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Formula Booklet

Class-XI

Written and compiled


By

Sanjeet Singh
IIT(ISM), Dhanbad

Message to the students


Dear Students,
Most of you tend to take it easy after board examinations of Class X. the
summer vacations immediately after Class X are a great opportunity for you all to
race ahead of other students in the competitive world of Engineering/Medical
Entrance Exam, where less than 3% students get selected every year for the
prestigious institutes.
Some of the students get governed completely by the emphasis laid by the teachers
of the school in which they are studying. Since, the objective of the teachers in the
school rarely is to equip the student with the techniques required to crack any JEE.
Class XI does not even have the pressure of board examinations, so most of you
tend to take it easy in Class XI.
The teachers and the school environment are often not oriented towards the serious
preparation of JEE/NEET and the curriculum of Class XI is extremely important to
achieve success in JEE/NEET or any other competitive examinations.
The successful students identify these points early in their Class XI and race ahead
of rest of the competition. I suggest that you start as soon as possible.
In this formula booklet I have made a sincere attempt to bring your focus to Class
XI and keep your velocity of preparations to the maximum. The formulae will help
you to revise your chapters in a very quick time.

Sanjeet Singh
IIT(ISM), Dhanbad
1

SL. No.

Contents

Page No.
7

1.

Units, Dimensions & Measurements

2.

Vectors

3.

Motion in one Dimension

4.

Circular Motion, Relative Motion, and Projectile Motion

5.

Newtons Laws of Motion

6.

Friction

7.

Dynamics of Rigid Body

8.

Conservation Laws & Collisions

9.

Simple Harmonic Motion

10.

Gravitation

11.

Properties of Matter

12.

Heat & Thermodynamics

13.

Waves

8-9
9-10
11-14
15-16
16
17-20
21-23
24-26
27-29
30-38
39-45
46-51

Appendix: Formula and Constants


Study Tips

52
53

Dedicated to my parents to
whom I am an integral part

Mechanics
Units, Dimensions and Measurements

(i)

SI Units:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

(ii)

Mass- kilogram (kg)


Length- metre (m)
Time- second (s)
Electric current- ampere (A)
Amount of substance- mole (mol)
Temperature- Kelvin (K)
Luminous Intensity- Candela (cd)

Uses of dimensional analysis


(a) To check the accuracy of a given relation
(b) To derive a relation between different physical quantities
(c) To convert a physical quantity from one system to another system

n1u1 = n 2 u 2
a

M L T
or , n 2 n1 1 1 1
M 2 L2 T2

x1 x 2 ........ x N
N

(iii)

Mean or average value: X=

(iv)

Absolute error in each measurement: X1 X-X1

(v)

Mean absolute error: X m

(vi)
(vii)
(viii)

X
Fractional error
X
X
Percentage error=
100
X
Combination of error: If

X aY b
, then maximum fractional error in
Zc

f is:

f
X
Y
Z
a
b
c
f
X
Y
Z
(ix) Least Count of an instrument: L.C. 1 m.s.d- 1 v.s.d
[e.g., if 10 div. of vernier scale coincide with 9 div. of main scale, then L.C. =

1
0.11 m.s.d=0.1 mm ]
10
6

Vectors

(1) Vector addition: R A B B A and A - B A B

A2 B2 2 AB cos

(2) Magnitude of Resultant: R

A

(2) Unit Vector: A=
A
(3) Magnitude: A

Ax 2 Ay 2 Az 2

Ay

Az
, cos A , cos = A

Ax
A

(4) Direction cosines: cos


(5) Projection:


(a) Component of A along B A.B

(b) Component of B along A A.B

Ay

Ax

(c) If A Axi Ay j , then its angle with the x-axis is tan 1


(6) Dot product (or Scalar product):

(a) A. B = ABcos

(b) A. B = A x Bx +A y By +Az Bz

(c) Square of a vector A2 is always written in terms of dot product A. A .


(7) Cross product (or Vector product):

(a) A B AB sin n
(b)


A A 0

i
j k

(c) A B A x Ay Az
Bx By Bz
(8) Examples:

(a) W F .s

(f) r F

(b) P F .v

(c) E E. A

(g) Fm q v B

(h) K.E=

(9) Area of parallelogram: Area= A B

(d) B B. A

(e) v r

1
2 1
1
m v m v .v mv 2
2
2
2

(10) Area of a triangle: Area=

(11) Gradient operator: i

1
A B
2


j k
x
y
z

(12) Volume of a parallelepiped: V A. B C

Problem Tricks:
(i) Two vectors will be perpendicular to each other if their dot product be zero.
(ii) Two vectors will be parallel if their cross product be zero.

Motion in One Dimension

(1) Displacement: displacement distance covered


s1 s2 s1 s2

s1 s2
t1 t2

v1 v2

(2) Average speed: v=

(a) If s1 s2 d , then v=

2v1v2
= Harmonic mean
v1 v2

v1 v2
= arithmetic mean
2

(b) If t1 t2 , then v=

(3) Average velocity: (a) v avg

r2 r1
; (b) v avg v

t2 t1

dr

and v v = instantaneous speed


dt

(4) Instantaneous velocity: v=

(5) Average acceleration: a avg


v2 v1

t2 t1

dv
dt

(6) Instantaneous acceleration: a=

In 1D, a=

dv dv
v
dt dx

(7) Equations of motion in 1D:


(a) v u at

(b) S ut

(8) Distance travelled in nth second: Sn u

1 2
at
2

(c) v 2 u 2 2aS

a
2n 1
2

(9) Motion of a ball: (a) When thrown up: h

u
u2
and t
g
2g

(b) When dropped: v 2 gh and t

2h
g

(10) If an object is thrown upwards with velocity u from top of a building and another object is thrown
downwards with same velocity from the same point, then both reach the ground with the same velocity, if
air resistance is neglected.
(11) A ball is dropped from a building of height h and it reaches after t second on earth. From the same
building if two balls are thrown (one upwards and other downwards) with the same velocity u and they
reach the earth surface after t1 and t2 second respectively, then t t1t2 , if the air resistance is neglected.

(12) A particle is dropped vertically from rest from a height. The time taken by it to fall through
successive distance of 1 m each will then be in the ratio of the difference in the square root of the integer
i.e.

1,

2 1 ,

3 2 ,

4 3 ....

(13) When particle covers one third of a distance at speed v1 , next one third at speed v2 and last one third
at speed v3 , then vav

3v1v2v3
.
v1v2 v2v3 v3v1

Circular motion, Relative Motion & Projectile Motion

(1) Uniform Circular Motion:


(a) v r

v2
2
r
r

(b) a

mv 2
r

(d) r .v 0

(e) v.a 0
(c) F

(2) Cyclist taking the turn: tan

v2
rg

s rg

(3) Car taking a turn on level road: v

(4) Banking of roads:

tan

v2
rg

(1) Air plane taking a turn: tan

v2
rg

(2) Overloaded truck:


(a) Rinner wheel Router wheel
(b) Maximum safe velocity on turn,

v gdr / 2h

(3) Non uniform Circular Motion:

v2
(a) Centripetal acceleration, a r
r
(b) Tangential acceleration, a t
(c) Resultant acceleration: a=

dv
dt

2
r

at 2

(4) If the speed of the particle changes, the particle experiences a tangential force Ft m
with the centripetal force. So the net force on the particle is given by, F FC Ft .
2

10

dv
along
dt

FC

Ft

(5) Angle made by F with the tangent tan 1

(6) When a particle is moving over a convex bridge, the maximum velocity is v rg , where r is
the radius of the road.
(7) When the particle is at the maximum height, the reaction of the road is N1 mg

mv 2
.
r

mv 2
When the vehicle is moving in a dip B, N 2 mg
.
r

(4) Motion in a vertical circle:


(a) For lowest point A and highest point B, TA TB 6mg ; VA2 VB 2 4 gl ; VA

VB gl
(b) Condition for oscillation:

VA 2 gl

(c) Condition for leaving Circular path:


(5) Relative velocity: VBA VB VA

2 gl VA 5gl

(6) Condition for collision of ships:


(7) Crossing a River:
(a) Boat keeps its direction perpendicular to water current
(i)

VR VW 2 Vb 2

(ii)

tan 1 Vw Vb

(iii)

X
t (it is minimum)
Vb

(iv)

Drift on opposite bank =

Vw
X
Vb

11

5gl ;

(b) Boat to reach directly opposite to starting point:


(1) sin vw / vb ; (2) vresultant vb cos ; (3) t

x
vb cos

(8) Projectile thrown from the ground:


(a) Equation of trajectory: y x tan
(b) Time of flight: T

gx 2
x x2
2
2
2u cos

2u sin
g
u 2 sin 2

(c) Horizontal Range, R

[For angle of projection and 90 the horizontal range is same.]

(d) Maximum height attained, H

u 2 sin 2
2g

(e) Range is maximum when 45 Max. height= max.


4

(f) Ranges are same for projection angles

and 90

(g) Velocity at the top most point is = u cos

gT 2
2R
H g
(i) 2
T 8
(h) tan

(9) Projectile thrown from a height h in horizontal direction:


(a) T
(b) R v

2h
g
2h
g

gx 2
2
2u

(c) y h

(d) Magnitude of velocity at the ground= u 2 gh


2

1
(e) Angle at which projectiles strikes the ground, tan

12

2 gh
u

(10) Projectile on an inclined plane:


(a) Time of flight, T

2u sin

(b) Horizontal range, R

g cos
2u 2 cos sin
g cos 2

[Note: The particle is projected with speed u at an angle to the horizontal on an inclined
surface making an angle to the horizontal.]
(11) Kinetic energy at the highest point is E cos 2 .
(12) Linear momentum at the highest point is p cos .

13

Newtons Laws of Motion

(10) Resultant force: F F12 F22 2F1F2 cos

(11) Condition for equilibrium: (a) F3 F1 F2 ; (b) F1 F2 F3 F1 F2


(12) Lamis Theorem:

sin

Q
R

sin sin

(13) Newtons second law: F ma ; F

dp
dt

2

(14) Impulse: p F t and p2 p1 Fdt
1

(15) Newtons third law:

(a) F12 F21


(b) Contact force: F12
(c) Acceleration: a

(16) Inertial mass: m

m
F F21 In vector form, F12 F21
M m

F
M m

F
a

(17) Gravitational mass: mG

F FR 2

g GM

(18) Non inertial frame: If a0 be the acceleration of frame, then pseudo force F ma0 . Example:

mv 2
m 2 r
Centrifugal force =
r
(19) Lift problems: Apparent weight= M g a0 [+ve sign is used when lift is moving up while ve
sign when lift is moving down]

14

(20) Pulley problems:


(a) Acceleration of the system: a

Tension in the string: T

m2
g
m1 m2

m1m2
g
m1 m2
20(a)

m m1
(b) Acceleration of the system: a 2
g
m2 m1
Tension in the string: T

2m1m2
g
m1 m2

20(b)

Friction

(1) Force of friction:


(a) f s s N self adjusting ;

f s max s N

(c) k s
(2) Acceleration on a horizontal plane: a = F k N / M
(3) Acceleration of a body sliding on an inclined plane: a = gsin 1 k cot

Fig. (2)

Mg

(4) The force required to balance an object against wall: F

(5) Angle of friction: tan s s coefficient of static friction

Fig. (4)

Fig. (3)
15

Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

(1) Average angular velocity:

2 1
t2 t1

For a complete circle,

2 and t T

2
T

dt

(2) Instantaneous angular velocity:

(3) Relation between v, and r : v r ; In vector form, v = r ; In general form,


(4) Average angular acceleration:

2 1
t2 t1

v =r

2
d d

2
dt dt

(5) Instantaneous angular acceleration:

(6) Relation between linear and angular acceleration:

v2
2
R
r

(a) ar r and aR

2
2
(b) Resultant acceleration, a aT aR

(c) In vector form, a aT aR , where aT r and aR u r


(7) Equations for rotational motion:

1
2

(a) 0 t

(b) 0t t 2

(c) 2 0 2 2

(8) Centre of mass: For two particle systems:


(a) X CM

m1 x1 m2 x2
m1 m2

(b) VCM

m1v1 m2v2
m1 m2

dx CM
d 2 x CM
and a CM
Also, VCM

dt
dt 2

(9) Centre of mass: For many particle systems:

16

(c) aCM

m1a1 m2 a2
m1 m2

(a) XCM

m x

(e) PCM MvCM

(f) Fext Ma Cm

drCM

(c) vCM
dt

m r

(b) rCM

i i

i i

dvCM
(d) a CM
dt

m v

i i

m a F . If F
i i

ext

0,a CM 0, VCM constant

(g) Also, moment of masses about CM is zero, i.e.

m r 0 or, m r m r
i i

11

2 2

(10) Moment of inertia: (a) I mi ri 2


(b) I r , where m1m2 / m1 m2
2

(11) Radius of gyration: (a) K

I
; (b) K
M

(12) Kinetic energy of rotation: K

2
1

r2 2 ... rn 2 / n = root mean square distance.

1 2
2K
I or, I 2
2


(13) Angular momentum: (a) L r p ; (b) L rp sin ; (c) L= mvr

(14) Torque: (a) r F ; (b) rF sin

dL
(15) Relation between and L:
;
dt
1 2 L2
(16) Relation between L and I: (a) L I ; (b) K I
2
2I
(17) Relation between and :
(a) I
(b) If 0 , then

dL
0 or, L constant or, I constant i.e. I11 I 22
dt

(18) Angular impulse: L t


(19) Rotational work done: W d av

(20) Rotational power: P .

17

(21) (a) Perpendicular axes theorem: I Z I X IY


(b) Parallel axes theorem: I I C Mh2
(22) Moment of inertia of some objects
(a) Ring: I MR 2

axis ;

1
MR 2 (Diameter)
2

I 2MR2 (Tangential to rim, perpendicular to plane)


I
(b) Disc: I

3
MR 2 (Tangential to rim and parallel to diameter)
2

1
1
MR 2 (axis); I MR 2 (diameter)
2
4

(c) Cylinder: I

1
MR 2 (axis)
2

(d) Thin rod: I

1
1
ML2 (about centre); I ML2 (about one end)
12
3

(e) Hollow sphere: I dia


(f) Solid sphere: I dia

(g) Rectangular: I C
(h) Cube: I

2
5
MR 2 ; I tangential MR 2
3
3

2
7
MR 2 ; I tangential MR 2
5
5

M l 2 b2
12

(centre)

1
Ma 2
6

(i) Annular disc: I

1
M R12 R2 2
2

(j) Right circular cone: I

3
MR 2
10

(k) Triangular lamina: I

1
Mh 2 (about base axis)
6

18

(l) Elliptical lamina: I

1
1
Ma 2 (about minor axis) and I Mb 2 (about major axis)
4
4

(23) Rolling without slipping on a horizontal surface:

1
1 2 1
K2
2
2
K MV I MV 1 2 ( V=R and I=MK 2 )
2
2
2
R
For inclined plane
(a) Velocity at the bottom, v =

(b) Acceleration, a =

2 gh
K2
1 2
R

gsin
K2
1 2
r

K2
2s 1 2
R

(c) Time taken to reach the bottom, t


g sin
(24) Simple pendulum: T 2

l
g

(25) Compound pendulum: T 2

I
2
2
, where l M K l
Mgl

Minimum time period, T0 2

(26) Time period for disc: T 2

2K
g

3R
2g

Minimum time period for disc, T 2

1.414 R
g

(27) Time period for a rod of length L pivoted at one end: T 2

19

2L
3g

Conservation laws and collisions

(1) Work done: (a) W F .d ; (b) W Fd cos ; (c) W

X2

X1


F . dr

(2) Conservative forces:

path 1


F . dr

path 2


F . dr 0

closed path

dU
dX

(3) Potential energy: (a) VU= -W ; (b) F

U
;
(c)

(4) Gravitational potential energy: (a) U mgh ; (b) U

(5) Spring potential energy: (a) U

(6) Kinetic energy: (a) K W

GMm
R h

1 2
1
kx ; (b) U K x2 2 x12
2
2

1
1
m v f 2 vi 2 ; (b) K mv 2
2
2

(7) Total mechanical energy: E=K+U

K U

(8) Conservation of energy:

or , K f U f K i U i
In an isolated system, Etotal constant

dw
P

F
.v
;
(b)

dt

(9) Power: (a) P

(10) Tractive force: F

P
v

(11) Equilibrium Conditions:


(a) For equilibrium,

dU
0
dx

dU
dx

(b) For stable equilibrium, U ( x) minimum,

20

0 and

d 2U
2
dx

is positive.

dU
dx

(c) For Unstable equilibrium: U ( x) minimum,

d 2U

0
and
2 is negative.

dx

d 2U
dU
(d) For neutral equilibrium: U ( x) constant,
0 and 2 is zero.
dx
dx
(12) Velocity of a particle in terms of U(x): v =

2
E U ( x)
m

(13) Momentum:

dp

dt

(a) p mv ; (b) F

(c) Conservation of momentum: If Fnet 0, then pf pi .


(d) Recoil speed of gun, VG

mB
VB
mG

(14) Impulse: p Fav t


(15) Collision in one direction:
(a) Momentum conservation: m1u1 m2u2 m1v1 m2v2
(b) For elastic collision, e=1= coefficient of restitution
(c) Energy conservation: m1u12 m2u2 2 m1v12 m2v2 2
(d) Velocities of 1st and 2nd body after collision are:

m m2
2m2
2m1
m2 m1
v1 1
u1
u2 ; v2
u1
u2
m1 m2
m2 m1
m1 m2
m2 m1
(e) If m1 m2 m , then v1 u2 and v2 u1 .

v2 v1

u1 u2

(f) Coefficient of restitution, e

(g) e 1 for perfectly elastic collisions and e 0 for perfectly inelastic collision. For inelastic
collision 0 e 1

21

(16) Inelastic collision of a ball dropped from height h0


(a) Height attained after nth impact, hn e2 n h0

2
2
(b) Total distance travelled when the ball finally comes to rest, s h0 1 e / 1 e

(c) Total time taken, t

2h0
g

1 e

1 e

(17) Loss of K.E in inelastic collision:

Klost Ki K f

1 m1m2
2
u1 u2 (1 e2 )
2 m1 m2

Velocity after inelastic collision (with target at rest)

m em2
m1 (1 e)
v1 1
u1
u1 ; v2
m1 m2
m1 m2
(18) Loss of K.E. in elastic collision:
For the first incident particle
2

m m2
Klost
Klost
4m1m2
1
; If m1 m2 ,
100%

and
2
Ki m1 m2
Ki
Ki
(m1 m2 )

Kf

(19) Conservation of angular momentum:


(a) If ext 0 , then L f Li
(b) For planets,

vmax rmax

vmin rmin

Ii
If

(c) Spinning skater, I11 I 22 or, f i

22

Simple Harmonic Motion

(1) Simple Harmonic Motion:


(a) F kx
(b) a

k
x or, a 2 x, where = k / m
m

(c) Fmax kA and amax 2 A


(2) Equation of motion:

d 2x
2x 0
2
dt

(3) Displacement: x A sin(t )


(b) If / 2 , x A cos t

(a) If 0 , x A sin t

2
2
(c) If x C sin t D cos t , then x A sin(t ) with A C D and tan ( D / C )

(4) Velocity:
(a) v A cos(t )

(b) If 0 , v A cos t

2
2
(d) v A x

(e)

(c) vmax A

x2
v2

1
A2 2 A2

(5) Acceleration:
(a) a x A sin(t )

(b) If 0 , a 2 A sin t

2
(c) amax A

(d) Fmax m 2 A

(6) Frequency and Time period:


(a) k / m

(b) f

1
2

k/m

(c) T 2

m
k

(7) Energy in SHM:


Potential Energy:
(a) U

1 2
kx
2

(b) F

dU
dx

(c) U max

23

1
m 2 A2
2

(d) U

1
m 2 A2 sin 2 t
2

Kinetic Energy:
(a) K

1 2
mv
2

(b) K

(c) K

1
m 2 A2 cos 2 t
2

(d) K max

1
m 2 A2 x 2
2

1
m 2 A2
2

(9) Total Energy:


(a) E K U conserved

(b) E

1
m 2 A2
2

(c) E Kmax U max

(10) Average PE and KE:


(a) U

1
m 2 A2
4

(b) K

1
m 2 A2
4

(c) ( E / 2) U K

(11) Some relations:


(a)

v12 v2 2
x2 2 x12

x2 2 x12
v12 v2 2

(b) T 2

(c) A

(v1 x2 )2 (v2 x1 ) 2
v12 v2 2

(12) Spring-mass system:


(a) mg kx0
(b) T 2

x
m
2 0
k
g

(13) Massive spring:

T 2

m (ms / 3)
k

(14) Cutting a spring:


(a) k ' nk

(b) T

T0

(c) f n f 0

n 1
k ;
n

(d) If spring is cur into two pieces of lengths l1 and l2 such that l1 nl2 , then k1

k2 (n 1)k and k1l1 k2l2

24

(15) Springs in parallel:


(a) k k1 k2

(c) If T1 2

T1T2
T T2
2
1

m
k1 k2

(b) T 2

m
m
1
1
1
and T2 2
, then for parallel combination:
2 2
2
k1
k2
T
T1 T2

or,

and 2 12 2 2

(16) Springs in series:


(a)

1 1 1

k k1 k2

(b)

2
1

(17) Simple pendulum:

T 2

l
g

(18) Second pendulum:


(a) T=2 sec
(b) l 99.3 cm

25

or, T 2 T12 T2 2

(c) T 2

m(k1 k2 )
k1k2

Gravitation

(1) Newtons law of gravitation:


(a) F G

Mm
dF
2dr
11
2
2
; (b) a = 6.67 10 K .m / kg ; (c)

2
r
F
r

(2) Acceleration due to gravity: (a) g

GM
; (b) Weight, W=mg
R2

(3) Variation of g:
(a) Due to shape: gequator < g pole
(b) Due to rotation of earth: (i) g pole
(iii)
(v)

GM
GM
(no effect) (ii) gequator 2 2 R
2
R
R

2 R 0.034 m/s2

T0 24
h 1.4h, then object would float on equator
17 17

If 170 or, T=

(c) At a height h above earths surface, g g 1

2h
, if h<<R
g

d
(d) At a depth of below earths surface: g g 1
R
(4) Acceleration on moon: g m

(5) Gravitational field: (a) g

GM m 1
gearth
Rm 2
6
GM
GM
r (outside) ; (b) g 3 rr (inside)
2
r
R

(6) Gravitational potential energy of mass m:


(a) At a distance r: U (r )

GMm
r

(b) At the surface of the earth: U 0

GMm
R

(c) At any height h above earths surface: U U 0 mgh (for h<<R)


Or, U mgh (if origin of potential energy is shifted to the surface of earth)

26

dU

dR

(7) Potential energy and gravitation force: F


(8) Gravitational potential: V (r )

GM
r

(9) Gravitational potential energy of system of masses:


(a) Two particles: U

GMm
r

(b) Three particles: U

Gm1m2 Gm1m3 Gm2 m3

r12
r13
r23

(10) Escape velocity:


(a) Ve

2GM
R

or, Ve 2 gR gD

8 G
3

(b) Ve R

(11) Maximum height attained by a projectile:

h=

Ve /V

-1

or, V= Ve

h
h
= Ve
(if h<<R)
R+h
R

(12)Orbital velocity of satellite:


(a) V0

GM
R
; (b) V0 Ve
; (c) V0 Ve / 2 (if h<<R)
r
2( R h)

(13) Time period of satellite: (a) T 2

R h
GM

(14) Energy of satellite: (a) Kinetic energy, K

(b) Potential energy, U

; (b) T 2

1
1 GMm
mv0 2
2
2 r

GMm
2 K
r

(c) Total energy, E K U

R
(if h<<R)
g

1 GMm
2 r
27

(d) E U / 2 K ; (e) B.E. E

1 GMm
2 r

2
(15) Geosynchronous satellite: (a) T=24 hours; (b) T

4 2
3
R h
GM

1/3

GMT 2
R ; (d) h 36,000 km
(c) h
2
4
(16) Keplers law:
(a) Law of orbits: Orbits are elliptical
(b) Law of areas: Equal area is swept in equal time

4 2
GM

2
3
2
(c) Law of period: T r ; T

3
r

28

Surface Tension
(1) (a) T

Force F
surface energy W
; (b) T

Length l
Surface area
A

(2) Combination of n drops into one big drop: (a) R n r


1/3

(b) Ei n 4 r 2T , E f 4 R 2T ,

1
r

(c) E 4 R 2T n1/3 1 4 R3T


(3) Increase in temperature:

E
1
1 1/3
Ei n

/ Ei n 1/3 ,
1

3T 1 1
3T
or,
s r R
sJ

1 1

r R

(4) Shape of liquid surface:


(a) Plane surface (as for water- silver) if Fadhesive

Fcohesive

(b) Concave surface (as for water-glass) if Fadhesive

Fcohesive

(c) Convex surface (as for mercury- glass) if Fadhesive

2
Fcohesive
2

(5) Angle of contact:


(a) Acute: If Fa

FC

(b) Obtuse: If Fa

FC

(c) C 90 ; If Fa

(d) cos c

FC
2

Tsa Tsl
, (where Tsa , Tsl and Tla represent solid-air, solid-liquid and liquid-air
Tla

surface tensions respectively). Here C is acute if Tsl Tsa , while C is obtuse if Tsl Tsa .
(6) Excess pressure:
29

1 1

R1 R2

(a) General formula: Pexcess T

(b) For a liquid drop: Pexcess

2T
R

(c) For an air bubble in liquid: Pexcess


(d) For a soap bubble: Pexcess

2T
R

4T
R

(e) Pressure inside an air bubble at a depth h in a liquid:

Pin Patm hdg (2T / R)


(7) Forces between two plates with thin water film separating them:

1
r

1
r

(a) P T

(b) F AT

(c) If separation between plates is d, then P

2T
and F= 2AT/d
d

(8) Double bubble: Radius of Curvature of common film Rcommon

rR
R- r

(9) Capillary rise:


(a) h

2T cos
rdg

(b) h

2T
(For water 0 )
rdg

rdg h
3

(c) If weight of water in meniscus is taken into account then T


2 cos
(d) Capillary depression, h

2T cos
rdg
30

(10) Combination of two soap bubbles:


(a) If V is the increase in volume and S is the increase in surface area, then

3P0 V 4T S 0 where P0 is the atmospheric pressure.


(b) If the bubbles combine in environment of zero outside pressure isothermally, then S 0 or,

R3 R12 R2 2 .

Elasticity
(1) Stress: (a) Stress = Deforming force/cross-sectional area

F
2
r

(b) Tensile or longitudinal stress =

(c) Tangential or shearing stress=

F
A

(d) Hydrostatic stress = P


(2) Strain: (a) Tensile or longitudinal strain =

L
L

(b) Shearing strain =


(c) Volume strain =

V
V

(3) Hookes law:


(a) For stretching: Stress = Y Strain

(b) For shear: Stress = Strain

or, Y=

or, =

F
A

(C) For volume elasticity: Stress = B Strain

(4) Compressibility: K

FL
A(L)

1
B

31

or, B=-

P
(V / V )

(5) Elongation of a wire due to its own weight: L

1 MgL 1 L2 g

2 YA
2 Y

(6) Bulk modulus of an ideal gas: Bisothermal P and Badiabatic P (where =

CP
)
CV

(7) Stress due to heating or cooling of a clamped rod


Thermal stress= Y t and force = YA t
(8) Torsion of a cylinder:
(a) r =l
(b) Restoring torque, c
(c)

Restoring

Couple

per

unit

twist,

c r 4 / 2l (for

solid

cylinder)

C r2 4 r14 / 2l (for hollow cylinder)


(9) Work done in stretching:

1
1
1 stress
2
volume
(a) W stress strain volume = Y strain volume =
2
2
2
Y
2

(b) Potential energy stored, U W

1
stress strain volume
2

(c) Potential energy stored per unit volume, U


(10) Loaded beam:
(a) Depression,

Wl 3
(rectangular)
4Ybd 3

(b) Depression,

Wl 3
(cylindrical)
12Y r 2

(11) Poissons ratio:


(a) Lateral strain =

D r

D
r

(b) Longitudinal strain = L / L


32

1
stress strain
2

and

(c) Poissons ratio,

lateral strain
r / r

longitudinal strain L / L

(d) Theoretically, 1 0.5 but experimentally 0.2 0.4


(12) Relations among Y , , B and :
(a) Y 3B 1 2

(b) Y 2 1

(c)

1
1
1

Y 9 B 3

(13) Interatomic force constant: k Yr0 ( r0 is the equilibrium inter atomic separation)

Kinetic Theory of Gases

(1) Boyles law: PV= constant or, P1V1=P2V2


(2) Charless law: (V/T) = constant or, (V1/T1) = (V2/T2)
(3) Pressure- temperature law: (P1/T1) = (P2/T2)
(4)

Avogadros

principle:

At

constant

temperature

and

pressure,

Volume

of

gas,

V number of moles,
Where,

= N/Na N number of molecules in the sample and N A Avogadro's number =6.02 1023 / mole
(5) Kinetic Theory:
(a) Momentum delivered to the wall perpendicular to the X-axis, P = 2mv x
(b) Time taken between two successive collisions on the same wall by the same molecules:

t 2L/Vx
(c) The frequency of collision: Vcoll. Vx /2L
(d) Total force exerted on the wall by collision of various molecules: F MN / L <Vx 2 >
(e) The pressure on the wall: P=

mN
mN
1 mN
1
<Vx 2 > =
<V 2 > =
Vrms 2 = Vrms 2
V
3V
3 V
3

(6) RMS speed:

33

(a) Vrms

2
1

(b) V

3P

(c) V

3KT
m

(d) Vrms

(e)

+V2 2 +.....+VN 2 /N

Vrms 1
Vrms 2

3RT
M

m2

m1

M2
M1

(7) Kinetic interpretation of temperature:


(a)

1
3
Mv 2rms RT
2
2

(b)

1
3
mv2rms KT
2
2

(c) Kinetic energy of one molecule=

3
KT
2

(d) Kinetic energy of one mole of gas=

3
RT
2

(e) Kinetic energy of one gram of gas=

3 RT
2 M

(8) Maxwell molecular speed distribution:


3

m 2 2 mv2 2 KT
(a) n v 4 N
ve
2 KT
(b) The average speed: v

(c) The rms speed: vrms

8KT
8RT
RT

1.60
m
m
M
3kT
3RT
RT

1.73
m
M
M

34

2 KT
2 RT
RT

1.41
m
M
M

(d) The most probable speed: v p


(e) Speed relations: (i) v p v vrms

(ii) v p : v : vrms 2 :

8 / :

3 1.41:1.60 :1.73

(9) Internal energy:


(a) Eint ernal

3
RT (for one mole)
2

(b) Eint ernal

3
nRT for n mole
2

(c) Pressure exerted by a gas, P

2E 2
E
3V 3

(10) Degrees of freedom:


(a) Ideal gas: 3 (all translational)
(b) Monoatomic gas: 3 (all translational)
(c) Diatomic gas: 5 (3 translational +2 rotational)
(d) Polyatomic gas (linear molecule e.g. CO2): 7 (3 translational + 2 rotational +2 vibrational)
(e) Polyatomic gas (non-linear molecule, e.g., NH3, H2O etc): 6 (3 translational + 3 rotational)
(f) Internal energy of a gas: Eint ernal

f
nRT ; where f is the degrees of freedom.
2

(11) Daltons law: The pressure exerted by a mixture of perfect gases is the sum of the pressures exerted
by the individual gases occupying the same volume alone i.e. P P1 P2 P3 .........
(12) Vander Walls gas equation:

(a) P a

n2
V nb nRT
V2
3

(b) b=30 cm /mole


(c) Critical values: PC

a
8a
, VC 3b , TC
2
27b
27 Rb
35

(d)

PCVC 3
0.375
RTC 8

(13) Mean free path:

1
2 d 2 n

Where n N / V = number of gas molecule per unit volume and d= diameter of molecules of
the gas.

Fluid Mechanics

(1)

The viscous force between two layers of area A having velocity gradient (dv/dx) is given by:

F A dv/dx , where is called coefficient of viscosity.


(2) In S.I. system, is measured in Poiseiulle ( Pl ) 1 Pl 1 Nsm 1 decapoise.In cgs system, the unit
2

of is g/cm/sec and is called POISE.


(3) When a spherical body is allowed to fall through viscous medium, its velocity increases, till the sum
of viscous drag and upthrust becomes equal to the weight of the body. After that the body moves with a
constant velocity called terminal velocity.
(4) According to STOKES Law, the viscous drag on a spherical body moving in a fluid is given by:

F 6 rv , where r is the radius and v is the velocity of the body.


(5) Rate of flow of liquid through a capillary tube of radius r and length l

V=

pr 4
p
p

4
8l
8l / r
R

Where

is the pressure difference between two ends of the capillary and R is the fluid resistance

(= 8l / r ).
4

(6) The matter which possess the property of flowing is called as FLUID (For example, gases and liquids)
(7) Pressure exerted by a column of liquid of height h is: P gh ( =density of the liquid)
(8) Pressure at a point within the liquid, P P0 gh , where P0 is atmospheric pressure and h is the
depth of point w.r.t. free surface of liquid.

36

(9) Apparent weight of the body immersed in a liquid, Mg Mg V g


(10) If W be the weight of a body and U be the upthrust force of the liquid on the body then
(a) The body sinks in the liquid of W > U
(b) The body floats just completely immersed if W=U
(c) The body floats with a part immersed in t
(11)

Volume of immersed part of a solid density of solid

total volume of solid


density

(12) Equation of Continuity: a1v1 a2v2


(13) Bernoullis theorem: P / gh

1 2
v constant
2

(14) Accelerated fluid containers: tan

ax
g

(15) Volume of liquid flowing per second through a tube: R a1v1 a2v2

2gh
a a2 2
2
1

(16) Velocity of efflux of liquid from a hole: v = 2gh , where h is the depth of a hole from the free
surface of liquid.

37

Heat and Thermodynamics

1. L2 L1 L1 T2 T1 ; A2 A1 A1 T2 T1 ; V2 V1 V1 T2 T1
Where, L1, A1, V1 are the length area and volume at temperature T 1; and L2, A2, V2 are that at
temperature T2. represents the coefficient of linear expansion, the coefficient of superficial
expansion and

the coefficient of cubical expansion.

2. If dt be the density at tC and d0 be that at 0C , then dt d0 1 T


3. : : 1: 2 : 3
4. If r , a be the coefficient of real and apparent expansions of a liquid and g be the coefficient of the
cubical expansion for the containing vessel (say glass), then r a g
5. The pressure of the gases varies with temperature as: Pt P0 1 T , where 1/ 273 per C
6. If temperature on Celsius scale is C, that on Fahrenheit scale is F, on Kelvin scale is K. and on
Reaumer scale is R, then
(a)

C F 32 K 273 R

5
9
5
4

(c) C

5
F 32
9

(e) K

5
F 459.4
9

(b) F

9
C 32
5

(d) K C 273

7. (a) Triple point of water = 273.16 K


(b) Absolute zero = 0K= -273.150C
(c) For a gas thermometer, T 273.15

P
Kelvin
Ptriple

(d) For s resistance thermometer, R R0 1


8. If mechanical work W produces the same temperature change as heat H, then we can write: W= JH,
where J is called mechanical equivalent of heat.
9. The heat absorbed or given out by a body of mass m, when the temperature changes by T is:
Q mcT , where c is a constant for a substance, called as SPECIFIC HEAT.
10. HEAT CAPACITY of a body of mass m is defined as: Q mc
38

11. WATER EQUIVALENT of a body is numerically equal to the product of its mass and specific heat
i.e. W= mc
12. When the state of matter changes, the heat absorbed or evolved is given by: Q= mL, where L is called
LATENT HEAT.
13. In case of gases, there are two types of specific heats i.e. CP and CV [Cp= specific heat at constant
pressure and CV= specific heat at constant volume]. Molar specific heats of a gas are: C P= Mcp and CV=
McV, where M= molecular weight of the gas.
14. CP >CV and according to Mayers formula CP CV = R
15. For all thermodynamic processes, equation of state for an ideal gas: PV= nRT.
(a) For ISOBARIC process: P = constant ;

V
constant
T

(b) For ISOCHORIC (Isometric) process: V=constant ;

P
constant
T

(c) For ISOTHERMAL process: T = constant ; PV=constant


(d) For ADIABATIC process: PV constant
16. Slope on PV diagram:
(a) For isobaric process: zero
(b) For isochoric process: infinite
(c) For isothermal process: slope= - (P/V)
(d) For adiabatic process: slope= P / V
(e) Slope of adiabatic curve > slope of isothermal curve.
17. Work done
(a) For isobaric process: W=P (V2-V1)
(b) For isochoric process: W=0
(c) For isothermal process: W= nRT loge (V2 /V1 )
(d) For adiabatic process: W =

nR(T1 -T2 )
(P V -P V )
= 1 1 2 2
(-1)
(-1)

(e) In expansion from same initial state to same final volume


39

Wadiabatic Wisothermal Wisobaric


(f) In compression from same initial state to same final volume:

Wadiabatic Wisothermal Wisobaric


18. Heat added or removed:
(a) For isobaric process: Q CP T
(b) For isochoric process: Q CV T
(c) For isothermal process: Q = W = RTlog(V2 -V1 )
(d) For adiabatic process: Q 0
19. Change in internal energy:
(a) For isobaric process: U CV T
(b) For isochoric process: U CV T
(c) For isothermal process: U 0
(d) For adiabatic process: U W

R(T2 T1 )
( 1)

20. Elasticity of gases:


(a) Isothermal bulk modulus: B1=P
(b) Adiabatic bulk modulus: BA P
21. For a CYCLIC process, work done W = area enclosed in the cycle on PV diagram. Further,
U 0 (as state of the system remains unchanged)
So, Q W
22. Internal energy and specific heats of an ideal gas (Monoatomic gas)
(a) U =

3
RT (for one mole)
2

(b) U =

3
nRT (for n mole)
2
40

3
nRT (for n mole)
2

(c) U =

(d) CV

1 U

n T

3
R
2

(e) CP CV R

3
5
RR R
2
2

5
R
CP 2 5

(f)
1.67
CV 3 R 3
2
23. Internal energy and specific heats of a diatomic gas:
(a) U

5
nRT
2

(b) U

(c) CV

5
nRT
2

1 U 5
R
T 2

(d) CP CV R

CP
CV

(e)

5
7
RR R
2
2

7R 2 7
5R 1.4
2 5

24. Mixture of gases: n=n1+n2

CV

n1M1 n2 M 2 N1m1 N 2 m2

n1 n2
N1 N 2

n1CV1 n2CV2
n1 n2

and CP

n1CP1 n2CP2
n1 n2

25. First law of thermodynamics:

41

(a) Q U W or, U=Q-W


(b) Both Q, W depends on path, but U does not depend on the path
(c) For isothermal process:

Q W nRT log V2 / V1 , U=0, T= Constant, PV=Constant and Ciso


(d) For adiabatic process: W

nR T2 T1

PV constant , Cad 0 and

Cp
Cv

, Q 0 , U nCV T2 T1 , Q 0 ,

2
; where f is the degree of freedom.
f

(e) For isochoric process: W 0 , Q U nCV T , V=constant, and CV R / 1


(f) For isobaric process: Q nC p T , U nCV T , W nRT , P=constant and

C p R / 1
(g) For cyclic process: U 0, Q W
(h) For free expansion: U 0, Q 0, W 0
(i) For polytropic process: W nR T2 T1 /1- n , Q nC T2 T1 , PV constant and
n

R
R

1 1 n

26. Second law of thermodynamics


(a) There are no perfect engines.
(b) There are no perfect refrigerators.
(c) Efficiency of Carnot engine: 1

Q2 Q2 T2
,

Q1 Q1 T1

(d) Coefficient of performance of a refrigerator:

Q2
T2
Heat absorbed from cold reservoir Q2

Work done on refrigerator


W Q1 Q2 T1 T2

For a perfect refrigerator, W=0 or, Q1 Q2 or,


42


t , where K is coefficient of
x
thermal conductivity, A is the area of cross section, is the difference in temperature, t is the
time of heat flow and x is separation between two ends.
26. The amount of heat transmitted is given by: Q KA

27. Thermal resistance of a conductor of length d RTh

d
KA

28. Flow of heat through a composite conductor:

K11 / d1 K 22 / d2
K1 / d1 K2 / d2

(a) Temperature of interface,

(b) Rate of flow of heat through the composite conductor:

A 1 2
Q

t d1 / K1 d 2 / K 2

(c) Thermal resistance of the composite conductor:

RTH

d1
d
2 RTh 1 RTh 2
K1 A K 2 A

(d) Equivalent thermal conductivity, K

29.

(a) Radiation absorption coefficient: a

(b) Reflection coefficient: r

d1 d 2
d1 / K1 d2 / K2

Qa
Q0

Qr
Q0

(c) Transmission coefficient: t

Qt
Q0

(d) Emissive power: e or E Q / A.t [t= time]


(e) Spectral emissive power: e
(f) Emissivity:

Q
At (d )

e
; 0 1
E

43

(g) Absorptive power: a =

Qa
Q0

(h) Kirchhoffs law: e / a A e / a B .......... E


(i) Stefans law: (a) E T 4 (where, 5.67 108 Wm2 K 4 )

4
4
For a black body: E T T0

4
4
For a body: e T T0

(j) Rate of loss of heat:

dQ
A 4 0 4
dt

dQ / dt 1
dQ / dt 2

For spherical objects:

r12
r2 2

d A 4
A 4

04
04
dt
ms
V s

(k) Rate of fall of temperature:

(l) Newtons law of cooling:

d / dt 1
d / dt 2

A1 V2 r2

A2 V1 r1

d
K 0 or, 0 e KT
dt

(m) Weins displacement law: mT b (where, b=2.9 x 10-3 m-K)


a
A
A T
f

T
d

e
d

5
5

(n) Weins radiation law: E d


2

1/2

R
S R
(o) Solar Constant: S S T 4 or, T= ES
RS
RES
1/4

44

Waves
1. Velocity: v n and n

1
T

2. Velocity of transverse waves in a string: v

T
T

m
r 2d

3. Velocity of longitudinal waves:

/ (Y- Youngs modulus, =density)

(a) In rods: v

B /

(b) In liquids: v
(c) In gases: v

P /

(B= Bulk modulus)


(Laplace formula)

4. Effect of temperature:
(a) v v0

T / 273

(b) Vsound / Vrms

or, v v0 0.61t

/ 3

5. Wave equation: (a) y = a sin

vt-x
t x

T

(b) y a sin 2

(c) y a sin t kx , where wave velocity v


6. Particle velocity: (a) Vparticle y / t

(b) Maximum particle velocity, Vparticle

7. Strain in medium: (a) Strain = y / x = ka cos t kx


(b) Maximum strain = y / x max ka

(c) Vparticle / strain / k wave velocity

45

max

i.e., Vparticle wave velocity strain in the medium


2
2 y
2 y
v 2
8. Wave equation:
t 2
x

9. Intensity of sound waves:


(a)
(b) If

I E / At

be the density of the medium; v the velocity of the wave; n the frequency and

a the

amplitude then I 2 vn a i.e. I n2 a 2


2

2 2

(c) Intensity level in decibel: 10log I / I 0 , where I 0 =Threshold of hearing= 10-12Watt/m2


10. Principle of superposition: y y1 y2
2
2
11. Resultant amplitude: a a1 a2 2a1a2 cos

12. Resultant intensity: I I1 I 2 2 I1I 2 cos


(a) For constructive interference: 2n , a max a1 a 2 and I max

I1 I 2

(b) For destructive interference: 2n 1 , a min a1 a 2 and I min

I1 I 2

13. Beat frequency= n1 n2 and beat period, T TT


1 2 / T2 T1
(b) If there are N forks in successive order each giving x beats/sec with neighbor, then

nlast n first N 1 x
14. Stationary waves: The equation of stationary wave,
(a) When the wave is reflected from a free boundary, is:

y 2a cos

2 x

sin

2 t
2a cos kx sin t
T

(b) When the wave is reflected from a rigid boundary, is:

y 2a sin

2 x

cos

2 t
2a sin kx cos t
T

46

15. Vibrations of a stretched string:


(a) For fundamental tone: n1

(b) For pth harmonic: n p

T
m

p T
m

(c) The ratio of successive harmonic frequencies: n1 : n2 : n3 .......... 1: 2 : 3:..........


(d) Sonometer: n

1
2l

T
m r 2d
m

(e) Meldes experiment: (i) Transverse mode: n

p
2l

T
m

(ii) Longitudinal mode: n

2p T
2l m

16. Vibrations of closed organ pipe

4L

(a) For fundamental tone: n1

(b) For first overtone (third harmonic): n2 3n1


(c) Only odd harmonic are found in the vibrations of an open organ pipe and

n1 : n2 : n3 ...... 1: 2 : 3:.....
17. Vibrations of open organ pipe:
(a) For fundamental tone: n1 v / 2 L
(b) For first overtone (second harmonic): n2 2n1
(c) Both even and odd harmonics are found in the vibrations of an open organ pipe and

n1 : n2 : n3 :...... 1: 2 : 3:.....
18. End correction: (a) closed organ pipe: L Lpipe 0.3d
(b) Open organ pipe: L Lpipe 0.6d ; where d= diameter=2r

47

19. Resonance column: (a) l1 e


(c) e

20. Kundts tube:

(b) l2 e

l2 3l1
2

(d) n

3
l
4

v
or , 2 l2 l1
2 l2 l1

Vair air

Vrod rod

21. Longitudinal vibration of rods


(a) Both ends open and clamped in middle:
(i) Fundamental frequency, n1 v / 2l
(ii) Frequency of first overtone, n2 3n1
(iii) Ratio of frequencies, n1 : n2 : n3 :.... 1: 3: 5:....
(b) One end clamped
(i) Fundamental frequency, n1 v / 4l
(ii) Frequency of first overtone, n2 3n1
(iii) Ratio of frequencies, n1 : n2 : n3 :.... 1: 3: 5:....
22. Frequency of a tuning fork: n
and

=density

t
l2

E
; where t=thickness, l =length of prong, E= Elastic constant

23. Doppler Effect for Sound


(a) Observer stationary and source moving:
(i) Source approaching: n'

(ii) Source receding: n'

v
v vs
n and '

v vs
v

v
v vs
n and '

v vs
v

(b) Source stationary and observer moving:

48

(i) Observer approaching the source: n'

v v0
n and '
v

(ii) Observer receding away from source: n'

v v0
n and '
v

(c) Source and observer both moving:


(i) S and O moving towards each other: n'

v v0
n
v vs

(ii) S and O moving away from each other: n'

v v0
n
v vs

(iii) S and O in same direction, S behind O: n'

v v0
n
v vs

(iv) S and O in same direction, S ahead of O: n'

(d) Effect of motion of medium: n'

v v0
n
v vs

v vm v0
v vm vs

(e) Change in frequency: (i) Moving source passes a stationary observer n

vs v, n'

2vs
n
v
(ii) Moving observer passes a stationary source: n

(f) Source moving towards or away from hill or wall


(i) Source moving towards wall
(a) Observer between source and wall

n'

v
n for direct waves
v vs

n'

v
n for reflected waves
v vs

(b) Source between observer and wall


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2v0
n
v

2vvs
n ; for
v vs 2
2

n'

v
n for direct waves
v vs

n'

v
n for reflected waves
v vs

(ii) Source moving away from wall


(a) Observer between source and wall

n'

v
n for direct waves
v vs

n'

v
n for reflected waves
v vs

(b) Source between observer and wall

n'

v
n for direct waves
v vs

n'

v
n for reflected waves
v vs

(g) Moving Target:


(i) S and O stationary at the same place and target approaching with speed u

vu
2u
'
n'
n or, n 1 n (for u<<v)
v
v u

(ii) S and O stationary at the same place and target receding with speed u

v u
2u
'
n'
n or, n 1 n for u v
v
vu

(h) SONAR: n'

v vsub
2v
n 1 sub
v vsub
v

(Upper sign for approaching submarine while lower sign for receding submarine)
(i) Transverse Doppler Effect: There is no transverse Doppler effect in sound. For velocity component

vs cos

50

n'

v
n (- sign for approaching and + sign for receding)
v vs cos

24. Doppler Effect for light


(a) Red shift (when light source is moving away):

n'

1 v / c
1 v / c
n or, '

1 v / c
1 v / c

v
c

v
c

For v<<c, n n or, '


(b) Blue shift (when light source is approaching)

n'

1 v / c
1 v / c
n or, '

1 v / c
1 v / c

v
c

v
c

For v<<c, n n or, '

v
c

(c) Doppler Broadening= 2 2


(d) Transverse Doppler Effect
For light, n' 1

1 v2
v2

n ( for v c)
1
2
c2
2c

2v
n
c

(e) RADAR: n'

51

Appendix
Formula and constants
1. Exponents

2. Basic Units

Exponent

Prefix

103

Milli

106

Micro

109

Nano

1012

Pico

1 inch

25.4 mm

1 ft

30.48 cm

1 mile

1.61 km

1 yd

0.914 m

1m

3.28 ft

3. Greek Alphabets
Alpha

Iota

Beta

Kappa

Gamma
Delta

Mu

Lambda

Rho

Upsilon

Sigma
Tau

Epsilon

Nu

Phi

Zeta

Xi

Kai

Eta

Omicron

Theta

Pi

52

Psi

Omega

Study Tips
Combination of Subjects
Study a combination of subjects during a day i.e. after studying 2-3 hrs of
mathematics shift to any theoretical subject for 2 hours. When we study a
subject like math, a particular part of the brain is working more than rest of
the brain. When we shift to a theoretical subject, practically the other part of
the brain would become active and the part studying maths will go for rest.
Revision
Always refresh your memory by revising the matter learned. At the end of
the day you must revise whatever youve learnt during that day.
Use All Your Senses
Whatever you read, try to convert that into picture and visualize it. Our eye
memory is many times stronger than our ear memory since the nerves
connecting brain to eye are many times stronger than nerves connecting
brain to ear.
Breathing and Relaxation
Take special care of your breathing. Deep breaths are very important for
relaxing your mind and hence in your concentration. Pranayam can do
wonders to your concentration, relaxation and sharpening your mind (by
supplying oxygen to it). Aerobic exercises like skipping, jogging, swimming
and cycling are also very helpful.

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