve their most complex energy, infrastructure, and environmental challenges.
Getting the most out of people, processes, and technology requires an integrated path forward. SAICs full
project life-cycle solutions enable utilities to plan, implement, and operate vitally important systems.
The result is a smarter grid and greater eciency in an ever-changing marketplace. Smart people solving
hard problems.
Learn more at saic.com/smartgrid

Energy I Environment I National Security I Health I Critical Infrastructure


Science Applications International Corporation. All rights reser ved.

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NYSE:SAI

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DAAMI
THE CONVERGENCE OF DA AND AMI

Through the convergence of DA and AMI with Elsters EnergyAxis Smart Grid platform,
utilities can obtain the benets of Voltage Conservation across the Smart Grid
distribution system.
Leveraging our robust Smart Grid systems for Voltage Conservation, utilities will achieve:

 
 

  

 


 
  
 
   
meet energy demand and service reliability
 
 
  


 
the end consumer
Contact Elster today to learn more:
1.800.338.5251 or www.Elster.com

Electric I Water I Gas I AMI I DA I DR I MDM I Outage Management I Conservation


Integration I Deployment I Business Case Support I Regulatory Assistance
Go to http://pgi.hotims.com for more information.
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