Anda di halaman 1dari 32

# RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

U
N
I
T
The Quirino Bridge in Santa, Ilocos Sur is composed of metal
members, strategically and equally placed to hold the weight and stabilize
the whole bridge.
Thus, to be able to put up this architectural design, mathematical
skills in solving the exact distance and location of each structural member
3wl
wl 2
and
are necessary. Rational algebraic expressions such as
, where w
8
8
is width and l is length are considered in the construction of this bridge.

## In this unit, you will learn to simplify and perform operations on

rational algebraic expressions. Each lesson has been provided with
examples. The solution to each example is explained in detail so as to give
you a deeper understanding of each lesson.

I
V

## The figure above was designed

applying rational algebraic expressions.
You will see that the figure shows a
geometric pattern which uses repeated
shapes to cover the plane without gaps or
overlaps. This geometric pattern is called
tessellation. Tessellations are made up of
regular polygons often used in architecture.
Not all regular polygons tessellate the plane.
2n
, n represents
n2
the number of sides of a regular polygon. If
the value of the expression is a whole for n,
an integer > 3, then the regular polygon with
n sides will tessellate the plane.
In the expression

## Try finding three values of n that

will make the expression a whole number.

## Rational Algebraic Expressions

Algebraic expressions containing variables
p
that are written the form , p and q are
q
polynomial expressions, q 0, are called
rational algebraic expressions.
Examples of rational expressions are:

a + b 8 x 3 3x 2 + 2 x + 6
1
,
and 5 .
2
a b
4 x + 5x
k
You can simplify rational algebraic
expressions by dividing both numerator and
denominator by their greatest common
factor (GCF). The GCF of two numbers is
the product of their common prime factors.
Examples:
1. The GCF of 24 and 72.
The factors are shown below.
24 = 2 2 2 3
72 = 2 2 2 3
The GCF is 24
2. The GCF of 34x2 and 42x5.
The factors are shown below.
34x2 = 2 17 x2
42x5 = 2 3 7 x2 x3
The GCF is 2x2
3. The GCF of 2x2 + 8x and x2 + x -12

2x2 + 8x = 2(x + 4)
x2 + x 12 = (x +4)(x -3)
The GCF is x +4
Activity 1:
Find the GCF of the following.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

16 and 8
48 and 12
42y and 18xy
m + 5 and 2m + 10
y2 + 4y + 4 and 3y2 + 5y 2

24
(2 2 2) 3
=
72 (2 2 2) 3 3

GCF is 24

24 1
= is the lowest terms
72 3
2. Reduce

34 x 2
in its lowest terms.
42 x 5

## Factor completely the numerator and

denominator.
34x2 = 2 17 x2

Test 1:
Find the GCF of the following.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Factor the numerator and denominator

21 and 35
6xy and 15y3
x2 2x + 1 and x2 - 1
x2 25 and 6x2 + 29x - 5
5x 10 and x2 6x + 8

Instructions:

42x5 = 2 3 7 x2 x3
The GCF is 2x2
Divide the numerator and denominator by
the GCF, 2x2
34 x 2
42 x 5

17
is the lowest term
21x 3

3x 12
in lowest terms.
5 x 20

3. Write

## * If your score is 3 or higher, you may

proceed to the next topic; otherwise, read
the lesson once more and do the Test again.

GCF is x - 4.

## Simplifying Rational Expressions

Rational expression is in the lowest
terms if the numerator and denominators
have no common factor other than 1 or 1.
Examples:
1. Write
form.

24
in lowest term or simplest
72

3x 12
3
3( x 4)
=
=
5( x 4)
5 x 20
5
Divide numerator and denominator by x 4.
3x 12
5 x 20
4. Write

3
is in lowest terms
5

x 2 + 2x 8
in lowest terms.
2x 2 x 6

2n 6
5n 15
12 x 2 y 5
2.
48 x 2 y 2

## Divide both numerator and denominator by

x 2 and cancel common factors.

1.

x2 + 2x 8 = (x + 4)(x 2)
2x2 x 6 = (2x + 3)(x 2)

x2 4
3. 2
x + 4x + 4
x2 x 6
4. 2
x + x 12
a 2 + 3a 4
5.
a2 1

( x + 4)( x 2)
x 2 + 2x 8
=
2
(2 x + 3)( x 2)
2x x 6
x+4
x 2 + 2x 8
is in lowest
=
2
2x + 3
2x x 6
terms.
5. Express

a2 + b2
does not
B. Explain why
( a + b) 2
simplify to 1.

8a 2 + 6a 9
in lowest terms
16a 2 9

## Factor the numerator and denominator,

and canceling the GCF we have,
8a 2 + 6a 9
(2a + 3)(4a 3)
=
2
(4a + 3)(4a 3)
16a 9
8a 2 + 6a 9
2a + 3
=
in lowest
2
4a + 3
16a 9
terms
k 3 + p3
in lowest terms
k 2 p2
Factoring, we have

Test 2:
A.

## Simplify the following rational

in lowest terms.
1.

a 2 4a
4a a 2

2.

4a 2 20a
a 2 4a 5

3.

4x
12 x 2

4.

x+5
x + 3x 10

5.

y 2 + 8 y 20
y2 4

6. Write

(k + p )(k 2 kp + p 2 )
k 3 + p3
=
(k p )(k + p )
k 2 p2

## Cancelling common factors yield

k 2 kp + p 2
kp
Activity 2:
A. Write in lowest terms.

Instructions:
* After answering the test, check your

## * If your score is 3 or higher, you may

proceed to the next topic; otherwise, read
the lesson once more and do the Test again.

9x2y2 = 3 . x x

yy3

LCD = 3 2 x x x x x y y 3
= 18x5y2

## Least common denominator

The least common denominator (LCD) of
two or more rational expressions is the
smallest positive common multiple of the
denominators of the rational expressions.
Let us recall the process of finding least
common multiple (LCM) of two or more
numbers. The LCM is the smallest nonzero
multiple which the numbers have in
common.
Examples:
1. Find the LCM of 6 and 8.
Multiples of 6: 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36,
42, 48 .
Multiples of 8: 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48,
56, 64

7
9
and
.
6w 12
9w 18
6w 12 = 6(w 2)
9w 18 = 9(w 2)

3. The LCD of

## LCD = 6 9(w 2) = 54(w 2)

4. The LCD of the rational expressions
2
1
3
;
; 2
2
a 9 3a + 3a 18 a 4a + 4
2

a2 9 = (a + 3)(a 3)
3a2 + 3a + 8 = 3(a2 + a 6)
= 3(a + 3)(a 2)
a2 4a + 4 = (a 2)(a 2)
= (a 2)2

## The LCM of 6 and 8 is 24.

The least common denominator
(LCD) of two or more fractions is the least
number that is divisible by all
denominators. It is found by multiplying the
different prime factors of each denominator,
taking the greatest number of times it
appears in any denominator.
2. The LCD of the rational
2
3x
.
expressions 5 and
6x y
9x 2 y
Find the complete factorization of all the
denominators.
6x5y = 3 . 2 . x x x x x y

## Thus, the LCD is

3(a + 3)(a 3)(a 2 )2
Activity 3:
A. The LCD of the following pairs of
rational expressions.
1.

2
8
and
15k
4k

2.

5
2
and
3
5y
15 y 5

3.

7
1
and
5 y 30
6 y 36

8x
15
x
5
4x
15

1
9
and
4. 2
2
k + 4k 12
k + k 90
5.

8
10
and
2
2d 11d + 14
2d d 21
2

Test 3:
A. Find the LCD of the following pairs
of rational expressions.
6
1
1.
and
18
36
3
5
2.
and
2
6ab
4ab
1
3
3.
and
4a 8b
3a 6b
b
3b
and
4.
2
2
2b b 3
3b + 5b + 2
5.

2x
1
and 2
x 2x 8
x 6x + 8
2

Instructions:
* After answering the test, check your
* If your score is 3 or higher, you may
proceed to the next topic; otherwise, read
the lesson once more and do the Test again.
Before you proceed to the next concept
TAKE A BREAK and do the magic
square below.

x
15
x
3
3x
5

2x
5
7x
15
2x
15

x
x
x

Complete the entries to form a magic
square whose entries in each row, each
column and each diagonal sum up to
numbers written outside the grid.
11x
3
10
3
3x

2x

5x

4x

To add two or more rational expressions,
use a procedure similar to that of adding two
numerical fractions.

p
r
and
are rational expressions,
q
q
p r
p+r
then + =
.
q q
q
If

Examples:

## Below is an example of a 3 x 3 magic

square. Notice that when you add every
row, column, and diagonal the sum is x.

1.

7 3
+
12 12

## Since the denominators are the same,

the sum is found by adding the two
numerators and keeping the same
(common) denominator.
7
3
7+3
10 5 2
+
=
=
=
12 12
12
12 6 2
by canceling common factors.
7
3
5
+
=
12 12 6

3y
4y
and
y 5
y 5

## Rewrite the rational expressions as

fractions denominator 60
1
2
1(5)
2(4)
+
=
+
12 15 12(5) 15( 4)
5
8
+
60
60
Since the fractions are now having
numerators copy the same denominator
and write in lowest terms if necessary.
=

## Since the denominators are the same,

the sum is found by adding the two
numerators and keeping the same
(common) denominator.
3y + 4 y
y 5
7y
=
y 5
=

Algebraic Expressions

## To add dissimilar rational algebraic

expressions, use the same steps that are
Examples:

1
2
+
12 15

## Find the least common denominator

(LCD)
12 = 2 2 3
15 = 3 5
LCD = 2 2 3 5 = 60

2. Find:

5+8
60

13
60

2
3
+
2x 6x

## Find the LCD of the fractions

2x = 2 x
6x = 2 3 x
LCD = 2 x 3 = 6x
Rewrite the rational expressions as
fractions with LCD, 6x.
2
3
2(3)
3(1)
+
=
+
2 x(3) 6 x(1)
2x 6x
=

6
3
+
6x 6x

6+3
6x

9
33
=
6x
3 2 x

3
2x
x
x
+
x +1
x 1

3. Find:

## Rewrite the fractions and find the

LCD
x
x
+
( x + 1)( x 1)
x +1
The LCD is (x + 1)(x - 1)
Rewrite the rational expressions as
fractions with LCD (x + 1)(x 1 )

## The LCD is (x + 2)(x + 3)(x - 1)

Rewrite the rational expressions as
fractions with (x + 1)(x 1 )(x + 3) as
denominator.
=

2 x( x 1)
+
( x + 2)( x + 3)( x 1)

( x + 1)( x + 2)
( x + 3)( x 1)( x + 2)
Now that the two rational expressions
have the same denominator, simplify the
numerator.

x
x( x 1)
+
( x + 1)( x 1)
( x + 1)( x 1)

2 x( x 1) + ( x + 1)( x + 2)
( x + 2)( x + 3)( x 1)

## Multiply the numerator and denominator

of the second fraction by (x - 1). Add the
numerators.

2 x 2 2 x + x 2 + 3x + 2
( x + 2)( x + 3)( x 1)

x + x( x 1)
( x + 1)( x 1)
Simplify the numerator
x+x x
( x + 1)( x 1)
2

3x 2 + x + 2
( x + 2)( x + 3)( x 1)
.
Activity 4:

1.

x2
( x + 1)( x 1)

2x
x +1
and 2
x + 5x + 6
x + 2x 3

2.
3.

4.

2x
x +1
+
( x + 2)( x + 3)
( x + 3)( x 1)

5.

3
2
+
s
s
x
2x
+
p 5
p 5
2n + 3
n4
+ 2
2
n 4n + 4
n +n6
3
2
+ 2
2
a 5a + 6
a a2
r +1
r 1
+ 2
2
r 3r 10
r + r 30

Test 4:
lowest terms.

## (Use the formula, P = s1 + s2 + s3), where

s1, s2, and s3 are the lengths of the sides
of the triangle.

1.

3a
5a
+
9a 8 9a 8

2.

2x
1
+
2
2x + 7x + 3
2x + 7x + 3

3.

3x
2x
+
x+ y
2x + 2 y

## Problem solving applying addition of

rational algebraic expressions

4.

5
4
+
t 6
t+6

5.

3a
4a 1
+ 2
2
a + ab 2b
a b2

Examples:
1. When a number is subtracted from
the numerator and added to the
17
5
denominator of , the result is .
22
8
What is the number?

x 2 5x 9
x6

x2 6
x6

Instructions:
* After answering the test, check your
* If your score is 3 or higher, you may
proceed to the next topic; otherwise, read
the lesson once more and do the Test again.
Try more:
Solve the following problems:
1. Johnny, a farm caretaker, was asked
to fence the farm he is working. The
y+4
farm has a length of
m and
5
y2
m. Find the
width of
5
perimeter of the farm.
(Use formula: P = 2l + 2w).
2. The perimeter of the figure is (2x + 5)cm.

Solution:
Let x = the number to be added and
subtracted.
Original fraction
17
22

New fraction
17 x
22 + x

Equation:

17 x
5
=
22 + x 8

x x
+ =1
2 4
LCD = 4
4(

LCD = 8(22 + x)
8(22 + x)

x
x
) + 4( ) = 4(1)
2
4

17 x
5
= 8(22 + x)
22 + x 8

2x + x = 4
3x = 4

8(17- x) = (22 + x) 5
x= 1

136 8x = 110 + 5x
136 -110 = 8x + 5x
26 = 13x
2=x
or x = 2
Check:

## Thus, Ed and his brother can finish it in 1

1
3

hours.
Activity 5:
Solve the following problems.

17 2
5
=
22 + 2 8
15
5
=
24
8

## Therefore, the required number is 2.

2. Ed can build a fence in 2 hours. His
brother can do it in 4 hours. How long
would it take them working together?
Solution:
Let x = number of hours for both to
work together.
x
= part of the job Ed can finish in 1
2
hour
x
= part of the job brother can finish in
4
1 hour
Equation:

1
hrs.
3

## 1. What number must be added to both

numerator and denominator of the fraction
5
3
equal to ?
8
4
2. Margie weeds the farm in 3 hours.
Mae in 5 hours, Mia in 8 hours. If all three
work together, how long will it take them to
weed the farm?
Test 5:
1. What number can be subtracted from
both the numerator and denominator of the
7
1
fraction
to make a fraction equal to ?
12
2
2. Ken can paint a room in 4 hours. His
brother Nikki can do it in 5 hours.
How long would it take them
working together?

Instructions:

3. Find:

## * After answering the test, check your

* If your score is 1 or higher, you may
proceed to the next topic; otherwise, read
the lesson once more and do the Test again.

11 7
12 15

## Notice that their denominators are

different. Thus, we find the LCD.
12 = 2 2 3
15 = 3 5

## Subtracting Rational Expressions

LCD = 2 2 3 5 = 60

## To subtract two rational expressions, you

use the rule similar to subtracting numerical
fractions.

## Rewrite the rational expressions as

fractions with 60 as the denominator

## Subtracting Rational Expressions

r
p
If and are rational similar
q
q
pr
p r
=
expressions then,
.
q q
q
Examples:
18
6
30 30

1. Find :

11 7
11(5)
7 ( 4)
=
12 15 12(5) 15(4)
55 28
=
60 60
Since the fractions are now similar, you
have to subtract the numerators and copy
the denominator. Write the result in
lowest terms.
55 28
60
27
39
=
=
60
3 20
9
=
20
=

## Notice that their denominators are the

same, Thus, the difference is found by
subtracting the two numerators and
copying the common denominator.
18
6
12
2
=
or
in lowest terms.
30 30 30
5
2.. Find:

10 x
5x
- 2
x 12 x 12
2

10 x 5 x
x 2 12

Simplifying
5x
= 2
x 12

4. Find :

2
2
3b 7b

## Find the LCD.

3b = 3 b
7b = 7 b
LCD = 3 7 b = 21b
Rewrite the rational expressions as
fractions with 21b as the denominator

2
2
2(7)
2(3)
=
3b 7b
3b(7) 7b(3)
14
6
=
21b 21b
Since the fractions are now similar,
subtract the numerator, copy the same
denominator and write the difference in
lowest terms.
14 6
=
21b
8
=
21b
3
9
from
5. Subtract
x
x2

6. Find :

9( x)
3x 6
x( x 2) x( x 2)

9 x 3x + 6
x( x 2)

6x + 6
x( x 2)

1
1
p 1 p +1

## The LCD is (p - 1)(p + 1)

Rewrite the rational expressions as
fractions with (p 1)(p + 1) as the
denominator
1
1
1( p + 1)
1( p 1)
=
p 1 p + 1 p 1( p + 1) p + 1( p 1)

p + 1 ( p 1)
( p 1)( p + 1)

p +1 p +1
( p 1)( p + 1)

2
( p 1)( p + 1)
7. Perform the indicated operation.
=

3
x
2
x 4 x 5 2 x 13x + 15
2

=

## The LCD is (x - 2)(x)

9
3
9( x)
3( x 2)
=
( x 2)( x) x( x 2)
x2 x

x
3
( x 5)( x + 1) ( x 5)(2 x 3)

## The LCD is (x - 5)(x + 1)(2x 3).

Rewrite each rational expression with
(x - 5) (x + 1)(2x 3) as denominator.
=

x(2 x 3)
( x 5)( x + 1)(2 x 3)
3( x + 1)
( x 5)(2 x 3)( x + 1)
=

2 x 2 3x
( x 5)( x + 1)(2 x 3)
3x + 3
( x 5)(2 x 3)( x + 1)

## Since the fractions are now similar,

subtract the numerators, copy the
denominator and write the result in
lowest terms.
2 x 2 3 x (3 x + 3)
=
( x 5)( x + 1)(2 x 3)

2 x 2 3x 3x 3
( x 5)( x + 1)(2 x 3)

6.

Test 6

## A. Perform the indicated operation and

write the answer in lowest terms.
1.

1
1
- 2
b 1 b + 3b + 2

2.

8
2
3 7y 7y 3

5.

2y +1
2
1
+
2
y 3 y +3
9 y

1
3
- 2
2
m + mn 2m
m 3mn + 2n 2
4m 3n
4m n
2
2
2
16m n
16m + 8mn + n 2

2x
3x
x + y 2x + 2 y

4m + 5 m + 2
3
6
1
a
3.
a b 4a 4b
2.

6x 3x
3
3
x 3
5.
3 x
4.

## Subtract the rational expressions and

1.

3 2
p
p

2.

x
2x
k 5 k 5

3.

15
3
2
k +2
4k

4..

m
3
- 2
m + 3m 18 m + 3m 18

5.

x
3x
- 2
2
x + xy 2 y
x 3xy + 2 y 2

## B. Subtract the rational expressions.

decode the word by writing the letter
that corresponds to the correct
number in the blank provided.
1.

6 x
3( x + 3)( x 3)

7.

Activity 6:

4.

1
15 + 30 12k 2
1
S
4k 2 (k + 2)
x 2 9 3x + 9
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
1 2 3 4 5 2 6 7

2x 2 6x 3
=
( x 5)( x + 1)(2 x 3)

3. -

15
3
2
k+2
4k

Instructions:
* After answering the test, check your

O x
( x 3)( x + 3)
3x
7m + 8
E
6

x
2( x + y )

H 4(a- b)

## * If your score is 3 or higher, you may

proceed to the next topic; otherwise, read
the lesson once more and do the Test again

## Multiplying Rational Expressions

When you multiply two rational
expressions, adopts the same procedure in
multiplying two rational numbers.

## If p, q, r and s are real numbers with q 0

and s 0 , then
pr
p r

=
q s
qs
The same rule applies to multiplication of
rational expressions.
Examples:
Find:
1.

2.

3 4
3 4 12
=
=
7 5
75
35
2x 9
2 x9
18 x
3x

=
=
or
3y 8y
3 y.8 y
24 y
4y

## Dividing both numerator and

denominator by (x 2)(2x + 1).
x+2
3( x 3)
5. Find:

## Factoring the numerator and

denominator will yield
( x 6)( x + 3)
( x 2)( x + 1)

4m 3 (m 5)
m(m 5)12

## Divide both numerator and denominator

by (m- 5) and simplify.
4m 3
m2
.
=
12m
3
4. Multiply:

2x + 1
x2 4

2
x 5x + 6 6 x + 3

## Factoring the numerator and the

denominator
( x 2)( x + 2)(2 x + 1)
( x 2)( x 3)[3(2 x + 1)]

3( x + 1)
( x 5( x + 3)

## Dividing both numerator and

denominator by (x+3)(x+1) will result in
3( x 6)
( x 2)( x 5)

4m 3
m5
3. Multiply:

2
12
m 5m
factor m2 5m

3x + 3
x 2 3 x 18
2
2
x x2
x 2 x 15

Activity 7:
A. Multiply as indicated and express
each product in simplest form.
1.

3 12

8 15

2.

2ab
c
2
2
3c
a

3.

9 x2
x

x +3 3 x

4.

a 2 + 5a a 2 4a

a 2 16 a 2 25

5.

6x 3y
2x + y
2
2
4 x + 4 xy + y 4 x 4 xy + y 2
2

Take a break:
Solve this problem.

## If p, q, r and s are real numbers, with

Find two different pairs of rational
expressions whose product is
8a 2 + 16a 24
a 2 + 13a + 40
Test 7:
A. Multiply and express each product in
the simplest form.
12 21

7 54
4a 2 8b 2 c
2.

3bc 6a 2
1.

3.

t +1
t 2 + 5t
2
5 + t t 25
x + 8 x + 16 x 3

x+4
x2 9
2

4.

5.

x 2 6x + 5 x 1

x 1
x5

Instructions:
* After answering the test, check your
* If your score is 3 or higher, you may
proceed to the next topic; otherwise, read
the lesson once more and do the Test again

## Dividing Rational Expressions

Dividing rational expressions is the same
as multiplying the dividend by the
multiplicative inverse or reciprocal of the
divisor.
Rule for Dividing Fractions

## q 0 and r 0 and s 0, then

p r
p s
ps
=
=
q s
q r
qr
Examples:
1. Divide

5
4
by
9
15

5
by the multiplicative
9
4
15
which is
.
inverse or reciprocal of
15
4
5 15
=
9 4

Multiply

## Factor the numerator and the

denominator and cancel common factors
5 15
5 53
25

=
9 4
3 3 2 2 12
2. Find:

5y
15 y 3

9 xz 2 18 x 2 z 2

Multiplying

5y
by the reciprocal of
9 xz 2

15 y 3
18 x 2 z 2
, we get
which
is
18 x 2 z 2
15 y 3
5y
18 x 2 z 2

9 xz 2
15 y 3
Factor the numerators and denominators
and cancel common factors.
5y
9 2x 2 z 2
=

9 xz 2
5 3y3

2x
3y 2

3. Find:

Multiply

x
x2

2
2
x+5
x 25x
x2
by the reciprocal of
x 2 25x 2

x
x+5
which is
x+5
x
=

4 x2
2
2x
5
4 x2
4 x2 2 x
2

as
Rewrite
2x
2
5
5
By definition of division of fractions, we
proceed as follows:

x+5
x2

2
2
x
x 25x

## Factor the numerators and denominators.

xx
x+5
=

( x + 5 x)( x 5 x)
x
x
=
x5

## Complex Rational Expressions

A complex rational expression is a
rational expression whose numerator or
denominator contains one or more
rational expressions.

## Factor the numerator and denominator.

Cancel the common factor.
=

(2 x)(2 + x)
5

2
2 x
5(2 + x)
=
2
Activity 8:
A. State the multiplicative inverse or
reciprocal of each expression
below..

Examples:
1.
2
1 1
3
a
+
2a 3
x ; m n :
2
2
8
5
+
2a 1
2
3m 3n
2a 3
x

## To simplify a complex rational

expression, consider the example below:
Simplify complex fraction

5
4 x2

2
2 x

3
8

1
x y
7x
3.
9y
x+ y
4.
2
18x
5.
7
2.

## B. Perform each indicated division

and write the answer in simplest
form.
21 3
1.

7 14
2.

7 14

a a2

3.

5
10

m3 m3

3x 21
3x
2
4. 2
x 49 x + 7 x
x2 y2
2
5.
x y
4

Test: 8
Perform each indicated division and
write the answer in simplest form.

Instructions:
* After answering the test, check your
* If your score is 3 or higher, you may
proceed to the next topic; otherwise, read
the lesson once more and do the Test again

Summary:

## To simplify a rational algebraic

expression, divide both numerator and
denominator by their greatest common
factor (GCF).

## The GCF is the greatest factor that a set

of terms has in common.

## The LCM of two or more numbers is

the smallest nonzero multiple which
numbers have in common.

## Addition and Subtraction of Rational

Expressions
1. Similar rational expressions

1.

3d c
6dc
- 5
4
a
a

a2 b2
a+b
2. 2

2
x+ y
x y
3.

x y 5x 2 5 y 2

x+ y
3x 3 y

5a 2 5ab 5a 2 + 5b 2
4.

b
ab + b 2
3x
y
5
5y2
2x3

p
p
and
are rational expressions
q
q
p
r
p+r
then,
+ =
and
q
q
q
p r
pr
=
q q
q

If

## 2. Dissimilar rational expressions

expressions
with
dissimilar
denominators, write them as
equivalent expressions with a least
common denominator.

## Multiplication of Rational Expressions

p
r
and are rational expressions,
q
s
p r
pr
=
then,
q s
qs

b.

If

## Division of Rational Expressions

p
r
p
is divided by , multiply by
q
s
q
r
the multiplicative inverse of , for r 0
s
r
p
p s
=

q
q r
s

4. The difference of

1.

m 2 n mn 2
is
m 2 mn
a. m

c. mn
m
d.
n

b. n

## 2. Which is the sum of

y+3
2
y+3
b.
10
a.

3. When simplified,
7
a.
x+2

5y
15
and
?
10
10

5y
10
y+2
d.
5

c.

7 x 21
is equal to
x2 x 6
7
c.
x2

7
x2

d.

3
7
- 2
is
x x x 1
2

a.

4x 7
x( x 1)( x + 1)

c.

4x + 7
x( x 1)( x + 1)

c.

4x 7
( x 1)( x + 1)

d.

4x 7
x( x 1)

If

CHAPTER TEST:

7
x+2

## 5. What is the reciprocal of

6x 9
?
25
6x + 9
25
c.
a.
25
6x + 9
25
d. none of these
b.
6x 9
6. The least common denominator
2
5
and
is
2 2
8x y
12 xy 3
c. 24x2y3
d. 24xy3

a. 24xy
b. 24x3y2

## 7. The greatest common factor of 24x and

14x2 is
a.2x
b. 2x2
8. When simplified,

c. 4x
d. 24x2
4
5
3
+
2
2 xy 3 y 2
x

is equal to
18 y 2 + 15 xy 8 x 2
a.
6x 2 y 2
18 y + 15 xy 8 x 2
b.
6x 2 y 2

c.
d.

18 y 2 + 15 xy 8 x
6x 2 y 2
18 y 2 + 15 xy + 8 x 2
6x 2 y 2

a.

c.

2a + b
2ab
ab
2ab

equal to
2ab
a.
c2
2ab 2
b.
c2

b.

d.

d.

a 2 ab a b
3a
15b 2

17.

x 1
x 2 2x + 1
2
y 5
y 25

18.

c 2 + 3c
c
+
2
c +1
c + 2c 3

19.

a 2 49
3a 21
+
2
2a + 14
( a + 7)

20.

a2 b2
a b
2
2
x+ y
x y

21.

8
2
3 7y 7y 3

22.

p+q
q p
2
2
3 p + 2 pq q
6 p 5 pq + q 2

23.

mn
m+n
- 2
2
m + 2mn + n
m mn 2n 2

24.

1
1
- 2
b 1 b + 3b + 2

25.

2t 1 2t + 1
t +1
t 1

a+b 3
is
ab
2a
2a b
2ab
2a b
ab

6a 2 b
3ac
is

5c
5b
c.

16.

2a 2 b
c2
ab
c2

## Perform the indicated operation and

write each answer in simplest form.
7ab 81c 2
11.

9c
91a 2 b
12.

x2 y2 a + b

a2 b2 x y

y + 6 4y2
13.

2y
y+6
14.

a 2 3a
x 2 2x + 1
2
y 5
a + a 12

15.

a 1 a +1

a + 2 a 1

5.
Activity 1
Find the (GCF) of the following numbers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

16 and 8
GCF = 8
48 and 12
GCF = 12
42y and 18xy
GCF = 6y
n+5 and 2m + 10
GCF = m +5
2
2
y +4y + 4 and 3 + 5y -2
GCF = (y + 2)
Test: 1

## Find the greatest (GCF) of the following

numbers.
1. 21 and 35
GCF = 7
3
2. 6xy and 15y
GCF = 3y
3. x2 - 2x +1 and x2 -1
GCF = (x - 1)
4. x2 25 and 6x2 + 29 -5 GCF = (x + 5)
5. 5x 10 and x2 -6x +8
GCF = (x - 2)
Activity 2:
A. Simplify the following rational
lowest terms.
2n 6
2(n 3)
2
1.
=
=
5n 15 5(n 3)
5
12 x y
3 4 x x y y y y y
=
2 2
34 4 x x y y
48 x y
2

2.

y3
=
4
2
( x 2)( x + 2)
x 4
=
3. 2
( x + 2)( x + 2)
x + 4x + 4
( x 2)
=
( x + 2)
4.

( x 3)( x + 2)
x2 x 6
=
2
( x 3)( x + 4)
x + x 12
( x + 2)
=
( x + 4)

a 2 + 3a 4 (a + 4)(a 1)
=
(a + 1)(a 1)
a2 1
(a + 4)
=
(a + 1)

B. Explain why

a2 + b2
does not simplify
( a + b) 2

to 1.
This expression will not be equal to 1.
Because see the solution:
a2 + b2
since (a + b)2 is same
(a + b)(a + b)
as (a + b)(a + b)
2
2
a +b
the result is not equal to 1
2
a + 2ab + b 2
Test 2:
Simplify the following rational expressions
a 2 4a
a(a 4)
a4
1.
=
=
2
a(4 a)
4a
4a a
= -

(4 a)
= -1
(4 a)

4a 2 20a
4a(a 5)
=
2
(a 5)(a + 1)
a 4a 5
4a
=
a +1
4x
1
3.
=
3x
12 x 2
2.

x+5
x+5
=
( x + 5)( x 2)
x + 3x 10
1
=
x2
2
y + 8 y 20
( y + 10)( y 2)
=
5.
2
( y + 2)( y 2)
y 4

4.

y + 10
y+2

Activity 3
Find the LCD of the following rational
expressions.
2
8
1.
;
LCD =60k
15k 4k
5
2
2.
;
LCD = 15y5
3
5
5y
15 y
7
1
;
LCD= 30(y - 6)
3.
5 y 30 6 y 36
1
9
; 2
4. 2
k + 4k 12 k + k 90

k2 + 4k 12 = (k + 6)(k - 2)
k2 + k 90 = (k + 10)(k - 9)
LCD = (k + 6)(k - 2)(k + 10)(k - 9)
5.

6ab = 2 3 a b
LCD = 2 3 2 a b b = 12ab2
1
3
;
3.
(4a 8b) (3a 6b)
4a 8b = 4(a 2b)
3a 6b = 3(a 2b)
LCD = 12(a 2b)
4.

## 2b2 b 3 = (2b - 3)(b + 1)

3b2 + 5b + 2 = (3b + 2)(b + 1)
LCD = (2b - 3)(3b + 2)(b + 1)
2x
1
; 2
5. 2
x 2x 8 x 6x + 8
x2 2x 8 = (x - 4)(x + 2)
x2 6x + 8 = (x - 4)(x - 2)

8
10
;
2
2d 11d 14 2d d 21
2

## 2d 11d + 14 = (2d - 7)(d - 2)

2d2 d 21 = (2d - 7)(d + 3)
LCD = (2d - 7)(d - 2)(d + 3)
Test 3
Find the LCD of the following rational
expressions.
6
1
1.
;
18 36
18 = 2 3 3
36 = 2 3 3 2
LCD = 2 3 3 2 = 36
2.

b
3b
; 2
2b b 3 3b + 5b + 2
2

5
3
;
2
6ab
4ab
4ab2 = 2 2 a b b

Activity 4
in lowest terms.
3
2
5
1. + =
s
s
s
x
2x
3x
+
=
p 5
p 5
p 5
2n + 3
n4
+ 2
3. 2
n 4n + 4
n +n6

2.

n2 4n + 4 = (n - 2)(n - 2)
n2 + n 6 = (n + 3)(n - 2)
LCD = (n - 2)(n - 2)(n + 3)

## (2n + 3)(n + 3) + (n 4)(n 2)

(n 2)(n + 3)(n 2)
2
= 2n + 6n + 3n + 9 + n2 2n 4n + 8
(n - 2)(n + 3)(n - 2)

= 3n2 + 9n 6n +17
(n - 2)(n + 3)(n - 2)
3n 2 + 3n + 17
=
(n 2)(n + 3)(n 2)

4.

Test 4
terms if necessary.
3a
5a
8a
1.
+
=
9a 8 9a 8 9a 8
2.

2
3
+ 2
a 5a + 6
a a2
2

a2 5a + 6 = (a - 3)(a - 2)
a2 a 2 = (a + 1)(a - 2)

3.

5.

a+9
(a 2)(a 3)(a + 1)

2x + 1
2x + 1
or
(2 x + 1)( x + 3)
2x + 7x + 3
2

2x
3x
+
x+ y
2x + 2 y
x+y=x+y
2x + 2y = 2(x + y)

3(a + 1) + (2)(a 3)
(a 2)(a 3)(a + 1)

LCD = 2(x + y)

3a + 3 2a + 6
=
(a 2)(a 3)(a + 1)
=

2x
1
+
2
2x + 7 x + 3
2x + 7x + 3
2

## LCD = (a - 2)(a - 3)(a + 1)

=

2 r 2 + 8r + 4
(r 5)(r + 2)(r + 6)

4.

r +1
r 1
+ 2
r 3r 10
r + r 30

2 x(2)
3x
4 x + 3x
+
=
2( x + y )
2( x + y )
2( x + y )

5
4
+
t 6
t+6
LCD = (t - 6)(t + 6)

r2 3r 10 = (r - 5)(r + 2)
r2 + r 30 = (r - 5)(r + 6)

5(t + 6)
4(t 6)
+
(t 6)(t + 6)
(t 6)(t + 6)

## LCD = (r - 5)(r + 2)(r + 6)

(r + 1)(r + 6) + (r 1)(r + 2)
=
(r 5)(r + 2)(r + 6)

5t + 30 + 4t 24
(t 6)(t + 6)

9t + 6
(t 6)(t + 6)

r 2 + 6r + r + 6 + r 2 + 2r r 2
=
(r 5)(r + 2)(r + 6)

5.

3a
4a 1
+ 2
2
a + ab 2b
a b2
2

3a
4a 1
+
(a + 2b)(a b) (a b)(a + b)
=

3a(a + b)
+
(a + 2b)(a + b)(a b)
(4a 1)(a + 2b)
(a + 2b)(a + b)(a b)

3a 2 + 3ab + 4a 2 + 8ab a 2b
(a + 2b)(a + b)(a b)

7a 2 + 11ab 2b a
(a + 2b)(a + b)(a b)

Activity 5:
1. Let x = the number to be added to
both numerator and denominator .
Original fraction New fraction
5
5 x
+
8
8 x
Equation:
5 x
3
+ =
8 x
4
LCD = 4(8 + x)
5 x
3
4(8 + x)( + ) = 4(8 + x) (
8 x
4
20 + 4x = 24 + 3x
4x 3x = 24 20
x=4
Check:
5 4
3
+ =
8 4
4
9
3
=
12
4
Therefore, the required number is 4.

## 2. Let x = number of hours for the three

to work together.
x
= part of the job Margie can finish
3
in 1 hour.
x
= part of the job Mae can finish in
5
1 hour.
x
= part of the job Mia can finish in
8
1 hour
Equation:
x
x x
+ + =1
3
5 8
LCD = 120
x
x
x
120( ) +120( ) + 120( ) = 1(120)
3
5
8
40x + 24x + 15x = 120
79x = 120
41
79
Thus, Margie, Mae, Mia can finish it in
41
hours.
1
79
x = 1

Test 5:
1. Let x = the number to be subtracted from
both numerator and denominator.
Original fraction New fraction
7
7 x
12
12 x
Equation:
7 x
1
- =
12 x
2
LCD = 2(12 x)

1
7x
2( 12-x)
= 2( 12-x)
2
12 x

2(7 x) = 12 x

1(b 1)
(b + 2)(b + 1)(b 1)

14 2x = 12 x
14 12 = 2x x

(b + 2) (b 1)
(b + 1)(b 1)(b + 2)

3
(b + 1)(b 1)(b + 2)

2 = x or x = 2
Therefore, the required number is 2.
2. Let x = number of hours for both to work
together.

2.

x
= part of the job Ken can finish
4
in 1 hour.
x
= part of the job Nikki can
5
finish in 1 hour.
Equation:

Activity 6::
Perform the indicated operation and express
the answer in the lowest terms.
1
1
1. 2
- 2
b 1 b + 3b + 2

8
2
3 7y 7y 3
8
2
(3 7 y ) 7 y 3
8 (2)
=
(7 y 3)
10
=
(7 y 3)
10
=
3 7y

x
x
+
=1
4
5
LCD = 20
x
x
20( ) + 20( ) = 1(20)
4
5
5x + 4x = 20
9x = 20
2
x=2
9
Thus, Ken and Nikki can finish it in
2
2 hrs
9

1(b + 2)
(b + 1)(b 1)(b + 2)

3.

2y +1
2
1
+
2
y 3 y +3
9 y
2
1
2y +1
+
2
y 3 y +3
9 y
2y +1
2
1
+
=
(3 y )(3 + y )
y 3 y +3
2y +1
2
1
+
=
( y + 3)( y 3)
y 3 y +3
2y +1
2
y+3
+

=
( y + 3)( y 3) y 3 y + 3
1
y 3

y +3 y 3
(2 y + 1) + 2( y + 3) 1( y 3)
=
( y + 3)( y 3)

2y 1+ 2y + 6 y + 3
( y + 3)( y 3)
8 y
=
( y + 3)( y 3)

Test 6:
1.

3 2
1
=
p p
p

1
3
- 2
2
2
m + mn 2n
m 3mn + 2n 2

2.

x
2x
x 2x
x
=
=
x5 x5
x5
x5

1
3
=
(m + 2n)(m n) (m 2n)(m n)

15
15(k + 2) 3(4k 2 )
3
=
3.
4k 2 k + 2
4k 2 (k + 2)

4.

5.

## 1(m 2n) 3(m + 2n)

(m + 2n)(m n)(m 2n)

m + 2n 3m 6n
(m + 2n)(m n)(m 2n)

4m 4n
(m + 2n)(m n)

4m 3n
4m n
2
2
2
16m n
16m + 8mn + n 2
=

4m 3n
(4m + n)(4m n)
4m n
(4m + n)(4m + n)

## (4m 3n)(4m + n) (4m n)(4m n)

(4m + n)(4m n)(4m + n)

## 16m 2 8mn 3m 2 16m 2 + 8mn n 2

=
(4m + n)(4m n)(4m + n)

4n 2
(4m + n)(4m n)(4m + n)

Activity B:
BE HONEST

4.

m
3
- 2
m + 3m 18 m + 3m 18
2

m3
m + 3m 18

5.

15k + 30 12k 2
4k 2 (k + 2)

x
3x
- 2
2
x + xy 2 y
x 3xy + 2 y 2
2

x
3x
( x + 2 y )( x y ) ( x 2 y )( x y )
x( x 2 y ) 3 x( x + 2 y )
=
( x + 2 y )( x y )( x 2 y )

x 2 2 xy 3 x 2 6 xy
=
( x + 2 y )( x y )( x 2 y )

2 x 2 8 xy
( x + 2 y )( x y )( x 2 y )

Activity 7
Multiply as indicated and express each
product in simplest form.
3 12
36
3
1.
=
=
8 15 120 10

2.

2ab
c
2abc
2b
2 = 2 2 =
2
3ca
3c
a
3c a

3.

9 x2
x

x +3 3 x
=

(3 x)(3 + x) x
( x + 3)(3 x)

=x
4.

2.

3.

a 2 + 5a a 2 4a

a 2 16 a 2 25
=

a(a + 5) a(a 4)
(a 4)(a + 4)(a 5)(a + 5)

a2
=
(a + 4)(a 5)

5.

a2
a 2 a 20

6x 3 y
2x + y

2
2
4 x + 4 xy + y
4 x 4 xy + y 2

3(2 x y ) 2 x + y
(2 x + y )(2 x + y )(2 x y )(2 x y )
3
(2 x + y )(2 x y )
3
4x y 2
2

Test 7
Multiply and express each product in
simplest form.
12 21 2

=
1.
7 54
3

22a a 222bbc
3b c 3 2 a a

16b
9

t 2 + 5t
t +1
2
5+t
t 25
=

t (t + 5) (t + 1)
(5 + t )(t 5)(t + 5)

t (t + 1)
(t + 5)(t 5)

t2 +1
t 2 25

x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 3

4.
x+4
x2 9

4a 2 8b 2 c

3bc 6a 2

5.

( x + 4)( x + 4) ( x 3)

( x 3)( x + 3) ( x + 4)

x+4
x+3

x 2 6x + 5 x 1

x 1
x5
=

( x 5)( x 1)
x5

=x1
Activity 8
A. State the multiplicative inverse or
reciprocal of each expression below.

1.

3
8

reciprocal is

1
x y
7x
3.
9y
x+ y
4.
2
18 x
5.
7

2.

8
3

reciprocal is x y
reciprocal is

9y
7x

Test 8
Perform the indicated division and write the
3d 2 c 6dc

1.
a4
a5

2
reciprocal is
x+ y
7
reciprocal is
18 x

3 d d c a4 a
=
3 2 d c a4

## B. Perform the indicated division and write

21 3
21 14
1.
=

= 14

7 14
7
3
7 14
7 a2
a
2. 2 =
=
a a
a 14
2

2.

3x 21 x 2 + 7 x

= 2
3x
x 49

3x
=1
=
3x
x2 y2
x2 y2
4
2
=

5.
x y
2
x y
4

( x y )( x + y ) 2 2

2
x y

= 2(x + y)

a+b
a2 b2

2
2
x+ y
x y
a2 b2 x + y

x2 y2 a + b
(a b)(a + b) x + y

=
( x y )( x + y ) a + b

m3 1
5
10
5
=

m3 m3
m3
10
2
3x 21
3x
2
4. 2
x 49 x + 7 x

x ( x + 7)
3( x 7)

( x + 7)( x 7)
3x

dca
2c

3.

a5
3d 2 c

6dc
a4

3.

ab
x y

x y 5x 2 5 y 2

x+ y
3x 3 y

x y
3x 3 y

x + y 5x 2 5 y 2

x y
3( x y )

x + y 5( x 2 y 2 )

3( x y )( x y )
5( x 2 y 2 )( x + y )

3( x y )
5( x + y ) 2

4.

5a 2 5ab 5a 2 5b 2

b
ab + b 2
=

5a 2 5ab
b

2
2
ab + b
5a 5b 2

5a (a b)
b

2
b(a + b) 5(a b 2 )

5a(a b)(b)
5b(a + b)(a b)(a + b)

a
( a + b) 2

3x
6x 3
3x 2 x 2
y

=
=
5.
y 5y2
5y2
5y3
2x 2

11.

7ab 81c 2
9c
=

2
9c
91a b 13a

12.

x2 y2 a + b

a2 b2 x y

( x + y )( x y ) (a + b)
(a + b)(a b)( x y )
x+ y
=
a b
y + 6 4y2

= 2y
13.
2y
y+6
=

14.

a 2 3a
a2 9

a 2 + a 12
a2

a (a 3)
(a 3)(a + 3)

a
(a + 4)(a 3)
(a 3)(a + 3)
=
a(a + 4)

Chapter Test
1. b
2. a

a 1 a +1

a + 2 a 1

15. .

a +1
a+2

3. a
4. c
5. .b
6. c
7. a

16.

a 2 ab 15b 2

=
3a
ab

8. a
9. b
10. c

a 2 ab a b

3a
15b 2

a(a b) 15b 2

3a
a b

= 5b2
17.

x 2 2x + 1
x 1
2
y 5
y 25

x 2 2 x + 1 y 2 25

y 5
x 1

( x 1)( x 1) ( y 5)( y + 5)

y 5
x 1

= (x - 1)(y + 5)
c 2 + 3c
c
18. 2

c + 2c 3 c + 1
c 2 + 3c
c +1

= 2
c
c + 2c 3
c(c + 3)
c +1

=
(c 1)(c + 3)
c
c +1
=
c 1
a 2 49 3a 21

19. .
(a + 7) 2 2a + 14
a 49 2a + 14

(a + 7) 2 3a 21
2

a+b
x+ y

8
2
3 7y 7y 3
8
2
=
(7 y 3) 7 y 3
8 (2)
=
(7 y 3)

21.

10
(7 y 3)

p+q
q p
2
2
3 p + 2 pq q
6 p 5qp + q 2

22.

p+q
q p
(3 p q)( p + q) (3 p q)(2 p q)

( p + q)(2 p q) (q p)( p + q)
(3 p q )( p + q)(2 p q)

2 p 2 + pq q 2 (q 2 p 2 )
=
(3 p q )( p + q )(2 p q )

(a + 7)(a 7) 2(a + 7)

=
(a + 7)(a + 7) 3(a 7)

2 p 2 + pq q 2 q 2 + p 2
(3 p q )( p + q )(2 p q )

2(a + 7)
2
=
=
3(a + 7)
3

3 p 2 + pq 2q 2
(3 p q )( p + q )(2 p q )

ab
a2 b2
20. 2

2
x y
x y
x y
a b

2
2
ab
x y
2

(a b)(a + b) x y

( x y )( x + y ) a b

23.

mn
m+n
- 2
2
m + 2mn + n
m mn 2n 2
2

mn
m+n
(m + n)(m + n) (m 2n)(m + n)

## (m n)(m 2n) (m + n)(m + n)

(m + n)(m + n)(m 2n)

m 2 3mn + 2n 2 (m 2 + 2mn + n 2 )
(m + n)(m + n)(m 2n)

m 2 3mn + 2n 2 m 2 2mn n 2
(m + n)(m + n)(m 2n)

5mn + n 2
=
(m + n)(m + n)(m 2n)

24.

1
1
- 2
b 1 b + 3b + 2
2

1
1
(b + 1)(b 1) (b + 2)(b 1)

(b + 2) (b 1)
(b + 1)(b 1)(b + 2)

b + 2 b +1
(b + 1)(b 1)(b + 2)

3
(b + 1)(b 1)(b + 2)

25.

2t 1 2t + 1
t +1
t 1

## (2t 1)(t 1) (2t + 1)(t + 1)

(t + 1)(t 1)

(2t 2 3t + 1) (2t 2 + 3t + 1)
(t + 1)(t 1)

2t 2 3t + 1 2t 2 3t 1
(t + 1)(t 1)

6t
(t + 1)(t 1)

## Common Errors / Misconceptions in

Unit IV
1. What is the sum of

5y
15
?
and
10
10

20 y
or 2y
10
This answer is wrong because 5y and 15
cannot be added since they are dissimilar
fractions.

2. Find

11x 7 x
.
15 12

4x
3
This answer is wrong. Notice that their
denominators are different. Thus, we
find the LCD and the LCD is 60.
Rewrite the rational expression as
fraction with 60 as the denominator.

11 7
11(4) 7(5)
=
15 12 15(4) 12(5)
=

44 35
60 60

9
3
or
60
20

( x + 3)
.
( x + 3) + 2

1
3

## This answer is wrong. You cannot

cancel (x + 3) in the numerator and
denominator, since the denominator is
taken as a single expression.