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Wireless Power Monitoring and Automation using

Monurajan P; Nivedha R; Pranamya PG; Mrs.M.S Sylvia Blossom M.E, Asst.Prof
Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Agni College of Technology,,,,

Abstract- This project proposes a new supervisory control

and data acquisition (SCADA) based fault identifications and
monitoring system. The system provides for automatic
operation and secure fault identification by customized
distribution automation system (DAS). The advent of PLC,
SCADA, LabView interfacing technique and introduction of
numerical relays have improved the function of fault
management system. It is now possible to record the fault
currents at the feeding distribution substations and the
restoration process is also done automatically and is
accelerated faster. Information of fault occurrence will be
intimated to the responsible personals through Short Message
Service (SMS). Moreover additional feature of knowing the
present parameters can be monitored and securely informed
through SMS on request to the GSM SIM 300 from any mobile
by means of an SMS, is also provided.



The purpose of this project is to acquire remote electrical

parameters such as voltage, current, power and send these
real time values over the GSM network through a GSM
modem installed. This system can automatically send these
parameters periodically (based on the time settings) in the
form of SMS. Also if some fault or backlogs occur,
immediately the fault occurrence details are send to the
control station as well as the line man or the person in-charge
whose numbers are stored earlier. This provides an easy and
quick solution to any backlogs or failures in the substations.
Faults caused by over-current, earth leakage current and
other disturbances create interruptions of electricity supply
to the customers. The engineers and technicians have to
manually locate the fault point and spend a plenty of time
and this tedious work may last for extended periods of time.
After the introduction of fault management, the fault is
detected by energizing section by section of distribution line
until the protective relay trips the feeding circuit breaker of
the fault zone. These operations are mostly based on manual
and automatic operations.

1) Demerits of existing system

All the parameters are to be monitored only with help
of SCADA environment running in the PC and incase of
power backlogs and failures manpower is a must to survey
the field where the fault has occurred and in order to rectify
all these problems in the fields will consume more time and
it is tedious too since all these transformers in the substation
are very expensive and needs a lot of maintenance and less
efficient in its working. Large amount of power shortage,
power theft, etc which also causes a lot of revenue loss and
damage to public and personal property
The system focuses on the very secured automated fault
locations identifications work. The faults are detected,
located and rectified within seconds in the computer in
which Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition and
LabVIEW software are loaded and developed interfaced
with the system. SCADA provides easier and comfortable
Graphical User Interface functions for technicians and
engineers, equipped with Human Machine Interface (HMI)
to monitor and control the system. The monitoring is done
by the Programmable Logic Controller which is controlled
by the SCADA at a remote location. The system more
advanced by adding the GSM technology which is interfaced
to the computer with the help of LabVIEW.


A. Hardware Requirements

Programmable logic controller

Potential transformer
Current transformer
Signal conditioning circuit
GSM module
ZIGBEE module
Power supply


B. Software Requirements


SCADA Wonderware Intouch

PLC programming WPL Soft
Data logging LabVIEW
I/O Driver interfacing KepServer


For machine control the PLC (Programmable Logic

Controller) is a device[13] to replace the necessary
sequential relay circuits was invented. Based upon its inputs
and their state, the PLC turns on/off its outputs. The desired
results are usually obtained by programming which is done
via a software. The electricity was made possible of
controlling and with the help of relays, this was made
possible earlier. Power can be switched on and off with the
introduction of relay without the mechanical switch
Controls. PLCs controls and monitors these relays with the
help of SCADA, the PLCs has to be configured and coded.

the industries. Continues monitoring and controlling of

industries are required due to the large amount of
production. PLC is a device which is connected with
equipment in the industry and it will transfers the data to PC
via long cables and a person seating in the control room on
PC can monitor and control the industry. Cost and
maintenance of the automation system get increases due to
long cables that we are using to connect the PLC with PC.
We can solve this problem by using wireless technology.
2) Four Steps in the PLC Operations[5]

Input Scan
The state of all input devices that are connected to
the PLC are detected.
Program Scan
The user created program logic is executed.
Output Scan
All output devices that are connected to the PLC
are energized or de-energized.
The communications with programming terminals,
internal diagnostics, etc... are included in this step.

3) Ladder logic

Fig 1: Basic Design of PLC

The [5] Central Processing Unit, the CPU, contains an
internal program that tells the PLC how to perform the
following functions:
The Control Instructions in the Users Program are
executed. The User's Programs is stored in
"nonvolatile" memory.
Communicate with other devices. The other devices
include I/O Devices, Programming Devices, Networks,
and even other PLCs.
Housekeeping activities are performed in the CPU of
PLC such as Communications, Internal Diagnostics,
1) Need for PLC
In todays world many of the industries are getting
automated using PLC and thus it has become a main part of

We use ladder logic for configuring the PLC. [9]The

programming for PLCs is keyed in as input and displayed
as ladder diagram. Such diagrams represent logic as it occurs
in sequence in an elementary diagram form. The term ladder
is used for these diagrams because they resemble the ladder
and logic flows from rung to rung such each line in the
ladder is scanned sequentially by the computer. Logical
states can have only two positions which can be high and
low or 1 and 0. The PLC program dictates which
output gets energized under which input conditions.
[8]Ladder logic is a simple programming tool but is usually
referred for circuit control system and for hardwired relay
control circuits. To control coils, the contacts in the ladder
logic is used to make or break circuits. The inputs from
physical devices to PLC are referred to as the contacts. The
physical devices includes limit switches and pushbuttons or
may represents internal storage bits status.
4) Basic instructions[6]

Positive Logic
True = logic 1 = input is energized.
False = logic 0 = input is not energized.
Negative Logic
True = logic 0 = input is not energized
False = logic 1 = input is energized.
Normally Open
(XIC) - eXamine If Closed.
Normally Closed
(XIO) - eXamine If Open.


Output Enable
(OTE) - OuTput Enable.
On Timer
(TON) - Timer ON.
Off Timer
(TOF) - Timer OFF.
Retentive Timer
(RTO) - Retentive Timer On.
Latching Relays
(OTL) - OuTput Latch.
(OTU) - OuTput Unlatch.
Jump to Subroutine
(JSR) - Jump to SubRoutine.



Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

refers to the combination of telemetry and data acquisition.
[15]SCADA helps in collecting the information, transferring
of the information, control of the system and display the
required information. Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition systems are computers, controllers, instruments;
actuators, networks, and interfaces that manage the control
of automated industrial processes and allow analysis of those
systems through data collection. Supervisory control and
data acquisition is used to describe a system where both data
acquisition and supervisory control are performed.
Wonderware intouch software provides for our desired
inputs and outputs and other requirements of the project.
1) Five tasks in any SCADA system[12]

Input/Output task
Alarm task
Trends task
Reports task
Display task

2) Modules of a SCADA system[12]

Data acquisition
Archiving/database storage
The human-machine interface(HMI)

3) Components of SCADA system

Master Unit - This unit is located at the center under the
operator's control which forms the heart of the system.
Remote Unit The remote unit is placed from where the
monitoring of the process takes place. Required data about
the process are gathered and send to the master unit.
Communication Mode The data or the signals between
the master unit and the remote unit is transferred by this unit.
Mode of the communication can be a wireless media,
satellite, cable etc.

Software Interface between the operator and the units is

done here. Visualization and controlling the functions of the
process by the operator is allowed.


LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering

Workbench) is a visual programming language providing
development environment and system-design platform
from National Instruments. LabVIEW uses intuitive
graphical icons and wires used to test, develop sophisticated
measurement and control systems. In LabVIEW data
determine execution by using dataflow programming. By
using a set of tools and objects a user interface is built in
LabVIEW which is termed as the front panel. Using the
measurement and automation explorer the system can be
There are many tools and features in the LabVIEW DSC
module which can be used to develop and work interactively
with the distributed monitoring and control system which
provides Human Machine Interface (HMI). Without any
programming the DSC Module of LabVIEW helps the user
in developing a high channel count data logging and
alarming application. The real time and historical trend
viewing, event configuration and management, security
setup and alarm are provided as additional features to the
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and
human machine interface (HMI) in the Datalogging and
Supervisory Control module (DSC) of LabVIEW [7]. The
Data Acquisition (DAQ) concept is being enabled for the
collection and sending of the data using LabVIEW.
2) Interfacing of devices
Provides for the extensive support for interfacing to
devices such as cameras, instruments, GSM, GPS and other
devices. Using device specific, high level drivers or writing
direct bus commands hardware interfacing is done. The
RS232 and USB ports can be used to interface applications
or other devices in the LabVIEW. In the system proposed,
the GSM module is interfaced with the PC using the DAQ
of LabVIEW.



GSM is an open standard, mobile communication

system. [11]GSM supports voice calls and the data transfer
with speeds of up to 9.6 kbps, including the transmission of
SMS (Short Message Service). Operating frequency bands
in GSM are in 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US and
the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands in Europe. Combined with
GSMs international roaming capability, the use of
harmonized spectrum across most of the globe, GSM helps
the individuals to be reached in up to 219 countries using
the same mobile number.


GSM Modem can act just like a mobile phone by

accepting any GSM network operator SIM card and with its
own unique phone number. Applications like data transfer,
SMS Control, data logging and remote control can be easily
developed. Use of RS232 port to communicate is one of the
advantages of using this modem and also we can develop
embedded applications. The FTP e HTTP, TCP/UDP
protocols are supported by the GPRS connection. The RF
section has two classes, namely class1 and class 2. In class
1 of 1W in DCS 1800 MHz and PCS 1900 MHz and in class
4 of 2W in GSM 850 MHz and GSM 900 MHz bands. The
module is managed by LabVIEW software through RS232
port or USB port. The baud rate can be configurable from

(GMSK) modulation method[11] is used in the GSM.

2) Access Methods
A combination of TDMA/FDMA is the access
method[1] of GSM. 124 carrier frequencies, each consisting
of 200 kHz bandwidth is obtained by dividing the frequency
of 25 MHz bandwidth. This process is done by FDMA. For
each BS one or more carrier frequencies are assigned. Using
a TDMA scheme, each of the carrier frequencies is then
divided into eight time slots. For transmission one time slot
is assigned and for reception one time slot is assigned. At the
same time the mobile unit does not receive and transmit [11]
since they are separated in time.
3) GSM Commands
Commands always start with AT (which means
Attention) and finish with a <CR> character.



ZIGBEE is a device that is based on IEEE 802.15.4

standard. It has 4 layers such as physical layer, media access
control layer, network layer and application layer as shown
in fig 3 which are classified based on ISO model. ZIGBEE
contains three nodes and they are sink node, routing node,
terminating node [2][10]. Sink node is initialized first and
during this network and equipment parameters are
configured. After configuration it selects the channel for
connection to the network. It is fully controllable node. Join
or rejoin the network can be done by the routing node and
also scans channel for new connection. It will act like sink
node after the normal operation. In normal operation the
terminal node just sends or receive data and as a parent node
it will select the nearest sink or routing node[10].
Fig2: GSM module block diagram

The modem can be directly connected to PC serial port

or to any microcontroller. The GSM module can be
configured receive or make voice calls or to send and
receive SMS. This GSM modem is plug and play quad band
GSM modem for easy and direct integration to RS232
applications which is highly flexible [4]. Features such as
SMS, Voice, GPRS, integrated TCP/IP stack and Data/Fax
are also supported. The modem consists of Radio frequency
block which is coupled with the baseband engine. The
baseband engine is enabled with the flash and SRAM for
storage and clearing. The module has interface sockets for
LCD RF pad, keyboard input/output and audio which can
be used for the better performance of the system.
1) Modulation
Modulation is a change process. It is the process of
varying or change in the input information. The input
information is changed into a suitable format for the
transmission medium. Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying

Fig3: ZIGBEE layers

Physical layer:
It is used for physical connection between device


and module and actual communication between device

and module takes place through it and also shows the
speed of transfer for different frequency. The physical
level (PHY) of the 802.15.4 standard specifies two
bands of operation 2.4 GHz and 868 MHz to 915
Network layer:
This layer provides network management with
router management and also breaks the long message
into small frames of particular size.
Medium access control layer:
This layer provides the operation like slotted aloha
and provides the access to both slotted and non-slotted
Application layer
Top most layer is the application layer which
actually provides a wireless communication with
another paired ZIGBEE module. This all the four layers
are ISO OSI model based.

















A feeder which consist of a transformer line, from which

the power is fed to a potential transformer or a voltage
transformer and a current transformer. The potential
transformer can be used step up or step down the incoming
voltage to a safer value before its fed into the systems.[14] A
current transformer is a current transducer that will give a
current signal directly proportional in magnitude and phase
to the current flowing in the primary circuit. Also the signal
it produces must be at earth potential relative to the HV
conductor. A current transformer and potential transformer
together are called as instrument transformers. After filtering
and rectification 10V supply is given to the PLC and this is
input hardware part of the project. In the relay the magnetic
field due to a current flowing through the coil, it attracts an
armature that is mechanically linked to a moving contact.
This movement breaks or makes a contact with the fixed
contact. These relays are provided with additional
mechanism to be operated and switched using the SCADA
Next, the concept of the project is all about the PLC
being interfaced with the PC in which we have the SCADA
and LabVIEW running environments in the PC. The PLC is
coded with ladder logic diagram using the WPLsoft
software. ZIGBEE plays a significant role in the transferring
of the parameters from the PLC to the PC. A ZIGBEE
transmitter gets all the data from PLC and transmits it to the
ZIGBEE receiver which conveys all the information in it to
the PC through a converter. The SCADA system in the PC
monitors and controls the power network system[3]. The
relay is also controlled by the SCADA. The LabVIEW uses
the data logging techniques to capture all the parameters
from the PLC system. These parameters are set as a SMS
and send to the GSM 300 module which is interfaced and set
to send SMS periodically. The numbers to be send SMS are


set prior in the LabVIEW. When some faults or backlogs

occurs the PLC trips down the power, sends the parameters
via the ZIGBEE module to the PC. The details are feed in
the SCADA monitoring and the data are stored. The
LabVIEW captures the data using data logging concept and
makes it into a SMS, the parameters and the fault addressing
message is send to the required persons mobile or GSM
module which is configured. These operations occur in
fractions of second. The GSM module can be configured can
be configured easily in the PC via RS232 port using the
LabVIEW software. The data from the system which is
monitored by the SCADA is stored as text format. This tect
can be made into a SMS and send periodically without the
human intervention through GSM module using the
LabVIEW software. The LabVIEW makes use of the
measurement and automation explorer for the automation of
the GSM sending SMS. Apart from this an extra feature of
knowing the parameters at present time can be analyzed
from anywhere through secured access of SMS code which
is send to the GSM module installed in the system, from
which a reply message consisting of the present time
parameters is also enabled. The ZIGBEE module as well as
the GSM module are provided with antennas for their better


The GSM 300 can be replaced and GSM 900 with more
bandwidths can be implemented and the satellite phone can
be given as a backup to the GSM module in major
substations for providing immediate and quick response.
The computer system can be replaced with a Raspberry pie
system enabled with a higher memory for better portability
and efficiency. If Raspberry pi system is being used, the
system can be attached with PLC, by doing so the ZIGBEE
module can be replaced, resulting in the avoidance of the
noise and loss due to transmission. This will also reduce the
size of the system with much portability and greater
efficiency. The monitoring of the entire system can be saved
via clouding by sending through the internet, by this method
the combination of the entire power system of greater area
can be accessed and monitored.



This project has reduced the work of man. Human errors

are avoided probably. Moreover the identification and the
location of the faults and errors in the system have become
easy. The user can easily monitor the system and the faults
are intimated in an autonomous and quick process, by which
they can be rectified at a faster manner. The combined
application of the SCADA, the PLC, the ZIGBEE, the
LabVIEW and the GSM has made the entire system more
efficient, easy for the user and sustainable for real time
operations. The system can be made compact and reliable to
even the transformer in the upcoming future by the proposal
of addition extra features in the proposed system.



[1] "GSM based scada monitoring and control system substation

equipment", Amit Sachan, Department of Energy and Power
consumption, NIMS University Jaipur, Rajasthan.
[2] "Zigbee based wireless monitoring and controlling of
automation system using SCADA and PLC"
[3] "Intelligent Identification of Voltage Variation Events Based
on IEEE Std. 1159-2009 for SCADA of Distributed Energy
System", Cheng-I Chen, Member, IEEE and Yeong-Chin
[9] Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, Fourth
Edition, by J. Lewis Blackburn, Thomas J. Domin, Page:555
[10] ZigBee Wireless Networks and Transceivers, by Shahin
[11] GSM - Architecture, Protocols and Services, by Jrg
Eberspcher, Hans-Joerg Vgel, Christian Bettstetter,
Christian Hartmann
[12] Practical Electrical Network Automation and Communication
Systems, by Cobus Strauss, Page:112
[14] Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, edited by M. A.
Laughton, D.F. Warne, Page:32/22
[15] Practical SCADA for Industry, By David Bailey, Edwin
Wright, Page:2