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GROUP (A) CLASS WORK PROBLEMS

Q -3) Find the joint equation of the lines passing

Q -1) Find the combined equation of the bisector

through the point (1, 2) and perpendicular


to the lines x + 2y + 37 = 0 and

of the angles between the co-ordinate axes.


Ans. Let lines L1and L2be the bisector of the co-

3x 4y 53 = 0.
Ans. Let lines L 1and L 2 be the lines passing

ordinate axes 1 and 2be their inclinations

through the point (1, 2) and perpendicular


to the lines x + 2y + 37 = 0 and 3x 4y 53 =

and 2 =
4
4
L1 bisects first and 3rd quadrant
1 =

L2 bisects 2nd and 4th quadrant


L2

37 = 0 and 3x 4y 53 = 0 are

1
and
2

3
3
=
respectively.
4
4

L1

0 respectively. Slopes of the lines x + 2y +

Slopes of the lines L1and L2 are 2 and

4
3

respectively. Since the lines L1and L2 pass


through the point (1, 2), their equations

Let slopes be m1 and m2

arey 2 = 2 (x + 1) and y 2 =

4
(x + 1)
3

m1 = tan


= 1 m2 = tan
= 1
4
4
Since the lines are passing through origin

y 2 = 2x + 2 and 3y 6 = 4x 4
2 x y + 4 = 0 4x + 3 y 2 = 0

their equations are

their joint equation is


(2x y + 4) (4x + 3y 2) = 0

y = m1 x and y = m2 x

8x 2 + 6xy 4x 4xy 3y2 + 2y + 16x + 12y


8=0

x y = 0 and x + y = 0
Combined equation is

(x y ) (x + y ) = 0 x

8x 2 + 2xy 3y2 + 12x + 14y 8 = 0


2

y =0

Q -2) Find the joint equation of lines which pass


through the point (1, 2) and are parallel to
the the lines co-ordinate axes.
Ans. Equation of the coordinates axes are x = 0
and y = 0
the equations of the lines passing through
(1, 2) and parallel to the coordinate axes are
x = 1 and y = 2.
i.e., x 1 = 0 and y 2 = 0
their joint equation is (x 1) (y 2) = 0

Q -4) Find the combined equation of lines


through the origin, one of which is parallel
and other is perpendicular to the line x +
2y +1857 = 0.
Ans. The given equation of the line is
x + 2y + 1857 = 0
Let slopes of one line be m1 and other line be
m2
The slope line which is  to the line
x + 2y + 1857 = 0 is

xy 2x y + 2 = 0
m1 =

1
2

1
2

The slope of line which is to the given


line m2 = 2
The general equation of line passing
through origin is y = mx

Pair of Straight Lines

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2
The equation of line  to the general line
is y =

Q -4) Find the joint equation of lines passing


through the origin having the inclinations
600 and 1200

1
x
2

Ans. Slope of the line having inclination is

x + 2y = 0
The equation of line to the general line is
y = 2x i.e. 2x y = 0

The combined equation of line is (x + 2y)


(2x y) = 0
2x 2 + 4xy xy 2y2 = 0
2x 2 + 3xy 2y2 = 0

tan .
Inclinations of the given lines are 600 and
1200

their slopes are m1 = tan 600 =

3 and

m2 = tan 1200 = tan(1800 600)


= tan 600 = 3 .

GROUP (A) HOME WORK PROBLEMS


Q -1) Find the joint equation of lines x y = 0
and x + y = 0
(Ans. x2 y2 = 0)
Ans. The joint equation of the lines x y = 0 and
x + y = 0 is
(x y) (x + y) = 0
x2 y2 = 0

y=

and 2x y 1 = 0
(Ans. x2 + 3xy + y2 7x 4y + 3 = 0)
Ans. The joint equation of the lines x + y = 3 and
2x + y 1 = 0 is
(x + y 3) (2x + y 1) = 0
2x2 + x y x + 2x y + y2 y 6x 3y + 3 = 0
2x2 + 3x y + y2 7x 4y + 3 = 0.
Q -3) Find the joint equation of lines passing
through the origin having slopes 3 and 2
Ans. We know that the equation of the line
passing through the origin and having slope
m is y = mx.
Equation of the lines passing through the
origin and having slope 3 and 2 are y = 3x
and y = 2x respectively.
i.e., their equations are
3x y = 0 and 2x y = 0 respectively.
their joint equations is
(3x y)(2x y) = 0
2

6x 3x y 2x y + y = 0
6x 2 5x y + y2 = 0.

3x and y =

i.e.,

3x

3x y = 0 and

3x + y = 0

the joint equation of these lines is

Q -2) Find the joint equation of lines x + y = 3

Since the lines pass through the origin, their


equations are

3x y

)(

3x + y = 0

3x2 y2 = 0.
Q -5) Find the joint equation of lines which pass
through the point (3,2) and are parallel to
the lines x = 2 and y = 3
Ans. Equations of the lines are x = 2 and y = 3
the equations of the lines passing through
(3, 2) and parallel to the lines x = 2 & y = 3
are x = 3 & y = 2.
The joint equation is
(x 3)(y 2) = 0
xy 2x 3y + 6 = 0
2x + 3y xy 6 = 0.
Q -6) Find the joint equation of lines passing
through the origin having slopes 1 + 3
and 1 3
Ans. The equation of the line passing through the
origin and having slope m is y = mx
Equations of the lines passing through the
origin and having slopes 1+ 3 and 1 3
are

y = 1 + 3 x and y = 1 3 x
respectively
i.e., The equation are

(1 + 3 ) x y = 0

The joint equation is

Pair of Straight Lines

and 1 3 x y = 0

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1 3 x y 1+ 3 x y = 0

(x
2

x +

3x y

3x

)( x +

3x y = 0
2

xy 3x 3x + 3xy
xy

3xy + y 2 = 0

2x 2 2xy + y 2 = 0

equation of the line L2 is x = 3,


i.e., x 3 = 0
Hence, the equations of the required lines

are
x 2y + 1 = 0 and x 3 = 0
their joint equation is
(x 2y + 1)(x 3) = 0
x 2 2xy + x 3x 6y 3 = 0
x 2 2xy 2x + 6y 3 = 0.

2x 2 + 2xy y 2 = 0
Q -7) Find the combined equation of lines which
are parallel to the Y-axis and at the
distance of 9 units from the Y-axis
Ans. Equations of the lines, which are parallel to
the Y-axis and at a distance of 9 units from
it are x = 9 and x = 9
i.e., x 9 = 0 and x + 9 = 0

Q -9) Find the combined equation of lines


through the origin, which are perpendicular
to the lines x + 2y = 9 and 3x + y = 8
Ans. Let L1 and L2 be the lines passing through
the origin and perpendicular to the lines
x + 2y = 9 and 3x + y = 8 respectively.
slope of given line are

1
3
and = 3 respectively.
2
1

slope of the line L1 and L2 are 2 and


O

X
9

x = 9

1
respectively.
3

X
9

Since the lines L1 and L2 pass through the

Y
x=9

origin, their equations are

their combined equation is


(x 9)(x + 9) = 0
x 2 81= 0.

Q -8) Find the joint equation of lines passing


through the point (3,2), one of which is
parallel to the lines x 2y = 29 and other
one is perpendicular to the line y = 3
Ans. Let L1 be the line passes through (3,2) and
parallel to the line x 2y = 29 whose slope is

1
x
3

i.e., 2x y = 0 and x 3y = 0
their combined equation is
(2x y)(x 3y) = 0
2x2 6xy xy + 3y2 = 0
2x2 7xy + 3y2 = 0.

Q-10) Find combined equation of lines through


the origin, which are parallel to lines
x + 3y = 27 and 2x = y 3
Ans. Let L1 and L2 be the lines passing through
the origin and parallel to the lines

1 1
= .
2 2

slope of the line L1 is

1
2

equation of the line L1 is

y2=

y = 2x and y =

1
(x 3)
2

2y 4 = x 3
x 2y + 1 = 0

Let L2 be the line passes through (3,2) and


perpendicular to the line y = 3.
equation of the line L2 is of the form x = a.
Since L2 passes through (3,2), 3 = a

x + 3y = 27 and 2x = y 3 respectively.
Slopes of the lines x + 3y = 27 and 2x = y 3
are

1
2
and
3
1

slope of the lines L1 and L2 are

1
& 2 their
3

equations are
y=

1
x & y = 2x
3

i.e., 3y + x = 0 & 2x y = 0
The combined equation is

Pair of Straight Lines

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The separate equations are

(2x y)(3y + x) = 0
2

6xy + 2x 3y + xy = 0
2x 2 + 7xy 3y2 = 0.

y = 2 + 3 x and y = 2 3 x

Q-11) Find the joint equation of lines which pass


through (4, 3) and are parallel to the lines
x = 1 and y = 5
Ans. Equations of the lines are x = 1 and y = 5
the equations of the lines passing through
(4, 3) and parallel to the lines x = 1 and

Q -3) Find the condition that the two lines of


a2x2 + bcy2 = a (b + c)xy may be coincident
and perpendicular
Ans. Given equation is
a 2 x 2 + bcy 2 = a (b + c ) xy (I)
2
2
Compare with Ax + 2Hxy + By = 0

y = 5 are x = 4 & y = 3
i.e., x 4 = 0 & y + 3 = 0

We get A = a 2 ; B = bc ; H =

The joint equation is


(x 4)(y + 3) = 0

i) Equation will represent a pair of

xy + 3x 4y 12 = 0
3x 4y + xy 12 = 0

coincident lines if H 2 AB = 0
2

2
2 (b + c ) a .bc = 0

GROUP (B) CLASS WORK PROBLEMS

a2
2
(b + c ) a 2bc = 0
4

Q -1) Find values of h, if lines given by


3x2 + 2hxy + 3y2 = 0 are real?

(
(b
(b

a 2 b 2 + 2bc + c 2 4a 2bc = 0

Ans. Comparing the equation


3x2 + 2hxy + 3y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

a2

we get, a = 3, h = h, b = 3.
The lines represented by 3x2 + 2hxy + 3y2 = 0

a2

+ 2bc + c 2 4bc = 0

2bc + c 2 = 0

are
real, if h2 ab 0
i.e., if h2 3(3) 0
i.e., if h2 9

a 2 (b c ) = 0

a (b c ) = 0
Either a = 0 or b c = 0

i.e., if h 3 or h 3
Hence, the values of h are all real numbers

Either a = 0 or b = c

greater than or equal to 3 or less than or


equal to 3, i.e., ( , 3] [3, ] = R ( 3,3).

lines if a = 0 or b = c

Q -2) Find separate equation of the lines


represented by x2 4xy + y2 = 0
Ans. Join equation x 2 4xy + y 2 = 0
2

i.e., x 4xy + y = 0

m 2 4m +1 = 0 x = m

m=

( 4)

4 (1)(1)

4 12
=2 3
2

= 2 3
x

y = 2 3 x

Pair of Straight Lines

a
(b + c )
2

4 16 4
2

Equation represents two coincident


ii) Equation (i) will represent a pair of

lines if A + B = 0

a 2 + bc = 0
Q -4) Find the joint equation of a pair of lines
through the origin and perpendicular to
pair of lines 2x 2 3xy 9y 2 = 0
Ans. Joint equation of lines is,

2x 2 3xy 9y 2 = 0
So,
Separate equation is, 2

9m 2 + 3m 2 = 0

3y 9y 2
2 =0
x
x

x = m

9m 2 + 6m 3m 2 = 0

3m ( 3m + 2) 1 ( 3m + 2) = 0

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3m + 2 = 0 and 3m 1 = 0

m=

2
1
m=
3
3

k 2 = 36 k = 6

y 2 y 1
=
=
x
3 x 3

Q -6) Find k, if one of the lines given by

2x + 3y = 0

(i)

x + 3y = 0

(ii)

2
Slope of equation (i) =
3

Slope of equation (ii) =

1
3

So, the slopes of r Lines L1 and is,


m1 =

Ans. Equation of pair of lines,

Equation of lines is,


2x + y = 0
y = 2x

3x + 2y = 0

y
= 3 = 3x + y = 0
x

Joint equation of perpendicular lines,

( 3x + 2y ) ( 3x y ) = 0
9x 2 3xy + 6xy 2y 2 = 0
2

9x + 3xy 2y = 0
Q -5) Find k if the slope of one of the lines given
by 5x 2 + kxy + y 2 = 0 is 5 times the slope
of the other
Ans. Given eqn is 5x 2 + kxy + y 2 = 0

Solving (i) & (ii)

Dividing by x2

2kx 2 = 0
2k = 0
k =0

Q -7) If one of the lines given by


ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 is perpendicular to
the line x + my + n = 0 then show that
al 2 + 2h  m + bm 2 = 0

Ans. al 2 + 2h m + bm 2 = 0

is

l
m

r
slope of to

lx + my + n = 0 is

ax2 +2hxy + by2 = 0,


a =5 ,2h = k, b = 1

Eqn.of line

2h
k
=
b
1

a 5
=
b 1

... (i)

m1m2 = 5

... (ii)

But m1 = 5m2

... (iii)

Solving (i) & (iii) & Solving (i) & (ii)

Passing through origin,


m
x

m2 =

k
2
and m2 =1
6

... (ii)

Solving (i) & (ii)


2

m
m
ax 2 + 2hx + + b x = 0
x
l

ax 2 +

2hx 2 bm 2
x + 2 =0
l
l

a +

2hm bm 2
+ 2 =0
l
l

5m2 + m2 = k and 5m 2 .m 2 = 5
6m2 = k and 5m22 = 5

m
l

lx + my + n = 0

y=

m1 + m 2 = k

... (i)

Slope of lx + my + n = 0

Comparing given eqn .with

m1 m 2 =

... (ii)

4x 2 2kx 2 4x 2 =0

Lines L1 and L2 pass through the origin

m1 + m 2 =

... (i)

4x 2 + kxy y 2 = 0

Now,

4 x 2 + kxy y 2 = 0 is 2x + y = 0

4x 2 + kx (2x ) ( 2x ) = 0

3
m2 = 3
2

y 3
=
x
2

k2
k

=
1,
=1

36
6

al 2 +2hlm + bm 2 =0

Pair of Straight Lines

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6
Q -8) Find if the sum of the squares of slopes
of the lines repersented by

(x + y = 0)

x 3xy + y = 0 is 5.
2

Ans. Comparing the equation


2

= the distance of P (x, y) from the line

x + 2y
1+ 4

ax 3xy + y = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

we get, a = a, 2h = 3, b = 1.
Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines
represented by ax 2 3xy + y 2 = 0

m1 + m2 =

2h
=
b

and m1 + m 2 =

( 3 )
1

x +y

( x + 2y )

1 +1

(x + y )
2

2 ( x + 2y ) = 5 ( x + y )

2 x 2 + 4xy + 4y 2 = 5 x 2 + 2xy + y 2

=3

2x 2 + 8xy + 8y 2 = 5x 2 +10xy + 5y 2
3x 2 + 2xy 3y 2 = 0.

a a
= =a
b 1

This is the required joint equation of the

(m1 + m2)2 = (3)2


m12 + m22 + 2m1m2 = 9

lines which bisect the angle between the


lines represented by x 2 + 3xy 2y 2 = 0

m12 + m22 + 2a = 9
m12 + m22 = 9 2a

Q-10 )S how

But m12 + m22 = 5


9 2a = 5

th at

the

lin es

given

by

3x 8xy 3y = 0 and x + 2y = 3 contain


2

the sides of an isosceles right angled


triangle.

2a = 4
a = 2.

Ans. Given equation 3x 2 8xy 3y 2 = 0


Q-9) Find the joint equation of lines which bisect
angles between lines represented by

3x 2 9xy + xy 3y 2 = 0
3x ( x 3y ) + y ( x 3y ) = 0

x 2 + 3xy + 2y 2 = 0

( x 3y )( 3x + y ) = 0

Ans. x 2 + 3xy + 2y 2 = 0

x 2 + 2xy + xy + 2y 2 = 0
x (x + 2y) + y (x + 2y) = 0
(x + 2y) (x + y) = 0
s e pe rate e quation s

equations are

( x 3y ) = 0
of

the

lin e s

represented by x 2 + 2xy + xy + 2y 2 = 0 are


x + 2y = 0 and x + y = 0.
Angle
bisector
Y
P(x,y)

& ( 3x + y ) = 0

Slopes of these lines are


m1 =

1
& m2 = 3
3

Product of Slopes =
m1m2 =

1
3 = 1
3

Lines given by 3x 2 8xy 3y 2 = 0


are to each other.
Slopes are m1 =

. (i)

1
and m2 = 3
3

Slope of the line x + 2y = 3 is m =

1
2

Let 1 be the angle between


Let P (x, y) be any point on one angle bisector.

x + 2y = 3 & x 3y = 0

Since the points on the angle bisectors are


equi - distant from both the lines, the

From (i), (ii) & (iii) the given lines

distance of P (x, y) from the line


(x + 2y = 0)

Pair of Straight Lines

(ii)

form isosceles right angled triangle.

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Q-11 ) OAB

is

formed

by

th e

lines

x 4 xy + y = 0 and the line AB is given


2

by 2x + 3y 1 = 0. Find the equation of the


median passing through O.

3y =

y=
(x1,y1)

Ans.

16
37

3y = 1
21
37

7
8 7
D
,

37
37 37

slope of OD,
A

m=

7 / 37
8 / 37

m=

7
8

(x2,y2)
B
O

equation of line OD is,


y = mx
Let A ( x1 , y1 ) , B ( x 2 , y2 )
Since,

(x,y )

The combined equation of the lines passing


through origin is x 2 4xy + y 2 = 0
The equation of line AB is,

1 2x
3

...(iii)

(1 2x )
3

(1 2x )

=0

9x 2 12x (1 2x ) + (1 2x ) = 0

9x 2 12x + 24x +1 4x + 4x 2 = 0
2

37x 16x +1 = 0
Let, x1 and x 2 be the roots of the equation
x1 + x 2 =

the sides of an equilateral triangle. Find


the area of the triangle.
Ans. Let slope of OA be m
and slope OB be 1

points A and B are intersecting point of


lines passing through origin and line AB
substituting (iii) in (i)
x 2 4x

Q-12) Show x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0 and x y = 4 contain

tan =

2x + 3y = 1
y=

7x
8

7x 8y = 0

D is the mid-point of AB
By mid-point formula
x + x 2 y1 + y2
D 1
,
2
2

y=

16
37

m1 m2
1+ m1m2

3=

m 1
1+m

squaring
3 (1 + m)2 = m2 2m + 1
3(m2 + 2m + 1) = m2 2m + 1
3m2 + 6m + 3 = m2 2m + 1
2m2 + 8m + 2 = 0
m2 + 4m + 1 = 0
2

y + 4 y +1 = 0


x
x

... [By (i)]

y2 + 4xy + x2 = 0
is the joint equation of lines passing
through (0,0) and making 600 with
xy4=0

x1 + x 2
8
=
2
37
A

8 y1 + y2 8

D
,
37 , y
37
2

Point D lies on the line 2x + 3y = 1

M
C

16
+ 3y = 1
37

Pair of Straight Lines

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GROUP (B) HOME WORK PROBLEMS

OM =

=2 2

Q -1) Determine the nature of lines represented


P2

A(
OAB) =

sq units

by following equations :
i) x 2 + 2xy y 2 = 0

Q-13) Show that the eqation x 2 16xy 11y 2 = 0

ii) 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = 0

represents a pair of lines through the

iii) x 2 + y 2 = 0

origin, each making an angle of 300 with

iv) x 2 + 7xy + 2y 2 = 0

the line x + 2y 1 = 0

v) px 2 + qy 2 = 0 , where p & q are real


numbers.
Ans. i) Comparing the equation x 2 + 2xy y 2 = 0
with ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,

30
30
x + 2 y 1= 0

a = 1, 2h = 2, i.e., h = 1 and b = 1

h 2 ab = 12 1 ( 1) = 1 +1 = 2 > 0

Ans. Let us find the joint equation OA and OB each


makes an angle of 300 with x + 2y 1 = 0
Let slope of OA/OB be m1 (say) (m)
slope of AB = m2 =

1
2

m m2
tan = 1
1+ m1m2

the lines represented by

x 2 + 2xy y 2 = 0 are real and distinct.


ii) Comparing the equation

4x 2 + 4xy + y 2 = 0 with,
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 we get,
a = 4, 2h = 4, i.e. h = 2 and b = 1
2

1
2
=
1
3 1+ m

2
m+

1
3

2m +1
2m

Squaring both sides


2

( 2m +1)
y
=
2
x
(2 m )

(2 m)2 = 3 (2m + 1)2


4 4m + m2 = 3(4m2 + 4m + 1)
12m2 m2 + 12m + 4m + 3 1 = 0
11m2 + 16m 1 = 0
Lines pass through origin
y = mx is the equation is

h 2 ab = ( 2) 4 (1) = 4 4 = 0

the lines represented by

4x 2 + 4xy + y 2 = 0 are real and coincident.


iii) Comparing the equation x 2 y 2 = 0 with

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get, a = 1, 2h = 0,
i.e. h = 0 and b = 1
2

h 2 ab = ( 0 ) 1 ( 1) = 0 +1 = 1 > 0

the lines represented by x 2 y 2 = 0 are


real and distinct.
iv) Comparing the equation

x 2 + 7xy + 2y 2 = 0 with
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,
a = 1, 2h = 7, b = 2, i.e. h =

11 y +16 y 1 = 0
x
x

11y 2

y
+ 16 1 = 0
x
x
11y2 + 16xy x2 = 0
x2 16xy 11y2 = 0
is the required joint equation.

Pair of Straight Lines

7
2

49
7
h 2 ab = (1)( 2) =
2
4
2
49 8 41
=
=
>0
4
4

The lines represented by

x 2 + 7xy + 2y 2 = 0 are real and distinct.

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v) Comparing the equation px 2 qy 2 = 0


with ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get, a = p,

The auxilary equations is


m2 + 2m + 2 = 0

m2 2m 2 = 0

2h = 0, i.e. h = 0 and b = q
2

h 2 ab = ( 0 ) p ( q ) = pq

m=

( 2)

the lines represented by px qy = 0


are real and distinct.
If p and q have different signs, then

h 2 ab = pq < 0

4 (1) ( 2 )

2 1

If p and q have the same sign, then

h 2 ab = pq > 0

2 4+8
2

22 3
=1 3
2

m1 =1+ 3 and m2 =1 3 are the


slopes of the lines.

their separate equations are


2

the equation px qy = 0 does not


represent the lines.

y = m1x and y = m2x

i.e., y = 1 + 3 x and y = 1 3 x

Q-2) Find separate equations of lines represented


by following equations

v) x 2 + 2xy cos ec + y 2 = 0
2

y
y
+ 2cos ec + 1 = 0
x

x

i) 6x 2 5xy 6y 2 = 0
ii) x 2 4y 2 = 0
iii) 3x 2 y 2 = 0

Put

iv) 2x 2 + 2xy y 2 = 0
v) x + 2xy ( cos ) + y = 0
2

y
=m
x

(m )2 + 2 cos ec (m ) + 1 = 0

Ans. i) 6x 2 5xy 6y 2 = 0

m=

2 cos ec 4 cos ec 2 4 1 1
2

m=

2 cos ec 2 cot
2

6x2 9xy + 4xy 6y2 = 0


3x (2x 3y) + 2y(2x 3y) = 0
(2x 3y)(3x + 2y) = 0
the separate equations of the lines are
2x 3y = 0 and 3x + 2y = 0.

m = cos ec cot
m=

ii) x2 4y2 = 0

x2 (2y)2 = 0

m=

(x 2y) (x + 2y) = 0
the separate equations of the lines are
x 2y = 0 and x + 2y = 0.

3x

3x y

sin

y (1 cos )
=
x
sin

sin y = (1 + cos ) x

y2 = 0

)(

(1 cos )

y sin = (1 cos ) x

iii) 3x2 y2 = 0

1
cos

sin sin

3x + y = 0

the separate equations of the lines are

3x y = 0 and

& sin y = (1 cos ) x


are the separate equations.

3x + y = 0

iv) 2x2 + 2xy2 y2 = 0

Pair of Straight Lines

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10
Q-3) If lines x2 + 2hxy + 4y2 = 0 are coincident
m1 . m2 =

find the values of h


Ans. Comparing the equation

a
= 1
b

The required lines are perpendicular to

x2 + 2hxy + 4y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,


we get, a = 1, h = h and b = 4.

these lines

Since the lines represented by


x2 + 2hxy + 4y2 = 0 are coincident, h2 ab = 0

The slopes are

1
1
and
m
m1
2

These lines are passing through the

h2 1 4 = 0
h2 = 4

origin, their separate equations are

h = + 2.

y=

1
1
x and y =
x
m1
m2

Q-4) Find the combined equations of lines

i.e., m1y = x and m2y = x

through the origin which are perpendicular


to the lines represented by

x + m1y = 0 and x + m2y = 0


The combined equation is

i) x2 + 4xy + 5y2 = 0
ii) x2 + xy y2 = 0

(x + m1y) (x + m2y) = 0
x2 + (m1+ m2) xy + m1m2 y2 = 0

Ans. i) Comparing the equation


x2 + 4xy + 5y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

x2 + xy y2 = 0

we get, a = 1, 2h = 4, b = 5
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines

Q-5) Find k if sum of the slope of lines represented


by the equation 3x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 is 0.

represented by x2 + 4xy + 5y2 = 0

Ans. Comparing the equation


3x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

2h 4
=
5
b

a 1
and m1m2 = =
b 5

m1 + m2 =

... (i)

represented by 3x2 + kxy + y2 = 0.

Now required lines are perpendicular to


these lines
their slopes are 1/m1 and 1/m2
Since these lines are passing through the
origin, their separate equations are
1
1
y=
x and y =
x
m1
m2
i.e., m1y = x and m2y = 0
their combined equations is
(x + m1y) (x + m2y) = 0

x2

4
1
xy + y 2 = 0
5
5

... [By (i)]

5x2 4xy + y2 = 0.
ii) Comparing the equation
x2 + xy y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,
we get,
1
a = 1, h = , b = 1
2

Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines


represented by x2 + xy y2 = 0
m1 + m2 =

2h 1
=
=1
b
1

Pair of Straight Lines

we get, a = 3, 2h = k, b = 1
Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

m1 + m2 =

2h k
=
= k
b
1

Now, m1 + m2 = 0

k=0

... (Given)

k = 0.

Q-6) Find k if sum of the slope of lines


represented by the equation
2x2 + kxy + 3y2 = 0 is 0 is equal to their
product.
Ans. Comparing the equation
2x2 + kxy + 3y2 = 0, with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

we get, a = 2, 2h = k, b = 3
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines
represented by 2x2 + kxy + 3y2 = 0.
m1 + m2 =

2h k
=
b
3

and m1m2 =

a 2
=
b 3

Now, m1 + m2 = m1m2

k 2
=
3 3

k=2

... (Given)

Mahesh Tutorials Science

11

Q-7) Show that the difference between slope of


lines repersented by the equation
3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0 is 2.
Ans. The given equation is
3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0,

... (i)

Comparing it with ax + 2hxy + by2 = 0,


we get, a = 3, 2h = 4, b = 1

45 3k

+3=0
25
5

45 15k + 75 = 0
15k = 120
k=8

Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of lines given by(i)


Then m1 + m 2 =
and m1m 2 =

2h 4
=
= 4
b
1

a 3
= =3
b 1

(m1 m2 )2 = (m1 + m2 )2 4m1m2


= ( 4)2 4(3) = 16 12 = 4
m1 m2 = 2
the slopes of lines represented by
3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0, differ by 2.
Q-8) Find the value of k, if slope of one of the
lines given by 3x2 4xy + ky2 = 0 is 1.
Ans. The auxiliary equation of the lines given by
3x2 4xy + ky2 = 0 is
km2 4m + 3 = 0.

Q-10) The slope of one of the lines given by the


equation 3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0 is 3 times the
slope of the other line. Find .
Ans. Comparing the equation
3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,
we get,
a = 3, 2h = 4, b =
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines
represented by 3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0.
m1 + m2 =

and m1m 2 =

2h 4
=
b

a 3
= .
b

We are given that m2 = 3m1


m1 + 3m1 =
4

m1 =

Given, slope of one of the lines is 1.


1 is the root of the auxiliary equation

4m1 =

Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of lines given by


km2 4m + 3 = 0.

Also, m1 (3m1) =

k(1)2 4(1) + 3 = 0
k 4+3=0

m12 =

k = 1.

1
1
=

... (i)

Q-9) Find the value of k, if one of the lines given


by 3x2 kxy + 5y2 = 0 is perpendicular, to
the line 5x + 3y = 0
Ans. Th e au xili ary equatio n of the lin es
represented by

... [By (i)]

1 1
=
2

= 1, as 0.

3x2 kxy + 5y2 = 0 is


5m2 km + 3 = 0.

Q-11) If slopes of lines given by kx2 + 5xy + y2 = 0


differ by 1 then find the value of k.

Now, one line is perpendicular to the line

Ans. Comparing the equation


kx2 + 5xy + y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

5x + 3y = 0, whose slope is

slope of that line = m =

3
5

3
5

3
is the root of the auxiliary equation
5

we get,
a = k, 2h = 5, b = 1.
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines
represented by kx2 + 5xy + y2 = 0
m1 + m2 =

5m2 km + 3 = 0.
2

3
3
5 k + 3 = 0
5
5

and m1m2 =

2h 5
=
= 5
b
1

a k
= =k
b 1

Pair of Straight Lines

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12
(m1 m2)2 = (m1 + m2)2 4m1m2
= ( 5)2 4(k) = 25 4k
... (i)
But m1 m2 = 1
(m1 m2)2 = 1
From (i) and (ii), 25 4k = 1
4k = 24

(2x + y)(x + y) = 0
The se p arat e e quati on o f th e li ne s
represented by 2x2 + 3xy + y2 = 0 are
2x + y = 0 and x + y = 0

k = 6.

Angle
bisector

Q-12) Find the value of k, if one of the lines given


by 6x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 is 2x + y = 0

P(x,y)

Ans. Th e au xili ary equatio n of the lin es


represented by
6x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 is
m2 + km + 6 = 0.
Since one of the line is 2x + y = 0 whose slope
is m = 2
2 is the root of the auxiliary equation
m2 + km + 6 = 0.
( 2)2 + k ( 2) + 6 = 0
4 2k + 6 = 0

Angle X
bisector

Let P (x, y) be any point on one angle bisector.


Since the points on the angle bisectors are
equidistant from both the lines,
the distance of P (x, y) from the line 2x + y = 0
the distance of P (x, y) from the line
x + y =0

2k = 10 k = 5.

2x + y
4 +1

x +y

1 +1

Q-13) If the sum of the slopes of the lines given


by 2x2 + kxy 9y2 = 0 is equal to five times
their product, find the value of k.
Ans. Comparing the equation
2x2 + kxy 9y2 = 0, with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,
we get,
a = 2, h =

represented by 2x2 + kxy 9y2 = 0


k
2
2h
2 = k
m1 + m2 =
=
b
9
9

( x + y )2

2 ( 2x + y ) = 5 ( x + y )

2 4x 2 + 4xy + y 2 = 5 x 2 + 2xy + y 2

3x 2 2xy 3y 2 = 0
This is the required joint equation of the
lines which bisect the angle between the
lines represented by 2x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = 0

Q-15) Find the joint equation of the pair of lines


through origin and making an equilateral
triangle with the line x = 3

a 2
=
b
9

Now, m1 + m2 = 5m1m2

k
2
= 5
;
9
9

( 2x + y )2

8x 2 + 8xy + 2y 2 = 5x 2 +10xy + 5y 2

k
,b=9
2

Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines

m1m2 =

... (given)

Ans. Let OA and OB be the lines through the origin


making an angle of 600 with the line x = 3.

k = 10
Y

Q-14) Find the joint equation of lines which bisect


angles betweeen lines represented by
2x2 + 3xy + y2 = 0
Ans. 2x2 + 3xy + y2 = 0

A
1500
600
30 0
X'

30

600

2x2 + 2xy + xy + y2 = 0
2x (x + y) + y (x + y) = 0

B
x=3

Pair of Straight Lines

Y'

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13

OA and OB make an angle of 300 and 1500


with the positive direction of X-axis
slope of OA = tan 300 = 1

1
3

Slope of OB = tan1500 = tan (1800 300)


= tan300 = 1

equation of the line OB is y =

3y = x

3y

1
3

x + 3y = 0

)( x +

3y = 0

i.e., x2 3y2 = 0.
Q-16) Find k, if the sum of the slopes of the lines
represented by the equation x2 + kxy 3y2
= 0 is twice their product
Ans. Given equation is x2 + kxy 3y2 = 0
Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

we get, a = 1 , 2h = k , b = 3
Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines
represented by x2 + kxy 3y2 = 0

m1 + m2 =

2h k
=
b
3

a
1
and m1m2 = =
3
b
According to the given condition.
m1m2 = 2 (m1m2)

k
1
= 2
3
2

...(given)

k=4

k=2

kx2 + 4xy y2 = 0 exceeds the slops of the


other by 8, find k
Ans. Given equation is kx2 + 4xy y2 = 0
Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

we get, a = k , 2h = 4 , b = 1
Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines
represented by kx2 + 4xy y2 = 0
m1 + m2 = 4 and m1m2 = k
According to the given condition
m2 = m1 + 8

m1 + (m1 + 8) = 4
2m1 = 4
m1 = 2
Now, m1 (m1 + 8 ) = k
( 2) (2 + 8 ) = k
(2) (6) = k
12 = k
k = 12
Q-19) Find the condition that the line 3x +y = 0
may be perpendicular to one of the lines
represented by ax2 + 2 hxy + by2 = 0
Ans. Th e au xili ary e quatio n of the lin e s
represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is

bm2 + 2hm + a = 0
Since one line is perpendicular to the line
3x + y = 0 whose slope is

k=3
Q-17) Find k , if th e s lo pes of th e lines
represented by the equation
3x2 + kxy y2 = 0 differ by 4
Ans. Given equation 3x2 + kxy y2 = 0

Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0


we get, a = 3 , 2h = k , b = 1
Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines
represented by 3x2 + kxy y2 = 0

m1 + m2 =

But |m1 m2| = 4


(m1 m2)2 = 16

Q-18) If the slope of one of the lines given by

required combined equation of the lines


is

(x

...(i)

From (i) and (ii), we get


k2 + 12 = 16

x 3y = 0

3y = x

= k2 4(3)
= k2 + 12

equation of the line OA is y =

Now, (m1 m2)2 = (m1 + m2)2 4m1m2

a
2h
= k and m1 m2 = = 3
b
b

slope of that line = m =


m=

3
= 3
1

1
3

1
is the root of the auxiliary equation
3

bm2 + 2hm + a = 0
2

1
1
b + 2h + a = 0
3

3

b + 6h + 9a = 0
9a + 6h + b = 0
This is the required condition

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

14
Q-20) Show that 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 and the lines
(3x +4y )2 3 (4x +3y)2 = 0 form the side an
equilateral triangle.

Q-21) Show that x2 4xy + y2 = 0 and the lines

x + y 6 = 0 form an equilateral triangle


Find its area and perimeter

3
Ans. The slope of the line 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 is m1 =
4
Let m be the slope of one of the line making
an angle of 600 with the line 3x + 4y + 5 = 0

Ans. Le t O A
and OB be

Since the angle between the lines having


slope m and m1 is 600

origin
Let M be

tan 600 =

m m1
1+ m.m1

B
0

60

the lines
th ro u g h

M x +y =

60

the slope
of OA or

A
O

OB which
3
m

4
3 =
3
1+ m

from equilateral triangle with line x + y = 6


whose slope is
Its equation is y = mx

tan 600 =

4m + 3
3 =
4 3m
Squaring both sides, we get
2

( 4m + 3)
3=
2
( 4m 3)

3(4 3m)2 = (4m + 3)2

3 (16 24m + 9m2) = 16m2 + 24m + 9


48 72m + 27m2 = 16m2 + 24m + 9
11m2 96m + 39 = 0
Since, required lines pass through the origin,
their equations is of the form
y = mx i.e. m =

y
x

y
y
11 96 + 39 = 0
x
x
2

3=

m +1
;
1m

...(i)

3=

m +1
1m

m 2 + 2m +1
m 2 2m +1

3m2 6m + 3 = m2 + 2m + 1
2m2 8m 2 = 0
m2 4m 1 = 0
Joint equation of the pair of lines is given by
y
y2
4
+3 =0
x
x2

...[From (i)]

x2 4xy + y2 = 0 which is given in question


He nce, joint equation from e quilateral
triangle with x + y = 6

distance of AB from origin is


OM =

y
96y
11 2
+ 39 = 0
x
x

6
1+1

= 3

( OM)

( 3)
=

11y2 96xy + 39x2 = 0


39x2 96xy + 11y2 = 0

Area of OAB =

is the required joint equation which can be


written as 39x2 96xy + 11y2 = 0
i.e.
(9x2 48x2) + (24xy + 72xy) + (16y2 27y2) = 0

In right angled triangle OAM

i.e.
(9x2 + 24xy + 16y2) (48x2 72xy + 27y2) = 0
i.e.
(9x2 + 24xy + 16y2) 3(16x2 24xy + 9y2) = 0
i.e. (3x + 4y)2 3(4x 3y) = 0
Hence, the line 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 and the lines
(3x + 4y)2 3(4x 3y2) from an equilateral
triangle.

Pair of Straight Lines

= 3 sq units.

sin 600 =

OM
OA

3
3
=
OA = 2
2
OA
Length of the each side of the equilateral
triangle OAB = 2 units
perimeter of
OAB = 3 length of each side
= 3 2 = 6 units

Mahesh Tutorials Science

15

Q-22) Find the joint equation of lines through the


origin, each of which makes angle of 30
with the line 3x + 2y + 66 = 0

Q -1) Find the acute angle between the lines


given by x2 + y2 = 2xycosec
Ans. Comparing the equation

Ans. The slope of the line3x + 2y + 66 = 0 is


m1 =

GROUP (C) CLASS WORK PROBLEMS

3
2

Let m be the slope of one of the lines making

x2 +y2 = 2xy cossec with ax2 + by2 + 2hxy = 0


we get a = 1 , b = 1 , h = cosec

an angle of 300 with the 3x + 2y + 66 = 0. The


angle between the lines having slopes m and

Let be the acute anle between the lines

m1 is 300

tan =

tan 300 =

m m1
1
, where tan 300 =
1+ m.m1
3

3
m
2

=
3 1+ m 3

2
1

1
3

2m + 3
2 3m

tan =

tan =

2 h 2 ab
a +b
2 cosec 2 1
2
cot 2

tan = cot

tan = tan
2

On squaring both the sides, we get,


2

1 ( 2m + 3)
=
3 ( 2 3m )2

(2 3m)2 = 3(2m + 3)2


4 12m + 9m2 = 3(4m2 + 12m + 9)
4 12m + 9m2 = 12m2 + 36m + 27

Q -2) F in d th e acute an gle betw een th e


linesgiven by

3m2 + 48m + 23 = 0
This is the auxiliary equation of the two

lines and their joint equation is obtained by


putting m =

y
x

(a2 3b2) x2 + 8abxy + (b2 3a2)y2 = 0


Ans. Combined equation of lines is,

(a

3b 2 x 2 + 8abxy + b 2 3a 2 y 2 = 0

comparing with, Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By 2 = 0


So,

the joint equation of the two lines is

A = a 2 3b 2 ; H = 4a ; B = b 2 3a 2

y
y
3 + 48 + 23 = 0
x
x

tan =

3y 2 48y
+
+ 23 = 0
x
x2
2

3y + 48xy + 23x = 0; 23x + 48xy + 3y = 0.

tan =

2 h 2 ab
a +b

)(

2 16a 2b 2 a 2 3b 2 b 2 3a 2
2

a 3b + b 3a

Q-23) Find the condition that the line 4x +5y = 0


coincides with one of the lines given by
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

tan =

2 16a 2b 2 10a 2b 2 + 3a 4 + 3b 4

2 a 2 + b 2

Ans. ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0.


2

y
y
ax + 2h + b = 0
x

x

tan =

2 3a 4 + 6a 2b 2 + 3b 4

2 a 2 + b 2

4x +5y = 0 ; 5y = 4x
2

4
y
4
4
=
; a + 2h
+ b
=0
5

x
5
5
a

8h 16b

= 0 25a 40h + 16b = 0


25
5

tan =

3 a2 + b2

= tan 1

(a

+b

( 3) ;

)
; tan = 3

)
=

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

16
Q -3) If the angle between the lines
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is equal to the angle
between the lines 2x2 5xy + 3y2 = 0 prove
2

2
tan 45 =

that 100(h ab) = (a + b)


Ans. 1st combined equation is,

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0

... (i)

h 2 24

5=2

So,
tan =

h2
6
4
5

5 = h 2 24

2 h 2 ab
a +b

h 2 24 = 25

2nd combined equation is,

h 2 = 25 + 24

2x 2 5xy + 3y 2 = 0

h 2 = 49

A = 2, H =

h = 7

5
, B =3
2

Q -5) Show that one of the straight lines given


by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 bisects an angle

25
2
6
4
tan =
5

between the co-ordinate axes if


(a + b)2 = 4h2
Ans. The equation of a straight line is given by,

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0

1
2
4
tan =
5

tan =

Divide by x 2 ,
2

y
y
a + 2h + b = 0
x
x

put y = mx

1
5

As per given,
The angle between these two lines is equal

2 h 2 ab 1
=
a +b
5

a + 2hm + bm 2 = 0

bm 2 + 2hm + a = 0
As the lines bisects an angle between coordinate axes.

10 h 2 ab = a + b
100 h 2 ab = (a + b )

y
x

m =

So,

... Hence proved

Q -4) If acute angle between 3x2 + hxy + 2y2 = 0


is of measure 450, find h.
Ans. The combined equation is,

= 450
m = tan
m = tan 450
m =1
2

3x 2 + hxy + 2y 2 = 0

b (1) + 2h (1) + a = 0

comparing with,

b + 2h + a = 0

Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By 2 = 0

(a + b ) = 2h

h
A = 3, H = , B = 2
2
tan =

2 h 2 ab
a +b

Pair of Straight Lines

squaring on both sides,

(a + b )

= 4h 2

Mahesh Tutorials Science

17

GROUP (C) HOME WORK PROBLEMS


Q -1) Find the measure of the acute angle
between the lines represented by :
i) 3x 2 4 3xy + 3y 2 = 0
2

tan =

3
5

3
= tan1 .
5
iii) Comparing the equation

ii) 4 x + 5xy + y = 0

2x 2 + 7xy + 3y 2 = 0 with

iii) 2x 2 + 7xy + 3y 2 = 0

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,

Ans. i) Comparing the equation

7
,b=3
2

3x 2 4 3xy + 3y 2 = 0 with

a = 2, h =

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,

Let be the acute angle between the lines.

a = 3, 2h = 4 3 , i.e., h = 2 3 and b = 3
Let be the acute angle between the lines.

tan =

2 h 2 ab
a +b

tan =

2
=

( 2 3 )

7
2 ( 2)( 3 )
2
=
2+3

3 (3)

3+3
2

2 h 2 ab
a +b

2 12 9
2 3
=
6
6

tan =

= tan 300
=

= 300
ii) Comparing the equation

4x 2 + 5xy + y 2 = 0 with

=
a = 4, 2h = 5, i.e., h =

5
and b = 1.
2

Let be the acute angle between the lines.


2 h 2 ab
a +b

tan =

5
2 4 (1)
2
=
4 +1

2 49 24
52
25
5

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,

49
6
4
5

5
5

tan = 1

= 450

Q -2) Find the value of b, if the angle between


the lines given by 6x2 + xy + by2 = 0 is 450
Ans. Comparing the equation
6x2 + xy + by2 = 0 with

Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By 2 = 0 , we get,
A = 6, 2H = 1, i.e., H =

25
3
2
4
2
4
2
=
=
5
5

1
and B = b
2

Since the angle between the lines is 450,


tan 450 =

2 H 2 AB
A +B

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

18

Q -4) If the lines given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0


2

1
2 6 (b )
2
1 =
6 +b

1 =

form an equilateral triangle with the line


lx + my = 1, show that (3a + b) (a +3b)
4h2 = 0
Ans. Since the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 form an
equilateral triangle with the line
lx + my = 1, the angle between the lines

1
6b
4
6+b

ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is 600


2 h 2 ab
a +b

tan 600 =

(6 + b)2 = 4 6b
4

2
36 + 12b + b = 1 24b
b2 + 36b + 35 = 0
b2 + 35b + b + 35 = 0
b (b + 35) + 1(b + 35) = 0
(b + 1) + 1(b + 35) = 0
b + 1 = 0 or b + 35 = 0
b=1
or b = 35.

3a2 + 10ab + 3b2 = 4h2


3a2 + 9ab + ab + 3b2 = 4h2

a2 12b2)x2 + 16abxy + (4b2 3a2)y2 = 0


is 600

Ans. Given combined equation is,

a 2 12b 2 x 2 +16abxy + 4b 2 3a 2 y 2 = 0

comparing with,

Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By 2 = 0
A = a 2 12b 2
B = 4b 2 3a 2
=

2 64a 2b 2 40a 2b 2 + 3a 2 + 48b 2


a 2 12b 2 + 4b 2 3a 2

2 24a 2b 2 + 3a 2 + b 2 + 48b 4
8b 2 2a 2

2 3 4b 2 + a 2

2 4b + a

3a(a + 3b) + b(a + 3b)= 4h2


(3a + b) (a + 3b) 4h2 =0
This is the required condition

Q-5) Find the value of k, if the lines x2 + kxy +


y2 = 0 and x + y = 1 contain the sides of an
equilateral triangle. Also, find the area of
the triangle.
Ans. Since the lines x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 form an
equilateral triangle with the line
x + y = 1, the angle between the lines

H = 8ab

2 h 2 ab
a +b

3(a +b)2 = 4 (h2 ab)


3(a2 + 2ab + b2) = 4h2 4ab
3a2 + 6ab + 3b2 + 4ab = 4h2

Q -3) Show that the angle between

3=

x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 is 600
Comparing the equation x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 with
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
a = 1, 2h = k, b = 1
tan 60 =

2 h 2 ab
a +b
2

tan 60 =

(k 2)

(1)(1)

1 +1

= 3

3=

tan = 3
= tan 1

k2

( 3)

= 60 ... Hence proved

3=

k2 4
2

On squaring both sides


12 = k2 4
k2 = 16

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

19

k = 4
Let the length of the perpendicular from the
given to the line x + y = 1 be p
Area of the equilateral triangle
=

p2
3

sq units =

1
2 3

1 1

3 2

sq units

Q -6) Find the value of b, if is the measure of


angle between the line 3x2 + 4xy + by2 = 0
and tan =

with Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By2 = 0


we get A = 3, 2H = 4 i.e. H = 2 B = b

tan =

1
2

[gn]

2 H 2 AB
A+B

1
=
2

2 22 3b
3+b

1
=
2

2 4 3b
3 +b

On squaring both sides

1
=
4

4 ( 4 3b )

(3 + b )

get, x1 = 1/4 and y1 = 1/2


the point of intersection is P( 1/4, 1/2)

Q -2) Find combined equation of a pair of lines


through the point (2, -3) and perpendicular
to the lines given by x 2 + xy 2y 2= 0.
Ans. x 2 + xy 2y 2 = 0

x 2 + 2xy xy 2y 2 = 0
x ( x + 2y ) y ( x + 2y ) = 0

( x y )( x + 2y ) = 0

1
2

Ans. Comparing the equation 3x 2 + 4xy + by2 = 0

Now, tan =

2x1 + y1 = 0 and 2x1 y1 + 1 = 0


Solving these equations simultaneously, we

9 + 6b + b2 = 64 48b
b2 + 54b 55 = 0
b2 + 55b b 55 = 0
(b + 55) (b 1) = 0

x y = 0 or x + 2y = 0
Slope of x y = 0 is 1.
Slope of line r to x y = 0 is 1

equation of line r to x y = 0
and passing through ( 2, 3 ) is,

y + 3 = 1 ( x 2)
y + 3 = x + 2
x + y +1 = 0

... (i)

Slope of x + 2y = 0 is

1
2

Slope of line r to x + 2y = 0 is 2
equation of line r to x + 2y = 0
and passing through ( 2, 3 ) is,

y + 3 = 2 ( x 2)
y + 3 = 2x 4
2x y 7 = 0
combined equations of lines is,

... (ii)

( x + y +1)( 2x y 7 ) = 0
from (i) and (ii)

b = 55 & b = 1
2

GROUP (D) CLASS WORK PROBLEMS

2x xy 7x + 2xy y 2 7y + 2x y 7 = 0
2x 2 + xy y 2 5x 8y 7 = 0

Q -1) Find the separate equation of the lines


represented by 4x2 y2 + 2x y = 0. Also
find the point of intersection of these lines.
Ans. The combined equation of the lines is
4x 2 y2 + 2x y = 0
(2x + y)(2x y) + (2x + y) = 0
(2x + y)(2x y + 1) = 0
their separate equations are
2x + y = 0 and 2x y + 1 = 0
Let P (x1,y1) be their point of intersection.
Then (x1, y1) satisfies these equations

Q -3) Find k if

kx 2 xy + 2y 2 + 19x 6y 20 = 0
represents pairs of lines. Further find
wh ether th ese lines are parallel or
intersecting
Ans. Given equation is

kx 2 xy + 2y 2 +19x 6y 20 = 0
Comparing with

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2gx + 2 fy + c = 0

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

20
we get
a = k,h =

1
19
, b = 2, g =
, f = 3, c = 20
2
2

Equation represents a pair of lines

abc + 2 fgh af

bg ch = 0

57 361

+5 = 0
2
2

49k

304
+5 =0
2

px 2 8xy + 3y2 + 14x +2y + q = 0


Comparing it with
ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 +2gx + 2fy + c = 0, we get
a = p, h = 4 , b = 3, g = 7 f = 1 and c = q

19 1
k 9 2
2 2
361
1

+ 20 = 0
4
4

40k + ( 6 )

49k +

Q -5) Find p and q, if the equation


px2 8xy + 3y2 + 14x +2y + q = 0 represents
a pair of perpendicular lines
Ans. Given equation is

Since the given equation represents a pair


of line perpendicular to each other,
a+b=0
p+3=0
p = 3
Also the equation represents a pair of straight
lines

49k 152 + 5 = 0

a
h

49k = 147
k = 3
2

1
Consider h 2 ab = k 2
2
=

lines are intersecting

(x 1)2 (y 1)2 (x 1) 5 (y 1) + = 0.
represents two straight lines.
Ans. Given equation is
(x 1)2 (y 1)2 (x 1) 5 (y 1) + = 0.
...(i)

) (

2x +1 y 2 2y +1

x + 1 5y + 5 +
= 0
x2 2x + 1 y2 +2y 1 x + 1 5y + 5 +
=0
2
2
x 3x y 3y + 6 +
=0
x2 y2 3x 3y + 6 +
=0
Comparing with

...(ii)

3
3
,f=
, c = 6 +

2
2

Equation (ii) represents a pair of lines


2
2
abc + 2fgh af bg 2 ch = 0
1 1 (6 + ) + 0 1
9
9
6 +
+
=0
4
4

6 = 0
= 6

1 =0

25q 200 = 0
25(q + 8) = 0
q = 8
p = 3 and q = 8

Q -5) Show that one of the straight lines given


by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 bisects an angle
between the co-ordinate axes if
(a + b)2 = 4h2
Ans. The equation of a straight line is given by,

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0
Divide by x 2 ,

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0


a = 1, h = 0, b = 1, g =

3 (3q 1) + 4 (4q 7) + 7 (4 21) = 0


9q + 3 16q 28 175 = 0

Q -4) Find so that equation

9
9
+1
0=0
4
4

y
y
a + 2h + b = 0
x
x

put y = mx
m =

y
x

a + 2hm + bm 2 = 0

bm 2 + 2hm + a = 0
As the lines bisects an angle between coordinate axes.
So,

= 450

Pair of Straight Lines

g
f =0
c

3 4 7

1
25
+6=
0
4
4

(x

h
b
f

Mahesh Tutorials Science

21

m = tan

tan = 1

m = tan 450

m =1
2

b (1) + 2h (1) + a = 0

GROUP (D) HOME WORK PROBLEMS

b + 2h + a = 0

(a + b ) = 2h
squaring on both sides,
2

(a + b ) = 4h 2
Q -6) Show that 2x2 + 7xy +3y2 5x 5y + 2 = 0
represents a pair of lines and find the acute
angle between them.
Ans. Comparing
2x2 + 7xy +3y2 5x 5y + 2 = 0 with
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 +2gx + 2fy + c = 0
we get
a = 2 ,h =

7
5
5
, b = 3, g =
, f=
and c = 2
2
2
2

Q -1) Find the combined equation if the pair of


lines through (2,3) one of which is parallel
to 2x + 3y = 5 and other perpendicular to
x 4y =7.
Ans. Let L1 be the line throught (2,3) and parallel
to the line 2x + 3y = 5
The slope of the line 2x + 3y = 5 is

the slope of the line L1is

2
3

2
and it passes
3

through (2,3)

equation of the line L1is y 3 =

2
(x 2)
3

condition for pair of lines is = 0


LHS = abc + 2fgh af 2 bg2 ch2

3y 9 = 2x + 4
2x + 3y 13 = 0

5
= 2 3 2 + (5)

7

2

Le t L 2 be the line through (2,3) and


perpendicular to the line x 4y = 7.

25
25
49
3
2
4
4
4

1 1
= .
4 4
the slope of the line L2 is 4 and it passes
through (2,3)

= 12 +

25 7 50 75 98

4
4
4
4

= 12 +

175 125
98
=
4
4

50
98
= 12 +

4
4
48
= 12
4
= 12 12
=0

equation of the line L2 is


y 3 = 4(x 2)
y 3 = 4x + 8
4x + y 11= 0
Hence, the equations of required lines are
2x + 3y 13 = 0 and 4x + y 11= 0.

their combined equation is


(2x + 3y 13) (4x + y 11) = 0.

The equation represents a pair of straight


lines
If is the acute angle between the lines
then
tan =

The slope of the line x 4y = 7 is

2 h 2 ab
a +b
2

7
49
2 2 (3)
2
6
2
4
=
=
2+3
5

8x 2 + 2xy 22x + 12xy + 3y2 33y 52x


13y + 143 = 0

8x 2 + 14xy + 3y2 74x 46y + 143 = 0.

Q -2) Find the joint equation of the pair of lines


through ( 2, 2), one of which is parallel to
the linex + 2y 3 = 0 and other is
perpendicular to the line y = 3
Ans. Let L1 be the line passes throught ( 2,2) and
parallel to the line x + 2y 3 = 0 whose slope
is

1
2

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

22

Slope of line L1 is

Q -4) Find k if x 2 3xy + 2y 2 + x y + k = 0

1
2

represents a pair of lines


Ans. x 2 + 3xy + 2y2 + x y + k = 0

equation of the line L1 is

(y 2) =

1
( x + 2)
2

a = 1, b = 2, h =

2y 4 = x 2

Condition for pair of lines.


abc + 2fgh af 2 bg 2 ch2 = 0

x + 2 + 2y 4 = 0
x + 2y 2 = 0
Let L2 be the line passes throught ( 2, 2) and
perpendicular to the line y = 3
equation of the line L2 is of the form x = a
Since L2 passes throug ( 2, 2), 2 = a
equation of the line L2 is x = 2
i.e., x + 2 = 0
Hence the equation of the required line are
x + 2y 2 = 0 and x + 2 = 0
The joint equation is
(x + 2y 2) (x + 2) = 0

1
1
9
3
2k + 2 1 2 k = 0
4
4
4

8

2k

3 1 1 9k

=0
4 4 2 4

8k 3 1 2 9k = 0
k = 6
k =6
Q -5) Find the separate equations for each of the
following lines
10(x + 1)2 + (x + 1) (y 2) 3 (y 2)2 = 0
Ans. The given equation is

x + 2x + 2xy + 4y 2x 4 = 0
x 2 + 2xy + 4y 4 = 0

10(x +1) + (x +1) (y 2) 3 (y 2) = 0 ...(i)


Let x + 1 = X and y 2 = Y

Q -3) Show that the equation

The given equation becomes


10X2 + XY 3Y 2
= 0

9x 2 6xy + y 2 + 18x 6y + 8 = 0
represents two lines parallel to each other.
Ans. Given equation is

10X2 + 6XY 5XY 3Y 2 = 0


2X(5X + 3Y) Y (5X + 3Y) = 0
(2X Y) (5X + 3Y) = 0
Either 2X Y = 0 2(x + 1) (y 2) = 0

9x 2 6xy + y 2 +18x 6y + 8 = 0
Comparing with

2x y + 4
OR, 5X + 3Y

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2gx + 2 fy + c = 0
a = 9, h = 3, b = 1, g = 9, f = 3, c = 8.
Consider

abc + 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch 2
= 9 1 8 + ( 6 ) 9 3 9 9 1 81 8 9
= 72 +162 81 81 72

= 0
= 0 5(x + 1)+ 3(y 2) = 0
5x + 3y 1 = 0
Th e g iven equation re presents two
straight lines
2x y + 4 = 0 and 5x + 3y 1 = 0

Q -6) Find p and q if the equation

=0
The given equation represents a pair of

lines

(i)

12x2 + 7xy py2 18x + qy + 6 = 0


represent a pair of perpendicular lines.
Ans. 12x2 + 7xy py2 18x + qy + 6 = 0

Now, h 2 ab = ( 3 ) 9 1 = 9 9 = 0
2

As h ab = 0 lines are parallel.


From (i) & (ii)

3
1
1
,g= ,f=
,c=k
2
2
2

a = 12, h =

(ii)

9x 2 6xy + y 2 +18x 6y + 8 = 0
represents a pair of parallel straight lines.

7
q
, b = p, c = 6, g = 9, f =
2
2

Conditions of perpendicular lines,


a+b
12 p

= 0
= 0

p = 12
Condition for pair of lines,
abc + 2fgh af 2 bg 2 ch2 = 0

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

23

240 + 2 2q 2 + 240 + 4q = 0

2
7
q
q
12 (p)(6) + 2 (9) 12
2
2
2

(p) 81 6
72 p

108

49
=0
4

147
63q
3q2 + 81p
=0
2
2

72 12
864

2q 2 4q + 2 = 0

147
63q
3q2 + 81 12
=0
2
2

147
63q
3q2 + 972
=0
2
2

q 2 2q + 1 = 0
(q 1) (q 1) = 0
i.e. q = 1

q 2 =1 ;

q =1 ;

p = 8, q = 1

Q -8) Find the value of k, if each of the following


equations represents a pair of lines :
i) 3x2 + 10xy +3y2 +16y +k = 0.
ii) kxy + 10x +6y +4 = 0
iii) x2 + 3xy +2y2 +x y +k = 0
Ans. i) Given equation is

147
63q
3q 2
=0
2
2

6q2 + 63q 69 = 0
2q2 + 21q 23 = 0

3x 2 + 10xy +3y2 +16y +k = 0.


Comparing it with

2q2 + 23q 2q 23 = 0
q (2q + 23) 1 (2q + 23) = 0

ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0


we get, a = 3, h = 5 b = 3 , g = 0, f = 8 c = k
Since the equation represents a pair of
lines

23
or q = 1
2

q=

abc + 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch2 = 0


(3)(3)(k) + 2 (8) (0) (5) 3(8)2 3 (0)2 k (5)2

p = 12

Q -7) Find p and q if the following equations


represent a pair of parallel lines
2x 2 + 8xy + py2 + qx + 2y 15 = 0
Ans. The equation is,

comparing with

Comparing it with
ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2gx + 2 fy + c = 0
q
, f = 1, c = 15
2

we get, a = 0, h =

The lines are parallel

Since the equation represents a pair of


lines

h ab = 0
2

(4)

p=

k
b = 0 , g = 5, f = 3
2

c=4

( 4)

9k + 0 192 0 25k
16k 192 = 0
16k 192
Hence k = 12
ii) Given equation is kxy + 10x + 6y + 4 = 0

2x 2 + 8xy + py 2 + qx + 2y 15 = 0

a = 2, h = 4, b = p, g =

=0

2( p) = 0

abc + 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch2 = 0

= 2p

k
(0)(0)(4) + 2 (3) (5) 0 (3)2 0 (5)2
2

16
2

k
4 = 0
2

p=8
The above equation represents pair of line

abc + 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch 2 = 0
2
q
q
2 ( 8 ) ( 15 ) + 2 (1) ( 4 ) 2 (1) 8
2
2
2

( 15 ) ( 4 ) = 0

q
8 ( 30 ) + 2 (1) 4 2 2q 2 + 240 = 0
2

0 + 15k 0 0 k 2 = 0
15k k2 = 0
k (k 15) = 0
k = 0 or k = 15
If k = 0 then the given equation becomes
10x + 6y + 4 = 0 which does not represent a
pair of lines
k 0

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

24
Hence k = 15
iii)

Given equation is
x 2 + 3xy +2y2 +x y +k = 0
Comparing it with
ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
we get, a = 1, h =

3
1
1
b=2,g= ,f=
2
2
2

c=k
Since the equation represents a pair of
lines

a h
h b
g f

3
2
1
2

ac 2
bc 2
0+0
=0
4
4

ac 2 bc 2

=0
4
4

ac2 + bc2 = 0
c2 (a + b) = 0
a + b = 0 or c = 0

Q-10) Find p and q if the equation


px2 8xy + 3y2 + 14x + 2y + q = 0 represent
two straight lines which are perpendicular.

1
2
1
=0
2

This is the required condition

g
f =0
c

3
2

c2
c
bc
a 0
0 + 0
=0
4
2
2

Also find the co-ordinate of their point of


intersection.
Ans. Given equation is
px2 8xy + 3y2 + 14x +2y + q = 0

Comparing it with
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 +2gx + 2fy + c = 0, we get

2 3 1
1

3 4 1 = 0
2
1 1 2k

a = p, h = 4 , b = 3, g = 7 f = 1 and c = q
Since the given equation represents a pair
of line perpendicular to each other,

a+b=0

1 = 0

p+3=0

1 1 2k

p = 3

2 (8k 1) 3 (6k +1 ) + 1 (3 4) = 0
16k 2 18k 3 7 = 0
2k 12 = 0

Also the equation represents a pair of straight


lines

2k = 12
k = 6

a
h
g

Q -9) Find the condition that equation


ax2 +by +cx +cy = 0 may represent a l pair
of lines
Ans. Given equation is
ax 2 +by +cx +cy = 0 with
Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By2 + 2Gx + 2Fy + C = 0, we get
A = a, H = 0, B = b, g =

c
c
,f= ,C=0
2
2

The given equation represents a pair of lines


a

F = 0 i.e, if 0 b
C
c c
2 2

Pair of Straight Lines

c
2
c
=0
2
0

f =0

3 4 7
4 3 1 = 0
7 1 q
3 (3q 1) + 4 (4q 7) + 7 (4 21) = 0
9q + 3 16q 28 175 = 0
25q 200 = 0
25(q + 8) = 0
q = 8
p = 3 and q = 8

Mahesh Tutorials Science

25

BASIC ASSIGNMENTS (BA) :

Q-2) Find the separate equations of the lines

BA 1

represented by the following equations :


x2 4xy = 0

Q-1) Find the joint equation of the following pair


of lines

Ans. Given equation is x2 4xy = 0


x(x 4y) = 0

i) 2x + y = 0 and 3x 5y = 0
ii) Passing through (2, 3) and perpendicular

The separate equations of lines are x = 0


and x 4y = 0.

to the lines 3x + 2y 1 = 0 and


x 3y + 2 = 0

Q-3) Find the joint equation of pair of lines through

Ans. i) Given equations :


2x + y = 0 and 3x 5y = 0
Joint equation of the two lines u = 0 and
v = 0 is uv = 0

the origin, which are perpendicular to the


lines represented by 5x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0
Ans. Given equation is 5x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0.
Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we

Joint equation of 2x + y = 0 and 3x 5y = 0


is

get a = 5, h = 1, and b = 3
Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

(2x + y)(3x 5y) = 0


6x2 10xy + 3xy 5y2 = 0
6x2 7xy 5y2 = 0 is the joint equation.

represented by 5x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0

m1 + m2 =

ii) Given equation of line is 3x + 2y 1 = 0

m1.m2 =

y=

3
1
x+
2
2

Slope is

3
2

1
1
Slopes of the required lines are m and m
1
2

x
2
+
3
3

Slope is

Required lines also pass through the origin,


therefore their equations are of the form
1
1
y = m x and y =
x
m2
1

1
3

x + m1y = 0 and x + m2y = 0


The joint equation of the lines is given by

Let u and v be the lines passing through


(2, 3) and perpendicular to the above lines

Slope of u is

a
5
=
b
3

Since, the required lines are perpendicular


to these lines

And equation of line is x 3y + 2 = 0


3y = x + 2

y=

2h
2
=
and
b
3

2
and v is 3
3

Equation of u is y 3 =

(x + m1y)(x + m2y) = 0
x2 + (m1 + m2) xy + m1m2y2 = 0

x2 +

2
5
xy y2 = 0
3
3

3x2 + 2xy 5y2 = 0

2
(x 2)
3

3y 9 = 2x 4
....(i)
2x 3y + 5 = 0
Equation of u is y 3 = 3(x 2)

Q-4) Find k if, slope of one of the lines given by

y 3 = 3x + 6
3x + y 9 = 0

Ans. Given equation is kx2 + 4xy y2 = 0


Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we

....(ii)

kx2 + 4xy y2 = 0 exceeds the slope of the


other by 8.

Joint equation of (i) and (ii) is


(2x 3y + 5)(3x + y 9) = 0

get a = k, 2h = 4, and b = 1
Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

6x2 + 2xy 18x 9xy 3y2 + 27y + 15x +


5y 45 = 0

represented by kx2 + 4xy y2 = 0.


m1 + m2 = 4 and m1m2 = k

6x2 7xy 3y2 3x + 32y 45 = 0 is the


joint equation.

According to the given condition,


m2 = m1 + 8

m1+m1 + 8 = 4

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

26
2 m1 = 4
m1 = 2
Now, m1(m1 + 8) = k

b + 6h + 9a = 0
9b + b + 6h = 0
This is the required condition.

(2)(2 + 8) = k
2(6) = k
12 = k
k = 12

Q-2) If the slope of one of the lines given by ax2


+ 2hxy + by2 = 0 is four times the other,

Q-5) Find the joint equation of the lines passing


through the origin having inclinations 600
and 1200 with Xaxis
Ans. Slope of the line having inclination 600 is
m1 = tan 60 = 3
And Slope of the line having inclination 1200
0

is m2 = tan 1200 = tan (180 600) = tan 600


= 3
Required lines pass through the origin,
therefore their equations are of the form
y = mx
Equations of the required lines are y = m1x
and y = m2x
i.e. y =

show that 16h2 = 25ab


Ans. Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines
represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0.

m1 + m2 =

According to the given condition,


m2 = 4m1

m1 + 4m1 =
5m1 =

2h
b

m1 =

2h
5b

3x+y=0

Also, m1(4m1) =

The joint equation of these lines is given by

2h
a
and m1m2 =
b
b

3 x and y = 3 x

3 x y = 0 and

i.e.

b 2h
+
+a=0
9
3

3x y

)(

4m12 =

3x + y = 0

3x2 y2 = 0

m 12 =

BA 2

2h
b

... (i)
a
b

a
b

a
4b
2

Q-1) Find the condition that the line 3x + y = 0


may be perpendicular to one of the lines
given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
Ans. Auxiliary equation of ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is
bm2 + 2hm + a = 0.
Slope of the lines 3x + y = 0 is 3
Now, one of the line s re pre se nte d by
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is perpendicular to the
line 3x + y = 0

Slope of that line is m =


m=

1
3

1
is a root of the auxiliary equation
3

bm2 + 2hm + a = 0.
2

a
2h

=
5
b
4b

a
4h 2
2 =
4b
25b

4h 2
a
=
, as b 0
25b
4

16h2 = 25ab

Q-3) Find the measure of acute angle between


the lines represented by 2x2 + 7xy + 3y2 = 0
Ans. Given equation is 2x2 + 7xy + 3y2 = 0.
Comparing with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we get
a = 2, h =

7
and b = 3
2

Let be the acute angle between the lines.


tan

1
1
b + 2h + a = 0
3
3

Pair of Straight Lines

... [From (ii)]

2 h 2 ab
=
a +b

49
5
6
2
4
2 =1
=
2+3
5

Mahesh Tutorials Science

27

tan = 1
= 450

Q-4) Show that 2x2 xy 3y2 6x + 19y 20 = 0


represents a pair of lines, also find the

1
2 2 ( 3)
2
2 + ( 3)

acute angle between them.


Ans. Given equation of straight line is
2x2 xy 3y2 6x + 19y 20 = 0
Comparing with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy +

1
+6
4
1

2
=

c = 0, we get
a = 2, h =

f=

1
, b = 3, g = 3,
2

19
, c = 20
2

tan = 5;

25
4

5
2

= tan1(5)

If the equation represents a pair of lines then

a h
h b

g
f =0

D =

Q-5) Find the value of k, if the following


equations represents a pair of lines
3x2 + 10xy + 3y2 + 16y + k = 0

a h

1
2

1
2

19
2

19
2

20

2
=

Ans. Given equation is 3x2 + 10xy + 3y2 + 16y + k = 0


Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy

361 1
57

= 2 60

10 +

4 2
2

19

+ ( 3)
9
4

+ c = 0, we get
a = 3, h = 5, g = 0, f = 8 and c = k
Since the euation represents a pair of lines
abc + 2fgh af2 bg2 ch2 = 0
3(3)(k) + 2(8)(0)(5) 3(8)2 3(0)2 k(5)2 = 0
9k + 0 192 0 25k = 0
16k 192 = 0
16k 192
Hence, k = 12

BA 3
= 2

240 361 1 20 + 57
+
4
2
2
19 36
3
4

121 77 165
+
+
2
4
4

242 + 242
= 0
4
Since, determinant of the given equation is
zero, it represents a pair of lines.
=

Q-1) If one of the lines given by 3x2 kxy + ky2


= 0 is perpendicular to the line 5x + 3y = 0
Ans. Given equations is 3x2 kxy + 5y2 = 0.
Its auxiliary equation is 5m2 km + 3 = 0
Slope of the line 5x + 3y = 0 is

Slope of the perpendicular to 5x + 3y = 0


is

Let be the acute angle between the pair


lines.

tan =

2 h 2 ab
a +b

5
3

3
.
5

3
is a root of auxiliary equation
5

5m2 km + 3 = 0
2

3
3
5 k + 3 = 0
5
5

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

28

Q-4) If the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2

45 3k

+3=0

25
5

= 0 make angles of equal measure with the


coordinate axes, then show that a = b.

45 15k + 75 = 0
15k = 120
k=8

Ans. Let two lines make equal angle with two


coordinate axes.

Q-2) Find the joint equation of pair of lines


through the origin and perpendicular to the
lines given by 2x2 3xy 9y2 = 0
Ans. Given equation is 2x2 3xy 9y2 = 0
i.e. 2x2 6xy + 3xy 9y2 = 0
i.e. 2x(x 3y) + 3y(x 3y) = 0
i.e. (x 3y)(2x + 3y) = 0
2

or and

+ with the positive direction of


2

X-axis.
Slope of the first line is m1 = tan and
2

Seperate equations of 2x 3xy 9y = 0


are x 3y = 0 and 2x + 3y = 0
1
2
Slopes of these lines are
and
3
3

Now, required lines are perpendicular to


these lines, therefore their slopes are 3
and

Thus, these lines will form angle and

3
.
2

slope of the other line is m2 = tan or


2

tan +
2

m2 = cot or m2 = cot
m1m2 = tan cot = 1
or m1m2 = tan (cot ) = 1
m1 m2 = 1

Since these lines also pass through the


origin, their equations are of the form

But m1m2 =

3
y = 3x and y = x
2

a
b

a
=1
b

a=b

i.e. 3x + y = 0 and 3x 2y = 0
The combined equation of the lines is
given by
(3x + y)(3x 2y) = 0
9x2 3xy 2y2 = 0
Q-3) Determine the nature of lines represented
by x2 + 7xy + 2y2 = 0
Ans. Given equation is x2 + 7xy + 2y2 = 0
Comparing with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,
we get a = 1, 2h = 7
i.e. h =

7
and b = 2
2

49
49 8
41
2=
=
>0
4
4
4
The lines represented by x2 + 7xy + 2y2 = 0
are real and distinct.

Now, h2 ab =

Q-5) Find the joint equation of pair of lines


through (2, 3) and parallel to
x2 + xy y2 = 0
Ans. Solution is attached at end

ADVANCED ASSIGNMENTS (AA) :


AA 1
Q-1) Find the joint equation of pair of lines
throu gh the origin an d making an
equilateral triangle with the line y = 3
Ans. Let OA and OB be the lines through the
origin making an angle of 600 with the line
y=3
OA and OB make an angle of 600 and
1200 with the positive direction of Xaxis.
Slope of OA = tan 600 =

Equation of line OA is y =

Pair of Straight Lines

3xy=0

3x

Mahesh Tutorials Science

29
(x 1)(x 6) = 0
The separate equations of x2 7x + 6 = 0
are

60

60

y=3
A

and

x1=0
x6=0

... (i)
... (ii)

Let the equation of side AB be x 1 = 0 and


equation of side CD be x 6 = 0.
120
60

Consider, y2 14y + 40 = 0.
(y 4)(y 10) = 0

600
X

The separate equations of y2 14y + 40 = 0


are
and

Slope of OB = tan 1200 = tan (1800 600)


= tan 600 = 3

... (iii)
... (iv)

Let the equation of side BC be y 4 = 0 and


equation of side AD be y 10 = 0.
Y

Equation of line OB is

y = 3 x i.e.

y4=0
y 10 = 0

A(1,10)

D(6,10)

B(1,4)

C(6,4)

y = 10

3x+y=0

The joint equation of the lines is given by

3x y

)(

3x + y = 0

i.e. 3x2 y2 = 0

Q-2) Fin d the sepaeate equation s of the


following lines
2

(x 2) 3(x 2)(y + 1) + 2(y + 1) = 0


Ans. Given equation of line is

y=4

X
x=1

x=6

(x 2)2 3(x 2)(y + 1) + 2(y + 1)2 = 0


(x 2)2 2(x 2)(y + 1) (x 2)(y + 1)

Solving (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv), co-ordinates of


vertices of the parallelogram are A (1,10),

+ 2(y + 1)2 = 0
(x 2) [(x 2) 2(y + 1)] (y + 1)[(x 2)
2(y + 1)] = 0
[(x 2) (y + 1)] [x 2) 2(y + 1)] = 0

B (1,4), C (6,4) and D (6,10).


Equation of the diagonal AC is

(x 2 y 1)(x 2 2y 2) = 0
(x y 3)(x 2y 4) = 0

5y + 50 = 6x 6
6x + 5y 56 = 0

Thus, separate equation of the lines are


x y 3 = 0 and x 2y 4 = 0

Q-3) Equation of pairs of opposite side of a


parallelogram are x2 7x + 6 = 0 and
y2 14y + 40 = 0. Find the joint equation of
its diagonals.
Ans. Let ABCD be the parallelogram such that the
combined equation of sides AB and CD is
x 2 7x + 6 = 0
And the combined equation of sides BC and
AD is y2 14y + 40 = 0.
Consider x2 7x + 6 = 0

y 10 10 4
6
=
=
x 1
1 6
5

Equation of diagonal BD is
y 4 4 10 6 6
=
=
=
1 6
5 5
x 1

5y 20 = 6x 6
6x 5y + 14 = 0
Equ atio ns o f th e di agon als of t he
parallelogram are 6x + 5y 56 = 0 and
6x 5y + 14 = 0 respectively.
Joint equation is
(6x + 5y 56)(6x 5y + 14) = 0
6x (6x 5y + 14) + 5y (6x 5y + 14)
56 (6x 5y + 14) = 0

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

30
36x2 30xy + 84x + 30xy 25y2 + 70y
336x + 280y 784 = 0
36x2 25y2 252x + 350y 784 = 0

3
m

4
=
3
3
1+ m

4m + 3
3 = 4 3m

Q-4) Show that the joint equation of a pair of


lines through the origin and each making
an angle of with x + y = 0 is
x2 + 2sec 2axy + y2 = 0

Squaring both sides, we get

Ans. Let OA and OB be the required lines.


Let m be the slope of OA or OB.

Its equation is y = mx
... (i)
it makes an angle with the line x + y = 0
whose slope is 1.
tan =

Since, required lines pass through the origin,


their equations are of the form y = mx i.e.

tan =

3(4 3m)2 = (4m + 3)2


3(16 24m + 9m2) = 16m2 + 24m + 9
48 72m + 27m2 = 16m2 + 24m + 9
... (i)
11m2 96m + 39 = 0

m +1
1+ m ( 1)

Squaring both sides, we get


2

3=

(m +1)
2
(1 m )

m=

tan2 (1 2m + m2) = m2 + 2m + 1
tan2 2m tan2 + m2 tan2 = m2 + 2m +
1
(tan2 1)m2 2(1 + tan2 ) m +

(tan2 1) = 0

y
y
11 96 + 39 = 0 ... [From (i)]
x
x

11y 2 96y

+ 39 = 0

x
x2

e quati on w hich can be writte n as


39x2 + 96xy 11y2 = 0

1+ tan
m2 + 2
m + 1 = 0
2
1 tan
2

i.e. (9x2 + 48x2) + (24xy + 72xy)


+ (16y2 27y2) = 0

m2 + 2(sec 2) m + 1 = 0
y
y2
+1=
2 + 2(sec 2)
x
x

... [From (i)]

y + 2xy sec 2 + x = 0
x2 + 2xy sec 2 + y2 = 0 is the required
joint equation.

(3x +4y)2 3(4x 3y)2 = 0


form an equilateral triangle.
Ans. Slope of the line 3x + 4y = 5 is m1 =

i.e. (9x2 + 24xy + 16y2)


3(16x2 24xy + 9y2) = 0
i.e. (3x + 4y)2 3(4x 3y)2 = 0
Hence, the line 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 and the lines

AA 2
3
4

Let m be the slope of one of the line making


an angle of 600 with the line 3x + 4y = 5.
Since, the angle between the lines having
slope m and m1 is 600,

Pair of Straight Lines

i.e. (9x2 + 24xy + 16y2)


(48x2 72xy + 27y2) = 0

(3x + 4y)2 3(4x 3y)2 form an equilateral


triangle.

Q-5) Show that 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 and

m m1
tan 600 = 1+ m.m
1

y
x

11y2 96xy + 39x2 = 0


39x2 96xy + 11y2 = 0 is the required joint.

1+ tan2
m2 2
m + 1 = 0
2
tan 1

( 4m + 3 )
2
( 4 3m )

Q-1) If the slope of one of the lines given by ax2


+ ab2 + 8h3 = 6abh is square of the slope of
the other line, then show that a2b + ab2 +
8h3 = 6abh
Ans. Let m be the slope of one of the lines given by
ax2 + 2hxy + by3 = 0
Slope of the other line = m2

Mahesh Tutorials Science

m + m2 =

and m.m2 =

31
Comparing the coefficients of (i) and (ii), we

2h
b

... (i)
get

a
a
i.e. m3 =
... (ii)
b
b

a b 2b 2c
= =
=
and 2a + c = 0
1 2
4
k

a=

(m + m2) = m3 + (m2)3 + 3(m)(m2)(m + m2)


3

a a 2 a 2h
2h
= + 2 +

b b
b b
b
3

a=
1=

8h
a a
6ah
= + 2 2
b b
b3
b

2c
and c = 2a
k

2 ( 2a )
k
4
k

k=4
3

Multiplying both sides by b , we get


3

8h = ab + a b 6abh
a2b + ab2 + 8h3 = 6abh

Q-2) If the lines given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0


form an equilateral triangle with the line
lx + my = 1 then show that
(3a + b)(a + b) 4h2 = 0
Ans. Lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 form an equilateral
triangle with the line lx + my = 1
Angle between the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2
= 0 is 600
2 h 2 ab
tan 60 =
a +b
0

3 =

2 h ab
a +b

Q-4) Find the joint equation of bisectors of


angles between the lines represented by
5x2 + 6xy y2 = 0
Ans. Given equation is 5x2 + 6xy y2 = 0
Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we
get a = 5, 2h = 6 and b = 1
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines
represented by 5x2 + 6xy y2 = 0.
m1 + m2 = 6 and m1.m2 = 5
...(i)
The separate equations of the lines are

y = m1x and y = m2x, where m1 m2


m1x y = 0 and m2x y = 0
Let (x,y) be any point on one of the bisector
of the angles between the lines.
Distance of P from the line m1x y = 0 is
equal to the distance of P from line

m2x y = 0.

3(a + b)2 = 4(h2 ab)


3(a2 + 2ab + b2) = 4h2 4ab

Y
Angle
bisector

3a2 + 6ab + 3b2 + 4ab = 4h2


3a2 + 10ab + 3b2 = 4h2

P(x,y)

3a2 + 9ab + ab + 3b2 = 4h2


3a (a + 3b) + b(a + 3b) = 4h2
(3a + b)(a + 3b) 4h2 = 0

Q-3) If the line x + 2 = 0 coincides with one of


the lines represented by the Equation
x2 + 2xy + 4y + k = 0 then prove that k = 4
Ans. Given equation is

X
Angle bisector

m1 x y

m2 x y

x2 + 2xy + 4y + k = 0
... (i)
One of the lines represented by given

equation is x + 2 = 0.
Let the other line be ax + by + c = 0

Squaring both sides, we get

The combined equation of the lines is


given by (x + 2) (ax + by + c) = 0
ax2 + bxy + cx + 2ax + 2by + 2c = 0
ax2 + bxy + (2a + c)x + 2by + 2c = 0 ...(ii)

m12 +1

(m1 x y )
m12 +1

m 22 +1

(m 2 x y )

m22 +1

[(m22 + 1)(m1x y)2] = [(m12 + 1)(m2x y)2]

Pair of Straight Lines

Mahesh Tutorials Science

32
[(m22 + 1)(m12x2 2m1xy + y2)
= (m12 + 1)(m22x2 2m2xy + y2)
2
2 2
m1 m2 x 2m1m22xy + m22y2 + m12x2

2m1xy + y2 m12m22x2 2m12m2xy + m12y2


+ m22x2 2m2xy + y2
(m12 m22)x2 + 2m1m2(m1 m2)xy
2(m1 m2)xy (m12 m22)y2 = 0

Dividing throughout by m1 m2, we get,


(m1 + m2)x2 + 2m1m2xy 2xy (m1 m2)y2 = 0
6x2 10xy 2xy 6y2 = 0
6x2 12xy 6y2 = 0

...[By (i)]

x2 2xy y2 = 0 is the required joint


equation.

Q-5) Find the measure of the acute angle


between the lines represented by (a2 3b3)
x2 + 8abxy + (b2 3a2)y2 = 0
Ans. Given equation is
(a2 3b3) x2 + 8abxy + (b2 3a2)y2 = 0
Comparing with Ax2 + 2Hxy + By2 = 0, we
get A = a2 3b2, H = 4ab and B = b2 3a2
Now, H2 AB = 16a2b2 (a2 3b2)(b2 3a2)
= 16a2b2 (a2 3b2)(3a2 b2)
= 16a2b2 3a4 10a2b2 + 3b4
= 3(a2 + b2)2

3 (a2 + b2)
H 2 AB =
Also, A + B = (a2 3b2)(b2 3a2)
= 2(a2 + b2)

Let be the acute angle between the lines.


tan

2 3 a2 + b2
2 H2 AB
=
= 3
A + AB
2 a 2 + b 2

= 600

Pair of Straight Lines