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Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Expert Systems with Applications


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa

Prediction of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled


with biodiesel produced from waste frying palm oil
Mustafa Canakci a,b,*, Ahmet Necati Ozsezen a,b, Erol Arcaklioglu c, Ahmet Erdil d
a

Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit, Turkey


Alternative Fuels R&D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit, Turkey
c
The Scientic and Technological Research Council of Turkey, 06100 Ankara, Turkey
d
Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit, Turkey
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Keywords:
ANN
Biodiesel
Diesel engine
Engine performance
Emissions

Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its fuel properties and compatibility with the petroleum-based diesel fuel (PBDF). Therefore, in this study, the prediction of the engine performance and exhaust emissions is carried out for ve different neural networks to dene how the inputs
affect the outputs using the biodiesel blends produced from waste frying palm oil. PBDF, B100, and biodiesel blends with PBDF, which are 50% (B50), 20% (B20) and 5% (B5), were used to measure the engine
performance and exhaust emissions for different engine speeds at full load conditions. Using the articial
neural network (ANN) model, the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine have been predicted for biodiesel blends. According to the results, the fth network is sufcient for all the outputs. In
the fth network, fuel properties, engine speed, and environmental conditions are taken as the input
parameters, while the values of ow rates, maximum injection pressure, emissions, engine load, maximum cylinder gas pressure, and thermal efciency are used as the output parameters. For all the networks, the learning algorithm called back-propagation was applied for a single hidden layer. Scaled
conjugate gradient (SCG) and LevenbergMarquardt (LM) have been used for the variants of the algorithm, and the formulations for outputs obtained from the weights are given in this study. The fth network has produced R2 values of 0.99, and the mean % errors are smaller than ve except for some
emissions. Higher mean errors are obtained for the emissions such as CO, NOx and UHC. The complexity
of the burning process and the measurement errors in the experimental study can cause higher mean
errors.
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

important for the future of the world. Because the biodiesel is


made from renewable sources, it is more convenient to protect
environment from unwanted emissions. Biodiesel is an ecological
and non-hazardous fuel with low emission values, and therefore
it is environmentally useful. On the other hand, in order to minimize the air pollution in the world, using biodiesel fuel is an alternative way to decrease the pollutants level and the potential or
probable carcinogens level (Krawczyk, 1996).
Biodiesel can be produced from various feedstocks. A chemical
process called transesterication whereby glycerin is separated
from the fat or vegetable oil is used to produce biodiesel. After
the chemical process, two products are left behind: methyl esters
(the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually sold to be used in soaps and other products). The usage
of biodiesel does not require any changes in the fuel distribution
infrastructure, and it is competitive with petroleum-derived diesel
fuel. Furthermore, it biodegrades much more rapidly than petroleum diesel fuel. Thus, considerable environmental benets are
provided (Duran, Lapuerta, & Rodriuez-Fernandez, 2005). Many

The diesel engine has proved to be extremely efcient and cost


effective. Diesel fuel has a higher energy density, i.e. more energy
can be extracted from diesel as compared with the same volume
of gasoline. In todays world, where fuel prices are increasing as
a consequence of the spiraling demand and diminishing supply,
people need to choose a cost-effective fuel to meet their needs. Because of the reduced amount of petroleum components and its rising price, alternative fuels are intensively investigated for the full
or partial replacement of the diesel fuel. From this point of view,
using renewable fuels is important in diesel engines, i.e. biomass-derived fuels such as biodiesel and biogas. (Ramadhasa,
Jayaraja, Muraleedharana, & Padmakumarib, 2006).
Nowadays, global warming caused by CO2 is the main climatic
problem in the world. Therefore, environmental protection is
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 262 3032285; fax: +90 262 3032203.
E-mail address: mustafacanakci@hotmail.com (M. Canakci).
0957-4174/$ - see front matter 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2008.12.005

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M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

Nomenclature
ANN
BSFC
BT
CN
CO
CP
D
FFR
IC
IP
KV
LHV
LM
MFR
MRC
N

articial neural network


brake-specic fuel consumption (g/kWh)
brake torque
cetane number
carbon monoxide
maximum cylinder gas pressure (bar)
density
fuel ow rate (kg/s)
internal combustion
maximum injection pressure (bar)
kinematic viscosity (mm2/s)
lower heating values
LevenbergMarquardt
air mass ow rate (kg/s)
Marmara Research Center
engine speed

NH
P
PAH
PBDF
PM
RH
RMS
R2
SCG
SG
SL
T
TE
UHC

investigators (Chang et al., 1996; Clark & Lyons, 1999; Dorado,


Ballesteros, Arnal, Gomez, & Lopez Gimenez, 2003; Ozsezen,
Canakci, & Sayin, 2008; Schumacher, Marshall, Krahl, Wetherell,
& Grabowski, 2001; Ulusoy, Tekin, Cetinkaya, & Karaosmanoglu,
2004; Yoshimoto, Onodera, & Tamaki, 1999) have studied biodiesel
fuels as an alternative energy source for IC engines. Combustion
emission levels for biodiesel are more suited compared with those
for the petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel has low emissions of
carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and unburned
hydrocarbons (UHC). Some investigators (Agarwal & Das, 2001;
Krbitz, 1999; Peterson & Hustrulid, 1998) have claimed that the
photosynthesis recycles carbon dioxide produced by combustion
of biodiesel. Therefore, biodiesel usage may reduce the greenhouse
effect.
As testing an engine to determine the engine performance map
for different operating conditions and fuel cases consumes time
and money, articial neural networks (ANNs) are used to determine the performance and exhaust emissions of an engine. If there

net heat of combustion (kJ/kg)


pressure (kPa)
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
petroleum-based diesel fuel
particulate matter
relative humidity
root-mean-squared
fraction of variance
scaled conjugate gradient
specic gravity
smoke level
ambient temperature
thermal efciency
unburned hydrocarbons

are enough experimental data, the desired output variables could


be estimated using ANNs. Thus, ANNs ensure the prediction of
the physical system variables without requiring mathematical
expressions.
In the recent years, the applicability of ANN method to the
internal combustion engines has gained signicant success. ANN
approaches have been used by some researchers (Celik & Arcaklioglu, 2005; Deng, Zhu, Xiang, & Cheng, 2002; Ouenou-Gamo,
Ouladsine, & Rachid, 1998; Sayin, Ertunc, Hosoz, Kilicaslan, &
Canakci, 2007; Thompson, Atkinson, Clark, Long, & Hanzevack,
2000; Yuanwang, Meilin, Dong, & Xiaobei, 2002) to predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions by means of the fuel
properties such as cetane number, density, volatility, oxygen
and sulfur content. The results provided by ANN have an important role in the modeling and prediction of the performance and
control of the combustion processes (Kalogirou, 2000). Canakci,
Erdil, and Arcaklioglu (2006) used ANN and investigated the performance and exhaust emissions of a direct injection diesel engine

Table 1
Fuel properties of the biodiesel and PBDF.
Property

Units

EU
EN 14214
Limits

USA
ASTM D6751
Limits

Biodiesel

PBDF

Typical formula
Average molecular weight
Lower heating value
Density
Kinematic viscosity
Flash point
Sulfated ash content
Cold lter plugging point
Carbon residue
Cetane number
Total contamination
Copper strip corrosion
Oxidation stability
Acid value
Iodine value
Free glycerol
Total glycerol
Ester content
Phosphorus content
Distillation
Initial boiling point (IBP)
90% recovered

g/mol
kJ/kg
kg/m3, 15 C
mm2/s, 40 C
C
% mass
C
% mass

mg/kg
3 h, 50 C
h 110 C
mg KOH/g

% mass
% mass
%
mg/kg

860900
3.55.0
120 min
0.02 max

0.30 max
51 min
24 max
No. 1 max
6.0 min
0.50 max
120 max
0.02 max
0.25 max
96.5 min
10 max

1.96.0
130 min
0.02 max

47 min

No. 3 max

0.80 max

0.02 max
0.24 max

10 max

C18.08H34.86O2
284.17
38730
875
4.401
70.6
0.0004
+10
0.0004
60.4
9.03
No.1A
10.1
0.15
62
0.01
0.06
96.5
2.9

C14.16H25.21
195.50
42930
840.3
3.177
61.5
0.0015
14
0.067
56.5
4.14
No.1A

C
C

360 max

331
348

164.7
351.1

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M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

Table 2
Engine specications.
Model of engine

1.8 VD diesel BMC

Combustion chamber
Engine type
Number of cylinder
Bore  stroke
Compression ratio
Injection pump
Injector opening pressure
Nozzle hole diameter
Maximum power

Indirect injection
Water-cooled, four strokes and naturally aspirated
4
80.26  88.9 mm
21.47:1
Mechanically controlled distributor type
130 bar
0.2 mm
38.8 kW at 4250 rpm

fueled with biodiesels from different feedstocks and No. 2 diesel


fuel. They found that the network yielded values are within the
acceptable limits. Karonis, Lois, Zannikos, Alexandridis, and Sarimveis (2003) predicted the effects of fuel properties on the exhaust emissions of a single-cylinder diesel engine (Petter AV1LAB) using ANN approach. In that study, the researchers considered a total of 59 fuels from which 29 were used for training
the models and the remaining 30 were used for validating the
models. The predictions that were obtained were very good for
all types of emissions. The results showed that the emission
was signicantly affected by the fuel parameters such as cetane
number, density, volatility, and sulfur content. Arcaklioglu and
Celikten (2005) determined the engine performance and exhaust
emissions of a diesel engine with respect to injection pressure,
engine speed and throttle position using ANN. In that study, it
has been shown that the values produced with ANN are parallel

Fuel
Line
Pressure
Sensor
PC Based Data
Storage and
Combustion
Analysis
Processing

to the experimental results. Traver, Atkinson, and Atkinson


(1999) explored the feasibility of using in-cylinder pressure-based
variables to predict exhaust emissions levels from a direct injection diesel engine (Navistar T444) through the use of ANN. The
results show that the predictions of the unburned HC and CO,
NOx and CO2 emissions are very good. De Lucas, Duran, Carmona,
and Lapuerta (2001) studied the inuence of the fuel composition
parameters (aromatic content, cetane index, gross heat power,
nitrogen and sulfur content) on the emissions of a diesel
engine (Renault F8Q) using ANN. The researchers stated that the
network method reproduces experimental data within 8790%
of condence.
To experimentally investigate the performance and emissions
of an engine is complex, time consuming and costly, especially
for studies which use many different blends. The progress of neurobiology has allowed researchers to build mathematical models of
neurons to simulate neural behavior. ANN approach has been one
of the well-known types of evolutionary computation methods in
the last decades. ANNs are nonlinear computer algorithms. In the
literature, several studies have used ANNs in different engineering
areas (Celik & Arcaklioglu, 2005; Sozen, Arcaklioglu, & Ozkaymak,
2005). In the eld of automotive engineering, ANNs are a good
alternative to conventional empirical modeling based on polynomial and linear regressions. ANNs have also been used in analyzing
and predicting the performance and exhaust emissions of diesel
engines (Canakci et al., 2006; Sayin et al., 2007).
Therefore, the aim of this work consists in basically the introduction of a new approach based on ANNs to predict the engine
performance and emission values. In this study, two stages are carried out: (1) The experimental study: biodiesel obtained from

Fuel flow
measure
instruments

Cylinder
Gas
Pressure
Sensor

Airl flow
measure
instruments

Signal Conditioner

Data Acquisition
Board

Angular Referance

K Type Thermocouples

Hydraulic
Dynamometer

Fig. 1. The experimental setup.

Table 3
The exhaust gas analyzers and their accuracies.
Emission devices

Measuring values

Technology

Accuracy

Kane-May Quintox KM9106


Bilsa MOD 500
Bosch RTM 430 smoke opacity tester

NOx
CO, CO2, total unburned HC
Smoke opacity

Electrochemical
Infra-red
Bosch technology

5 ppm <100 ppm 5% >100 ppm


0.001 vol%, 0.01 vol%, 1 ppm, respectively
0.1% degree of opacity

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M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

waste frying oil is used in indirect injection diesel engine. (2) Articial modeling study: by using the obtained experimental data,
ANN method was used to predict engine characteristic values. To
dene how the inputs affect the outputs, ve different neural networks are studied. The back-propagation learning algorithm with
two different variants and logistic sigmoid transfer function has
been used in the network.

2. Articial neural networks


Articial neural networks are computing systems composed of
neurons and are used to solve complex functions, which attempt
to simulate the structure and function of biological neurons. A neural network system has three layers, namely the input layer, the
hidden layer and the output layer. The input layer consists of all

Table 4
Statistical values of the predictions based on the hidden layer for the rst network, LM6.
Outputs

RMS training

R2 training

Mean % error training

RMS test

R2 test

Mean % test

MFR (kg/s)
FFR (kg/s)
IP (bar)

0.001793
0.003034
0.003541

0.999958
0.999973
0.999977

0.659646
0.530991
0.251725

0.011368
0.021291
0.043975

0.998349
0.998653
0.996728

3.748898
4.173060
5.833070

Table 5
Statistical values of the predictions based on the hidden layer for the second network, SCG7.
Outputs

RMS training

R2 training

Mean % error training

RMS test

R2 test

Mean % test

CO (%)
CO2 (%)
UHC (ppm)
NOx (ppm)
SL (%)
BT
CP (bar)
TE

0.021812
0.007774
0.021250
0.023675
0.011163
0.010619
0.008770
0.014507

0.995870
0.999859
0.997706
0.997025
0.999751
0.999780
0.999865
0.999659

5.444701
1.000969
3.882072
4.602997
1.288556
1.127149
1.002774
1.558589

0.033418
0.015376
0.056818
0.030612
0.041001
0.020502
0.012444
0.019928

0.990693
0.999461
0.983340
0.995605
0.996686
0.999186
0.999728
0.999347

8.440930
2.009067
9.183910
6.291153
4.742021
2.417257
1.362338
2.437404

Table 6
Statistical values of the predictions based on the hidden layer for the third network, LM5.
Outputs

RMS training

R2 training

Mean % error training

RMS test

R2 test

Mean % test

MFR (kg/s)
FFR (kg/s)

0.001469
0.004663

0.999972
0.999936

0.511810
0.754921

0.004720
0.017989

0.999715
0.999039

1.352546
3.536571

Table 7
Statistical values of the predictions based on the hidden layer for the fourth network, SCG7.
Outputs

RMS training

R2 training

Mean % error training

RMS test

R2 test

Mean % test

CO (%)
CO2 (%)
UHC (ppm)
NOx (ppm)
SL (%)
BT
CP (bar)
TE

0.029480
0.007500
0.024450
0.023338
0.010902
0.011292
0.008235
0.012499

0.992455
0.999868
0.996963
0.997109
0.999762
0.999751
0.999881
0.999747

7.453001
0.940324
4.470621
4.385677
1.321938
1.353162
0.911042
1.304910

0.037855
0.014255
0.057636
0.035222
0.035298
0.018029
0.015522
0.032846

0.988058
0.999537
0.982857
0.994182
0.997544
0.999370
0.999576
0.998226

10.97006
1.882871
10.65633
7.320733
4.557439
2.044730
1.651571
3.992690

Table 8
Statistical values of the predictions based on the hidden layer for the fth network, SCG8.
Outputs

RMS training

R2 training

Mean % error training

RMS test

R2 test

Mean% test

MFR (kg/s)
FFR (kg/s)
IP (bar)
CO (%)
CO2 (%)
UHC (ppm)
NOx (ppm)
SL (%)
BT
CP (bar)
TE

0.002994
0.009124
0.015382
0.013111
0.005573
0.010647
0.018334
0.012046
0.009539
0.008750
0.012099

0.999883
0.999757
0.999572
0.998508
0.999927
0.999424
0.998216
0.999710
0.999823
0.999866
0.999763

1.027011
1.460669
1.718706
4.058334
0.756219
2.194525
4.009377
1.461570
0.993659
0.953425
1.148877

0.006362
0.012152
0.052724
0.030513
0.021076
0.116742
0.030941
0.038146
0.024242
0.010925
0.027790

0.999483
0.999561
0.995296
0.992241
0.998987
0.929668
0.995510
0.997131
0.998862
0.999790
0.998730

1.868376
2.358762
6.431307
9.621219
2.333252
15.64514
6.597960
4.528787
2.973590
1.128889
3.124973

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the input factors, information from the input layer is then processed in the course of one hidden layer, and following output vector is computed in the output layer.
The estimation problem using neural network models has three
successive steps: model building or neural network architecture;
the learning or training procedure; and the testing procedure. An
important stage when accommodating a neural network is the
training step, in which an input is introduced to the network together with the desired outputs, the weights and bias values are
initially chosen randomly and the weights are adjusted so that
the network attempts to produce the desired output. The weights
after training contain meaningful information, whereas before
training, they are random and have no meaning. When a satisfactory level of performance is reached, the training stops, and the
network uses these weights to make decisions. ANN has been applied successfully in various elds of mathematics, engineering,
medicine, economics, meteorology, psychology and neurology.
Many alternative training processes, such as back-propagation,
are available. The goal of any training algorithm is to minimize the
global error level, such as the mean % error, root-mean-squared

(RMS), and absolute fraction of variance (R2) (Dizdar, 2004; Sozen


et al., 2005). An important characteristic of this function is differentiable throughout its domain. The errors for the hidden layers
are determined by propagating back the error determined for the
output layer.
3. Fuel properties and experimental setup
Increasing global concern due to environmental pollution from
internal combustion engines has generated much attention on
clean diesel fuels. In the last two decades, these issues have
triggered various research studies to replace petroleum-based diesel fuel (PBDF) with biodiesel in many countries. Some diesel engine manufacturers allow the use of neat biodiesel and biodiesel
blends instead of PBDF. The guarantees only apply to biodiesel that
fullls the ASTM D 6751-02 (in USA) or EN 14214 (in Europe)
standards.
The fuel properties of biodiesel can vary with the production
technologies and feedstock, but it generally has higher cetane
number, near-zero sulfur content, and free aromatic content when
0.04

Predicted MFR

Predicted MFR

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.01
0.01

0.02

0.03

0.01

0.04

0.02

0.0028

0.0028

Predicted FFR

Predicted FFR

0.04

Actual MFR

Actual MFR

0.0018

0.0008

0.0018

0.0008

0.0008

0.0018

0.0028

0.0008

0.0018

Actual FFR

0.0028

Actual FFR

220

220

Predicted IP

Predicted IP

0.03

190

160

130
130

160

190

Actual IP

220

190

160

130
130

160

190

220

Actual IP

Fig. 2. Comparisons of the ANN-predicted results and experimental (actual) results for MFR, FFR and IP for the fth network.

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M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

compared with PBDF. Biodiesel is attractive not only because of its


fuel properties but also because it can be compatible with the
PBDF. Fuel properties of biodiesel are affected by its fatty acids
content, which may cause a difference in the characteristics of
injection, combustion and emissions. The biodiesels that meet
the standards have been used by various academic researchers
(Canakci, 2005; Haas, Scott, Alleman, & McCormick, 2001; Zhang
& Van Gerpen, 1996) who have reported that biodiesel exhibits engine performance characteristics very close to those of PBDF, and
reduces the exhaust emissions from diesel engines. But biodiesel
is generally more expensive than PBDF, which prevents its wide
use. The cost of biodiesel is competitive with that of PBDF when
using waste cooking or frying oils as a feedstock. Also, using waste
cooking or used frying oils in biodiesel production has additional
benets such as the treatment of a waste product and the provision
of an efcient use of a resource.
In this study, biodiesel was produced from waste frying palm oil
supplied by Kocaeli Uzay Food (Frito-Lay Chips) Factory. Since the

waste frying oil had low acid value (0.58 mg KOH/g), transesterication reaction was applied directly. Biodiesel was prepared using
methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as
catalyst (1% of oil by weight). Fuel specications of the PBDF and
biodiesel were determined by MRC-TUBITAK (Marmara Research
Center The Scientic and Technological Research Council of Turkey) using the standard test methods. The fuel properties of the
biodiesel and PBDF are shown in Table 1.
The fuel properties such as heating value, cetane number,
kinematic viscosity, and specic gravity inuence the combustion
and so the engine performance and emissions. Therefore,
when any fuel with physical and chemical properties different
from those of PBDF is to be used in diesel engines, more research
is required about its effects on the engine performance and
emissions.
In this experimental study, PBDF, B100, and biodiesel blends
with PBDF, which are 50% (B50), 20% (B20) and 5% (B5), were tested
in random order. Each test was repeated three times and the results

Predicted CGP

Predicted CGP

100

90

80

95

85
80

90

100

85

Actual CGP

Actual CGP
25

Predicted TE

Predicted TE

26

24

22

20

23

21
20

22

24

26

21

Actual TE

23

25

Actual TE
95

Predicted BT

100

Predicted BT

95

90

80

70

85

75

70

80

90

Actual BT

100

75

85

95

Actual BT

Fig. 3. Comparisons of the ANN-predicted results and experimental (actual) results for CGP, TE and BT for the fth network.

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M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

were averaged to decrease the uncertainty. The short-term performance testing for PBDF and biodiesel was accomplished using an
indirect injection diesel engine. Engine specications are shown
in Table 2. All fuel tests were completed without any modications
on the test engine.
The engine was coupled to a hydraulic dynamometer to provide brake load (2% N). A magnetic pickup was xed over the
engine ywheel gear to determine the crankshaft position. To
measure the cylinder gas pressure, a Kistler model 6061B pressure transducer was mounted on the rst cylinder head. An AVL
model 8QP500c pressure transducer was installed in the fuel line
of the rst cylinder to obtain the change in the fuel line pressure.
Kistler 5051A model charge amplier was used to produce an
output voltage proportional to the charge, which was then converted to digital signals. The experimental setup is presented in
Fig. 1. The pressure data of 50 engine cycles were collected with
a resolution of 0.25 crank angle. To eliminate cycle to cycle variation, the cylinder gas pressures were averaged by using a computer program. Fuel consumption was determined by weighing

the fuel used for a period of time on an electronic scale


(error 1 g). Air consumption was measured using a sharp edged
orice plate (ISO 5167, 1980) and inclined manometer
(error 3%). The relative humidity (error 3%Rh + 1) and ambient
temperature (error 1 C) were monitored with a hygrometer.
Different digital thermocouples (error 1 C) recorded the
temperatures of the intake air, exhaust, fuel, engine oil, coolant inlet and outlet. In this study, three different gas analyzers
were used to measure the exhaust gas concentrations. Table 3
gives the information about the gas analyzers and their accuracies. Calibration for each analyzer was carried out before each
test.
Since engine speed, as one of the engine working parameters,
effects the turbulence level of air entering into the cylinder, volumetric efciency, and engine friction, it has an important role in
the engine performance and emissions. Therefore, the tests were
performed at different engine speeds for full load conditions. The
engine speeds of 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm were selected, and controlled within 25 rpm through the test duration. The tests were

Predicted CO

Predicted CO

0.6

0.2
0.2

0.6

0.9

0.6

0.3

0.3

Actual CO
14

Predicted CO2

Predicted CO2

0.9

Actual CO

14

13

12

11

13

12
11

12

13

12

14

13

14

Actual CO2

Actual CO2

11

Predicted UHC

Predicted UHC

0.6

Actual UHC

11

Actual UHC

Fig. 4. Comparisons of the ANN-predicted results and experimental (actual) results for CO, CO2 and UHC for the fth network.

9275

M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

carried out under steady-state condition. The engine was sufciently warmed up for each test and the engine oil temperature
was maintained around 6570 C. During the engine tests, no
problems were encountered in the startup, fuel ow, or loss of
power.

4. Determination of data and the network model employed


For ANNs, two data sets are needed: one for training the network and the second for testing it. The usual approach is to prepare
a single data set, and differentiate it by a random selection. In this
study, experimental results mentioned above were used to train
and test an ANN.
In this study, ve different neural networks are studied. Firstly,
fuel properties (lower heating value, LHV; density, D; kinematic
viscosity, KV; and cetane number, CN), engine speed, N; and environmental conditions (relative humidity, RH; dry bulb temperature, T; pressure, P) are taken as the input parameters, while air
mass ow rate, MFR; fuel ow rate, FFR; and maximum injection

pressure, IP, are used as the output parameters. Secondly, the


inputs are fuel properties, engine speed, both ow rates, injection
pressure, while all the emissions (CO, CO2, UHC, NOx, and smoke
level SL), engine load BT, maximum cylinder gas pressure CP, thermal efciency TE are the outputs. Since statistical error values of
injection pressure are not obtained well from the rst network,
the errors increase at the second network. For this reason, two different networks, namely third and fourth networks, in which the
injection pressure is not taken as output at the rst network and
as input at the second network, are studied. Another network,
namely the fth network, in which the inputs of the rst network
are inputs and outputs of the rst and second networks are outputs, is studied. Here, the aim is to dene how the inputs affect
the outputs. A comparison for this is given later.
In this study, for all the networks, the learning algorithm
called back-propagation was applied for the single hidden
layer. Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and LevenbergMarquardt
(LM) have been used for the variants of the algorithm. These normalized both for the inputs and outputs are realized between the
values of 0 and 1. Neurons in the input layer have no transfer

100

Predicted SL

Predicted SL

100

80

90

60

80
60

80

100

80

90

Actual SL

Actual SL

120

120

Predicted NOx

Predicted NOx

100

90

60

90

60
60

90

120

60

90

Actual NOx

120

Actual NOx

Fig. 5. Comparisons of the ANN-predicted results and experimental (actual) results for SL and NOx for the fth network.

Table 9
The weights between the input and hidden layers for the fth network.
Ei = C1  LHV + C2  D + C3  KV + C4  CN + C5  N + C6  T + C7  RH + C8  P + C9

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C9

4.5523
1.5682
1.4302
2.9975
0.5115
1.9738
6.0655
1.4910

0.4435
4.6685
2.7896
2.2773
2.8106
3.8341
0.0329
4.4631

0.5368
3.7425
1.9920
4.6147
2.6087
3.0510
5.1163
0.8282

0.9773
2.9822
1.4309
0.0974
0.1410
1.8654
4.3565
3.8001

8.2726
15.9671
16.7427
0.1235
11.8295
5.7749
10.8362
2.3976

0.2733
3.6726
1.9962
0.4509
5.4289
0.7917
3.1218
1.1073

0.0761
1.0477
0.9302
3.9479
1.1482
0.6236
1.4323
4.3172

9.8504
12.6450
6.2551
4.3324
1.7538
4.1601
0.5145
2.1594

9.1566
4.2101
7.3086
1.0641
3.2251
3.4546
3.4688
1.5711

M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

function. Logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function has been


used.
ANN was trained and tested by means of the MATLAB software
on a usual PC. In order to identify the output precisely for training
stage, increased number of neurons (58) in the hidden layer was
tried. Firstly, the network was trained successfully, and then the
test data were used to test the network. By means of the results deduced by the network, a comparison was carried out using the statistical methods. Errors that happened at the learning and testing
stages are described the RMS and R2, mean error percentage values,
which are dened as follows, respectively

RMS

1=p
P

R 1

!1=2
jt j  oj j2

j
j t j

 oj 2

j oj

!
2



1 X tj  oj
Mean % Error
 100
p j
tj

where t is the target value, o is the output value, and p is the pattern
(Pala, Ozbay, Oztas, & Yuce, 2007).
Experimental results for different fuels and biodiesel blends are
used as the training and test data for the ANN. The experimentally
tested fuels are PBDF, B100, and biodiesel blends with PBDF, which
are 50% (B50), 20% (B20) and 5% (B5). The RMS, R2 and the mean
error percentage values were used for comparing all of them.

5. Results and discussion


As stated before, increased number of neurons (58) in hidden
layer has been studied for the SCG and LM algorithms. The best
algorithms for the rst, second, third, fourth and fth networks

B100
B80
B60
B40
B30
B10
PBDF

95
90
85
80
75
70
500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

27
26
25
24
23
22
21

B100
B80
B60
B40
B30
B10
PBDF

20
19
18
17
500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Engine Speed (rpm)

Engine Speed (rpm)


550

B100
B80
B60
B40
B30
B10
PBDF

500

BSFC (g/kWh)

Brake Torque (Nm)

100

were generally the LM with six neurons, the SCG with seven neurons, the LM with ve neurons, the SCG with seven neurons, and
the SCG with eight neurons, respectively.
In Tables 48, the statistical values of the outputs for ve algorithms are shown for both the training and testing data, respectively. Each of the error values of the outputs is given in the
table. Based on the emissions, all the networks have similar error
values. High-error ones are completely high for all the networks.
Higher mean errors for the test data are obtained in the emissions
such as CO, NOx and UHC. We believe that the complexity of the
burning process and the measurement errors in the experimental
study caused these higher mean errors. Other mean errors for
the test data (CO2, SL) are smaller than 4.7%, R2 values are very
close to unity and the RMS values are very small for all the performance values. The fth network for CO and SL can be used since
error values are close to those of the second and fourth networks.
So, one network is sufcient.
Similarly, fth network for engine performance (engine load
and thermal efciency), maximum injection pressure and ow
rates is sufcient since error values of the fth network are close
to those of the rst and second networks. So, one network is sufcient again.
As mentioned above, the fth network is sufcient for all the
outputs. In fact, all equations obtained from the weights are prepared for all networks, but the equations of the fth network are
only given below. After this point, all explanations, tables and gures will be given for the fth network and the SCG with eight
neurons.
Error values except for emissions, which are higher ones, are in
reasonable level according to the other study. The MAPE in Reference Golcu, Sekmen, Erduranl and Salman (2005) is about 7.5% for
test data for fuel consumption. The MAPE in Reference (Arcaklioglu
and Celikten (2005)) is about 3% for CO2. These statistical values
are more unwell than our study.

Thermal Efficiency (%)

9276

450
400
350
300
250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Engine Speed (rpm)


Fig. 6. The predictions of the engine performance values with respect to engine speed for different fuel blends.

3000

3500

M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

In Figs. 25, the actual and predicted values for all the outputs
are compared. In these gures, the left columns indicate the training data and the right columns indicate the test data. As shown in
the gures, the actual and predicted values are very close to each
other. But some test data for emission values are not very close
to each other. This is due to the complexity of the burning process
and the measurement errors.
For the fth network, the formulations of the outputs are given
by Eqs. (4)(14). By using these formulae similarly, performance
and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine may be calculated within the error ranges given in the tables

fuel blend. These decreases are understandable, since the heat content of the fuel blend decreases with the increasing amount of biodiesel compared to that of PBDF. Fig. 6 also indicates the predicted
brake thermal efciencies for the different biodiesel blends if the
engine was operated at different engine speeds in full load condition. Brake thermal efciency is dened as actual brake work divided by the amount of fuel chemical energy as indicated by the
fuels lower heating value. As the gure shows, the thermal efciency decreases with increasing ratio of the biodiesel in the fuel
blend. The trends of the thermal efciencies look similar for the
brake torques for each fuel.

1
1 e1:1059F10:7142F21:482F30:6601F40:7891F50:298F60:2005F72:8994F83:8301
1
FFR
1 e2:4736F10:4421F20:4989F32:8348F41:4394F53:5818F60:9351F70:4474F80:3622
1
IP
1 e2:6865F11:915F22:7587F30:8164F41:8154F50:2744F61:1377F76:8157F82:9757
1
CO
1 e12:6718F16:6876F25:1142F31:1837F41:8167F57:555F60:2248F73:5865F87:6057
1
CO2
1 e0:2734F12:2623F21:7412F33:0802F40:6921F50:102F60:2857F71:3029F81:3703
1
UHC
1 e3:0766F115:3731F212:4329F31:2752F410:1191F53:8024F61:8634F70:6603F82:0721
1
NOx
1 e0:0543F12:9164F24:0126F30:1664F41:0832F54:5628F64:7533F72:8198F83:1093
1
SL
1 e8:5909F10:4446F20:762F31:935F40:6599F56:6479F60:1881F73:7498F81:0069
1
BT
1 e0:5347F10:764F20:5998F34:3499F41:3599F50:0717F60:878F73:0059F80:153
1
CP
1 e2:5292F10:1939F20:1491F32:1699F40:403F50:724F60:5361F72:689F88:728
1
TE
1 e0:1761F10:1496F21:5397F31:5725F41:2833F51:4721F60:1667F73:7584F84:954
MFR

where Fi = (i = 1,2,3, . . . , 6) can be calculated using

1
Fi
1 eEi

15

where Ei is given with the equation as seen in Table 9.


When using the equations in Table 9, LHV, D, KV, CN, N, T, RH
and P values are normalized by dividing them by 50,000, 1000, 5,
70, 4000, 40, 80 and 100, respectively. For outputs, MFR and FFR
values need to be divided by 10 and 300. In addition, IP, CO, CO2,
UHC, NOx, SL, BT, CP and TE values need to be multiplied by 250,
2, 20, 15, 200, 130, 120, 120 and 30, respectively.
Considering the error values obtained from the network (i.e.
the fth network), we used the network to make predictions for
different biodiesel blends (i.e. 80% (B80), 60% (B60), 40% (B40),
30% (B30), and 10% (B10)), other input values (i.e. humidity, dry
bulb temperature, and pressure), which are measured again, and
engine speed values used for training. So, mixing ratio has been
generalized. The results obtained from ANN are given in Figs. 6
and 7.
Fuel properties, such as heating value, density and viscosity,
have inuences on the engine performance and emissions. Therefore, the engine brake torques, BSFC and thermal efciencies were
predicted for different biodiesel blends. Fig. 6 shows the effects of
biodiesel percentage and engine speed on the brake torque of the
engine at full load condition. The predicted values for the brake
torques decrease with the increasing amount of biodiesel in the

9277

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

The predicted values for BSFC are shown also in Fig. 6. The BSFC
increased with the increase of biodiesel percentage in the fuel
blend. As seen in Table 1, the heating value of the biodiesel is lower than that of PBDF. Therefore, if the engine was fueled with biodiesel or its blends, the BSFC will increase due to the produced
lower brake torques caused by the lower energy content of the
biodiesel. This result can be clearly seen at the higher biodiesel
ratios. At the same time, for the same volume, more biodiesel fuel
based on the mass ow was injected into the combustion chamber
than PBDF due to its higher density. In addition to these parameters, the atomization ratio and injection pressure should be
considered since they have some effects on the BSFC and brake
torque values.
The CO emission in the exhaust indicates the lost chemical energy that is not fully utilized in the engine. Generally, CO emission
is affected by equivalence ratio, fuel type, atomization ratio, injection timing, engine load and speed. Fig. 7 shows the changes in the
CO emissions for different fuel blends. The fuels have similar
trends for the CO formation at the selected engine speed range.
However, the CO emission decreases with the increase of biodiesel
percentage in the fuel blend. At the same time, B100 produced the
lowest CO emissions for all engine speeds compared to PBDF. This
case occurred even for the highest brake-specic fuel consumption
that was predicted for pure biodiesel. This result can be explained
with the oxygen content of biodiesel which improves the combustion in the cylinder. Biodiesel also has less compressibility and

M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

1.20

B100
B80
B60
B40
B30
B10
PBDF

1.00

CO (%)

0.80
0.60

15

B100
B80
B60
B40
B30
B10
PBDF

14

CO 2 (%)

9278

13
12

0.40
11

0.20
0.00
500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

10
500

3500

1000

UHC (ppm)

12
10
8
6

80
70

50
1500

2000

2500

3000

40
500

3500

1000

Engine Speed (rpm)

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Engine Speed (rpm)

120

B100
B80
B60
B40
B30
B10
PBDF

110
100

NOx (ppm)

3500

B100
B80
B60
B40
B30
B10
PBDF

90

60

1000

3000

100

0
500

2500

110

Smoke (%)

B100
B80
B60
B40
B30
B10
PBDF

2000

Engine Speed (rpm)

Engine Speed (rpm)


14

1500

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Engine Speed (rpm)


Fig. 7. The predictions of the engine exhaust emissions with respect to engine speed for different fuel blends.

higher cetane number. These two behaviors are also effective on


the CO reduction. If a fuel is less compressible, the injection starts
earlier and causes longer combustion duration. The higher cetane
number, which means shorter ignition delay, causes longer combustion duration and increases complete combustion reaction
regions.
CO2 is an important component in the global warming. Fig. 7
also shows the effects of biodiesel percentage and engine speeds
on the CO2 emission. As seen in the gure, at low engine speeds
(between 1000 and 2000 rpm), CO2 emission reduces with the
increasing amount of biodiesel in the fuel blend. At high engine
speeds, the amounts of CO2 produced by the fuels are very close
to one another. Therefore, the changes in the CO2 emissions are
not so signicant for all fuels.
Another emission product that is produced by diesel engines is
UHC. UHC emissions consist of fuel that is completely unburned or
only partially burned. The amount of UHC in the exhaust depends
on the engines operating conditions, fuel properties, fuel-spray
characteristics, and the interaction between fuel spray and air in
the combustion chamber. The predicted UHC amounts for different
fuel blends and engine speeds are also shown in Fig. 7. For the biodiesel blends, the UHC amount in the exhaust had decreased with

increasing amount of biodiesel in the fuel blend, which can be


clearly seen at 1000 and 1500 rpm. As can be understood from
the percentages, the UHC emission level increased with the proportion of PBDF in the blend. Probably, the main reason for the
higher UHC emissions for PBDF is the insufcient oxygen in the
combustion region. On the other hand, the higher oxygen content
of biodiesel in combustion region provided more complete combustion. This means that biodiesel in the fuel mixture increases
the cetane number and oxygen content of the blend; this causes
higher combustion efciency and reduces the level of UHC emission. However, at high engine speeds, the UHC emissions show
similar behavior regardless of the fuel type due to higher injection
pressure and better atomization ratio. The main reason for reduced
UHC emissions at high engine speeds is the increased atomization
ratio. At the same time, high engine speeds cause the increased inlet air ow speed or turbulence. This enhances the effect of atomization of the fuel in the cylinder, makes the mixture more
homogeneous, and reduces UHC emission.
Smoke opacity is strongly dependent on the air amount in the
cylinder as well as on the oxygen amount in the fuel. It is obvious
that fuel composition inuences the amount of smoke produced by
the engine. Especially, the sulfur and oxygen contents of the fuel

M. Canakci et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 92689280

affect the smoke formation and oxidation, respectively (Miyamoto,


Ogawa, Arima, & Miyakawa, 1996; Svensson, Richards, Mackrory, &
Tree, 2005; Ullman, Spreen, & Mason, 1994). Smoke emissions are
generally reduced by the addition of biodiesel to the PBDF due to
the high oxygen and low sulfur content of biodiesel. The predicted
smoke amounts for the different fuel blends at the selected engine
speed range have been illustrated in Fig. 7 too. The smoke level signicantly reduced with the increasing amount of biodiesel in the
fuel blend at the high engine speeds. Increasing air turbulence
and fuel oxidation under the high engine speed conditions increase
the cylinder gas temperature. Therefore, the smoke amount reduced at high engine speeds. At the lowest engine speed
(1000 rpm), the smoke levels of the tested fuels are very close to
each other due to less air turbulence and lower cylinder gas temperature. The predicted results showed that the smoke level in
the exhaust decreases with the increasing amount of biodiesel in
the fuel blend, especially, at high engine speeds.
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are another important emission product for the engines which must be controlled. In diesel engines, the
fuel distribution in the cylinder is generally non-uniform. The formation process of the pollutants is strongly dependent on the fuel
distribution and how that distribution changes with time due to
mixing. NOx emissions form in the high temperature region which
is non-uniform, and formation rates increase in the regions close to
stoichiometry. Therefore, the sources of NOx depend on the operating conditions and the type of fuel. Some researchers (Ban-Weiss,
Chen, Buchholz, & Dibble, 2007; Fernando, Hall, & Jha, 2006; Canakci & Van Gerpen, 2003; Monyem, Van Gerpen, & Canakci, 2001)
emphasized that the NOx formation increased with the biodiesel
usage in diesel engines. The predicted NOx results are also shown
in Fig. 7. As seen in the gure, the NOx formation is more complex
than those of CO and HC emissions. NOx emissions increased with
the increasing fraction of biodiesel in the fuel blend at 2000 and
2500 rpm. It is obvious that the higher NOx formations at these engine speeds are a result of enhanced fuelair mixing. The oxygen
content of biodiesel is another important factor in high NOx formation since it provides high local peak temperatures in the cylinder.
The researchers (Beatrice et al., 1996; Song, Cheenkachorn, Wang,
Perez, & Boehman, 2002) showed that the increased oxygen levels
increase the maximum temperature during the combustion, which
leads to an increase in NOx formation. At 1000, 1500 and 3000 rpm,
the tested fuels exhibit very close NOx amounts compared to one
another. At low engine speeds, the lower inlet air ow speed or turbulence level and less atomization ratio cause locally high combustion temperature. At the same time, the BSFC levels for biodiesel
and blends are gradually higher than that of PBDF. This also increases combustion temperatures and causes higher NOx formation. For the engine speed of 3000 rpm, the fuel line pressure
increases and causes better atomization and results in higher
NOx formation since fuel line pressure determines the spray properties at the fuel injection time and can change the atomization ratio in the cylinder. The higher oxygen concentration in the
biodiesel spray increases the oxidation at high engine speeds,
which were indicated by a reduction of UHC and CO emissions,
resulting in increased NOx emissions.

6. Conclusions
The performance and exhaust emissions values of a diesel engine fueled with the waste frying oil biodiesel and its blends are
modeled (predicted) using ANN for different engine speeds at full
load conditions. Engine performance and exhaust emissions values
are predicted as acceptable limits except for the mean errors for
CO, NOx and UHC. The complexity of the burning process and the
measurement errors in the experimental study has resulted in

9279

the higher mean errors. However, actual and predicted engine performance and exhaust emissions show that the correlation of the
actual and predicted values is in good agreement.
The relationship between the fuel properties and engine performance-emissions can be determined for different biodiesel blends
by using the network. Therefore, the usage of ANNs may be highly
recommended to predict the engines performance and emissions
instead of having to undertake complex and time-consuming
experimental studies. For future studies, the effects of different
injection pressures and start of injection timing on the combustion,
performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine can be
experimentally investigated and predicted by using ANN method
for the biodiesels produced from different feedstocks.
Acknowledgements
The experimental part of this study was supported by the grants
from TUBITAK (Project No. 104M372) and Scientic Research
Foundation of Kocaeli University (Project Nos. 2003/79 and 2004/
24). The authors would like to thank the individuals who were involved in making this work possible.
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