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THERMAL EXPANSION OF MATERIALS

EXPANSION OF SOLIDS
PREVIOUS EAMCET QUESTIONS
ENGINEERING

A clock pendulum made of invar has a period of 0.5 sec, at 200C. If the clock is used in a climate

1.

where the temperature averages to 300C, how much time does the clock lose in each oscillation?
(For invar, a = 9 10
6

1) 2.25 10 sec

70

C , g= constant)
7
2) 2.25 10

(2009 E)
3) 5 10

sec

4) 1.125 10 sec

Ans : 1
Sol:

Loss or gain of time per day =

1
t 86, 400
2

1
9 107 10 86, 400
2
6
= 4.5 10 86, 400

Time lose by the clock in each oscillation

2.

di

4.5 106 86, 400


0.5 = 2.25 106 S
86, 400

et
Ba

.in

One litre of oxygen at a pressure of 1 atm and two litres of nitrogen at a pressure of 0.5 atm.
are introduced into a vessel of volume 1 litre. If there is no change in temperature, the final
pressure of the mixture of gas (in atm) is
(2008 E)
2) 2.5

4) 4

PV
1 1 + 0.5 2
1 1 + PV
2 2
=
=2
V1 + V2
1

3.

Resultant pressure =

Ans : 3
Sol:

3) 2

.N

1) 1.5

There is some change in length when a 33000 N tensile force is applied on a steel rod of area
of cross-section 10-3 m2. The change of temperature required to produce the same elongation if
the steel rod is heated, is (The modulus of Elasticity is N/m2 and the coefficient of linear
expansion of steel is ).
(2008 E)
1) 200C

2) 150C

3) 100C4) 00C

Ans : 3
Sol:

F
yA
33000
=
11
3 10 103 1.1105

Thermal force = yA t t =

= 100C

4.

A pendulum clock gives correct time at 20C at a place where g = 10 m/s2. The pendulum consists of a
light steel rod connected to a heavy ball. If it is taken to a different place where g = 10.01 m/s2, at what
temperature the pendulum gives correct time ? ( of steel is 105/C)
1

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Thermal Expansion of materials


1) 30 C 2) 60 C 3) 100 C 4) 120 C
Ans : 4
Time period of simple pendulum T = 2

Sol:

l
g

L1 L2
=
g1 g 2

But L2 = L1 1 + ( t2 t1 )

L1 L1 1 + ( t 20 )
=
g1
g2
10.01
( t 20 ) =
1
10
t = 1200 C
Two gases A and B having same pressure P, volume V and absolute temperature T are mixed. If the
mixture has the velocity and temperature as V and T respectively, then the pressure of the mixture is
2) P

3) P/2

4) 4P

[2007 ]

et
Ba

1) 2P

di

5.

.in

Ans : 1

PV
PV + PV
1 1 + PV
2 2
=
= 2P
V1 + V2
V

At constant temperature, Resultant pressure = PR =

6.

The temperature of a thin uniform circular disc, of one metre diameter is increased by 10C. The

.N

Sol:

percentage increase in moment of inertia of the disc about an axis passing through its centre and

Ans : 3
Sol:

1) 0.0055

perpendicular to the circular face (linear coefficient of expansion = 11106/C)

For circular disc I =

2) 0.011

MR 2
2

Percentage increase in moment of inertia =

3) 0.022

[2006]

4) 0.044

I 2 I1
100
I1

R22 R12
100
2
R1

=
But R2 = R1 (1 + t )
Squaring on both sides

R1 (1 + t ) ( R12 )
I 2 I1

100

100 =
R12
I1
2

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Thermal Expansion of materials

R12 (1 + 2 t ) R12
100
R12

= 2 t 100
=
7.

2 11106 10 100 = 0.022

The relation between the coefficient of real expansion ( r ) and coefficient of apparent expantion ( a ) of
a liquid and the coefficient linear expantion ( g ) of the material of the container is: [EAMCET05]
3)

4)

r = 3 ( g + )

= 3 g ]

The difference between volume and pressure coefficient of an ideal gas is :


1) 1/273

2) 273

3) 2/273

Ans :

for any ideal gas

[2005]

4) zero

et
Ba

Sol:

r = 3 g +

rr = ra + rg = ra + 3 g
[ Since rg

8.

2) r = g + 3

.in

Ans: 3
Sol:

r = g +

di

1)

= 0

The type of a motor car contains air at 150C. If the temperature increases to 350C, the approximate

.N

9.

percentage increase in pressure is (ignore the expansion of tyre)


2) 9

Ans : 1

4) 13

As P T from Charles law

P P
T T
P2 T2
= 2 1 100 = 2 1 100
P1 T1
P1
T1
P
20

100 =
100 = 7
298
P

Sol:

3) 11

1) 7

(2005 E)

10. A metallic solid sphere is rotating about is diameter as axis of rotation. If the temperature is increased by
2000C, the percentage increased in its moment of inertia is ( coefficient of linear expansion of the metal
[2004 E]
= 10-5/0C )
1. 0.1

2. 0.2

3. 0.3

4. 0.4

Ans : 4
Sol:

I 2 I1
100
I1

Percentage increase in moment of inertia =


Given I1 = MR1 , I 2 = MR2
2

R2 R2
I 2 I1
100 = 2 2 1 100
I1
R1
3

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Thermal Expansion of materials


But R2 = R1 (1+ t )
Squaring on both sides

R12 (1 + 2 t ) R12
I 2 I1

100 =
100
I1
R12

= 2 t 100
5

= 2 10 200 100
= 0.4

Sol:

We know that

d0 dt
dt .t
0.0127
rr =
= 125 106 / C 0
1.0127 100
ra = rr 3 g = 125 106 / C 0

d 0 = dt [1 + rr t ] rr =

di

Ans:

.in

The densities of a liquid at 00C and 1000C are respectively 1.0127 and 1. A specific gravity
bottle is filled with 300gm of the liquid at 00C up to the brim and it is heated to 1000C. Then
the mass of the liquid expelled in grams is [Coefficient of linear expansion of glass = 9x106 0
/ C]
(2003 E)
3
3
3.81
3.81
2.
3.
4.
1.
10.1
1.01
1.0127
0.0127

et
Ba

11.

.N

98 106 / C 0
mass of liquid exp elled
ra =
mass of remaining liquid risein temp.
=

On solving we get

3
1.01

w
w

ra =

12.

A horizontal uniform glass tube of 100 cm . length sealed at both ends contains 10 cm mercury
column in the middle. The temperature and pressure of air on either side of mercury column are
respectively 31C and 76 cm of mercury. If the air column at one end is kept at 0C are the other end
at 273C, the pressure of air which is at 0C is (in cm of Hg)
1) 76

Ans:

Sol:

From gas law

2) 88.2

3) 102.4

(2003 E)
4) 122

PV
= constant
T
l2 l3
90 x
x
=
=
T2 T3
273
546
x = 60cm
l2 = 90 60 = 30cm
4

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Thermal Expansion of materials


From ideal gas equation

real = rapp + 3
1 + 3 = 2 + 3
31 = 1 2 + 3

1 = 1 2 +

.in

et
Ba

Ans:
Sol:

The coefficient of apparent expansion of a liquid when determined using two different vessels
A and B are 1 and 2 respectively. If the coefficient of linear expansion of the vessel A is ,
(2002 E )
the coefficient of linear expansion of the vessel B is
1 2

+

4. 1 2 +
2. 1 2 3. 1 2
1.
1 + 2
2
3
3

di

13.

PV
PV
Pl P l
1 1
= 3 3 11 = 3 3
T1
T3
T1
T3
76 45 P3 60

=
304
546
P3 = 102.40 cm of Hg

Ans:

.N

14. The mass of oxygen gas occupying a volume of 11.2 lit at a temperature 270C and a pressure of 76mm
of mercury in Kilo grams is (molecular weight of oxygen = 32)
1. 0.001456
2. 0.01456 3. 0.1456
4. 1.1456
(2002 E)
2

Sol:

PV= nRT

P ( 22.4 ) = 1 R 273 ..(1)

P (11.2 ) = n R 300 ..(2)

From (1) and (2)

22.4
273
=
11.2 n ( 300 )

mass =

n =

91
200

91
( 32 ) = 14.56 gm
200

= 0.01456 kg
15. A closed hollow insulated cylinder is filled with gas at 00C and also contains an insulated piston of
negligible weight and negligible thickness at the middle point. The gas at one side of the piston is heated
( 2001 )
to 100 0C.If the piston moves 5cm, the length of the hollow cylinder is
1) 13.65cm

2) 27.3cm

3) 38.6cm

4) 64.6 cm

Ans:4

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Thermal Expansion of materials

Sol:

If the length of the cylinder is l then

(l / 2) 5 = l / 2 + 5
273

373

l = 64.6cm
16. When an air bubble of radius r rises from the bottom to the surface of a lake, its radius becomes 5r / 4 (
the pressure of the atmosphere is equal to the 10m height of water column).If the temperature is
constant and the surface tension is neglected, the depth of the lake is
(2001)
1) 3.53m

2) 6.53m

3) 9.53m

4)12.53m

Ans: 3
Sol:

According to Boyles law

( PV
1 1 ) At thetop of thelake = ( PV
2 2 ) At thebottomof thelake
PV
1 1 = ( P1 + h ) V2

et
Ba

di

.in

4 5r 3
4

10 = [10 + h ] r 3
3

3 4
610
h=
= 9.53m
64

17. A steel meter scale is to be ruled so that millimeter intervals are accurate within about 5 X 10-5 mm at a
certain temperature. The maximum temperature variation allowable during the ruling is (Coefficient of
linear expansion of steel = 10X10-6 K-1) (2001 E)
1) 20C
2) 50C
3) 70C
4) 100C

T =

l2 l1
5 105
=
= 50 C
6
l1 ( ) 1(10 10 )

When a liquid in a glass vessel is heated, its apparent expansion is 10.30x10-4/0C. Same liquid
when heated in a metallic vessel, its apparent expansion is 10.06x10-4 /0 C. The coefficient of
(EAMECT 2K, E)
linear expansion of metal is ( glass = 9x10-6/0C)
2. 43x10-6/0C
3. 25-6/0C
4. 17x10-6/0C (2000 E)
1. 51x10-6/0C

18.

l2 l1
l1 ( t )

We know

Sol :

.N

Ans: 2

Ans:4
Sol:

app + 3
= app + 3
glass
metal
=

(10.3 10 ) + ( 27 10 )
4

= 17 106 / 0 C
19. A vessel is filled with an ideal gas at a pressure of 10 atmospheres and temp . Half of the mass of the
gas is removed from the vessel & the temp. of the remaining gas is increased to . Then the pressure of
the gas in the vessel will be
1)5 atm

2)6 atm

3) 7 atm

4)8 atm (2000 E)

Ans : 2

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Thermal Expansion of materials


Sol:

When half the mass of the gas is removed from the vessel, the pressure of the remaining gas will be
5 atm.

P1 T1
=
P2 T2

P1 = 5 atm

T2 = 300 K

T2 = 360 k

P2 = ?

.N

et
Ba

di

.in

T
360
5 = 6atm
P2 = 2 P1 =
300
T1

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Thermal Expansion of materials

MEDICAL
A clock pendulum made of invar has a period of 0.5 sec, at 200C. If the clock is used in a climate

20.

where the temperature a verages to 300C, how much time does the clock lose in each oscillation?

9 1070 C , g= constant)
6
7
1) 2.25 10 sec
2) 2.25 10

(2009 M)

(For invar, a =

3)

5 10

sec

4)

1.125 106 sec

Ans : 3
Sol:

Loss or gain of time per day =

1
t 86, 400
2

1
9 107 10 86, 400
2
6
= 4.5 10 86, 400

2.25 106 S

di

4.5 106 86, 400


0.5
86, 400

is

2 107 sq.m. If the temperature is raised by 1000C, the increase in the length of the mercury

column is:

1)18 cm

Hg

= 18 105 / 0 c

2)0.9 cm

Ans : 3
Volume = 10-6 m3, Area =

3)9 cm

(2008 M)

4)1.8cm

2 107 m 2 , r = 18 105 t = 1000 C

Sol:

et
Ba

The volume of mercury in the buld of thermometer is 10-6m2. The area of cross-section of capillary tube

.N

21.

.in

Time lose by the clock in each oscillation

V2 = V1 [1 + r t ]
length
10 = ( 2 10 ) l 1 + 18 105 100

But volume = Area


6

l = 5m

increase in length = 5-4.91 = 0.09 m


= 9 cm
22.

A two litre glass flask contains some mercury. It is found that at the temperature the volume of the air
inside the flask remains the same. The volume of the mercury inside the flask is ( for glass =

9 106 / 0 C , for mercury = 1.8 104 / 0 C )


1) 1500 c.c.

(2008 M)

2) 150 c.c.

3) 3000 c.c

4) 300 c.c.

Ans : 4
Sol:

The condition for the volume of the air inside the flask remains the same at all temperatures is
V1r1 = V2 r2 or Vl rl = Vg rg
8

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Thermal Expansion of materials

2 3 9 106 = Vg 1.8 104

rg = 300c.c.
23. What fraction of the volume of a glass flask must be filled with mercury so that the volume of the empty
[2007 M]
space may be the same at all temperatures ? ( glass = 9106 / C, Hg = 18.9105 /C)
1) 1/2

2) 1/7

3) 1/4

4) 1/5

Ans : 2
Sol:

The condition for the volume of the air inside the flask remains the same at all temperatures is

Vl rl = Vg rg
Vl ,Vg Volumes of liquid and glass
Vl 18.9 105 = Vg 3 9 106

At a certain temperature, radius of an air bubble is doubled when it comes to the top from the bottom

di

24.

.in

Vl
27 106 1
=
=
Vg 189 106 7
of a mercury column of a height h. If the pressure at the
2) 10.64

Ans : 2
Sol:
According to the Boyles law

3) 12.45

et
Ba

1) 5.5

[2006 M]
4) 15.00

PV
1 1 = PV
2 2

At the bottom = PV
1 1 = ( P0 + hdg ) V1

P2V2 = PoV2

.N

At the top =

Where P0 is the atmospheric pressure

4
4

( P0 + hgd ) r13 = P0 r23


3
3

25.

On solving h = 10.64 m

The temperature of a gas contained in a closed vessel increases by 2C when the pressure is
increased by 2%. The initial temperature of the gas is

[2006 M]

1) 200 K

4) 100C

Ans : 2
Sol:

( P0 + hgd ) r13 = P0 ( r23 )

From Charles law

2) 100 K

3) 200C

p
T
100 =
100
p
T
2
2 = 100
T
T = 100

p T

26. At a certain temperature, radius of an air bubble is doubled when it comes to the top from the bottom of
a mercury column of height h. If the pressure at the top is two atmospheres, the value of h in metres is
9

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Thermal Expansion of materials


1) 5.5
Ans: 3
Sol:

2) 10.64

3) 12.45

4) 15.00

[2005 E]

rr = ra + rg = ra + 3 g
[ Since

rg = 3 g ]

27. Equation of gas in terms of pressure p absolute temperature T and density d is


1.

P1
P
= 2
d1T1 d 2T2

2.

PT
PT
1 1
= 2 2
d1
d2

3.

Pd
Pd
Pd
Pd
1 2
= 2 1 4. 1 1 = 2 2 (2005 M )
T2
T1
T1
T2

Ans : 1
Sol:
From Ideal gas equation PV=mRT

PV
= cons tan t
T

P1
P
= 2
d1T1 d 2T2

di

.in

et
Ba

28. Two uniform metal rods of lengths l1 and l2 and linear coefficients of expansion 1 and 2
respectively are connected to form a single rod of length l1 + l2 . When the temperature of the
o
combined rod is raised by t C , the length of each rod increases by the same amount. Then

is

l +l
2) 1 2
l1

.N

l1
l1 + l2

3)

l2
l1 + l2

(2005 E)

l +l
4) 1 2
l2

1)

2
1 + 2

Sol:

Increase in length of the first rod = increase in length of the second rod

Ans:

l1 = l2 ( given )

l11 t = l2 2 t ( given )

l11 = l2 2
l
1 = 2
l2 1
l

2 = 1
l1 2
l

2 +1 = 1 +1
2
l1
l + l + 2
2 1 = 1
l1
2
2
l

= 1
1 + 2 l1 + l2
10

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Thermal Expansion of materials


29.

At constant pressure, the ratio of increase in volume of an ideal gas per degree rise in Kelvin
temperature to its original volume is (T = absolute temperature of the gas)
1) T

Ans:
Sol:

2) T

3) 1/T

4) 1/T

(2004 M)
2

P constant V1 T

V2 T + 1
V T +1
1
Then 2 =
= 1+
V1
T
T
V2
V V1 1
1
1 = 2
=
V1
T
V1
T
30. A thin brass sheet at 100C and thin steel sheet at 200C have the same surface area. The common
temperature at which both would have the same area (coefficient of linear expansion for brass and steel
( 2003 M)
are respectively 19 x 10-6/0C and 11 x 10-6/0C)
1.-3.75 0C

St = S1 1 + ( t )

Sol:

4. 3.75 0C

.in

3. 2.75 0C

di

Ans:

2. -2.750C

et
Ba

Brass ( t 10 ) = steel ( t 20 )
19 ( t 10 ) = 11( t 20 )

t = 3.750 C

31. If pressure of an ideal gas contains in a closed vessel is increased by 0.5% the increase in temperature
1. 27

C 2. 127 C

3. 300

4. 400

(2003 M)

P1 T1
=
at constant volume
P2 T2

Sol:

the initial temperature of the gas is

Ans:

.N

20 C

is

P
T
=
T +2
0.5
P+
P
100
100
T
=
T = 400 K = 1270 C
100.5 T + 2

32. Two marks on a glass rod, 10 cm apart, are found to increase their distance by 0.08 mm, when the rod
is heated from 00C to 1000C. A flask made of the same glass as that of rod measures a volume 1000 c.c.
(2002 M)
at 00C. The volume, it measures at 100C in C.C is
1) 1002.4

2) 1004.2

Ans:1
Sol:

We know

3) 1006.4

4) 1008.2

( l2 l1 ) = 0.008
l2 ( t2 t1 ) (10 )(100 )
11

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Thermal Expansion of materials


= 8 10

/0 C

Coefficient of volume expansion


= 3 = 24 106 / 0 C
V2 = V1 [1 + t ]

= 1000 1 + 24 10

) (100 )

= 1002.4 cc
33. A gas is heated through 10C in a closed vessel. Its pressure is increased by 0.4%. The initial
temperature of the gas is
(2002 M)
1. 2500C

2. 1000C

3. -750C

4. -230C

Sol:

We know

P1 P2
=
T1 T2

Let the initial pressure be 100

.N

et
Ba

di

100 100.4
T + 1 100.4
=

=
T
T +1
T
100
1 100.4
1+ =
T
100
1 100.4
0.4
=
1 =
T
100
100
T = 250 K = 230 C

.in

Ans: 3

34. When the temperature of a body increases form t to t+ t, its moment of inertia increases from I to I+
l. The coefficient of linear expansion of the body is . The ratio I/I is :
(2001 M)
1) t/t
2) 2 t/t
3) t
4) 2 t

Sol :

Ans: 4

We know that the coefficient of superficial (or) aerial expansion

A2 A1
A
=
A1 ( t ) A ( t )

A
A
=
= ( t )
A ( t )
A

I A

I
A
I

= ( t ) = ( 2 )( t )
I
But,

35. If a cylinder of diameter 1.0cm at 300C is to be slid into a hole of diameter 0.9997 cm in a steel plate at
the same temperature, the minimum required rise in the temperature of the plate is: (Coefficient of linear
(2001 M)
expansion of steel = 12 x 10-6/0C)
1) 250C

2) 350C

3) 450C

4) 550C

Ans:1
12

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Thermal Expansion of materials


Sol:

We know

l
l
=
l ( t ) l ( t2 t1 )

t2 t1 =
=
36.

l
1 0.9997
=
l ( 0.9997 ) (12 106 )

3 106
= 250 C
12 9997

A specific gravity bottle is filled upto the brim with mercury of 400g, at 00C. When heated to 900C, the
mass of the mercury that over flows from the specific gravity bottle is : (Coefficient of apparent
expansion of mercury in glass is
1) 5.46g

1
/ 0C)
6500

[2001 M]

2) 6.54g

3) 10.92g

4) 13.08 g

Ans : 1

app =

wt. of liquid exp elled


( wt. of remainingliquid )( rise in temp.)

.in

We know

1
x
=
6500 ( 400 x )( 90 )

di

Sol:

et
Ba

x = 5.46 gm

37. Two metal rods A and B are having their initial lengths in the ratio 2:3 and coefficients of linear
expansion in the ratio 3:4. When they are heated through the same temperature difference, the ratio of
their linear expansion is
(2000 M )
3) 3:4

4) 4:3

l1 : l2 = 2 : 3
1 : 2 = 3 : 4

Ans:
Sol:

2) 2:3

.N

1) 1:2

For the rod A l2 = l1 (1 )

For the rob B l

1
2

= l11 (11 )

l2 : l12 = 2 ( 3) : 3 ( 4 ) = 1: 2

38. The length of a metal rod at 00C is 0.5m. When it is heated, its length increases by 2.7mm. The final
[2000, M]
temperature of rod is (coeff. of linear expansion of metal = 90x10-6/0C)
1) 200C

2) 300C

3) 400C

4) 600C

Ans : 4
Sol:

We know the change in temperature

2.7 103 )
(
l2 l1
t2 t1 =
=
= 60
l1 ( ) ( 0.5 ) ( 9 105 )

As t1 = 0 C ; t2 = 60 C
0

VVV

13

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