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# ECE 306

## Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014
Final Exam

Name:____________________

## Open books and open note

Score:___________/200______

1. Assume N = 8, and a sampling frequency of 1 MZ. A periodic discrete-time signal has the

## following Fourier coefficients:

C0 =a, C1 = b , C2 = c, C3 = d, C4 = e, C5= d, C6= c, C7 = b
where a, b, c, d, e are real numbers.
(1) (10 points) Calculate x(n),

|H(w)|

x(n)

h(n)

## low-pass filter, whose magnitude vs. frequency is as shown.

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y(n)

0
0

3/8

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ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014

## 2. Given the following discrete-time signals,

x(n) = an u(n)
y(n) = c an-D u(n-D)

a.

rxx(L) = 

  


= 
 

 

= 
 



= 
(assume L >=0)



## = aL /( 1- a2) (if L>=0)

rxx(-L) = rxx(L)
Therefore, rxx(L) = a|L| /( 1- a2)
(20 points) Calculate rxy(L)
b.
y(n) = c x(n-D)

rxy(L) = 

  
= 

   
= 

   + 
= rxx(L + D)
c.

## (20 points) Find the relationship between rxx(L) and ryy(L)

y(n) = c x(n-D)
ryy(L) = 

  
=

     
=

  

     

2
=   

    = c rxx(L)

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ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014

3.
a. (15 points) Calculate X1(w) for an aperiodic continuous-time signal, x1(t),
x1(t)
A

## A(w) =     



=     


T/3

2T/3



dx1(t)/dt

A/(T/3))

## = (3A/T)[ 1 e jw(T/3) e jw2(T/3) + e jwT ]

= (6A/T)[ cos(wT) e jw/2 cos(w/6) ]

d2x1(t)/dt2
A/(T/3))

## = -(6A/Tw2)[ cos(wT) e jw/2 cos(w/6) ]

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ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014

## b. (15 points) Calculate X2(w) for a periodic continuous-time signal, x2(t),

where x2(t+ mT) = x1(t)
x2(t)

-2T
\$

-5T/3

-4T/3

-T

-2 T/3

-T/3

T/3

2T/3

4T/3

## Ck = (6A/T)[ cos(kw0 T) e j kw0/2 cos(kw0/6) ]/(jw)2

= (6A/T)[ cos(kw0 T) e j kw0/2 cos(kw0/6) ]/(j kw0)2

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5T/3

2T

ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014
Type equation here.

c. (15 points) Calculate X3(w) for an aperiodic discrete-time signal, x3(n) = x1(nTs),
where Ts = T/8
x3(n) = {0, 3A/8, 6A/8, A, A, A, 6A/8, 3A/8}

X3(w) = 5
  
= x(0) + x(1)e jw + x(2)e j2w+ x(3)e j3w+ x(4)e j4w+ x(5)e j5w+ x(6)e j6w+ x(7)e j7w

d. (15 points) Calculate X4(w) for a periodic discrete-time signal, x4(n+ mN) = x3(n), and N =
8. (Hint: Use 8-point FFT.)

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ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014

e.

T/2

t(second)

X2(t)
A

-1.5T

-0.5T

T/2

x3(n)

1.5T

t(second)

A
x3(n)={0, 0, 0, 0, A, 0, 0, 0, 0}

2
n

x4(n)

6 7
1

8
t

X4(n)={0, 0, 0, 0, A, 0, 0, 0, 0}
Np = 8

-12

-4 -3
1

-2 -1 0

1 2

6 7

12

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ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014

## (a) Aperiodic continuous-time signal (Fourier Transform)

x1(t) = A (t-0.5T)


X1(w) = 
 1  dt = 
 A 89 :. ;<  dt = Ae jw(0.5T)
(b) periodic continuous-time signal (Fourier Series)
%

ck = % 
 2 & dt
\$

where 0 = 2/T

= % 
 " 8 0.5 & dt = (A/T) e jkw0(0.5T)
= (A/T) e jk
= (A/T) (-1)k
(c) Aperiodic discrete-time signal

X(w) = 

 3

= 

 "8 4
= Ae jw(4)
(d) periodic discrete-time signal using 8-point FFT

0
0

-1

-1

1
-1

-1

1
-1

-1

-1

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ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014

4. (40 points) Design a narrow band pass second-order IIR filter to pass a signal with a center
frequency of 2 KHz and a bandwidth of 1 KHz. (i.e. | H(2 KHz) | = 1, | H(1 KHz) | =| H(3 KHz) | =
0.707 ). A sampling frequency of 8 KHz is used.
0 = 2(2 KHz)/(8KHz) = /2 (radians)
1 = 2(1 KHz)/(8KHz) = /4 (radians)
A general transfer function for a second-order IIR filter is:
H(z) = K( z- z1)(z-z2)/[(z-p1)(z-p2)]
To design a narrow bandpass filter, or a resonator,
Choose

p1 = r ejw0

and

z1 = z2 =0

p2 = r e-jw0

## H(z) = K/[(1- p1 z-1)( 1- p2 z-1 )]

H(w) = K/[(1- p1 e-jw)( 1- p2 e-jw )]
|H(w= 0)| = 1 = |H(z= ej0)| = K/[|( 1- r ejw0 e-j0)||( 1- r e-jw0 e-j0)|]
= K/[( 1-r)(1-r e-j )]= K/([(1-r)(1+r)]
So,

K = 1 r2

|H(w= 1)| = 0.707 = |H(z= ej1)| = K/[|( 1- r ejw0 e-j1)||( 1- r e-jw0 e-j1)|]
= K/[| 1-r e-j/4 | |(1-r e-j3/4 |]

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ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014

## 3. Given a transfer function of a discrete-time system,

H(z) = ( z8 - 1)/z8
a)

(10 points) Calculate the difference equation relating output, y(n) to the input, x(n). (Hint: Inverse Z
transform).

## Y(z)/X(z) = H(z) = ( z8 - 1)/z8 = 1 - z-8

Y(z) = (1- z-8 ) X(z) = X(z) - z-8 X(z)
Take Inverse Z Transform,
y(n) = x(n) x(n-8)
b) (10 points) Plot the poles and zeros on the z-plane.

## c) (10 points) Calculate and plot H(w).

H(z) = ( z8 - 1)/z8 = 1 - z-8
H(w) = 1-  @
|H(w)| = 2 sin(4w)
H(w) = /2 4w

C) calculate h(n).
h(n) = (n) (n-8)

C) Is this an FIR or IIR? It is an FIR filter, because all eight poles are at the origin.
C)is the phase of H(w) linear or not?
It is a linear phase FIR filter, because its impulse response, h(n) is symmetric with respect to its center,
n=4.

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ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014

## d) (10 points) Calculate H(0), H(/2) and H().

|H(w)| = 2 sin(4w)
H(w) = /2 4w
When w=0, |H(0)| = 2 sin(4w) =0
H(0) = /2 4w = /2
When w= /2, |H(/2)| = 2 sin(4 */2) =0
H(0) = /2 4(/2) = -3/2
When w=, |H()| = 2 sin(4 ) =0
H() = /2 4 = -7/2

e) (10 points) Use H(w) to explain the type of frequency-selective filter( e.g. low-pass, high-pass, bandpass or band-reject filter).
4 Given a discrete-time system
y(n) = a * y(n-1) + K * b * x(n-1) + K * x(n), where |a| < 1.
(a) (10 points) Calculate its impulse response, h(n).
Y(z) = a z-1 Y(z) + K * b * z-1 X(z) + K * X(z)
( 1 - a z-1 ) Y(z) = ( K * b * z-1 + K ) X(z) = K ( 1 + b * z-1 ) X(z)
H(z) = Y(z)/X(z) = K ( 1 + b * z-1 ) / ( 1 - a z-1 )
Taking Inverse Z transform of H(z) to obtain h(n)
h(n) = K an u(n) + Kb a n-1 u(n-1)
(b) (10 points) Calculate its step response.
Y(z) = H(z) X(z) = [K ( 1 + b * z-1 )/ ( 1 - a z-1 )] / ( 1 - z-1 )
= R1/( 1- a z-1 ) + R2 (1 - z-1 )
The step response is
y(n) = R1 an u(n) + R2u(n)

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ECE 306
Discrete-Time signals and systems

Yi Cheng
Fall 2014

## (c) (10 points) Calculate the steady-state step response.

The steady-state response yss = H(z = 1) = R2 = K ( 1 + b * 1-1 ) / ( 1 - a 1-1 ) = K ( 1 + b ) / ( 1 - a )
(d) (15 points) Calculate and plot H(w) using a = 0.5 and b =1.)
(e) (10 points) Calculate y(n) when x(n) = (n) + 2 cos(n/2 /6) + sin( n + /3)
When x(n) = (n) ,
y(n) = h(n)
when x(n) = 2 cos(n/2 /6)

+ sin( n + /3)

## y(n) = 2|H(/2 )| cos(n/2 /6 + H(/2)) + |H()|sin( n + /3 + H())

(f) (5 points) What kind of filter is H(w)? Explain.
H(z) is a low-pass filter, because its pole = a, zero = -b.
(10 points) Calculate the difference equation of the system,
h1(n)={ 1, 1}, h2(n)= {1, 1}, h3(n)={ 1, 2, 1}
h4(n)=(0,9)n u(n)
x(n)

h1(n)

h2(n)

h4(n)

y(n)

h3(n)

## Y(z) = [H4(z) (H1(z)H2(z) + H3(z))]X(z) = H(z)X(z)

where H1(z) = H2(z) = 1 + z-1
H3(z) = 1 + 2z-1 + z-2
H4(z) = 1/(1- 0.9z-1)
H(z) = [(1+ z-1 ) (1+ z-1 ) + (1 + 2z-1 + z-2)]/( 1- 0.9z-1) = Y(z)/X(z)
(1- 0.9z-1)Y(z) = ( 2 + 4z-1 + 2z-2)X(z)
y(n) = 0.9 y(n-1) + 2x(n) + 4x(n-1) + 2 x(n-2)

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