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ARBELOS

PRODUCED FOR

PRECOLLEGE

PHILOMATHS'

'.

.1982 - 1983

Copyright 1982

Committee on the American Mathema~ics Competitions

Mathematical Association of America.

-,
-'.'-'
.,

. t

_I

Professor Samuel L. Greitaer in Memoria


During the interval of time betwe~n 1982-1987 Prof~ssor Samuel L. Gre
itzerserved as the editor and author ofessentially allofthe articles which
appear in the Arbelos. His untimely death, on February 22, 1988, was
indeed a sad day for all those who knew him.
Professor Greiber emigrated to the United States from Odessa, Russia
in 1906. He graduated from the City College of New York in 1927 and
earned his PhD degree at Yeshiva University. He had more than 25
years experience as a junior and senior high school teacher. He taught
at Yeshiva University, the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Teachers
College and the School of General Studies of Columbia University. His
last academic teaching position was at Rutgers University. He was the
author or co-author of several books including Geometry Ret1i,ited with
H.S.M. Coxeter.
I was extremely pleased that Professor Greiber agreed to write and edit
the Arbelos, since I frequently receive requests for references to publica
tons which are appropriate for superior students, and for material which
will help students prepare for the USA Mathematical Olympiad. Pro
fessor Greiber served as a coach of the summer Mathematical Olympiad
training program Crom 1974 to 1983. Consequently, many oUhe articles
in the Arbelos are a reflection oC his ledures and thus appropriate for
talented and gifted students.
ProCessors Greiber and Murray S. Klamen accompanied the USA team
to the International Mathematical Olympiad Crom 1974 [the first yeat
the USA participated] to 1983. Their success in coaching the team is
indicated by the fact that it usually placed among the top three [out of
30-35 participating countries].
The contributions of Professor Greiber to the development oC students
oC mathematics and teachers Crom many nations will be lasting. We shall
miss his humor, words of wisdom, mathematical insight and Criendship.
Dr. Walter E. Mientka
Executive Director
American Mathematics Competitions
University oC Nebraska-Lincoln

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288 Ie

p2

p2

2
2

No. 1

2
2

2
b

b2

Sept. 1982

Copyright ~ The Mathematical Association

of America, 1982

APOLOGIA
Fran experience with the USA Mathematical
Olympiad and the International Mathematical
Olympiad, we have cane to believe that there
are a large number of students in our schools
who are interested in mathematics and who may
be well above average in the subject, but who
have no opportunity of developing whatever
abilities they have.
The purpose of this small (as yet) effort
is to cater to the tastes of those gifted
in mathematics who would like to develop
their abilities.
Each issue will have one or more short
articles on a topic not usually studied in
school, together with several problems which
require above-average imagination and ability
to solve. Most of these problems cane from
other nations, where concern for the better
student is considered important.
We have not been able to find any publication
that addresseS itself to the mathematically
gifted student. Hence our hope is to provide
such a publication.
The future of this effort depends on your
support. If we get sufficient support, this
publication will grow. We also hope that it
will be an outlet for students who have
ideas they would like to express to others.

For one way to express your opinion, see the


back page.

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RECURSIONS
Finite differences and recursion equations
are beginning to occupy a greater place in the
problems presented for use in mathell&tical
contests, including the International Math
Olympiad. It seems worthwhile, therefore, to
take some time and space to present at least
an introduction to this area of mathematics.
As a start, consider the table below, in
(i = 0,1,2, ) are successive
i
terms of a sequence that follow a definite but

which the

unknown rule of formation:


U

u - u
1 - u0
2
1
u - 2u + U u 2
o 3
1
u - JU + JU 2
1
J

In any row except the first,

J
2u

...

u
2

2
+ u

u0
each term is the

difference between the two terms immediately


above it in the row above. Thus the ele.ents
in the second row are called "first differences",
those in the third row "sec ond differences", etc.
It is usual to write

- U aa AUO'
1
o
u - u
as AU , and so on for the second row
2
1
1
As for the third row, note that ~ - 2u 1 + Uo
equals A{AU - AU ) which we write in the form
O
1
2
6 u I n the same manner we are able to rewrite
O
J
~ - JU2 + Ju1 - Uo as A u O

We may thus rewrite the first table in the form


u

U
o
AU

u
2

Au
2
A U
o

AJll

2
L:J;. u

AU

2
1

etc

Now, since li.uO= u - u o ' u = Uo + li.U O


1
1
We take the liberty of detaching the operational

symbol A and writing

u
(1 + li.) u If we
o
1
2
substitute this into A U = u - 2u + u ' we
2
o
O
1
2
find that u = U + 2Au + A U ' On detaching
o
O
o
2
the symbols of operation, we have u = (1+li.)2 uO '
2
In fact, it is easy to show by induction that
un c (1 + A)nUo ' The expression

(1 + A)n

is

an operator that happens to behave just like an


ordinary algebraic expression.
The formula

un

= (1

+ li.)nuO is remarkably
useful. For example, it can be used. to find the
general term in a sequence. Let us exaaine the
sequence

4
2

10

8
2

30

20

12

Here,

0
2
U = 2, li.u = 4, A u = 2. FrCII the formula,
O
O
o

(~)A + (~)li.2 + )uo =


2
U + (~)li.Uo + (~)li.2Uo = n + 3h + 2.
o

un = (1 +

I.I.,.
i.
<.
i.,i..

'i.
i

,e
,e

Ie
ie

'!be formula can also be used for summing a


series. If we add another row above the first
in the first ta'b1e, we have

Ie

sequence, and we apply the formula to the


augmented table.
Let us apply this process to the sequence
used in our first example. The augment,d. table is
0

20

20

30

2
o

= 0, ~uo = 2, ~2uO = 4, ~3uo = 2,

Here

that

(1 + ~)nuo

simplifies to

=0

70

10

2
0

40

12

',.'..
'.

,.,.

sum of the first n terms of the original

.e
,e

u2

The n-th term of the new row is equal to the

.e

u1

+ (~)2 + (~)4 + (~)2

and we
which

n(n +3 1 )(n + 2)

If we represent a summation by using the symbol


E, we have found that

i(i + 1)

We already know that

~ i
1

= n(n+1)(n+2).
3

= n(n+1).
2

Similarly, we can show that E i(i +1)(i + 2)(i + 3)


equals

n(n+1)n+2) (n+3)

and 1so on.

We can use these expressions to find many


sums of series. For example, to find the sum
of the squares of n natural numbers, we note
n
n
n
that E i 2 = E i(i + 1) - E i which equals
111
n(n+1) (n+2)
n(n+1).
3
2
n
As an exercise, find E i 3
1

Finally, let us agree to write ux+ as Eux


1
2
Then ux+2 = EU + = E Ux In fact, we easily
x 1
k
see that uX~I\.
oU_ = E u When we compare this new
x
notation, using the operator E , with the
notation using A, we find that
(1 + A)nUo = un = EnU
we may write

It appears that
o
(1 +A) =E and (1 +A)n =E n

We have now introduced those operators from


the calculus of Finite Differences that we will
find useful in working with recursion formulas.
These are A, E = 1 + A, and E. They behave to
a large extent like ordinary algebraic sYJIbo1s.

,.!.
~.

>e

An equation involving x, u , and differences


x
is known as a Difference Equation. We may write
it as
F'(x, u , AU ,
x
x

A simple example

>.

>.

>.
>.

rewrite a difference equation in the form

;.
.e

I.1.
,.,.
I.

By virtue of the relation

1 +

A =

E, we may

F(x, ux ' Eux ' ,Enux ) = O

Finally, since Ekux = uX+k ' even this last


equation may be rewritten in the form

F(x, ux ' ux+1 ' ux+2 ' , uX+n)


0
which we shall call a recursion equation.
The simplest recursion equations are those
with constant coefficients. An example will
show how such equations may be solved. Let
2

uX+2 - 7ux+1 + 12ux = 0, or (E -?E + 12)ux


Let ux = aX and. substitute. Then
a x+2
7ax+1 + 12ax = a X(a2 - 7a + 12) = O.
Since aX

r 0,

a 2 _ 7a + 12

= O.

it follows that the roots of

=0

and only those, satisfy the

equation. These roots are a = 3, a = 4. Hence


the solution is u =A(3)x + B(4)x. A and B
x
are constants.

Except for occasional difficulties that may


arise due to oddities in the form. any recursion
equation f(u. Eu Enu ) = 0 which is a
x
x
x
polynomial form can be solved. by fiMing the
roots of the auxiliary equation first. Thus.
for

uX + - 6ux +2 + l1ux +l - 6ux

3
(E 3 _ 6E2 + llE - 6)u = 0

=0

we have

(E - l)(E - 2)(E - 3)u

aM

Given

=A(l)x

=0

+ B(2)x + C(3)x

ux +3 - 3ux+l - 2ux
= 0
(E 3_ 3E - 2)u
0

we fiM

(E + 1)2(E - 2)u

=0

aM we have one oddity - a repeated. root. In

-.

this case. we fiM the solution to be


u

= (A

+ Bx)(_l)x + C(2)x

A famous recursion is that involving the


Fibonacci sequence. where ux +2 = uX +1 + U x
(E 2 - E - 1)u = O. The roots
Wri te this as
x

of the related. (or complementary) equation are


1

;.,f5
x

= A(1

aM

2 -15

Therefore

- ,15)~

+ ='5)X+ B(l
2
2

!.ie

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,.i.

.
I

,e

7
Now suppose we are ~ven f(E)u
f(E)

,.
,.
i.
,.,.I.
i.

.<.
;.
,

X., O.

= X, where

Things become

much more difficult.

There are two forms that

X can take for

which solutions can be found.


x

First, suppose that

<.

<.

is a polynomial, but

X = aX. Then E(a )

x+1 _
x
2( x) _ 2 x
n x
- a.a ,E a
- a a , ,E n( a x) =aa.

Fran this we conclude that F(E)ax = F(a)ax


Fran this, we have

aX/F(E) = aX/F(a)

To illustrate, let

x
ux +2 - 7ux+1 + 12ux = 5

Using the canp1eaent&ry equation, we first find


the canp1ementary solution

= A(J)x + B(4)X.

For the particular solution corresponding to


x
X = 5 , we proceed as follows I
(E 2 _ 7E + 12)u = 5X
x

E2 _ 7E + 12

and, letting E = 5,
solution is

.5x

= 5x/2.

The cCllp1ete

= A(J)X + B(4)x + 5x/2

The same procedure will work when

involves

trigonometric or hyperbolic expressions if we


rewrite these expressions in exponential form

X is a polynomial function of degree

If

m,

we can assume a particular solution of the farm


U

= aOx

m-1
+ a x
+ + am ' substitute in
1

the recursion equation am. equate coefficients.


Let us work on
First, let

ux +1

information as

ux+2 + 4u + + 4
x 1

= vx'

=x.

am. we may rewrite the

v x+1 + 4vx

=x

- 4.

The complementary solution is obviously

v
U

= A( -4)x. For the particular solution,


= ax + b. Substitution gives us

let

ax + a + b + 4ax + 4b = x - 4.

Equating coefficients, we fim.


The complete solution is v
However, we want to find
by

x-1

am. arrive at

= A(-4)

.."

u, so we replace
U

=!' =- ~~.

= A(-4)x + (5x-21)/25.

5x - 26
25

Unfortunately, there are recursions that do

not have the forms discussed above. For these, it


becomes necessary to make some special substitution
or use some inspiration to attack the equation.

I.
I.i.
,.I..
,.:.

<.

For exatnp1e,

Divide by

and. we have

= ux+1

+ u
x

xx+1.ux (assuming neither is zero),

1/ux +1 + 1/ux

= A( _l)X +

=1

x+1 + v x

1/2,

so

= 1.

Now let 1/u


x

= vx ,

to solve. We find

x is the reciprocal of

this
Again, we are given

ux + = 2ux
1

form sugges.ts that we let

- 1.

The

= cos v This
x

gives us

,e

or

ie

and., u

ux + u
1 x

and we have

ie

let

I.-.
I.i.,.'.
,.'.

i.

v x+1
x

=2

The solution is

vx

= cos(2xA)

= A(2)X,

For a more complete discussion of recursions,


texts on Numerical analysis frequently have at
least a chapter on the subject. If one can get
to the t'Treatise on the Calculus of Finite
Differences", by Boo1e, one will find an excellent
development. It is also instructive to eX8JIine
the solutions of related problems in the various
mathematical contests. For example, see Problem

6 of the International Mathematical Olympiad for


1967.

/0
MANY CHEERFUL FACTS
We assume that the
('

Law of Sines is known


to all our readers.
However, from the
diagram at the left,
note that LA'

am

sin' A'

where

2R

=LA

= a/2R,
is the

diameter of the circumcircle. Therefore, we

sin A = a/2R. In the same manner,

may write

sin B = b/2R

we have

sin C = c/2R.

am

Therefore, we have an extended Law of Sines

a
b
= --:--=
sin A
sin B

--:-=-~

That

2R

= sinc

= 2R.

is very useful in many situations.

For example, we know that the area of AAB::


is

K =

ab sin C. However, sin C = c/2R, and

we have a new formula for the area of a triangle,


K - abc

- mr

We also know that, if


K

= rs.

is the inradius,

Therefore, we have

4Rrs

= abc.

."

We can also derive other formulas, such as


2
K
2R sin A.sin B.sin C,

and see what results when

b, c

are replaced

by their values fran the Law of Sines in the

Law of cosiness a

= b

+ c

- 2bc cos A.

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,

"

ANSWERS AND QUESTIONS

n n

x ) First, show that A x


n! Next, since
n
Anx
(E - 1)n we have, on expansion,

Anx n (En _ (~)En-1 + (~)En-2 _ )x n

= (x+n)n

_ (~)(x+n_1)n + (~)(x+n_2)n _

Finally, let
n!

=0

in lines

and

4, and

= nn

How could you use this result to prove


Wilson's Theorem - namely, if
prime number, then

( p-1 ) ! + 1

is a
is d i visible

by p?
y) We pro'tably have heard about the number 1729,
which Ramanujan told Hardy was the smallest
integer which could be expressed as the sum of
two cubes in two ways. In fact, it is easy to
see that

13 + 123

+ 103.

What is the next larger number that can be


expressed as a sum of two cubes in two ways?
z) Any power of a number ending in 1, 5 or 6 will
also end in a 1, 5, or 6.
For which nWlbers ending with two digits will
every power of the number end in the same two
digits in the same order?

ASSORTED PROBIEMS
1) Determine all real values of

for which

the equation
4
2
16x - ax3 + (2a+17)x - ax + 16

=0

has four distinct real roots which form a


(Bulgaria)

progression.

~ometric

2) A sequence
and

a , a , a , satisfies a
1
1
2
3
mn
a m+n = 4 a ma n for all m and n.

Determine the smallest value of


which

=2

for

(written in decimal notation)


n
has at least 3000 digits.
(Netherlands)
3) Given k

.,

a fixed non-negative integer and

P(2x)

= 2k - 1 (

p(x) + p(x +

Prove that

k
1
p(3x) = 3 - ( p(x) + p(x

+~) + p(x + 3
(Gt. Britain)

,.'.
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.

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CON'lENTS

Cover Voluae of Tetrahedron


Page l Recursions
Page 10 Many Cheerful Facts
Page 11 Answers & Questions

Page 12 Assorted Problems

,.
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arbelos

PRODUCED FOR

PRECOLLEGE

PHI LOMATHS

No.2

November, 1982

Copyright ~ The Mathematical Association


of America, 1982

.
.,
.
'

PREFACE
Mathematics possesses a "cold and austere beauty"
which fascinates good matheMticians, and which
makes the study of mathematics for its own sake
worthwhile for them. Just as an artist may see
a painting as being beautiful, a mathematician
may see a theorem as beautiful.
It 1s a fact, however, that many of the greatest
mathematicians had no hesitation in using other
disciplines when developing mathematical ideas.
For exuple, a letter from Archimedes to
Eratosthenes ( resuscitated in 1906 by Dr. O.
Neugebauer from a palimpsest) contains an
explanation of how Archimedes used physics to
derive mathematical results which he then proved
mathematically. We know that Gauss and Newton
worked in science as well as mathematics. Hence
we feel that it is not unreasonable for us to
present problems that involve science as well
as mathematics.

In fact, we recommend that students of mathematics


be conversant with sciences as applications of
mathematics and as aids in deriving mathematical
results.
Therefore. we have included one or two problems
reqUiring knowledge other than pure mathematics
in their solution. We hope you will like them.
We will gladly accept others of the same type
or similar for inclusion in this publication.

."

THE ARBELOS

4
4

4
-4

The Arbel06 (see cover) consists of the three

.
'.."
..
..
.

that of a shoemaker's knife ar arbelos (Greek)

.
4

>.

'.

points A, B, C which are collinear,

to~ther

with the semicircles ATB, AXC, CYB, as shown.


It was so namen because of 1ts fanciful shape

It engaged the attention of no less a mathe


matician than Archimedes, who was certainly

the greatest mathematician of antiquity, and

possibly the greatest of mathematicians. He


played with this figure for fun, which is an
excellent reason far

doin~

mathematics

In the figure, we have added line CT, which is


tan~ent

to the slllall semicircles, and also

lines AXT and BYT. We have also added l1ne XY,


intersectin~

CT at O.

Now, just far fun and re laxati on, try the


followi~

(a)

problems:

XY is tangent to the small semicirclesl

(b) XY and CT bisect each other;


(c) The area of the arbe105 is equal to the
area of the circle on CT as diameter.
(d) The circles inscribed in segments ACT
and BeT have equal rad 11.
Archimedes derived these results. Can you ?

FUNCTIONAL EQUATIONS

A functional equation is an equation in


which an unknown function is expressed in terms
of known functions, the object being to determine
the nature of the unknown function. Examples aret
f(mx) = a f(x)
f(x) + f(a-x) = c 2
f(a+x).f(a-x) = a 2 _ x2
Sanetimes a functional equation may be solved
by making use of the concept of "periodic"
functions. If F(x) is of such a nature that when
it is performed twice on a quantity, the result
is the quantity itself, we call F(x) periodic
of order two. Examples of such periodic functions

- xx. ( 1 - x2)t etc.


aret
a/ x , a - x 1
1 +
Examples of periodic functions of order three are
1 ,1
( - x-2)+ , etc.
1 - x
There are an infinite number of periodic
functions of all orders.
As an example, take
(f(x)}2.f(~ : ~) =c 2x

We note that
~:~ is periodic of order two.

Therefore we
replace

- x

x 'by 11 +
x in the

-.

given equation and find that


()
- x}2
[ f ( 11 +
x f x

= c 2 (11

- x)
+ x

Divide the square of the given equation by this


secom. equation, and we fim.

[ f ( x )} 3 -_ c 2x 2 '11 +- xx
from which we have

f(x)

immediately.

Again, suppose

n
f(x) + af( -x) = x Replace

by

fe-x) + af(x)

-x

Eliminate

to get
fe-x)

= (_x)n.

from these two equations, and

we fim. that
f(x)

= xn

- a(_x)n
2
1 - a
'!be method of differences (see issue No.1)
can sometimes be used to solve a functional
equation. The following method is due to Laplace.
Suppose we are given
x

= ut

=vt

and

We let
f(x)

am.

feu)
ax

f(mx)

=a

= u t +1

= v t +1

f(x)

Then we let

Then, first,

,ut + - aUt = 0 , from which we have


1
Next,

=0,

v t +1 - a v t

Now we elt-inate

fram which

u
vt

=A t

=B a t

from these two equations.

From the first equation, we find that


t

so that

log u

- log A
t
log m

Now replace

_ B (log u - log A)/log m


t
a

by

and

f(x),

by

and we have

= B a(log

f(x)

x - log A)/log m.

We can simplify' this a bit further to get


f(x) = C a log x/log m

C is not
necessarily a constant. It can be any function
It should. be pointed out that
x

of

which does not change when

replaced by

is

1lX.

As another application of the Laplace method,


take
ux+1

f(x) + f(a - x)

=a

- x,

=c2

=f(x),

Since

Fran

Eliminate

Let

v X+1

x
x

= f(a

= x,
- x).

= A( _l)X

+.!
2

= B(_l)x

+ c 2/2

(-1?, and. we finally arrive at


f(x)

= m(x

- ~) + ~

Let us next examine the equation


f(a + x).f(a - x) = a 2 _ x2
We could use the same method to solve this.
However, it is easier to note that
fCa + x) fCa - x)
a + x
a - x
or F(x).F(-x)

= 1,

or

= 1,

which is obviously satisfied


x
b,y F(x) = eX. That is, f(a + x) = (a + x).e
Finally, f(x) = x.C x- a
Frequet1y, therefore, one can use special
methods to solve functional equations, the method
depending on the ingenuity of the solver.
Consider the equation
(f(x)}2 _ (f(_x)}2

= 4x.

Here it is best to factor. We obtain


(f(x) + f(-x(f(x) - fe-x~ = 4x
and ass\Dlle that f(x) is a po1ynania1 of farm
2
n
f(x) =a O + a x + a 2x + + anx Then
1
_
2
n
f ( -x ) - a O - a x + a 2x - ~ anx
1
Substituting and simplifying, we find
(a + a x 2 + )(a + a x2 + ) = 1.
o
1
2
J
Then a a = 1 and all other coefficients are
O1
zero. Thus, f(x) = a O + x/a o.

In some cases, it is possible to solve a


functional equation by using eleaentary calculus.
Let

r(x + y) + f(x - y)

= f(x).r(y).

Differentiate tWice, one time with respect to


x

and the other tiae with respec t to y. Then


f"(x + y) + f"(x - y)

= f"(x).r(y)

f"(x + y) + f"(x - y)

= f(x).f"(y).

Therefore,

~=
~
fW
f(Y)

, which means that

either f'raction is equal to a constant.


Now let

f('j)

=.! n2 and solve. We have

f x

f(x)
or

= Ae nx

f(x) = A cos nx

+ Be- nx
+ B sin nx.

Occasionally, one can insert special values


ror

and/or y

to determine a pattern of

behavior of the function, and then use induction


to prove your guess.
You are now in a position to try your hand
on the Olympiad problem elsewhere in this

.."

issue. Or, consider Problem 5 of Olympiad 10.


f(x + a)

= 1/2

+ (f(x) - (f(x2)

t .

'.
'.

8
MANY CHEERFUL FACTS

Identities appear in all branches of mathe


matics, but are apparently most entertaining
in trigonanetry. For example, starting with
the formula for the cosine or a double angle,
one can easily derive
sin ~ = + ~ - cos A
2

+ cos A

These can be used to derive

tan '2 However,

c...

A~~~L.,.o<:;.._ _~17

,$-a..

from the

dia~am

above, one can see that

tan

~ =s

: a

etc

Using the formulas for functions of multiple


angles and of sub-multiple angles, try these.
(a) Find an expression for

sin,6

(b) For any triangle ABC, prove that


tan A + tan B + tan C = tan A. tan B.Tan C.
A ta ~B + ta ~.
B ~_..Q.
+ ta C ta A
1
( c ) ta ~.
1.OoJ~
~. ~ =

9
PASCAL AND BRIANCKON
In 1639, Blaise Pascal discovered the theorem
"If a hexagon is inscribed in a conic, then the
intersections of the opposite sides of the
hexagon are collinear." We know that one of
the Bernoulli brothers saw the proof and
canplimented Pascal highly on it. Unfortunately,
the proof has disappeared.

.,
J

I
I

,
,
,,R.
,

I
I

,
I

,Q
Now it does not matter how the vertices of the

hexagon are labeled - the theorem holds in all

cases. Question. how many Pascal lines are


possible for a given hexagon ?
This is a theorem in Projective Geaaetry, and
does not involve lengths, areas, angles, or
any metric properties of the figure.

>.
>.

>.

:.'.
,.

'.

'.

10
If, in the diagram, it happens that vertices
A and F coincide, side AF becanes a tangent to
the conic. Nevertheless, Pascal's Theorem still
holds.

Questiona In the diagram above, ABeD is inscribed

in a conic. Can you show that P, Q. R are

collinear ?

One of the properties of figures in project

ive geanetry is that they can be dualized. That


is, i f one describes a figure in terms of points
and lines, and then replaces the ward point by
the word line and the word line by the ward
point where these arise, we arrIve at a dual
figure. Thus, we can say that Ita triangle is
a figure consisting of three points not on a
line. together with the lines on them. It The
dual is itA figure consisting of three lines not
on a point. together with the points on them It

11

It is easy to see that a triangle is a self


dual f,igure. However, a quadrilateral is not. By
definition, "a quadrilateral consists of four
lines, no three

bein~

on the same point, together

with the (six) points on these lines in pairs."


The dual is therefore, "a figure consisting of
f our points, no three on the same line, together
with the (siX) lines on these points in pairs."
This figure is called a quadrangle, and the
difference between quadrangle and quadrilateral
is evident once both are drawn.
Next, the graph of a function may be considered
as consisting of points, in which case we call it
a locus. Its dual may be considered as consisting
of lines, in which case we call it an envelope.
Consider the midpoints of all equal chords (not
diameters) drawn in a circle. These midpoints
fara a circle. The chords themselves "envelope"
the same circle.
Questiona A ladder slides along a wall and the
ground so that its ends always tOltch the wall
or the ground. What is the locus of the midpoint
of the ladder? What is the envelope determined
by the ladder ?

'.

1.

,.,.
,.'.
,'.
'.
,.

12
A few remarks are in order here. First, if
one can dualize a figure in a problem, it may
be easier to solve the dual problem. Once this
has been done, the original problem is solved.
Second, it may be that the conic in Pascal's
Theorem "degenerates" to form two lines. The
theorem is still true. However, this case was
stated by Pappus (circa 300 AD).
Questions Can you draw the figure and state the
theorem for the dual of Pappus' Theorem ?
Third, since, in Projective GeOllletry, two
distinct lines always intersect, there is no
parallelism. If one wishes to do so, one can
select a line, call it the "line at infinity",
and consider two lines that would intersect on
this special line "parallel".

Problem: In the diagram below, ABeD is a para11t \

ogram. Point P is selected on side CD and lines

PA, PB drawn. Point Q is selected on side AB


and lines QD, QC drawn. If AP, DQ intersect at
M, and BP, QC intersect at N, and line MN
intersects AB at Y and CD at X, prove that
DX

= BY.

1)

It 1s a fact that the dual of a locus is


an envelope. Points become 11nes and v1ce versa.
Therefore the Pascal configurat1on has a dual.
Vert1ces become tangents, coll1near po1nts
become concurrent 11nes, etc. However, 1t was
not unt11 1806 that Br1anchon dual1zed Pascal's
Theorem. Br1anchon's Theorem states, "1f a
hexagon is circumscr1bed about a con1c, then
the 11nes join1ng oppos1te vert1ces are con
current. "

Once again, 1f the f1gure becomes a pentagon,


then one of the vertices becomes a tangent po1nt,
but the theorem st111 holds.
It 1s 1nterest1ng to try var10us configurat1ons
and see what one gets by apply1ng Br1anchon's
Theorem.

. e

>

14

A
A

'.

:.

,.i.
>.

,.
i.'.
,e

v
(A)

(B)

(c)

The diagrams show the appearance of the


Brianchon configuration for special cases. In
(A), V is taken as a vertex in addition to A, B,
C, D and E. In Figure (B), Vi and V2 are taken

as vertices, and in Figure (C), we use Vi' V2' VJ.


Incidentally, in case (C) we have labeled
point G because it is called tbe Gergonne Point.
Now you might try to solve Problem 2 of the
XXXIII International Mathematical Olympiad, held
in Budapest in July, 1982.
A non-isosceles triangle A1AzAJ is given
with sides ai' a 2 , a (a i is the side opposite
J
Ai). For all i = 1, 2, J, Mi is the midpoint
of side ai' Ti is the point where the incircle
touches side ai' ans the reflection of Ti in
the interior bisector of Ai yields the point
Si. Prove that the lines M1S , M2S2 , and MJS
1
J
are concurrent.

15
WEEK-ENDERS
1) What is the greatest integer that will
divide into

3999, 5585 and 6378 and leave

the same remainder ?

2) Find the roots of

that the roots are


If

e~~

+ ax + b

and

= 0,

given

b.

are removed frail a basket two,

three, four, five, six

and seven at a time,

there remain respectively one, two, three,


four, five and six

eg~.

What is the least

number of eggs in the basket ?

4) Not only is Ann four tlmes as old as Mary


was when Ann was as old as Mary is now,
but Ann is twice as old as Mary was when

Ann was six years older than Mary is now.

How old is Ann?

5) In right triangle ABC with right angle C,


lines CP and CQ divide the hypotenuse
into three eq ual
CP

= 7,

se~ents.

and CQ = 9, how

Given that

lon~

is hypotenuse

AB ?

Notes Lewis Carroll used to call problems like


these Pillow Problems - to be done to
help him go to sleep. For example, try
to do No. 2 and 3 mentally !

;.

,e

.e

,e

:.
;.'.

,.1

16
OLYMPIAD PROBIEMS

4) Determine the smallest integer


p > n

that for every integer


dissect a square into

(a)
n
the recursion

such

one can

squares (not

necessarily congruent).

5) A sequence

(France)

is defined by means of

16a n+ = 1 + 4a n + -,/1 + 24an


1
Find an explicit formula for

a =1.
1

a.
n

(W. Germany)

6)

Let

M be the set of all functions

with the follOWing properties.


(a) f

is defined for all integers and

takes on only real values.


(b) For all integers

x,y

= f(x+y) + f(x-y).
f(O) I 0 , f(l) = 5/2.

f(x).f(y)

(c)
Find

fen).

(E. Germany)

1 ?
APPLICATIONS?
When Moses inflicted the plague of darkness on
the Egyptians, the Egyptian god Set decided to
use the three days to protect himself frOll his
enemy, Osiris. When the sun set Set set out to
build a wall. He ma.de it 3 layers thick and 12
layers high, while working throughout the dark
ness. When light a~in appeared, the cemont
Set set set, and the wall was finished. If Set
Get 20 bricks per minute, and each brick was
1 1/4 Kabs long, how long was the wall ?
(Notes the kab was an ancient Ep;J~tl;:.:
You can't get a kab these days.)

ll,'aS"i'e.

While besieging a tower in M~occo 180 feet


high, a Knight at the foot of the tower hurled
a stone at a Dey at the top 01' t.he tower at the
same instant tha.t the Dey dropped t', rock on ~h(,(
Knight. The stone and the rock paf''31'd: each other
at a point halfway up the tower. Who p' q struck
first, and how much sooner?
(Notel Use g

= )2

ft/sec }.

Evariste Galois had. a sUDl1ler job 0'"' ~ farJll.


Asked to weigh four sacks of potatoos, he
wet~ed. thell two at a time (don It ask why !)
and found the wei~ings to be 92 lb., 93 lb. I
95 lb., 9? lb., 99 lb. I and 100 lb. What was
the weight of each individual sack ?
(Notes Galois was sacked.)

>.

,.'.

'.

1.j.
,e
,e

CON'mNTS
i.

Preface

1.

Applications?

2.

The Arbel08

3.

Functional Equations

8.

Many Cheerful Facts

9.

Pascal and Brlanchon

15.

Week-enders

16.

Olympiad Problems

I.I.
.
I.

arbelos

No.1

JanuRrv, 1981

Copyright ~ The Mathematical Association


of America, 1983

PREFACE
We are (aoderate1y) pleased at the increase
in the nuaber Of subscribers. Although this
nuaber has aore than doubled, it is still SJla11
We urge sttdents who are interested to support
this effort. Our confidence in the value of the
pamphlet will be increased exponentially.
We are also happy to add a "departaent" to
the paaph1et - namely, the KURSCHAK CORNER.
This will be presided over by Professor Geor~e
Berzs.ny1. We ur~e all subscribers to join in.
The cc.ments and solutions alone make it worth
while.
We thank the subscribers who were kind
enough to send in their cOlUlendatory reaarks.
These make the whole effort Ilore worth-while.
Solutions are also beginning to come to me.
I promise to read these, list the successes,
and. present the neatest solutions, beginning
with the March issue.

<.

.
e

,.

INEQUALITIES
The subject of inequalities has assumed much
importance in mathematics below the collep;e
level of late. Problems involvin~ inequalities
have appeared in under~aduate contests and are
bec ominp; part of the sec omary school curriculum.
One has only to examine recent International
Mathematical Olympiads to see this. for example.
Hence this short intr<Y.luction to some of this.
We be~in with a brief discussion of averages
There are a number of entities called averap;es.
am each has its uses. One should therefore be
careful which average is appropriate in any case.
First, there is the arithmetic mean. Given a
set of scores. the arithmetic mean (AM) is foum
by adding these scores and dividing Qy their
number. That is
(a + + an)/n = (ra)/n = AM.
1
This is alright if one wants a single
number which will represent a set of, say, grades.
It does not work. however. in the following case;
You travel from hither to yon at 3D miles per
hour, and from yon to hither at 60~iles per
hour. What is the averap;e speed ?
In this case, one uses the harmonic mean (HM)
defined thus I
n/(HM) = r(l/a)
For the example above, 2/(HM) = 1/(30) + 1/(60)
which yields (HM) = 40 miles per hour. You'd be
surprised to find how many people think it should
be 45 miles per hour.
Another average is the p;eometric mean (CM)
or mean proportional. This is defined as being
(CM) = (a a )1/n
n
1
You have met with this in geometry. We also wish
to mention the root-mean-square (RMS), which is

fOUM by addinp; the squares of the scores p;1ven.


dividinp; by the number of scores. am. then
finHnp; the square root of the result. That is.
(RMS)
L(Ea 2 )/nJ1/ 2

Now. the diagram on the cover page shows a


trapezoid ABeD. In this diagram.
a) line MN bisects sides AD am. MC. Find MN
in terms of x and y. Which average is it?
b) line PQ is parallel to AB am passes through
the intersection 0 of diagonals AC am BD.
Fim PQ in terms of x am y. Which averap;e
is it ?
c) line RS is parallel to AB am bisects the
trapezoid - that is. divides it ato two
parts of equal area. Fim RS in terms of x
am y. Which average is it?
d) Line UV is ~allel to AB am divides the
trapezoid into two similar trapezoids. Fim
UV in terms of x and y. Which averap;e is
it ?
Now it is a fact that

(AM) > (GM).

All

s~ujents interested in a beautiful. proof should

consult any text on inequalities for Cauchy's


proof. In it. he used "'backward" imuction for
the first time. For two terms. x am y. we
have

(-v'X -

x + Y~ 2

-v;)2 ~ 0 from which we get

,JXY

fraa which

(AM) ~ (GM).

In fact. for two terms. we can do more. From


2/(HM)
(HM)
so that

l/x + l/y we get

= x+y
2xy
= (x+y
2 )(xy) = (GM)2/(AM)

(GM)2 = (AM)(HM). Now we can say that

(AM)

~ (GM) ~ (HM).

This inequali tyrelatlon holds

(A)
in general.

."

',..

,.,.
'.

J
Now far some possibly less familiar but
equally useful inequalities. We return to the
(AM)-(CM) inequality - labeled (A). We shall use
m+n terms, of which m are equal to ~ am n
equal to E. On substitution, we have
(a + eo + a) + (b + + b) > m..-nVambn
m+ n
-

Let m+n

til

m+n
= p, n
= q.

p1 + qi_-

Then

1, am we

am we may substitute, deriving

~p

E
q

If we let a l / P

>

=x

i!.
q

a 1/ Pb 1/ q

am
>

(B)

b1/ q

= y,

we get
(c)

xy

These results have wide applications am are warth


remembering.
Next, we know that

r(aix + b i ) ~ 0

Expa.min~,

(ra 2 )x 2 + 2(rab)x + (rb2 ) > 0


The ~aph of this quadratic equation does not
cross the X-ax is (it may be tan~ent to it). Hence
the discriminant cannot be positive. That is,
4(tab)7. - 4(ra 2 )(Lb2 ) < 0 , ar
(ra 2 )(rb2 ) ->

(rab)2.
.

(n)

This inequality has many titles. It has been


named after Cauchy, Schwarz, Buniakowski am also
Lagrange

Finally. let us return to inequality


b = y (Eyq)-l/q
Let a = x (ExP)-l/p
i

=1

l/p + l/q
p

1 xi
P (Exp)

(n).
where

p > 1 q > 1 Substituting.


q

1 Yi
x i Yi
+ Ii (Eyq ) ~ -(Ex-P)-':'l"T/P--.-(-E-yq-)~lf"r"q

Add all such inequalities far i = 1 n ,


am we have
(Exy)

1 (Ex P) + 1 (Eyq) >


q
P (ExP)
q (~yq) - (ExP)l!p(Eyq)l/
On simplifying this, we finally arrive at
(Ex P)l/P(Eyq)l/q > (Exy).

(E).

This is known as Hl:Jlder's Inequal1 ty. am is one


of about five essential inequalities.
Incidentally. far P = q = 2. we ~t
(Ex 2 )( Ey2) ~ (Exy)2
am we have Cauchy again !
Now perhaps we might try the followings
n+l n ~ n2 for n > 3 .
(a) Show that (2)
2
(b) Show that (1:&)(E:) ~ n
(c)

Prove

(d) If

(x 2 + y2 + z2)1/2 _> )x + 4y + 12z

x +y + z

13

= 1.

show that

(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) > 64


x
y
z

,e

:.,.

:.

I.>.

>.j.

:.

,.

,e

>.

5
PI'OLEMY'S THEOREM

Possibly because Ptolemy's Theorem first


appeared about 100 AD and. because Euclid was
the source of ~OIletry for all until FeI'1llat
and Descartes, it does not usually form part
of the usual high school curriculum. Howe~er,
it is often useful and always fun.
We first prove the theorem geometrically.
Given a quadrilateral
inscribed in a circle,
as shown in the figure
at the right. Then
ac + bi = ACxBD.
Construct angle ADP
equal to angle BDC.
Then bAPD and. 6 BCD
are similar, so that
bd = (AP)xn. Also, 6 DAB and 6 DPC are similar,
so that ac = (PD)xn. Adding, ac + 'td = mn.
The converse is also true.
Incidentally, if the inscribed quadrilateral
happens to be a rectan~le with two sides equal
to a arrl the other two sides equal to b, am
the dia~onals each equal to c, Ptolemy's
theorem yields a short arrl snappy proof of the
Pythagorean Theorem.
~
Next, suppose we
have the diagram at
the right, where A B , 4
8
is a diameter. Then
using ac + bd = mn,
m = 2R, n = 2Rsin(a+a)
p
and we have
2
2Rcosa.2Rsina + 2Rsina.2Rcosa = 4R sin(o+a), and
we have derived the formula
sin(a+a) = slna.cosa + c08a.sina.

Can you use Ptolemy's Theorem to derive


sin(a - a) ? How about cos(a ~ ~) ?
Specializing the fi~e often produces
special results. For
example. in the figure
at the right. ABC is
an equilateral trian~le.
If P is any point on
the arc Be. prove that
PA

= PB

to

A harrler problem is
proVf~. frOll the d ia~am,

+ PC.

t/(PD)

= t/(PH)

t/(pc).

This last formula is frequently used in


Nomography. far example. in problems involving
resistances. optics, etc.
Again, suppose that, in the figure below.
ABCD 1s a parallelogram.
Go
Prove that
2
(AB)(AP) ~ (AD)(AQ) = AC
Findinr, the area of an
inscribed quadrilateral 1s
complicated" but easy. If we
lise the firs t d ia~am we
note that angles A and C
are supplementary, so that
Rin C = sin A but cos C - - cos A. Let the Lr84
soup;ht be K. Then K:o!ad: s1n A + ire s1n C
so that

sin A:

(ad

2K
+

be)

,.

'i..

Next,

m
m2
2

= a 2 +
= b2 +

m .- b

or

d2
c2
c2

2ad cos A

2bc cos r.
+

2bc cos A.

Subtract the third line from the first, am


we derive cos A = (a 2 _b?'_c 2 +d 2 )/(2ad + 2bc).
We now elimlnate the an~le A, because
2
sin A + cos 2A = 1, am, after $OGle complicated
but easy algebra, derive the results
2
K = (s - a)(s - b)(s - c)(s - d)
where

= (a+b+c+d)/2

Notice that, if we let d equal zero, we


have Hero's Formula for the area of a trlan~le.
For some reason, the Arabian mathematicians
spent some time on a special quadrilateral
one whose dIagonals were perpendicular to each
other. Let us call this
D
a cyc Hc orthaUagonal
.---
quadrilateral-see the
d ia~am. For such a
fi~re, show that
a 2 + b2 + c 2 + d 2 = OR?.
BrahmaKupta showed that
the altitude on side c
of the riKht triangle
0
wi th hypotenuse CD would, i f extended, bisect
side a of the quadrilateral. This can be the
start of a number of interesting properties
of this figure. For example, join the mid
points of sides a, b. c, d. What figure Is
formed, and what is its area ? Wha t happens
when perpendiculars are drawn from the inter
section of the diagonals to all four sides?

8
ANSWERS AND QUESTIONS
1. When the roots, real am complex, of
z3 - 1

=0

are plotted, they determine

an equilateral
roots of

tria~le.

z4 - 1

=0

Similarly, the

determine a square.

(a) What fl~e do the roots of the


2
equation z4 + 41z 3 - 6z - 4iz -

1 =0

determine?
(b) For what relation among the coefficients
2
of a z 3 + a z + a z + a = 0 do the
2
o
1
3
roots determine an equilateral trlangl~?

2. When f(x)

is divided by (x-a) , the

remaimer is

f(a) - Remaimer Theorem.

(c) What is the remaimer when


divided by
2

3. If ax +

f(x)

is

(x-a)(x-b)?

bx + C

=0

has roots

r , r ,
2
1
then the discriminant is (r - r )2. Far,
1
2
if r , r are real, then (r - . r )2 is
2
2
1
1
positive; if r
r , the discriminant is
2
1
zero; if the roots are complex, then they

have the form


is

p+qi, p-qi, their difference

2qi, the square of which is

ne~t1ve.

- r )2 = (r + r )2 - 4r r
1
1 2
2
2
-_ b2/a 2 - 4e / a -_ ( b2 - 4ac )/a2. Since
a 2 is always positive, we have b2 - 4ac
Now

(r

,.

. e

'.

as the quadratic discriminant, which we


already know
(d) What is the discr1.Jlinant of the cubic
xJ + JHx + G = 0 in terms of the
coefficients ?

4. De Moivre's 'nlearelll (of wai!h mare later)


states that (cos e + i sin e)n

cos n9 + i s1n nee In add1tion,


1 + i

= ~(cos

H 1 s1n H).
+

(e) Show that (1+1)n

= 2n/2(cos ~

+ i s1n

~).

(f) What do we get 1f we expand. and. then


eq ua te real parts 1n the a hove ?

(g) What do we get if we expand and then


eq uate 1Jlag1nary parts ?
We wish to take this oppartun1ty of congratulat
ing Douglas Davidson far being the first one to
sem in solutions. He did No. 1 and No.2 of the
assarted problems am No. z of the Answers am
questions. I hope to hear from others, so we
are not

~iving

his solutions yet.


S. Gre1tzer

10
MANY CHEERFUL FACTS

Given the polynomial equation

n
n-l

f ( x ) = aOx + a l x
+ + an = 0,
the relations between roots and coefficients
are well-known - namely I
r l + r 2 + ~ + r n
= -a l /aO
r l r 2 + r l r J + + r n_ l r n

= +&2/a O

...
What is not as we11 known, however, are the
relations involving powers of the roots, and
known as Newton's Identities. These are often
useful in problem solving.
We define

=r l

= -a l /a O '

Then sl

+ r2

or

aOs l + a l

Next, (r l +r2+ +rn )2


2 _

k
+ + r n

= s2

=o

+ 2a2/aO' or
2,

1 - s2 + 2a2,aO Since 51 = -a1s 1,aO


we rewrite this aOs 2 + a 18 1 + 2a2 = 0
8

Now we restrict ourselves to a cubic. Then

a r ) + a r 2
+ a r + a) = 0
2 l
t 1
O1
)
+
2
+
a Or 2
alr 2
a 2r 2 + a) = 0
a Or)3 + a l r)2 + a 2r) + a) = 0
and, adding, a 8 + a l s 2 + a s 1 + )a = o
0 3
2
3

,.
'.
'.

'.
'.
'.

11

The easiest way to derive this is by calculus.


It is also possible to derive

s_k. Thus,

consider the cubic forms at the bottom of the


last page. Provided no root is

~ro,

a Or 2 + a r + a + a) I r
1
2
1

1 1
a Or 2 2 + a 1r 2 + a 2 + a) I r 2

ge t

a Or)2 + a l r) + a 2 + a)/r)

we may

=0
= 0

=0

and, when we add these, we have


aOs 2 + a l s 1 + )a2 + a)s_1
x

x, y

Then
b

y =a
2
+ 1 = J4

2
to be the roots of X + aX + b = O.

s1 = -a = ""8, and

= 15,

x +

Now consider

Assume

=0

J4 -

and our quadratic is

fA, + 2b = 0,

2
X -

ax

+ 15 = O.

The roots are ) and

5, so, for our siau1taneous

equations, we have

(x,y) = (),5) or (5,)).

Now you might have fun solving theses


x + y + z

Mathesis

(1904)

x+y+z=)
222
x + y + z =)

x5 +

+ z5 z 3
First USA Olympiad

=)

22
x2
+ y + z =)
x) + y3 + z)
6
Math Tripos

-IX + ...;y = 6
l/x + lJy = 5/16

12

ASSORTED PROBLEMS
7)

Find a J-digit number with all its digits


distinct and different from zero such that
the sum of all the numbers that can be
formed with three of the digits (repetition
not permitted) is equal to the original
number.

8)

(CulB)
x (0 < x < "'), the

Show that for all


inequality

sin x (1 + cos x) < (1 + cos(~))(sin(~)


holds,

9)

(Finland)

Determine all positive integer solutions

(x O' xl' ,x n )

of the system

4x l

= 5xO

+ 1

4x2

= 5x1

+ 1

4xn

....

= 5xn- 1 +

(Sweden)

'.

e
.e

KURSCHAK CORNER
Students who enjoyed Hungarian Problem Books I & I I
covering the famous Kurschak Contest (formerly named
after Eotvos) for the years 1894-1928, should welcome
the challenge provided by this competition in more
recent years. They should set aside an uninterrupted
4-hour period to compose complete well-written solu
tions, extensions, generalizations, etc. to at least
some of these problems, and submit their work (enclos
ing a stamped, self-addressed envelope) to the address
given below. Every solution will be thoroughly eval
uated and each respondent will receive a set of in
structive solutions to the problems posed.
1/1970. What is the maximum number of acute interior
angles of an n-sided planar polygon which does not
cross itself?
2/1970. Five distinct numbers are chosen from the set
{10,11,12, ,99}. What is the probability that there
are at least two among the chosen numbers whose diff
erence is I?
3/1970. Assume that n points are given so that no three
of them lie on a straight line. Some of the segments
connecting them are colored red, while some are cc10red
blue so that from any given point one can get to any
other point along a colored segment in one and only one
way. Prove that it is possible to color blue or red
the remaining segments connecting the points so that all
of the triangles defined by the n points will have an
odd number of red sides.

Dr. George Berzsenyi


2040 Chevy Chase
Beaumont, Texas 77706

CONTENTS

Covert Quadrilateral and Averages.


i

Preface

Inequalities

Ptoleay's Theore.

Answers and Questions

10

Many Cheerful Facts

12

Assorted Proble.s

1)

Kurschak Corner

Yet lIhat an aU sue _leUes to . .


~.
IIh_ thou'lhtS an rull or lnllc.. ani surds?
x2 1x S3

u/).

C.L.D.

''..

<.

arbelos

PRODUCED FOR

PRECOLlEGE

PHILOMATHS

No.4

Copyright

March,
~ The

1983

Mathematical Association
of America, 1983

PREFACE
I t is pleasant to report that the number of
subscribers has continued to ~ow. It is more
pleasant to report that some readers are writing
to give their opinions of the articles in the
Arbelos. Happily, nearly all are compU:mentary.
However, one correspondent wrote to say that he
had seen something we had written about before.
Now one reason for the Arbelos is to present
subject matter that is not normally touched on
in classes in mathematics. Naturally, we do not
know what is beinp; taup;ht everywhere. Therefore,
it must happen that the reader will sometimes
see somethinp; he has seen before. We can only
hope that what we present is unfamiliar to a
majority of you.
This situation can work in reverse. I still
remember when I presented a problem based on
an example I found in "Theory of Numbers", by
Niven and Zuckerman (page 84, No.23) and heard
Randy Dougherty say, "That's Beatty's Theorem".
I had never heard of Beatty's Theorem, and had
to search about until I found it. So it is quite
possible that you know somethinp; the editor
does 't.
So - if you find that we have written some
thing that is familiar to you, forp;ive us. If
you have discovered somethinp; new, write us.
We will p;ladly print it and give you credit.
Finally, if you would like to see some topic
appear in Arbelos. let us know. We're happy to
oblip;e.
S. Greitzer

'.

PRISMATOID AND PRISMOID


So much new mathematics has been developed
in the past few years that some of it has gotten
into the secondary school curriculum, thus
displacing other topics that are, nevertheless,
still valuable. We will examine a few of these.
Let us first examine a prisma toid. This is
defined as being a solid figure whose upper and
lower bases are parallel polygons ( not necessar
ily with the same number of edges) and whose
lateral faces are planes. These are therefore
triangles or quadran~les.

The diagram above shows a prtSUlatold ~ri to


upper base U, lower base L, and 'mid-section M.
First, all quadrangular faces are cut by dia
gonals to farm triangles. Next, fro. any point 0
in tho mid-section, lines are drawn to all the
vertices of the prislllatoid as well as to all
the intersection points of the faces and the
mid-section. Lots of triangular pYramids are
formed. We examine one such pyramid, O-ABC
(It is shown at the left.)

Since PQ bisects AB and AC, MBC has

area four t1.lles that of MPQ. Hence pyramid

O-ABC has a volUlle four time that of pyramid


O-APQ. However, pyramid C-APQ = pyramid A-OPQ
which is equal to, say, H x H/6 in volume.
1
Therefor the volUllle of pyramid C-ABC is 4M 1 xH/6.
Going room the solid, the sum of the volwtes
of all the pyruids whose bases are on lateral
faces equals 4M x H/6.
We must inchde two mare WX'8Jll1ds - with
bases U and L. These have volUllles equal to
U x H/6 am L x H/6. Adding these, we find
the volUllle of the whole prislllatoid to equal

(n)

(U + L + 4M)

We come next to Bonaventura Cavalieri (1598


1647). To paraphrase his theorem, called
Cavalieri's Principle)
If two plane figures are on the same line as
tase and if the lengths of intersections of
these figures bylines parallel to the base
are always in the constant ratio t , then
the areas of the figures are in the same ratio.
(If the umerllned wards are replaced, plane
by solid, line by plane, areas by volUllles, we
obtain the other half of Cavalieri's Theorem.
(n) I have been unable to find any source
far this formula among the ancient Greek
geometers. The earliest reference I fim
attributes the fOI'Jlula to Johannes Kepler
(1571-16)0). Doesn't that make this a
. "modern" theorem?

..

,.

r
.e
i

,e

I.
''..

Finally, let us look


At the rip;ht, we have a
section, at a distance
is a quadratic function
8 = Ax 2 + Bx

at the dla~am above.


solid whose cross
x units from the top,
of that distance. Then
+ C.

As for the so1ids pictured. at the left, the


section of the pyramid x units from the top
1s 8 = Ax 2 The section of the triangular
1
prism x un! ts from the top is 8
Bx, am
2
the section of the rectangular prism x units

from the top is 8 = C. Therefore, the solid


a t the right and t~e sum of the three solids
at the left have equal volumes, by Cavalieri's
Principle.
However, the volume of each of the three
solids at the left can be foum by usinp; the
Prismatoid Formula, which means that we can
find the volume of the solid at the rip;ht by
using the same formula. Hence,
If a solid has the property that every section
parallel to the base is a quadratic function
of 1ts distance from the base, then the volume
of the solid is given by the formula

V =

(U + L + 4M)

4
Such a fip;ure is called a Prismoid.
Now we have enou~ information to determine
areas and volumes for many figures, which are
usually found by calculus. For example, since
any cross-section of a sphere is a quadratic
function of its distance from a pole, the
Pris~oid Formula holds, so the volume is
V

x(

2
0 + 0 + 4nr )

=~

nr J

Of course, there is the (relatively) well


known method for finding the volume of a sphere,
attributed to Archimedes. In the diagram above,
we have, on the same plane as base, a hemisphere
and a cylinder, radius of base r am height r,
from which a cone has been removed, as shown.
Sections of both solids are taken x units up.

In the hemisphere. the area of the section is


2
2
n(r - x ). In the cylinder, the area of the
2
2
ring is also n(r - x ) Hence the hemisphere
and the cylindrical

fi~e

The cylinder has volume

have equal volumes.

Tfl'J and the cone has

Tfl'J IJ. Therefore the hemisphere has a


volume of 2nrJ IJ and the whole sphere 4Tfl'J IJ.

volume

On the basis of this proof and the assertion


that this was the way Archimedes did it, I still
cannot imagine that Archimedes did not know
Cavalieri's principle and the Prismatoid formula.

',..
'.

;.

,e

Again, in the dia~am above, we have a sphere


with radius r and a triangular pyramid in which
edges AB, BC and CD are equal in len~th to 2r
and are mutually perpendicular. Let a plane x
units above the canJIlon plane on which both sit.
Then it is a simple matter to show that the
section by this p~ne of the pyramId has an area
equal to (2rx - x ) while the section of the

'

sphere has an area equal to w(2rx - x ). Hence


the volumes have the ratio

l/tr.

Now the volume

of the pyramid is 4r J lJ. Therefore the volume of


the sphere is 4wr J /).
These three methods for finding the volume of
a sphere have been presented just to show the
variety of ways the Prismoid, Prismatoid and
Cavalipri's Theorems can be used.

We present another application. In the

fiKUre above, we start with a parabolic arc,

the equation of which will be y2 = h 2x/B.

This arc is enclosed in the rectangle shown.


which has base B and altitude h. Next to this
parabolic arc. we have erected a pyramid with
base B and altitude h. inverted. Both fi~es
are on the same base and both are cut by a
plane parallel to that base.
For the parabolic arc. the section 51 is
related to B h and
x/B

= y2/h2.

y by the formula

For the section 52 of the pyramid.

5 /B = y2/h2. Hence 51 = 52 and so


2
the measures of the two figures are equal. Now

we have

the volume of the pyramid is equal to


Therefore the area of

Bh/3.

is also equal to Bh/3.

(If the thought of comparing an area with a


length worries one. just make the figure at the
left into a solid by giving a thickness of 1
to it.)
We have thus shown that the area under the
Parabola is 2/3 of the area of the rectangle
that encloses it.
We must regretfully end this article. but
we shall use it to solve just one more problem.
We know about the curve produced when a point
on a circle moves while the circle itself rolls
alone a strai~t line. It is called a cycloid.
Parametric equations for the cycloid are easy
to derive. (One ~ts from A directly to P alonp;
the path x + iy. or from A to B to 0 to C to p.
or ae + ia - a cos(e - 90 ) + i sinCe - 90 ).)
We find
x = aCe - sin e)
y = a(1 - cos e)

.,
"

,e

-.
-.

'.

(trQ.,J.tO.)

CO,JaH.-------=:;--'"'"""::"':'W-1

In the diagram above. the circle has rolled


along AX. and the point on the circumference
has traveled from A to P. It should be noted
that

arc BP

= segment

drawn the curve

AB

= ae.

We have also

x = a9. y = a(1 - cos 9). which

1s called the "companion" to the cycloid. It is


actually a cosine curve. passes through the point
Q. am. bisects the !:!!! of the rectangle !
Now the distance from point P to the Y-axis
is equal to (a9 - a sin 9 The distance frOll
point Q to the Y-axis is equal to a9. This
makes PQ equal to a sin e. which happens to be
the section of the semicircle. Hence the area
between the cycloid am. its cOlipanion is equal
to the area of the half-circle.
Let

K be the area um.er the cycloid between


2
A am. na. The area um.er the companion is Tfa
2
2
2
Therefore. K - Tfa = TTa. 12 K = Jna. I?

am. the area um.er one complete arch of the

2
cycloid is equal to 3Tfa
It may be of interest to students interested
in the Putnam Competition to remark that the
first problem in the first Competition in 1938

involves proving that the Prismoid Formula works


when the section parallel to the base is a cubic
function of the distance frOll the base, and that
Problem 2 of the Eighth Competition in 1948 uses
Cavalieri's Principle.
Serious stooents might be interest in trying
to solve the following problems, using the ideas
presented in this article.
a)

Find the area enclosed between the parabolas


y2 = 2px and x2 = 2py.

b) Find the volume of a paraboloid of revolution


and cOllpare this with the volume of the
enclosing cylinder.
c) The hyperbola

x2 _ y2 = a 2

is rotated

about the X-axis, am a cap of height

is then cut frOil it by a plane perpendicular


to the X-axis. F1nd the volume of this cap.
d) Derive a formula for the voluae of a frustum
of a circular cone whose bases have radii
H am r. and whose alt1tooe 1s h.
e) Two cylinders with equal radius a intersect
so that their axes are at right angles and
intersect. Fim the voluae cOlllllon to both
cyl1mers. (Avery caamon problem. Sorry
about that !)
f) A right circular cylimer has a circular base
with radius r units and altltooe a. Throu~ a
diameter of the upper base. two planes are
drawn touching the lower base on opposite
sides (see diagram on cover). What is the
volume of that part of the cylinder between
the planes? (Our text used triple integrals
to get V = (IT - 4/J)ar 2 .)

.,

'.

,.

,.'.
'.

'.

9
ANSWE~S

AND QUESTIONS

1. When the Easter vacation arrived, Hyde am


Zeke decided to go to Florida. Hyde left in
a transport of joy, but Zeke took the trip
more calmly, on a higher plane, so to speak.

If the plane traveled nine times as fast as


the transport, am Zeke ~ot 36 hours more
than Hyde at the beach, how long did each
take travelin~ ?
2. The area of a plane section of a circular
cylimer is equal to 16,.,. The area of a
plane section of the same cylimer, which
is perpemicular to the plane of the first
section, is equal to 9rr. What is the radius
of the cy11mer ?

3. If a yardstick marked

off into 1/4 inches


am a meter stick marked. off into centi
meters are placed with their initial points
together, which two marks on the two
sticks will most nearly coincIde ? (our
almanac tells us that one meter is exactly
39.37 inches long.)

4.

The equation x 2 - 9?x + A = 0 has roots


equal to the fourth powers of the roots of
x 2 _ x + B = O. What is the value of A?

5. A 5-digit number 1s a multiple of 41. If


the highest order digit be removed am
placed to the right of the units digit, the
new number is a perfect cube. What was the
original number?

10

DIOHfANTUS IN SPRINr.TIME

There are a great many mathematicians in this


country, and sprin~time - especially April First
seems to brinp; them out of hibernation. We have
already received. our first anp;le trisection, a
friend assures us that he has a method of con
structing a re~lar heptap;on, and we expect our
ftrst circle-squaring soon. We also ~et our
share of old prob1ems,~which repeat annually.
This time, it is the following:

.-.

When a man cashed a check at the bank, the

teller, by mistake (what else ??) gave him

as many dollars as the check called for cents

and as many cents as the check called for

dollars. After spendin~ 68 cents, the man

found he still had double the amount of the

orip;ina1 check. What was the amount of the

original check ?

This naturally set us


Equations.

thinkin~

of Diophantine

First, a definition: A Diophantine equation


is an equation that has to be satisfied in
integers. With this in mind, suppose that the
original check was for 100x + y cents. Then
100y + x - 68

= 2(

100x + y) , or

98y - 199x = 68.


There are lots of ways to SOlove a linear
Diophantine equation, provided it has a solution.
Let us illustrate a few of these methods, using
the equation

5x + ?y
for simpl1city.

= 41

w
~

,.,.'.

11

(a) We can ~ess! For this equation, y can


be only 1, 2, J, 4, 5. Trial gives us
x = 4 and y = J.
~ess a solution for
ax + by = 1.
Then a(cx) + b(cy) = c, and we have a
solution. In this example,

(b) We can

50)
But

5(123) + 7(-82)
5(x) + 7(y)

= 41
= 41

5(123 - x) + 7(-82 - y) = o.
Rewrite this as a proportion, and we have

Hence

'.

'.
'.
'.
,.

+ 7(-2) = 1

123 - x =
82 + y

1
5'

We may now assume that

= 123 - 7t
Only t = 17 will
x

so x = 4,

(c)

= 3.

y = 5t - 82
yield positive x and y,

Euler had his own method. Start with


5x + 7y
Then
x +
This means
Therefore,
Now divide
Hence

= 41
8 = (1

and divide by

5.

y - 2y)/5.
that (1 - 2Y)/5 is an inte~er
we may write 2y - 1 = 5u, say.
this equation by 2, and we have

y - 2u = (u + 1)/2.
(u + 1) /2 is an integer, and we

arrive at u = 2t - 1. Substitute back to


find y, and we have y = 5t - 2. Finally,
substitute in the original equation, and we
have x = 11 - 7t.

12
Here only t = 1 yields non-negative

results, so x = 4, y = J.

(d)

One can use Farey sequences. This looks


a little like the Pascal triangle. The
n-th line in a Farey sequence consists
of all the fractions, in ascending order,
whose denominators do not exceed n. The
first few lines there go as follows:

-01

1 1
2 1

1
0

1
1

! -1
2
J

1
0

7i

1
1

1
2

etc.

"1

There are two properties of Farey sequences


that interest us. First, if the series
contains three successive fractions, thus,

-ham
- k

then

b n

~ +
m=~
+ n
b

We say that alb

is the mediant between h/k and min. This


allows us to write out a line of the Farey
sequence easily.
The sec ond property is, that given alb
between h/k and min, then
hb - ka

= -1

and

an - bm

This gives us two solutions for


For our problem, 517

= -1.

ax + by'

is in line

= 1.

of

,.

;.

,.
'.
'.

''..

'.

,.'.

the Farey sequence. In fact, we find that

follow each other, and we have

5(3) - 7(2) = 1
and 7(3) - 5(4) = 1.

We can now proceed as in Method (b), thus:

5( -4) + 7(J )

=1

=41

5(-164) + 7(123)
5x + 7y

= 41

5(-164 x) + 7(123 - y)

=0

164 + x = 1
123 - y
5
x = 7t - 164
y
123 - 5t
Only t = 24 yields positive values for

x, y,

so x

= 4,

= 3.

Note: Using the other expression obtained

from the Farey sequence would give us

precisely the same result as Method (b).

(e) We come now to Continued Fractions. A


continued fraction has the form
E=a
q

+-1
a

b2
+-

..::1

a2 + a

where each fraction is attached to the


denominator of the previous fraction. An
example would be
1 + 1

2+,6

J +

t +4
"5

14

To save space, we ap;ree to lower the signs,


so p/q = 1 +

, for example.

For our purposes, we can let all the bi


equal 1 and the a be positive integers. In
i
this Cl'lse, we agree to write the continued
fraction in the form
(aO:a1,a2,a3,,an)
Such fractions are called simple continued
fractions.
Now any fraction can be rewritten as a simple
continued fraction. For example,
7/5

=1

=1

+ 2/5

Consider now .E
q

+ 1/(5/2)

=a0

+ 1

=1

1
1

+ a

1
+ + a
n
2

If we drop all terms after a given one, we get


what is called a partial convergent, written Pi/qi'
Thus, polqo = aol1
,P1/q 1 = (a Oa 1 + 1) /a 1 '
P2/q 2 = (a Oa 1a 2 + a O + a 2 )/(a1a 2 + 1) , etc.
Here, PO
P2

= a O'

= a Oa 1a 2

P1

= a Oa 1

+ 1, q1

+ a O + a 2 ' q2

= ~1a2

+ 1 , etc.

qo

=1

Someone noticed that

P2

= a 2P1

+ Po

q2

= a 2q 1

+ qo

=a 1

and, using mathematical induction, discovered


Pi
qi

= a i Pi -1
= a i q i-1

+ Pi - 2

+ qi-2

,.,.,.

,.'.
,.,.

i.
,.,.

15

ConsIderIng these as a pair of sImultaneous


equatIons, let us elimInate the terms contaInIng
a Then
l
PI q 1-1 = a l P l - 1q l-1 + P I - 2q l-1

= a l P l - 1q l-1

ql P l - 1
Subtractln~,

we have

(P l q l-1 - Ql P l-1)

=-

(P I -1QI-2 - Ql-1 PI-2)

(-1)2(P I _2Ql_J - QI-2PI-J)


to (-1)1-1(P Qo
1
that Is,

+ P l - 1q l-2

untIl we get

= (-1)1-1(a Oa 1

- Q1 PO)

+ 1 - a a )
O1

= 1.

P Q
QP
1 1-1 - 1 1-1

If we start wIth the fractIon a/b, then, when


we wrIte thIs In contInued fractIon form, the last
or ultImate convergent Is a/b. Therefore, the
next-to-last or penultImate convergent, with a/b
wIll, from the formula above, yIeld
aql-1 - bP1 _ 1
=11.
That Is, Ql-1' Pi-l are a solutIon of the equatIon
ax + by

=1

due care bel~ taken wIth sIgns. For example, for


our sample equatIon, we can wrIte

2
2
am. we see that 50) + 7(-2) = 1 Now we can
contInue as In method (b).
We shall return to the matter of contInued
fractIons In due time.

16

(f) We come at last to a method using congruence


relations. It is a lot like Method (c). We
have
5x + 7y = 41. Divide by 5, and. we
get
so

2y.: 1(mod 5)

=)(mod

5)

or

or

2y:= 6{nod 5),

= 5t

+ ). Now we

continue as in method (c).


Now we can get 'tack to our check problem. We
have

98y - 199x = 68.

Methods (a) am (b) are out - we can 't ~ess


an answer (at least I can't). Method (c) is
possible. Divide the equation by 98, am we have
-

y - 2x -

)x +

68
98

)x + 68 = 98u.

from which

Divide this by),

x + 22 + ~ = )2u + ~

am we fim

fran which

2u - 2

am we have

u - 1

= )v,

say. Divide this by 2,

=v

'2v '

from which

= 2t.

Substituting successively in the previous equa


tions, we finally get
x
y

= 98t + 10
= 199t + 21

Any value of t other thah t = 0, leads to an


impossible number of cents. Therefore, the
original check was for $10.21.
We won't even consider method (d) Getting
the requisite terms of the Farey sequence would
be too harrowing.
Using method (e), we easily find that
199/98

= (21

)2, 1, 2). We find the\(onvergent~.

<.

ie

,.

<.

,.

17

a
2
32
1

am see that

p
2

q
1

65

32

67 \
199

/33
98

=1

199(33) - 98(67)

The rest is just heavy arithmetic, using method (b).

Finally, we try method (f). We divide by


am have

98,

-3x: 68(mod 98)

-3x ~ -30(mod 98)

=10(mod

98)

= 98t

+ 10.

Then we substitute in the original equation, am

98y - 98x199t - 1990

= 68,

The original check was for

or

= 199t

+ 21.

$10.21.

We em this with a simple problem, which can


be done all six ways.
On a certain planet, there are two inimical forms
of life. The Septicapita have seven heads but only
two lep;s each, while the Pentapods have only two
heads but do have five lep;s each. One day an odd
lot of Septicapita encountered an odd lot of
Pentapods, am a wild melee ensued. Heads am
legs were flying allover - one observer counted
180 of both together. How many of each type
were involved in the fracas ?
Note: Unfortunately, we must leave further work
on continued fractions to another issue.
We would like to recommend the reader to
"Continued Fractions", by C.D.Olds. This is
Volume No. 9 of the New Mathematical
Llbrary, pu blished by the M. A. A.

18

MANY CilEERFUL FACTS


It is sometimes useful, when given an equation,
to derive another equation whose roots will be the
sguares of the roots of the original one. Here is
an easy method for doing this. We illustrate with
a cubic equation, but the method is general.
Let the cubic equation have the form:
f(x) : ax) + bx 2 + cx + d : a(x-r )(x-r )(x-r)) : O.
1
2
Then fe-x) : ax J _bx 2 + cx - d : 0 will have
rOots which are the negatives of the roots of the
of the orig;inal equation. For, in that case,
we have a(x + rt)(x + r 2 )(x + r)) : o.
Now we find the product f(x).f(-x) : O. Writing;
f(x) : a(x
fe-x): a(x
f(x).f(-x)
Now merely

- rt)(x - r 2 )(x + r~)(x + r 2 )(x +


: a (x 2 - r 12 )(x 2
replace x2 with

r)) : 0
r)) , we find
- r 22 )(x 2 - r)2) : O.
y, and we have

g(y) : a 2 (y - r 2 )(y - r 2 )(y - r)2) : O.


t
2
Finding the product f(x) .f( -x) is easiest done
by using detached coefficients.
We illustrate with the cubic equation
)
2
.
f(x) : x - 6x + tlx - 6 : 0 (roots 1,2,)). Then

and

~~f--t: ~~

~ - t4y2 + 491 - )6 : 0 has roots 1,4,9.

This process us used in Graeffe's Method of


finding approximations to the roots of equations
in NUlIlerical Analysis. Consult any text for more.

,e

,.

;.

,.

19
ASSORTED PROBLEMS
10)

Show that, for all x (0, n), the


inequality
rr+x) si~
n+x
( 1 + cos x ) sin x ~ ( 1 + co~
Finlam

11) {~} (k = 1, ~) is a convex sequence


orreal numbers, i. e

~+ ~+2 ~. 2 ~+1

for (k=1,2, ).

Prove that
a

+ a

+ + a

+
2n 1

n + 1

Sweden
12) Prove that for every natural number k,

there exists a natural number ~ suck


that
~ 2 + J Xk + 5
is divisible
k
by 15
Bul~ria

Note:

Thus far, we have received solutions to


our simple problems. There have been no
solutions to the Olympiad Type problems.
We would like to see solutions to these
in time to acknowledge them in our May
issue. Sem them to

20

..

KURSCHAK CORNER

Students who enjoyed Hungarian Problem Books I & II


covering the famous Kurscha~ Contest (formerly named
after Eotvos) for the years 1894-1928, should welcome
the challenge provided by this competition in more
recent years. They should set aside an uninterrupted
4-hour period to compose complete well-written solu
tions, extensions, generalizations, etc. to at least
some of these problems, and submit their work (enclos
ing a stamped, self-addressed envelope) to the address
given below. Every solution will be thoroughly eval
uated and each respondent will receive a set of in
structive solutions to the problems posed.
1/1954. Assume that AB + BD $ AC + CD in a convex
quadrangle ABCD. Prove that AB < AC.

2/1954. Prove that if every planar section of a three-


dimensional solid is a circle, then the solid is a sphere.

4t

3/1954. Prove that in a round robin tournament (i.e. a

tournament in which each contestant is matched against

every other contestant) without ties, there must be a

contestant who will list all of his opponents when he 1is~


the ones whom he beat as well as the ones beaten by those.
whom he beat.
Dr. George Berzsenyi
2040 Chevy Chase
Beaumont, Texas 77706

,.

';,.
'..

,.
,.

21
VOLUME OF PYRAMID

Since we havo had occasion to make use of the


rule for find ing the volume of a pyramid, am
in order to make our discussion more nearly
canplete, we have taken the liberty of addi~
the note below as one method for obtainin~ it.
Below are two patterns. Usi~ the dimensions
~iven (or multiples of these), construct three
patterns - one of the dia~ at the right
am two of the diap;ram at the left. Fold the
patterns thus made alon~ the dotted lines, am
you have three pyramids. Two are co~uent am
therefore have equal volumes. The third is
symmtric to the others, am, fran Cavalieri's
Theorem, has a volume equal to each of the two
others.
These three pyramids, however, can be assembled
to form a trian~lar prism, whose volume is
equal to its base multiplied by its altitude.
Hence anyone of the pyramids will have its
volume equal to one-third of the product of its
base by its altitude
Assembling the pyramids to form the prism is
not really as difficult as solving Rubik's Cube.

/.

II ' \
\
I
,
I.e
\

-I"'''
I
I

4.~

&~,e
G.

'\

/'t

\
\

, '6~'r:
I

_~:/

CONTENTS
Preface. i

Prismatoid &: Prismoid. 1

Answers &: Questions.


Diophantus in

Sprin~1me

10

Many Cheerful Facts.


18

Assorted Problems.

19

Kurschak Corner

20

Volume of Pyramid.

21

arbelos
PRODUCED FOR
PRECOLIJErrE
PHILOMATHS

I.

No.5

May, 1983
Copyright ~ The Mathematical Association
of America, 1983

EPILOCUE
It was with a great deal of trepidation that
we launched this small (as yet) effort almost
a year ago. We were not certain we would have
sufficient readership and support, and the
start of the project was without publicity of
any sort. We just selected the na.Iqes of a few
students who, in our opinion, mi~ht be willin~
to assist us, and hoped for moderate success.
Actually, the reaction was very p.;ood indeed!
We have received solutions to problems, letters
from readers, and requests for more.
Therefore, we have decided to continue the
production far a second year, subject to action
on your part to our request far subscriptions
far the year.
We have done our best to provide articles on
topics not usually studied in school, and we
hope we have been successful. If any reader
has an idea about some topic he or she would
like to have us cover, please let us know.
We admit we have had an ulterior motive in mind.
Spring is the season far various contests, both
local and regional. We hope these issues will
help a contestant improve his ar her achievement
in whatever contest comes up. We also hope that
the student will be able to do better in class.
We also welcome contributions from our readers.
Have a pleasant Summer and do come 'tack
Dr. Samuel L. Greitzer
Mathematics DePartment
Rut~rs University
New Brunswick, NJ 08903

!.

,e

I.
;.i.
I.

I.

i.I.

LOCI AND ENVELOPES


We are accustomed by habit to see things in
certain ways, ways which may inhibit our ability
to solve problems. For example, consider the
equation
ax = b. Through custom, most of us
wpu1d consider a and b to be constants, and
determine that the equation locates a point x
on the X-axis and equal to b/~. Suppose, however,
that a and x are variables and b constant.
Then the equation has a graph which is a hyperbola.
And if all three letters represent variables, the
~aph of the equation is a quadric surface.
With this in mind, let us consider the equation
ax + by +

=0

a,b,c constants

c/o.

In this case, the graph consists of all the points


on a line. The graph can be constructed in the
usual way. The intercepts of the line will be

(-cIa, -c/b).

So far, there is nothing new.

Let us now divide the linear equation by


and rewrite it as
u

ux + vy + 1

= ale

a",d

=0 ,
= b/c .

c,

where

Then, if we allow x and y to be constants,

and u, v to be variables, we also have a linear

equation. Now, for every pair of values of u, v,

we get a line, and all these lines lie on a


point.
For example, take

1u + 2v + 1

= O.

Substitutin~ as usual far u and finding v, we


have the following table of values:

~
vi 1/2 I -1 I -2 I

If we prepare a
the intercepts

~aph,

remembering that

(-cia, -c/b) = [-1/u. -1/v] ,

we see that the lines all lie on the point (1,2).


That is, the equation

ux + vy + 1

=0

looked on as an equation in x, y, yields a


locus of points

.! line. Looked on as an

equation in u, v, it yields an envelope of


lines .Q!L.! point. There is an important and
useful duality here, which we can use.
The equation

222
+ y =r
, when graphed,

yields a locus of points on a circle. Let us


see what happens whel) we change to u-v coord

inates.

We start from

solve tbis for

ux + vy + 1

= 0,

x, am substitute. Then

.,

,.

'.
',..
',.,..

-1 - vy
=~----u

The two roots of this determine the two points


in which the line ux + vy + 1 = 0 intersects the
circle x2 + y2 = r 2 Since we seek the tangent
line, the discriminant of the quadratic must be
zero. On computing this, we find that
2( 2 2 + 2 2
u r
v r - 1) -- 0 ,
and since ufO,
u 2 + v2 = 1/r2 This is
U

~phed

by

findin~

lines that satisfy the last

equation, and the result is the same circle as


that determined by x2 + y2 = r 2 , but in the
form of an envelope of lines.
2
2
For the circle u + v = 1/4 , we prepare
the following table of values&
u

.! 1/3

.!.373

First, remember to use


~phing,

.! 1/4

ne~ative

.! 1/6

reciprocals in

am second, note that each pair of

values gives us f2!:!! lines to ~aph, and we get


the envelope shown on the next page.

One can see the circle determined by the lines.


Point-and-line cooroinates can be used to
derive many theorems in analytic geometry, affine
~ometry and projective ~eometry. We shall limit
ourselves to two possible uses, however. One of
these involves finding envelopes of lines and
curves.
One example, taken from our old Calculus, by
Granville (circa 1911) goes as follows I
Find the rectangular equation of the envelope of
the straight line
y=rnx+.E
m

where the slope is the variable parameter.


We first rewrite the equation in the form

m2

m
---p y + 1 = O.
p x

..

'.

'.

5
2

2
, and u = v p. This is
the equation in line coordinates. Now we use the

=~
p'

=- ~p

Then

form

ux + vy + 1

=0

equation. This yields

to eliminate u from the


v 2px + vy + 1 = O. And to

have a tangent, the discriminant must be zero, so


y2 _ 4px

=0

is the envelope in point coordinates.

The reader might try his hand on the fo110wingl


A line of constant length

moves so that its

endpoints are on the coordinate axes. Find the


rectangular equation of the envelope. (The
x2/ 3 + y2/3 = a 2/ 3 .)
answer is
A second application of the theory depends on
the fact that we have dual relations between the
locus and the envelope form of a curve. Thus, if
two curves considered as loci intersect and have
a point in common, then the curves considered as
envelopes have one line: in common, or have a
canmon tangent.

As an example, let us find the area of the

quadrilateral formed by the common tangents to

the circle x2
+ y2 = 9 and the ellipse
x2 + 8y2 = 16.

'.

I-

We have already determined that the circle


x2 + y2 = 9 transforms into 9u 2 + 9v2 = 1.
As for the general ellipse, b2x2 + a 2y2 = a 2 b2 ,
we eliminate

between this and

ux + vy + 1

= O.

As before,

u = -1 - vy , and. substituting,
u

b 2 (1 + yy)2 + a 2 y 2u 2 = a2b2u2
This yields. after sane al~ebra, the quadratic
y2(b2y 2 + a 2u 2 ) + Y(2b2y) + (b2 _ a 2 b2u 2 ) =
A~in.

o.

tangency means that the discriminant of

this equation must be zero. That meansl


2
a 2 b2u 2( a 2u 2 + b y 2 - 1) -- 0 a nd
since neither a, b. nor u can be zero, the line
2 2
2 2
equation for the ellipse is a u + b y = 1.
We will be worki~ with the ellipse x 2 + 8y2= 16
or x 2 /16 + y2/2 = 1. Therefore a 2 = 16, b2 = 2.
The dual equation is 16u2 + 2y2 = 1. Solving
16u2 + 2y2 = 1
2
2
9u + 9v = 1
we fim that !U =
four tangent

.Ix .!

:!Y = 3,f2 Thus there are

l1~es,

y =

3-{2

which form a square enclosing the two


The area of this square equals
graph appears as followsl

36

fi~es.

units. The

..

7
We should note that there are restrictions
in this development - that UfO , v f 0, for
example. This restriction is removed by assumin~
a line "at infinity", and usinp; the equation
xu + yv + zw = 0
Now we have homogeneous coordinates, and can do
much more. However, we would be encroachinp; on
the domain of projective p;eometry.
We add here some problems that are usually
by means of calculus.

~olved

1)

Find, in point coordinates, the equation


of the line
4u

joinin~

5v

+ 2

the points

=0
=0

5u + 6v
1
2) Determine the envelope of all ellipses whose
axes lie on the coordinate axes, whose
centers are at the orip;in, and which have
equal areas. (Area of ellipse b2x 2 + a 2y 2

= a 2b2

is

nab.)

2) Find the equations, in point coordinates, of


the canmon tanp;ents to the circle 2x 2+2y2=1
and the parabola

y2 = 4x.

But he opened out the h1~6

Pushed and pulled the jo1nts and h1~s

T111 1t lo~ed all squares and oblon~

L1ke a c.-pl1cated t1~

In the Second B~ of Euclid.


C.L.D.

DERANGEMENTS
There is a puzzle that has been p;oi~ round
for sane 270 years, in various forms. It was
first proposed by Montmort in 1713 am called
for selecti~ numbered balls or ticke-ts so that
the ball numbered r should not be the r-th
ball selected. The reader has undoubtedly seen
variants of this puzzle - for example, placinp;
enclosures in envelopes so that no envelope
will contain the correct enclosure, or havinp; a
hatcheck p;1rl distribute n hats so that no
person gets the right hat. Your writer does not
know hoW' Montmort solved the puzzle, but would
like to present some ways of doing so.
A monumental work titled "Canbinatory Analysis"
by P.A. MacMahon has the following solution: let
+ a + + an am fim the coefficient
2
1
of a a a n in (X - a )(x - a ) (X - an).
2
1 2
1
Note that the element from the first parenthesis
X= a

can't be

can't be

, that from the secom parenthesis

, etc. In the expansion, the r-th


2
term contributes (n) expressions equal to
r

a a a n ' so the solution is


1 2
~n) _ (n) + (n) _
+ (_1)n(n)
o
1
2
n
A secom method makes use of the Principle of
Inclusion am Exclusion. This principle occurs in
logic, probability am combinatorics. Briefly, it
goes somewhat like this: the number of total
derangements will equal the number of arrangements
minus the number of those in which one element is
in ita' place plus the number in which two are
in place minus the number in which three are
in place, am so 00.

,.

Symbolllcally, if

N(~)

arranp;ements in which
N(aj~)

is the number of
is in its proper place,

is the number of arran~ments in which

a j am ~ are in place, am if Dn equals the


total number of derangements, then we have
Dn = N(a a 2 an ) - (Na 1 + Na2 + + N~n) +
1
(Na a 2 + N ala) + + Na n_1a n )
1
(Na 1a 2a) + Na 1a 2a 4 + + Nan_2an_lan) + etc.
am on calculating each of these, we get
Dn = (~) - (~) + (~) - (~) -

which comes to

t! - ... ).

Dn = n!(l - 1 +~! - 1! +
Incidentally, the series in parentheses above
is the start of the series for l/e (e=2.71828 )
so that, as n increases, the probability of
having D derangements is approximately l/e, and
n more independent of the value of n.
is more am
Naturally, Euler had his own method. for solving
the puzzle. His reasoning was sanewhat as follows I
Suppose that element a
is in spot one. Then
i
the number of derangements
among the rest of the
elements is Dn- 2' and because i can take on
n-l values, then, for this case, the partial
total is (n - 1)D n_2 ,provided a
is in spot i.
1
However, if a
is not in spot i, then we have
1
(n - 1) elements a 1 , a 2 , ""~i-l' a i +1 , , an
to deal with, so that, in this case, the partial
total will be

(n - l)D

nderangements is therefore

l ' The total number of


D = (n-l)(D 1 + D 2)'
n
nn

10

Now it happens that Euler's form far the


solution can be rewritten aSI
(D n - nD n- 1) + (D n- 1 - (n-1)D n-~
~) = o.
Therefare,by reduci~ the subscripts again and
again, one finally reaches the simple form I
D = nO
n

n-

1 + (_1)n.

This is a recursion formula, it is true, am.


one can get to the solution by continually
depressing subscripts, as befare. However, we
can solve it by using a subterfuge (trick ?)
Let

D = n! v
n

n! v

am. substitute. Then

= n! v _ + (_1)n
n 1

Division yields

v n - v n-1 =

Now reduce subscripts by unity until one gets to


v - v ' say. We have a telescoping series, am
o
1
we fim that
v=11+1_1+
n
- I!
2!
)!

am. finally,
Dn = n!(1 - 1 +!! - 1!+ .)
Note I We cannot help but womer how Archimedes
would have solved the problem! After all, he did.
solve a very complicated Pellian Equation am he
did not even have our number system to wark with.

'.

'.

11
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1) A man walkinp; across a railroad bridge had
reached a point three-eighths of the way along
when he heard the Orient Express behind him
and coming at him at sixty miles per hour. As
a devoted reader of Arbe1os, he immediately
figured that he could save himself by runni~
to either end of the bridge. How fast can he
run?
2)

How many times does 2 appear as a factor in


the first positive integer that is greater
than

(4 + 2~)100 ?

J)

A locker room in the form of a rectanp;u1ar


parallelepiped is 15 feet lonp;, 12 feet wide
and 9 feet hig;h. There are two 1ip;hts set
flush with the cei1inp; and an athlete is
standinp; under each light. One of the two is
three inches taller than the other and casts
a shadow 6 feet lonp;. The other man's shadow
is 7 feet long;. How far apart are the two
lights? What's the name of the ~e ?

4)

In our fip;ure of the Arbe10s (see cover of


issue No.2) the common tangents to the small
semicircles, XY and CT, intersect at O. If
the sum of the diameters of the small circles
remains 10 centimeters, but the radii of the
small circles are permitted to vary, what is
the locus of the point 0 ?
Whenever I see a number, I usually do some
arithmetic with it (like factoring). This is
a common addiction. I have just seen a four
d igit number such that (a) all the d igits are
different, and (b) if the first two dip;its be
added to the last two digits and the sum
squared, the result is the original number.
What is the original number ?

12
NEWTON'S POLYGON
There are problems for the solution of which
it is useful to have a graph of a function bein~
considered. Of course, one can assume the functlQn
to be polynomial in form, substitute values for
x, find corresponding values for y, and thus
p;et a graph as a locus. Sometimes, one can find
the graph as an envelope.However, this sometimes
turns out to be complicated and time7consuminP-,
especially if all one needs is a sketch.
There is a method of obtaininp; a sketch in
many cases. Historically, it p;oes back to Newton
and his method of fluxions, which he used in the
development of calculus his way. Considerations
of space make it impossible to present a complete
explanation, and we hope that our presentation
will be fairly acceptable.
Consider the circle at the right, with
diameter AB, tangent AD and secant ~D.
As C "flows" along arc CA toward
A, the ratio BC/AB "flows"
5
toward 1. From similarity
considerations, so does
the ratio CA/AD. Now both
CA and AD become progressively
smaller. Nevertheless, we say
that they are infinitesimals
of the same order, unity. Now
CD/AD = AC/AB becomes small
D
as C "flows" toward A, so we
say that CD is an infinitesimal
of the second order with respect to AB. We can
find infinitesimals of increasing order - for
example, by d.rawing a perpendicular from C to
AD. The point is that there exist infinitesimals
of different orders. Moreover, the ratio between
an infinitesimal of order m and one of order n
equals zero, a constant or infinity according
as m is less than, equal to, or greater than n.

"

'<..

,.
,.

'.

Still historically, Leibnitz used infinitesi


mals in his version of calculus. The differences
were in notation, in the tmplied use of a ttme
factor and, most tmportant, in the fact that
where Leibnitz, and modern calculus, retains all
infinitestmals until the end of the process of
findinK a derivative, Newtonians discarded all
infinitesimals that would not affect the result
as they arose.
With this distinction in mind, one might
write out the equation which we wish to sketch,
divide each term by x and see whether y/x
can equal a constan
then divide by x again
to see whether y/x
can equal a constant, etc.
However, there is a very stmple (and surprising)
method that accomplishes. the same result.

z'

Graph the exponents of each term of the


equation on graph paper, join these points
so as to form a convex-polygon, and then
examine those terms that lie on the sides
of the polygon. These terms will yield
approximations to the shape of the graph.
What is more, if a side of this polygon
faces the origin, the terms will yield an
approx tmation to the shape of the graph
at the origin. If a side faces the "point
at infinity", the terms :will yie1d an
approxtmation to the shape of the ~aph
"near infinity".
This polygon is called the "Newton Polygon",
naturally.
Let us take, as an example, y5 - 4xy2 + x5 = o.
Note that, when x and yare replaced by
-y and -x, the equation does not change. This
means that the graph has central symmetry.

14

We now ~aph the exponents.


Point A corresponds to the
tem ;S. Point B corresponds
to
to

4xy2. Point C corresponds


x5 We ignore signs and

c oeffic ients

~--'----,.-

Fran side AB, we now get


y5 _ 4~J2 = 0 as an approximation at or near
the origin. We get

y2= 0 and

? - 4x

= 0 as

approximations. The first is rather rough, the


second is a cubical parabola, lying in the
first and third quadrants. Let'c call this I
Fran side Be, we find x5 = 4xy2 , or x = 0
and x4 = 4y2. This last represents two parabolas
symmetric with the Y-axis, one lyin~ in the first
and second quadrants, the other in the third and
fourth quadrants. We will call these II.
Fran side AC, we have x5 + y5 = 0, which can
give us only x + y = 0 , as the shape of the
graph near infinity. We call this III. We put
these parts all together in the graph belowl
---...------~--

- -I

:.

.e

''..

15
The line

x + y

=0

is an asymptote.

Let us now examine a well-known curve, the


Folium of Descartes. This has the equation
x3 + ~ = 3axy
(a positive).

A corresponds to the term


the term

3axy, and

Correspoming to side
This gives us y
y2

= ax

=0

y3,

B corresponds to
to the term x 3

AB, we have

y3 = 3axy.

as an approximation, but

as a better one. This is a parabola

symmetric with the X-axis and lying to the right


of the Y-axis. Side Be gives us x3 = 3axy, so
2
that x = 0 i& an approximation, but x = 3ay
a better one. This is & parabola lying above the
X-axis and symmetric with the Y-axis
Finally, side AC yields x 3 + y3 = 0, and
since this equals (x + y)(x 2 - xy + y2) = 0,
a first approximation would be the line

x+y

= O.

We can, however, get a better second. approximation.

16
Let us rewrite the ori~inal equation as:
+
_
3axy
x
y - 2
2
x - xy + y
am use our first approximation,

= -x,

to

see what happens. We p;et

x +

so a

~tter

y ~

-3ax

2 - -a,

x + x + x
approximation near infinity would be
x +

Y+

= O.

Now we can sketch our curve.

~~

~~
I

"\ .........

/
J'

"

1/

~ 1\

Next, we examine the Strophoid, whose equation is

or

ay? - Xy? = ax? + x 3

We note that the ~ph

will be symmetric with the X-axis. Next, we


graph exponents.

.
'

'.
'.

17

.!

From side
X-axis at

CD, we find ulat the graph cuts the

=0

(twice) and x:: -a. From side


2
2
AI', we note that ax = ay
or.! x :: ! y. Side
AB gives us
gives us

x:: a as an asymptote, and side BC


x(x 2 + y2) :: 0, for nothing useful. The

graph is shown above.


Of course, it makes sense to use any other data
that might help in sketching a curve. For example,
look for symmetry relations. If it is easy, one
mi11;ht differentiate to find local maxima and
minima. Look for re11;ions where the ~aph cannot
occur (we used to call them sign lines). The aim
is to sketch a curve so as to enable one to use
it to solve a problem.
Finally, you might try your hand at,
i) (x-a)(x-b)y2 - a 2x 2 = 0: a > b > 0
i1) y4 _ x4 _ 96y2 + 100 x 2 = O.
(This is Problem No.4 of the Eleventh Putnam Exam).

18

MANY CHEERFUL FACTS

Stewart's Theorem I In a
triangle, a line segment
like AP, going from a
vertex to a point on the
opposite side, is called
a Cevian. The theorem
states I If a Cevian
~
divides side Be = a into
segments of lenp;th m, n (as shown above), then
b2m + c 2n = t 2a + mna

A simple proof using the Law of Cosines iSI


2
2
c = m2 + t - 2mt cos e
b2 = n2 + t 2 + 2nt cos e
and eliminate the tems containin~ the cosine tem.
One can see how hardy this theorem would be for
findin~ the lenp;th of a median, an~le bisector,
altitude, etc.
Ceva's Theoreml I~ too
well known to necessitate
a proof, of which there
are many. It statesl
If Cevians AP, BQ, CR
are concurrent at a
......._-....,;;:.. c

point 0, then
AR
BP Qg
RB x 'pC x QA = +1 , am conversely. We can see how
Ceva's Theorem could be used to show that the
medians, altitudes, or anp;le bisectors in a triangle
are concurrent. Remember that the segments are all
directed line segments. If one remembers this, one
can use the the~rem for any position of the point
O.
~_

,.

,.'.

19
Menelaus' Theorem: This is
as well-known as is Ceva,
am there are many proofs
far this as well. It says:
If the sides of a triangle
are cut by a transversal

(see diagram), then

AR x BP x .Qg

= -1

QA

Again, the segments are directed line se"nents,


and. one m'.lst take care of signs.
RB

PC

Desargues' Theorem: This states, If correspondin~


vertices of two trian~les lie on three concurrent
lines, then correspoming sides of the trian~les
meet in three collinear points, am conversely.
For a proof, please refer to the cover dia~am:
AB, A'B' lie on plane OA'B'. Hence they intersect
.t P. Also, P lies on planes ABC and. A'B'C'.
Be, B'C' lie on plane OB'C'. Hence they intersect
at Q. Also, Q lies on planes ABC and. A'B'C'.
AC, A'C' lie on plane OA'C'. Hence they intersect
at R. Also R lies on planes ABC am A'B 'C' ..
Since two planes intersect in a line, P, Q, R
are collinear.
This is a theorem in Projective Geometry, where
all lines intersect. Moreover, it is not necess
arily true on the plane - not unless one adds an
axiom of continuity ar admits commutativity. This
makes many of the "proofs" we hav seen suspect
especially those involving analytic geometry.
Note also that this thearem is self-dual. If one
restates it, replacing point by line, line by
point, concurrency by collinearity am collinear
ity by concurrence, one gets the same theorem.

20

ASSORTED PROBLEMS
13) Find all integers

n < 1 for which


n
In + 4 + + (n+l)n + (n+2)n = (n+J)n.

(U.S.S.R.)
14) A finite set of unit circles is ~iven on
a plane, such that the area of their
union U is

S. Prove that there exists

a subset of mutually disjoint circles


such that the area of their union is

~
~a t er th an
9 S
.

(Yu~oslavia)

15)

2
Let f(x) = ax + bx + c
and
2
g(x) = cx + bx + a. One knows that
If(O)1 ::: 1,

If(l)1 ~

Prove that for

Ixl

i) lr(x)1

1 , 'f(-l)' < 1

< 1
11)

1~(x)1 ~

(Vietnam)
Congratulations to Mark Kantrowitz and to
David Moews for their solutions to various
probl~ms. We are especially interested in the
"Assorted Problems" which are actually among
those proposed by the countries indicated.
Our apolo~ies for the error in Asserted Problem
No.7. What was wanted was a 5-digit number.

21
"

KURSCHAK CORNER

.Students who enjoyed Hungarian Problem Books I & II


, Ikovering the famous KUrschdk Contest (formerly named
.fter Eotvos) for the years 1894-1928, should welcome

ttthe challenge provided by this competition in more

If.ecent years. They should set aside an uninterrupted

, tt4-hour period to compose complete well-written solutions,


extensions, generalizations, etc. to at least some of
~hese problems, and submit their work (enclosing a
,~tamped, self-addressed envelope) to the address given
~elow. Every solution will be thoroughly evaluated and
, .ach respondent will receive a set of instructive solu
tfions to the problems posed.
I

~/1961. Consider the six distances determined by four

~oints in a plane. Prove that the quotient of the largest


, ~f these distances to the smallest of them can not be less
.han 12 .

Prove that if a,b, and c are positive numbers,


each less than 1, then the products (l-a)b, (l-b)c, and
, 4t(1-c)a can not all be greater than 1/4.

iill961.

./1961. Given two circles, exterior to one another, along


~ith a common inner and a common outer tangent.
The re
tfulting points of tangency define a chord in each of the
'.ircles. Prove that the point of intersection of these
~wo chords (or extensions thereof) is collinear with the
ttenters of the given circles.

tt

Dr. George Berzsenyi


2040 Chevy Chase
Beaumont, Texas 77706

CONTENTS

Frontispiece - Desarp;ues' Theorem


i

Epllop;ue

1.

Loci am Envelopes

Deran~ments

11.

Questions am Answers

12.

Newton s Polygon

18.

Many Cheerful Facts

20.

Assorted Problems

21.

Kurschak Corner

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