Anda di halaman 1dari 16

BAB 7

KESELAMATAN DALAM PENGGUNAAN LISTRIK

Electrical Terminology

Electricity: Negatively Charged Particles Moving Over A Conductor


Current: Movement Of Electrons Along A Conductor
Ground Or Grounding: The Draining Or Passage Of Electricity Into The Earth
Alternating Current: Current That Alternates Direction Through A Conductor
Direct Current: Current That Flows In The Same Direction Through A Conductor
Static Electricity: Electrical Charge Resulting From Friction Between Two Objects Or From
Objects Striking
Shock: Condition When The Body Becomes A Part Of A Circuit
Polarity: The Flow Of Electrons In The Proper Direction (From The Source To The Device Or
Negative To The Positive Through A Device

Electricity Safety Work Practices

Know Where The Hazards Are


Properly Maintain Equipment
No Exposed Parts Or Energized Surfaces
Use Barriers And Devices Where Appropriate
No Conductors To Walk On Or Trip On
No Jewelry, Or Other Metal Objects Around Electricity

Electrical Safety Devices

Insulation
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs)
Double-Insulated Devices
Grounding (Circuit And Equipment)
Guarding
Fuses And Circuit Breakers
Personal Protective Equipment

BAB 8
TOKSIKOLOGI DI TEMPAT KERJA

Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. The science of
toxicology is concerned mainly with the toxic or poisonous properties of chemical substances.
Main factors contribute to toxicity:
o Route of entry
o Dosage level
o Physiological state of the receiver
o Environmental conditions
o Physical properties of the chemical
o Chemical properties of the chemical

Toksikologi Kerja
Mempelajari bahan kimia pada tempat kerja yang membahayakan pekerja dalam proses pembuatan,
transportasi, penyimpanan maupun penggunaannya.
Pengenalan Bahaya Bahan Kimia :

Survei pendahuluan
Mengenal proses produksi
Mempelajari MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)
o Komposisi
o Karakteristik
o Bahan fisik
o Potensi bahaya kesehatan
o Cara penanganan
o Penyimpanan
o Pertolongan pertama
o Prosedur khusus

Route of Body Entry

The most common routes of entry into the body are inhalation, absorption through the skin,
ingestion, and injection.

Hubungan Dosis Respon

Dosis level dapat dilaporkan sebagai:


o Kuantitas per unit dari berat tubuh
o Kuantitas per unit dari volume udara yang terserap
o Kuantitas per unit dari paparan permukaan kulit
Terdapat hubungan antara waktu papar dengan dosis respon
Dapat digunakan untuk mengantisipasi efek racun dari bahan kimia pada rentang tengah
kurva
Terdapat beberapa asumsi dasar untuk membangun hubungan dosis respon
o Respon disebabkan oleh bahan kimia yang diberikan
o Respon berkaitan dengan tingkat dosis

o Dosis dan respon dapat diukur secara kuantitatif


Terdapat nilai ambang dimana terdapat tidak adanya pengaruh bahan kimia.

Threshold Limit Values

Nilai Ambang Batas (NAB) / Threshold Limit Values (TLV)


o TLV-STEL (TLV-Short Term Exposure Limit)
o TLV-C (TLV-Ceiling) batas atas
TLV-STEL tidak boleh melebihi TLV-TWA (TLV-Time Weighted Average) harian
Satuan umum:
o Gas: ppm atau mg/m3
o Partikulat: mg/m3
o Asbestos: fibers/cm3 udara

Efek Toksik

Definisi :
Perubahan abnormal yang tidak diinginkan akibat pemaparan zat kimia toksik.
Tergantung pada :
o Jenis zat kimia
o Dosis zat kimia
o Port d entry (inhalasi, ingesti, absorbsi dermal)
o Tipe paparan
Akut : pemaparan < 24 jam ~ dosis tunggal
Kronis: pemaparan berulang, jangka panjang, min. 3 hari terus menerus.
Akut: Pengaruh sejumlah dosis tertentu yang akibat nya dapat dilihat atau dirasakan dalam
waktu yang singkat.
Kronis: suatu akibat keracunan bahanbahan kimia dalam dosis kecil tetapi terus menerus
dan efeknya dapat dirasakan dalam jangka panjang.

BAB 9
ERGONOMI DI TEMPAT KERJA

the law of work


Designing jobs, equipment, and work tasks to fit human physical characteristics and energy
limitations
It considers body dimensions, mobility, and the bodys stress behavior
Make the work fit the person, not the person fit the work
Ergos = work ; Nomos = laws (The law of work)
A number of factors play a role in Ergonomics; these include body posture and movement
(sitting, standing, lifting, pulling and pushing), and environmental factors (noise, lighting,
temperature, humidity). (Dul et al 1993).
The goal of Ergonomics is to provide maximum productivity with minimal cost; in this context
cost is expressed as the physiological or health cost to the worker

Ergonomics Applies To:

Workstation Design(desks, chairs, space, layout)


Work Postures (sitting, standing, reaching, lifting)
Work Organization (Pace, Breaks, Variety)
Tools, Equipment, and Furniture Design---(body size, height, gender, promoting neutral
postures, reduced vibration, exposure to acceptable lighting, noise, temperature)
Manual Materials Handling(lifting, lowering, pulling, pushing, carrying and holding
materials)
Work Environment(ventilation, noise, temperature & humidity, lighting and vision)

Advantage of Ergonomics

safer jobs with fewer injuries


increased efficiency and productivity
improved quality and fewer errors
improved morale

What is The Musculoskeletal System?

The Musculoskeletal System includes the following:


o Bones The load-bearing structure of the body
o Muscles- Tissue that contract to create movement
o Tendons Tissues that connect muscles to bones
o Ligaments Tissues that connect bones to bones
o Cartilage Tissue that provides cushioning and reduces friction between bones
o Nerves Communication system that links muscles, tendons and other tissue with the
brain
o Blood Vessels Tubes that circulate nutrients throughout the body

Examples of WMSDs (Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders)

Sprain Overstretching or overexertion of a ligament that results in a tear or rupture of the


ligament
Strain Overstretching or overexertion of a muscle or tendon
Tendonitis Inflammation of the tendon inside the sheath
Tenosynovitis Inflammation of the sheath around the tendon
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal
tunnel in the heel of the hand
Tennis elbow or Golfers elbow Medical term is Epicondylitis inflammation of the tendons
at the elbow.
Trigger Finger Common term for tendonitis or tenosynovitis that causes painful locking of
the finger(s) while flexing
Pitchers Shoulder Rotator cuff tendonitis inflammation of one or more tendons at the
shoulder
White Finger Medical term is Reynauds Phenomenon constriction of the blood vessels in
the hands and fingers
Digital Neuritis Compression of the nerves along the sides of the fingers or thumbs

Common Causes of WMSDs

Repetitive and/or prolonged activities


Awkward postures/positions for an extended time
Static postures
Vibration
High/low Temperatures for an extended time
Forceful exertions

Manual Handling

Lifting
Carrying
Putting down
Pushing
Pulling
Moving
Supporting

Good Lifting Technique


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Check suitable clothing and assess load heaviest side to body.


Place feet apart bend knees.
Firm grip close to body. Slight bending of back, hips and knees at start.
Lift smoothly to knee level and then waist level. No further bending of back.
With clear visibility move forward without twisting. Keep load close to the waist. Turn by
moving feet. Keep head up. Do not look at load.
6. Set load down at waist level or to knee level and then on the floor.
Equipment: Types

Hand Trucks: dollies, wheeled trucks for manual transport of all material.

Powered Trucks: forklifts (powered by propane, battery or gasoline), tractor-trailer trains, and
other vehicles.
Cranes and Hoists: specialized overhead equipment for lifting and manipulating heavy objects
usually powered.
Conveyors: move large quantities of materials over a fixed path. Can be continuously moving
or use gravity.
Automated Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS): powered vehicles that automatically follow a
fixed path.
Automated Storage/Retrieval Systems (ASRS): mechanized systems that automatically store
and retrieve items.
Others indexing table, pipelines

Ergonomic Risk Assessment (ERA)


Purpose:

Identify Problem Jobs


o Involve employees
Quantify Risk Factors
o Establish Baseline and Benchmark Improvements
Reduce Potential Disorders and Improve Work

Process:

BAB 10
KOMUNIKASI BAHAYA DAN APD

Tujuan Hazard Communication

Menjamin pengusaha dan pekerja untuk mengetahui bahaya dalam bekerja dan bagaimana
cara melindungi diri, sehingga dapat mengurangi insiden dan cedera karena kimia berbahaya.
Mencakup:
o Semua perusahaan harus menyediakan struktur Hazard Communication Standard
secara tertulis,merawat dan mengupdate iventaris dari kimia berbahaya , serta
memberi label pada wadah yang mengandung kimia berbahaya.
o Pekerja harus diberikan dengan cukup informasi tentang potensi bahaya kesehatan
akibat bahaya zat kimia di tempat kerja untuk memungkinkan mereka mengambil
keputusan yang lebih luas terhadap resiko pribadi dari pekerjaan mereka dan
menekankan mereka pentingnya bekerja dengan aman
Hazard Commuinication Standard ditulis oleh Occupatinal Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA).
Di Indonesia: UU No. 1 tahun 1970 pada Bab V Pembinaan, Pasal 9.

Cara Meminimalisir Bahaya

Langkah pertama dalam meminimalkan bahaya


adalah melakukan menyeluruh hazard assessment (penilaian bahaya).
Pengusaha bisa mengandalkan evaluasi yang dilakukan oleh pprodusen dan pengimpor untuk
menetapkan bahaya bahan kimia yang mereka guanakan.
Informasi ini diperoleh dari MSDSs dan labels

ANSI Z129.1-1994

Product or hazardous component identification


Hazard Signal Word
Statement of Hazard
Precautionary measures
First Aid Instructions
Notes to physicians
Fire instructions
Spill or leak instructions
Handling & Storage Instructions
Reference MSDS
Name, address, & telephone number of manufacturer

NFPA 704

National Fire Protection Association


warna biru sebagai bahaya kesehatan, merah sebagai tingkat terbakar, kuning adalah
reaktivitas, dan putih untuk peringatan khusus.
Skala 0-4

MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)

Chemical name & common name of the ingredients


Physical hazards (potensi kebakaran, ledakan, & reaktif)
Health hazards (tanda & gejala akibat paparan)
Carcinogen (potensiterkena kanker)
Safe handling & use precautions (praktek kebersihan)
Control measures (kontrol administrasi, kontrol teknik dan alat perlindungan diri)
Emergency & first aid procedures (iritasi pd kulit dgn cara membasuh dgn air dan sabun)
Date of MSDS preparation or latest revision
Name, address, & telephone number (informasi untuk pendistribusian MSDS)

Training

menjelaskan ttg program Hazard Communication (contrainer labeling, MSDS)


macam-macam bahaya dari bahan kimia
menggunakan alat perlindungan diri
mendeteksi adanya bahaya dan bgmn mengatasinya
Pedoman untuk pelatihan karyawan:
o Menentukan yang bahan kimia atau produk yang akan disertakan dalam pelatihan
Hazard Communication Mengidentifikasi tujuan dan sasaran untuk pelatihan.
o Desain metode pelatihan
o Melakukan pelatihan.
o Mengevaluasi pelatihan melalui tes atau diskusi dengan karyawan.
o Merevisi pelatihan yang diperlukan.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) atau Alat Pelindung Diri (APD)

Eye-safety glasses,goglles
Face- face shield
Head-hard hats
Feet-Safety shoes
Hands and arms-glove
Bodies-vests
Hearing-earplugs,earmuffs

BAB 11
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Polusi Udara

Polusi udara akibat industri dapat disebabkan ke dalam berbagai substansi seperti gas amonia,
gas hidrogen sulfida, sulfur, dan hidrokarbon seperti Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
termasuk benzene, toulene, xylenes, napthenes, hexane, eter, dan butadiene.

Pencemaran Air

Ditentukan oleh:
o Kandungan oksigen yang terlarut.
o Kandungan nitrogen.
o Kandungan fosfor.
o Pertumbuhan bakteri.
o Partikel padat .
o Logam berat.
o Subtansi organik.
o Energi panas temperature
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) adalah pengukuran pada perubahan konsentrasi oksigen
didalam air yang disebabkan oleh permintaan oksigen oleh mikroorganisme didalamnya
Siklus hidrologi merupakan siklus berkesinambungan yang melibatkan air
dipermukaan,atmosfer, dan air didalam tanah.
Siklusnya dimulai dari hujan (presipitasi), kemudian air mengalir ke permukaan bumi atau
masuk ke dalam tanah, dan air kembali ke atmosfer dengan evaporasi atau
evapotranspiration.

Pencemaran Tanah
Pencemaran tanah bisa terjadi karena adanya tumpahan bahan berbahaya ke tanah, terlebih lagi
tumpahan limbah industri berupa material berbahaya.
Pencegahan Polusi

Polusi dapat dicegah pada sumber melalui reformulasi produk, substitusi produk, proses
modifikasi, mendesain ulang peralatan perbaikan peralatan dan rumah tangga, dan
pemisahan limbah beracun yang tidak kompatibel
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Prioritas penanganan limbah:

Konsep Merancang Pabrik

Material Procurement : meliputi pemilihan bahan


o Bahan yang aman, tidak beracun
o Ramah lingkungan
o efektif, tidak menimbulkan reaksi samping
Material Utilization : Pemilihan proses dan teknologi
o Proses yang tidak menghasilkan limbah atau menghasilkan limbah paling sedikit
o Teknologi yang paling aman dan ramah lingkungan.
o Dapat diprediksi limbah yang dihasilkan
Waste Acccumulation : Pengumpulan dan pemilahan
o Menentukan dan memilah limbah yang recycle, reuse, recovery, dan tidak digunakan
kembali.
Waste Management :
o Menentukan limbah yang bisa langsung dibuang dan harus ditreatment.
o Menentukan treatment untuk setiap jenis limbah

Environmental Protection Control Process

Water quality
Air quality
Solid waste
Hazardous waste

Water Quality
Primary Treatment:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Penyaringan (Screening)
Pengolahan Awal (Pretreatment)
Pengendapan
Pengapungan (Flotation)

Secondary Treatment:

Tahap pengolahan sekunder merupakan proses pengolahan secara biologis, yaitu dengan
melibatkan mikroorganisme yang dapat mengurai/ mendegradasi bahan organik.
Mikroorganisme yang digunakan umumnya adalah bakteri aerob.
Terdapat tiga metode biologis yang umum digunakan yaitu
o Metode penyaringan dengan tetesan (trickling filter),
o Metode lumpur aktif (activated sludge),
o Metode kolam perlakuan (treatment ponds / lagoons)

Tertiary Treatment:

Desinfeksi (Desinfection)
o Bertujuan untuk membunuh atau mengurangi mikroorganisme patogen dalam limbah
cair. Dilakukan sebelum limbah dibuang ke lingkungan.
o Contoh mekanisme desinfeksi pada limbah cair adalah penambahan klorin (klorinasi),
penyinaran dengan ultraviolet(UV), atau dengan ozon (O).

Water Treatment Unit Process

Activated Carbon
Activated Sludge
Filtration
Precipitation flocculation
Sedimentation
Ion exchange
Reverse Osmosis
Neutralization
Gravity Separation
Air Stripping

Air Quality

Filter udara
Pengendap siklon (cyclone separators)
Filter basah (wet collectors / scrubbers)
Pengendap sistem gravitasi
Pengendap elektrostatik

Solid Waste

Salah satu contoh pengolahan limbah padat adalah pemisahan: Pemisahan ada 3 sistem,
yaitu:
o Sistem balistik: adalah sistem pemisahan untuk mendapatkan keseragamanukuran /
beratvolume
o Sistem gravitasi: adalah sistem pemisahan berdasarkan gaya berat. Bahan berat akan
terkumpul dibawah alat.
o Sistem magnetis: sistem pemisahan berdasarkan sifat magnet, yang bersifat magnet
akan langsung menempel. Misal: untuk memisahkan campuran logam dan non logam
Pengolahan limbah agar dihasilkan sebuah produk yang bermanfaat, seperti:
o pengomposan(dihasilkanhumus)
o insinerasi/pembakaran(dihasilkanenersipanas)

Pembuangan limbah ke suatu tempat guna menghindari kontak dengan manusia, seperti
lahan-urug(landfill)
Pemadatan / densifikasi

BAB 13
SAFETY AUDIT

An evaluation to a system damaging or make distruption.


Objective of Safety Audit
o to spur companies to systematically identify and rectify weaknesses in their
management systems and practices of handling hazardous
Systematic and independent by competence personnel
Conducted Periodicly
Methodologies that has been specified
Audit Frequency bases review of audit result previous and danger source evidence
Audit Result is used to process management review

Element to be audited

safety policy
safety information
safe work practices
management of change
maintenance of facilities
general plant inspection / reviews
training
incident investigations
emergency planning and response
hazard analysis
additional items

Incident Investigation
Purpose:

identify any new hazards


identify and choose suitable controls
Prevent similar accident recurring in the future

How to conduct investigation:

Assumption or judgment
Gather information and establish fact
Isolate the contributory factors
Determine corrective action
o Operator training
o Better planning
o New equipment / methods

Emergency Planning
Why?

Emergency planning an important part of company operation

Since emergency will occur, preplanning is necessary to prevent


Discover unrecognized hazardous conditions

Objectives:

An emergency plan used to specifies handling to sudden unexpected situation


The objective is to reduce the possible consequences of the emergency by:
o preventing fatalities and injuries
o reducing damage to building, stock, and tools

Possible impact:

Sequential events (for example, fire after explosion)


Evacuation
Casualties
Damage to plant infrastructures
Damage to equipment
Loss of vital document

Basic Procedures:

Identify evacuation routes, alternate means of escape, make these known to all staff
Specify safe location for staff to gather for head counts to ensure that everyone has left the
danger zone
Carry out treatment of injured

Auditing Techniques
Audit diamond:

Ask
Observe
Check
Record

Finding out the facts:

Information can be gathered through interviews, observation, checking records and reading
documentation.
Records and documentation need to be cross -checked with other records or procedures in
that area and in other parts of the system
You cannot check every record. Take a small sample and check those thoroughly.
Record your checks and observations as you will not be able to remember everything.

Hazard spotting:

Look for hazardous materials. Check controls


Look at machinery and equipment. Guarding
Check operators. Knowledge and protection.
Look for people exposed to hazards. Access.
Look at handling.
Look for flammable material and ignition sources.

Check methods and control measures.


Look for distractions.
Look for obstructed walkways, faulty flooring, blind bends and vehicle access.
Look at electrical wiring cables and switches.
Can water contact electrics.
Look for radiation sources. High noise levels.
Vapors, dust and gases near ignition points.
Working up high, or confined spaces.
Food and hygiene practice.

Initial Review

First stage in developing a system


Identification of Legal Requirements
Identification and evaluation of risks
Identification of issues and liabilities
Evaluation of Policies and Practices
Evaluation of meeting legal requirements
Assessment of previous incidents/accidents
Identification of opportunities
Benefits and liabilities
Analysis of systems in abnormal and emergency conditions
Analysis of Risks
Review of current practices and performance
Review of changes to systems & equipment
Review of current systems
Use of hazardous equipment
Use of hazardous materials
Potential for risk reduction
Current levels of knowledge

Reporting

Reporting to Top Management to cover


Performance versus the legislative requirements
Gaps in system controls & poor performance
Where controls be tightened and where risks and liabilities can be reduced
Priority areas

Audit Team Members

Selected on the basis of team skills


Individuals selected for roles in the audit and availability
Team as a whole must have the technical competences
All team members should be trained in auditing principles and the audit procedures.
Individual auditor requirements depends on the needs of the audit

Checklists

Any hazardous materials?

Electrical devices? Near Water source?


Any gases? Including build up.
Anything pressurized? Anything hot?
Machinery and Tools being used.
Anything moving? People, materials, vehicle
Degree of guarding, containment, protection.
Operator actions lifting, cutting,
Set up activities Power on/off
Maintenance regular, irregular
Waste handling, placement
Access Walkways. Visitors, contractors.
Distractions Other activities, views
Food and drink.
Ignition sources and flammable materials
Instructions, signs, warnings, labels etc,

Sampling of Safety Audit


Preparation:

Identify
The location of each active and inactive access point to the facility.
The number, reliability, and security duties of personnel.
Security doors, barriers and lighting.
The location of restricted areas.
The emergency and stand-by equipment available to maintain essential services.