104 tayangan

Diunggah oleh Sanjeet Singh

This Book is for all the students studying physics. This Book contains physics formulas which are intended to give a brief introduction to the topics covered. This book is useful for students preparing for medical and non-medical entrance examinations.

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- Course Plan
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- Memo 3- Noviembre 9 2010
- Math Formula Sheet AIEEE
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- Formula Booklet Physics XI
- Lecture 3
- Biology 11 Final Notes
- Thermo
- Copy of 56913304 Pipe Systems Design
- HiTEC-544_PDS.pdf
- Non Adiabatic Centrifugal Compressor Gas Dynamic Performance Definition
- PSICROMETRIA.pptx
- Lesson_2.doc

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Class-XI

By

Sanjeet Singh

IIT(ISM), Dhanbad

Dear Students,

Most of you tend to take it easy after board examinations of Class X. the

summer vacations immediately after Class X are a great opportunity for you all to

race ahead of other students in the competitive world of Engineering/Medical

Entrance Exam, where less than 3% students get selected every year for the

prestigious institutes.

Some of the students get governed completely by the emphasis laid by the teachers

of the school in which they are studying. Since, the objective of the teachers in the

school rarely is to equip the student with the techniques required to crack any JEE.

Class XI does not even have the pressure of board examinations, so most of you

tend to take it easy in Class XI.

The teachers and the school environment are often not oriented towards the serious

preparation of JEE/NEET and the curriculum of Class XI is extremely important to

achieve success in JEE/NEET or any other competitive examinations.

The successful students identify these points early in their Class XI and race ahead

of rest of the competition. I suggest that you start as soon as possible.

In this formula booklet I have made a sincere attempt to bring your focus to Class

XI and keep your velocity of preparations to the maximum. The formulae will help

you to revise your chapters in a very quick time.

Sanjeet Singh

IIT(ISM), Dhanbad

1

SL. No.

Contents

Page No.

7

1.

2.

Vectors

3.

4.

5.

6.

Friction

7.

8.

9.

10.

Gravitation

11.

Properties of Matter

12.

13.

Waves

8-9

9-10

11-14

15-16

16

17-20

21-23

24-26

27-29

30-38

39-45

46-51

Study Tips

52

53

Dedicated to my parents to

whom I am an integral part

Mechanics

Units, Dimensions and Measurements

(i)

SI Units:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(ii)

Length- metre (m)

Time- second (s)

Electric current- ampere (A)

Amount of substance- mole (mol)

Temperature- Kelvin (K)

Luminous Intensity- Candela (cd)

(a) To check the accuracy of a given relation

(b) To derive a relation between different physical quantities

(c) To convert a physical quantity from one system to another system

n1u1 = n 2 u 2

a

M L T

or , n 2 n1 1 1 1

M 2 L2 T2

x1 x 2 ........ x N

N

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

X

Fractional error

X

X

Percentage error=

100

X

Combination of error: If

X aY b

, then maximum fractional error in

Zc

f is:

f

X

Y

Z

a

b

c

f

X

Y

Z

(ix) Least Count of an instrument: L.C. 1 m.s.d- 1 v.s.d

[e.g., if 10 div. of vernier scale coincide with 9 div. of main scale, then L.C. =

1

0.11 m.s.d=0.1 mm ]

10

6

Vectors

A2 B2 2 AB cos

A

(2) Unit Vector: A=

A

(3) Magnitude: A

Ax 2 Ay 2 Az 2

Ay

Az

, cos A , cos = A

Ax

A

(5) Projection:

(a) Component of A along B A.B

Ay

Ax

(6) Dot product (or Scalar product):

(a) A. B = ABcos

(b) A. B = A x Bx +A y By +Az Bz

(7) Cross product (or Vector product):

(a) A B AB sin n

(b)

A A 0

i

j k

(c) A B A x Ay Az

Bx By Bz

(8) Examples:

(a) W F .s

(f) r F

(b) P F .v

(c) E E. A

(g) Fm q v B

(h) K.E=

(d) B B. A

(e) v r

1

2 1

1

m v m v .v mv 2

2

2

2

1

A B

2

j k

x

y

z

Problem Tricks:

(i) Two vectors will be perpendicular to each other if their dot product be zero.

(ii) Two vectors will be parallel if their cross product be zero.

s1 s2 s1 s2

s1 s2

t1 t2

v1 v2

(a) If s1 s2 d , then v=

2v1v2

= Harmonic mean

v1 v2

v1 v2

= arithmetic mean

2

(b) If t1 t2 , then v=

r2 r1

; (b) v avg v

t2 t1

dr

dt

v2 v1

t2 t1

dv

dt

In 1D, a=

dv dv

v

dt dx

(a) v u at

(b) S ut

1 2

at

2

(c) v 2 u 2 2aS

a

2n 1

2

u

u2

and t

g

2g

2h

g

(10) If an object is thrown upwards with velocity u from top of a building and another object is thrown

downwards with same velocity from the same point, then both reach the ground with the same velocity, if

air resistance is neglected.

(11) A ball is dropped from a building of height h and it reaches after t second on earth. From the same

building if two balls are thrown (one upwards and other downwards) with the same velocity u and they

reach the earth surface after t1 and t2 second respectively, then t t1t2 , if the air resistance is neglected.

(12) A particle is dropped vertically from rest from a height. The time taken by it to fall through

successive distance of 1 m each will then be in the ratio of the difference in the square root of the integer

i.e.

1,

2 1 ,

3 2 ,

4 3 ....

(13) When particle covers one third of a distance at speed v1 , next one third at speed v2 and last one third

at speed v3 , then vav

3v1v2v3

.

v1v2 v2v3 v3v1

(a) v r

v2

2

r

r

(b) a

mv 2

r

(d) r .v 0

(e) v.a 0

(c) F

v2

rg

s rg

tan

v2

rg

v2

rg

(a) Rinner wheel Router wheel

(b) Maximum safe velocity on turn,

v gdr / 2h

v2

(a) Centripetal acceleration, a r

r

(b) Tangential acceleration, a t

(c) Resultant acceleration: a=

dv

dt

2

r

at 2

(4) If the speed of the particle changes, the particle experiences a tangential force Ft m

with the centripetal force. So the net force on the particle is given by, F FC Ft .

2

10

dv

along

dt

FC

Ft

(6) When a particle is moving over a convex bridge, the maximum velocity is v rg , where r is

the radius of the road.

(7) When the particle is at the maximum height, the reaction of the road is N1 mg

mv 2

.

r

mv 2

When the vehicle is moving in a dip B, N 2 mg

.

r

(a) For lowest point A and highest point B, TA TB 6mg ; VA2 VB 2 4 gl ; VA

VB gl

(b) Condition for oscillation:

VA 2 gl

(5) Relative velocity: VBA VB VA

2 gl VA 5gl

(7) Crossing a River:

(a) Boat keeps its direction perpendicular to water current

(i)

VR VW 2 Vb 2

(ii)

tan 1 Vw Vb

(iii)

X

t (it is minimum)

Vb

(iv)

Vw

X

Vb

11

5gl ;

(1) sin vw / vb ; (2) vresultant vb cos ; (3) t

x

vb cos

(a) Equation of trajectory: y x tan

(b) Time of flight: T

gx 2

x x2

2

2

2u cos

2u sin

g

u 2 sin 2

u 2 sin 2

2g

4

and 90

gT 2

2R

H g

(i) 2

T 8

(h) tan

(a) T

(b) R v

2h

g

2h

g

gx 2

2

2u

(c) y h

2

1

(e) Angle at which projectiles strikes the ground, tan

12

2 gh

u

(a) Time of flight, T

2u sin

g cos

2u 2 cos sin

g cos 2

[Note: The particle is projected with speed u at an angle to the horizontal on an inclined

surface making an angle to the horizontal.]

(11) Kinetic energy at the highest point is E cos 2 .

(12) Linear momentum at the highest point is p cos .

13

(12) Lamis Theorem:

sin

Q

R

sin sin

dp

dt

2

(14) Impulse: p F t and p2 p1 Fdt

1

(b) Contact force: F12

(c) Acceleration: a

m

F F21 In vector form, F12 F21

M m

F

M m

F

a

F FR 2

g GM

(18) Non inertial frame: If a0 be the acceleration of frame, then pseudo force F ma0 . Example:

mv 2

m 2 r

Centrifugal force =

r

(19) Lift problems: Apparent weight= M g a0 [+ve sign is used when lift is moving up while ve

sign when lift is moving down]

14

(a) Acceleration of the system: a

m2

g

m1 m2

m1m2

g

m1 m2

20(a)

m m1

(b) Acceleration of the system: a 2

g

m2 m1

Tension in the string: T

2m1m2

g

m1 m2

20(b)

Friction

(a) f s s N self adjusting ;

f s max s N

(c) k s

(2) Acceleration on a horizontal plane: a = F k N / M

(3) Acceleration of a body sliding on an inclined plane: a = gsin 1 k cot

Fig. (2)

Mg

Fig. (4)

Fig. (3)

15

2 1

t2 t1

2 and t T

2

T

dt

(4) Average angular acceleration:

2 1

t2 t1

v =r

2

d d

2

dt dt

v2

2

R

r

(a) ar r and aR

2

2

(b) Resultant acceleration, a aT aR

(7) Equations for rotational motion:

1

2

(a) 0 t

(b) 0t t 2

(c) 2 0 2 2

(a) X CM

m1 x1 m2 x2

m1 m2

(b) VCM

m1v1 m2v2

m1 m2

dx CM

d 2 x CM

and a CM

Also, VCM

dt

dt 2

16

(c) aCM

m1a1 m2 a2

m1 m2

(a) XCM

m x

(f) Fext Ma Cm

drCM

(c) vCM

dt

m r

(b) rCM

i i

i i

dvCM

(d) a CM

dt

m v

i i

m a F . If F

i i

ext

m r 0 or, m r m r

i i

11

2 2

(b) I r , where m1m2 / m1 m2

2

I

; (b) K

M

2

1

1 2

2K

I or, I 2

2

(13) Angular momentum: (a) L r p ; (b) L rp sin ; (c) L= mvr

dL

(15) Relation between and L:

;

dt

1 2 L2

(16) Relation between L and I: (a) L I ; (b) K I

2

2I

(17) Relation between and :

(a) I

(b) If 0 , then

dL

0 or, L constant or, I constant i.e. I11 I 22

dt

(19) Rotational work done: W d av

17

(b) Parallel axes theorem: I I C Mh2

(22) Moment of inertia of some objects

(a) Ring: I MR 2

axis ;

1

MR 2 (Diameter)

2

I

(b) Disc: I

3

MR 2 (Tangential to rim and parallel to diameter)

2

1

1

MR 2 (axis); I MR 2 (diameter)

2

4

(c) Cylinder: I

1

MR 2 (axis)

2

1

1

ML2 (about centre); I ML2 (about one end)

12

3

(f) Solid sphere: I dia

(g) Rectangular: I C

(h) Cube: I

2

5

MR 2 ; I tangential MR 2

3

3

2

7

MR 2 ; I tangential MR 2

5

5

M l 2 b2

12

(centre)

1

Ma 2

6

1

M R12 R2 2

2

3

MR 2

10

1

Mh 2 (about base axis)

6

18

1

1

Ma 2 (about minor axis) and I Mb 2 (about major axis)

4

4

1

1 2 1

K2

2

2

K MV I MV 1 2 ( V=R and I=MK 2 )

2

2

2

R

For inclined plane

(a) Velocity at the bottom, v =

(b) Acceleration, a =

2 gh

K2

1 2

R

gsin

K2

1 2

r

K2

2s 1 2

R

g sin

(24) Simple pendulum: T 2

l

g

I

2

2

, where l M K l

Mgl

2K

g

3R

2g

1.414 R

g

19

2L

3g

X2

X1

F . dr

path 1

F . dr

path 2

F . dr 0

closed path

dU

dX

U

;

(c)

GMm

R h

1 2

1

kx ; (b) U K x2 2 x12

2

2

1

1

m v f 2 vi 2 ; (b) K mv 2

2

2

K U

or , K f U f K i U i

In an isolated system, Etotal constant

dw

P

F

.v

;

(b)

dt

P

v

(a) For equilibrium,

dU

0

dx

dU

dx

20

0 and

d 2U

2

dx

is positive.

dU

dx

d 2U

0

and

2 is negative.

dx

d 2U

dU

(d) For neutral equilibrium: U ( x) constant,

0 and 2 is zero.

dx

dx

(12) Velocity of a particle in terms of U(x): v =

2

E U ( x)

m

(13) Momentum:

dp

dt

(a) p mv ; (b) F

(d) Recoil speed of gun, VG

mB

VB

mG

(15) Collision in one direction:

(a) Momentum conservation: m1u1 m2u2 m1v1 m2v2

(b) For elastic collision, e=1= coefficient of restitution

(c) Energy conservation: m1u12 m2u2 2 m1v12 m2v2 2

(d) Velocities of 1st and 2nd body after collision are:

m m2

2m2

2m1

m2 m1

v1 1

u1

u2 ; v2

u1

u2

m1 m2

m2 m1

m1 m2

m2 m1

(e) If m1 m2 m , then v1 u2 and v2 u1 .

v2 v1

u1 u2

(g) e 1 for perfectly elastic collisions and e 0 for perfectly inelastic collision. For inelastic

collision 0 e 1

21

(a) Height attained after nth impact, hn e2 n h0

2

2

(b) Total distance travelled when the ball finally comes to rest, s h0 1 e / 1 e

2h0

g

1 e

1 e

Klost Ki K f

1 m1m2

2

u1 u2 (1 e2 )

2 m1 m2

m em2

m1 (1 e)

v1 1

u1

u1 ; v2

m1 m2

m1 m2

(18) Loss of K.E. in elastic collision:

For the first incident particle

2

m m2

Klost

Klost

4m1m2

1

; If m1 m2 ,

100%

and

2

Ki m1 m2

Ki

Ki

(m1 m2 )

Kf

(a) If ext 0 , then L f Li

(b) For planets,

vmax rmax

vmin rmin

Ii

If

22

(a) F kx

(b) a

k

x or, a 2 x, where = k / m

m

(2) Equation of motion:

d 2x

2x 0

2

dt

(b) If / 2 , x A cos t

(a) If 0 , x A sin t

2

2

(c) If x C sin t D cos t , then x A sin(t ) with A C D and tan ( D / C )

(4) Velocity:

(a) v A cos(t )

(b) If 0 , v A cos t

2

2

(d) v A x

(e)

(c) vmax A

x2

v2

1

A2 2 A2

(5) Acceleration:

(a) a x A sin(t )

(b) If 0 , a 2 A sin t

2

(c) amax A

(d) Fmax m 2 A

(a) k / m

(b) f

1

2

k/m

(c) T 2

m

k

Potential Energy:

(a) U

1 2

kx

2

(b) F

dU

dx

(c) U max

23

1

m 2 A2

2

(d) U

1

m 2 A2 sin 2 t

2

Kinetic Energy:

(a) K

1 2

mv

2

(b) K

(c) K

1

m 2 A2 cos 2 t

2

(d) K max

1

m 2 A2 x 2

2

1

m 2 A2

2

(a) E K U conserved

(b) E

1

m 2 A2

2

(a) U

1

m 2 A2

4

(b) K

1

m 2 A2

4

(c) ( E / 2) U K

(a)

v12 v2 2

x2 2 x12

x2 2 x12

v12 v2 2

(b) T 2

(c) A

(v1 x2 )2 (v2 x1 ) 2

v12 v2 2

(a) mg kx0

(b) T 2

x

m

2 0

k

g

T 2

m (ms / 3)

k

(a) k ' nk

(b) T

T0

(c) f n f 0

n 1

k ;

n

(d) If spring is cur into two pieces of lengths l1 and l2 such that l1 nl2 , then k1

24

(a) k k1 k2

(c) If T1 2

T1T2

T T2

2

1

m

k1 k2

(b) T 2

m

m

1

1

1

and T2 2

, then for parallel combination:

2 2

2

k1

k2

T

T1 T2

or,

and 2 12 2 2

(a)

1 1 1

k k1 k2

(b)

2

1

T 2

l

g

(a) T=2 sec

(b) l 99.3 cm

25

or, T 2 T12 T2 2

(c) T 2

m(k1 k2 )

k1k2

Gravitation

(a) F G

Mm

dF

2dr

11

2

2

; (b) a = 6.67 10 K .m / kg ; (c)

2

r

F

r

GM

; (b) Weight, W=mg

R2

(3) Variation of g:

(a) Due to shape: gequator < g pole

(b) Due to rotation of earth: (i) g pole

(iii)

(v)

GM

GM

(no effect) (ii) gequator 2 2 R

2

R

R

2 R 0.034 m/s2

T0 24

h 1.4h, then object would float on equator

17 17

If 170 or, T=

2h

, if h<<R

g

d

(d) At a depth of below earths surface: g g 1

R

(4) Acceleration on moon: g m

GM m 1

gearth

Rm 2

6

GM

GM

r (outside) ; (b) g 3 rr (inside)

2

r

R

(a) At a distance r: U (r )

GMm

r

GMm

R

Or, U mgh (if origin of potential energy is shifted to the surface of earth)

26

dU

dR

(8) Gravitational potential: V (r )

GM

r

(a) Two particles: U

GMm

r

r12

r13

r23

(a) Ve

2GM

R

or, Ve 2 gR gD

8 G

3

(b) Ve R

h=

Ve /V

-1

or, V= Ve

h

h

= Ve

(if h<<R)

R+h

R

(a) V0

GM

R

; (b) V0 Ve

; (c) V0 Ve / 2 (if h<<R)

r

2( R h)

R h

GM

; (b) T 2

1

1 GMm

mv0 2

2

2 r

GMm

2 K

r

R

(if h<<R)

g

1 GMm

2 r

27

1 GMm

2 r

2

(15) Geosynchronous satellite: (a) T=24 hours; (b) T

4 2

3

R h

GM

1/3

GMT 2

R ; (d) h 36,000 km

(c) h

2

4

(16) Keplers law:

(a) Law of orbits: Orbits are elliptical

(b) Law of areas: Equal area is swept in equal time

4 2

GM

2

3

2

(c) Law of period: T r ; T

3

r

28

Surface Tension

(1) (a) T

Force F

surface energy W

; (b) T

Length l

Surface area

A

1/3

(b) Ei n 4 r 2T , E f 4 R 2T ,

1

r

(3) Increase in temperature:

E

1

1 1/3

Ei n

/ Ei n 1/3 ,

1

3T 1 1

3T

or,

s r R

sJ

1 1

r R

(a) Plane surface (as for water- silver) if Fadhesive

Fcohesive

Fcohesive

2

Fcohesive

2

(a) Acute: If Fa

FC

(b) Obtuse: If Fa

FC

(c) C 90 ; If Fa

(d) cos c

FC

2

Tsa Tsl

, (where Tsa , Tsl and Tla represent solid-air, solid-liquid and liquid-air

Tla

surface tensions respectively). Here C is acute if Tsl Tsa , while C is obtuse if Tsl Tsa .

(6) Excess pressure:

29

1 1

R1 R2

2T

R

(d) For a soap bubble: Pexcess

2T

R

4T

R

(7) Forces between two plates with thin water film separating them:

1

r

1

r

(a) P T

(b) F AT

2T

and F= 2AT/d

d

rR

R- r

(a) h

2T cos

rdg

(b) h

2T

(For water 0 )

rdg

rdg h

3

2 cos

(d) Capillary depression, h

2T cos

rdg

30

(a) If V is the increase in volume and S is the increase in surface area, then

(b) If the bubbles combine in environment of zero outside pressure isothermally, then S 0 or,

R3 R12 R2 2 .

Elasticity

(1) Stress: (a) Stress = Deforming force/cross-sectional area

F

2

r

F

A

(2) Strain: (a) Tensile or longitudinal strain =

L

L

(c) Volume strain =

V

V

(a) For stretching: Stress = Y Strain

or, Y=

or, =

F

A

(4) Compressibility: K

FL

A(L)

1

B

31

or, B=-

P

(V / V )

1 MgL 1 L2 g

2 YA

2 Y

CP

)

CV

Thermal stress= Y t and force = YA t

(8) Torsion of a cylinder:

(a) r =l

(b) Restoring torque, c

(c)

Restoring

Couple

per

unit

twist,

c r 4 / 2l (for

solid

cylinder)

(9) Work done in stretching:

1

1

1 stress

2

volume

(a) W stress strain volume = Y strain volume =

2

2

2

Y

2

1

stress strain volume

2

(10) Loaded beam:

(a) Depression,

Wl 3

(rectangular)

4Ybd 3

(b) Depression,

Wl 3

(cylindrical)

12Y r 2

(a) Lateral strain =

D r

D

r

32

1

stress strain

2

and

lateral strain

r / r

longitudinal strain L / L

(12) Relations among Y , , B and :

(a) Y 3B 1 2

(b) Y 2 1

(c)

1

1

1

Y 9 B 3

(13) Interatomic force constant: k Yr0 ( r0 is the equilibrium inter atomic separation)

(2) Charless law: (V/T) = constant or, (V1/T1) = (V2/T2)

(3) Pressure- temperature law: (P1/T1) = (P2/T2)

(4)

Avogadros

principle:

At

constant

temperature

and

pressure,

Volume

of

gas,

V number of moles,

Where,

= N/Na N number of molecules in the sample and N A Avogadro's number =6.02 1023 / mole

(5) Kinetic Theory:

(a) Momentum delivered to the wall perpendicular to the X-axis, P = 2mv x

(b) Time taken between two successive collisions on the same wall by the same molecules:

t 2L/Vx

(c) The frequency of collision: Vcoll. Vx /2L

(d) Total force exerted on the wall by collision of various molecules: F MN / L <Vx 2 >

(e) The pressure on the wall: P=

mN

mN

1 mN

1

<Vx 2 > =

<V 2 > =

Vrms 2 = Vrms 2

V

3V

3 V

3

33

(a) Vrms

2

1

(b) V

3P

(c) V

3KT

m

(d) Vrms

(e)

+V2 2 +.....+VN 2 /N

Vrms 1

Vrms 2

3RT

M

m2

m1

M2

M1

(a)

1

3

Mv 2rms RT

2

2

(b)

1

3

mv2rms KT

2

2

3

KT

2

3

RT

2

3 RT

2 M

3

m 2 2 mv2 2 KT

(a) n v 4 N

ve

2 KT

(b) The average speed: v

8KT

8RT

RT

1.60

m

m

M

3kT

3RT

RT

1.73

m

M

M

34

2 KT

2 RT

RT

1.41

m

M

M

(e) Speed relations: (i) v p v vrms

(ii) v p : v : vrms 2 :

8 / :

3 1.41:1.60 :1.73

(a) Eint ernal

3

RT (for one mole)

2

3

nRT for n mole

2

2E 2

E

3V 3

(a) Ideal gas: 3 (all translational)

(b) Monoatomic gas: 3 (all translational)

(c) Diatomic gas: 5 (3 translational +2 rotational)

(d) Polyatomic gas (linear molecule e.g. CO2): 7 (3 translational + 2 rotational +2 vibrational)

(e) Polyatomic gas (non-linear molecule, e.g., NH3, H2O etc): 6 (3 translational + 3 rotational)

(f) Internal energy of a gas: Eint ernal

f

nRT ; where f is the degrees of freedom.

2

(11) Daltons law: The pressure exerted by a mixture of perfect gases is the sum of the pressures exerted

by the individual gases occupying the same volume alone i.e. P P1 P2 P3 .........

(12) Vander Walls gas equation:

(a) P a

n2

V nb nRT

V2

3

(c) Critical values: PC

a

8a

, VC 3b , TC

2

27b

27 Rb

35

(d)

PCVC 3

0.375

RTC 8

1

2 d 2 n

Where n N / V = number of gas molecule per unit volume and d= diameter of molecules of

the gas.

Fluid Mechanics

(1)

The viscous force between two layers of area A having velocity gradient (dv/dx) is given by:

(2) In S.I. system, is measured in Poiseiulle ( Pl ) 1 Pl 1 Nsm 1 decapoise.In cgs system, the unit

2

(3) When a spherical body is allowed to fall through viscous medium, its velocity increases, till the sum

of viscous drag and upthrust becomes equal to the weight of the body. After that the body moves with a

constant velocity called terminal velocity.

(4) According to STOKES Law, the viscous drag on a spherical body moving in a fluid is given by:

(5) Rate of flow of liquid through a capillary tube of radius r and length l

V=

pr 4

p

p

4

8l

8l / r

R

Where

is the pressure difference between two ends of the capillary and R is the fluid resistance

(= 8l / r ).

4

(6) The matter which possess the property of flowing is called as FLUID (For example, gases and liquids)

(7) Pressure exerted by a column of liquid of height h is: P gh ( =density of the liquid)

(8) Pressure at a point within the liquid, P P0 gh , where P0 is atmospheric pressure and h is the

depth of point w.r.t. free surface of liquid.

36

(10) If W be the weight of a body and U be the upthrust force of the liquid on the body then

(a) The body sinks in the liquid of W > U

(b) The body floats just completely immersed if W=U

(c) The body floats with a part immersed in t

(11)

density

(13) Bernoullis theorem: P / gh

1 2

v constant

2

ax

g

(15) Volume of liquid flowing per second through a tube: R a1v1 a2v2

2gh

a a2 2

2

1

(16) Velocity of efflux of liquid from a hole: v = 2gh , where h is the depth of a hole from the free

surface of liquid.

37

1. L2 L1 L1 T2 T1 ; A2 A1 A1 T2 T1 ; V2 V1 V1 T2 T1

Where, L1, A1, V1 are the length area and volume at temperature T 1; and L2, A2, V2 are that at

temperature T2. represents the coefficient of linear expansion, the coefficient of superficial

expansion and

3. : : 1: 2 : 3

4. If r , a be the coefficient of real and apparent expansions of a liquid and g be the coefficient of the

cubical expansion for the containing vessel (say glass), then r a g

5. The pressure of the gases varies with temperature as: Pt P0 1 T , where 1/ 273 per C

6. If temperature on Celsius scale is C, that on Fahrenheit scale is F, on Kelvin scale is K. and on

Reaumer scale is R, then

(a)

C F 32 K 273 R

5

9

5

4

(c) C

5

F 32

9

(e) K

5

F 459.4

9

(b) F

9

C 32

5

(d) K C 273

(b) Absolute zero = 0K= -273.150C

(c) For a gas thermometer, T 273.15

P

Kelvin

Ptriple

8. If mechanical work W produces the same temperature change as heat H, then we can write: W= JH,

where J is called mechanical equivalent of heat.

9. The heat absorbed or given out by a body of mass m, when the temperature changes by T is:

Q mcT , where c is a constant for a substance, called as SPECIFIC HEAT.

10. HEAT CAPACITY of a body of mass m is defined as: Q mc

38

11. WATER EQUIVALENT of a body is numerically equal to the product of its mass and specific heat

i.e. W= mc

12. When the state of matter changes, the heat absorbed or evolved is given by: Q= mL, where L is called

LATENT HEAT.

13. In case of gases, there are two types of specific heats i.e. CP and CV [Cp= specific heat at constant

pressure and CV= specific heat at constant volume]. Molar specific heats of a gas are: C P= Mcp and CV=

McV, where M= molecular weight of the gas.

14. CP >CV and according to Mayers formula CP CV = R

15. For all thermodynamic processes, equation of state for an ideal gas: PV= nRT.

(a) For ISOBARIC process: P = constant ;

V

constant

T

P

constant

T

(d) For ADIABATIC process: PV constant

16. Slope on PV diagram:

(a) For isobaric process: zero

(b) For isochoric process: infinite

(c) For isothermal process: slope= - (P/V)

(d) For adiabatic process: slope= P / V

(e) Slope of adiabatic curve > slope of isothermal curve.

17. Work done

(a) For isobaric process: W=P (V2-V1)

(b) For isochoric process: W=0

(c) For isothermal process: W= nRT loge (V2 /V1 )

(d) For adiabatic process: W =

nR(T1 -T2 )

(P V -P V )

= 1 1 2 2

(-1)

(-1)

39

(f) In compression from same initial state to same final volume:

18. Heat added or removed:

(a) For isobaric process: Q CP T

(b) For isochoric process: Q CV T

(c) For isothermal process: Q = W = RTlog(V2 -V1 )

(d) For adiabatic process: Q 0

19. Change in internal energy:

(a) For isobaric process: U CV T

(b) For isochoric process: U CV T

(c) For isothermal process: U 0

(d) For adiabatic process: U W

R(T2 T1 )

( 1)

(a) Isothermal bulk modulus: B1=P

(b) Adiabatic bulk modulus: BA P

21. For a CYCLIC process, work done W = area enclosed in the cycle on PV diagram. Further,

U 0 (as state of the system remains unchanged)

So, Q W

22. Internal energy and specific heats of an ideal gas (Monoatomic gas)

(a) U =

3

RT (for one mole)

2

(b) U =

3

nRT (for n mole)

2

40

3

nRT (for n mole)

2

(c) U =

(d) CV

1 U

n T

3

R

2

(e) CP CV R

3

5

RR R

2

2

5

R

CP 2 5

(f)

1.67

CV 3 R 3

2

23. Internal energy and specific heats of a diatomic gas:

(a) U

5

nRT

2

(b) U

(c) CV

5

nRT

2

1 U 5

R

T 2

(d) CP CV R

CP

CV

(e)

5

7

RR R

2

2

7R 2 7

5R 1.4

2 5

CV

n1M1 n2 M 2 N1m1 N 2 m2

n1 n2

N1 N 2

n1CV1 n2CV2

n1 n2

and CP

n1CP1 n2CP2

n1 n2

41

(b) Both Q, W depends on path, but U does not depend on the path

(c) For isothermal process:

(d) For adiabatic process: W

nR T2 T1

Cp

Cv

, Q 0 , U nCV T2 T1 , Q 0 ,

2

; where f is the degree of freedom.

f

(f) For isobaric process: Q nC p T , U nCV T , W nRT , P=constant and

C p R / 1

(g) For cyclic process: U 0, Q W

(h) For free expansion: U 0, Q 0, W 0

(i) For polytropic process: W nR T2 T1 /1- n , Q nC T2 T1 , PV constant and

n

R

R

1 1 n

(a) There are no perfect engines.

(b) There are no perfect refrigerators.

(c) Efficiency of Carnot engine: 1

Q2 Q2 T2

,

Q1 Q1 T1

Q2

T2

Heat absorbed from cold reservoir Q2

W Q1 Q2 T1 T2

42

t , where K is coefficient of

x

thermal conductivity, A is the area of cross section, is the difference in temperature, t is the

time of heat flow and x is separation between two ends.

26. The amount of heat transmitted is given by: Q KA

d

KA

K11 / d1 K 22 / d2

K1 / d1 K2 / d2

A 1 2

Q

t d1 / K1 d 2 / K 2

RTH

d1

d

2 RTh 1 RTh 2

K1 A K 2 A

29.

d1 d 2

d1 / K1 d2 / K2

Qa

Q0

Qr

Q0

Qt

Q0

(e) Spectral emissive power: e

(f) Emissivity:

Q

At (d )

e

; 0 1

E

43

Qa

Q0

(i) Stefans law: (a) E T 4 (where, 5.67 108 Wm2 K 4 )

4

4

For a black body: E T T0

4

4

For a body: e T T0

dQ

A 4 0 4

dt

dQ / dt 1

dQ / dt 2

r12

r2 2

d A 4

A 4

04

04

dt

ms

V s

d / dt 1

d / dt 2

A1 V2 r2

A2 V1 r1

d

K 0 or, 0 e KT

dt

a

A

A T

f

T

d

e

d

5

5

2

1/2

R

S R

(o) Solar Constant: S S T 4 or, T= ES

RS

RES

1/4

44

Waves

1. Velocity: v n and n

1

T

T

T

m

r 2d

(a) In rods: v

B /

(b) In liquids: v

(c) In gases: v

P /

(Laplace formula)

4. Effect of temperature:

(a) v v0

T / 273

or, v v0 0.61t

/ 3

vt-x

t x

T

(b) y a sin 2

6. Particle velocity: (a) Vparticle y / t

(b) Maximum strain = y / x max ka

45

max

2

2 y

2 y

v 2

8. Wave equation:

t 2

x

(a)

(b) If

I E / At

be the density of the medium; v the velocity of the wave; n the frequency and

a the

2

2 2

10. Principle of superposition: y y1 y2

2

2

11. Resultant amplitude: a a1 a2 2a1a2 cos

(a) For constructive interference: 2n , a max a1 a 2 and I max

I1 I 2

I1 I 2

1 2 / T2 T1

(b) If there are N forks in successive order each giving x beats/sec with neighbor, then

nlast n first N 1 x

14. Stationary waves: The equation of stationary wave,

(a) When the wave is reflected from a free boundary, is:

y 2a cos

2 x

sin

2 t

2a cos kx sin t

T

y 2a sin

2 x

cos

2 t

2a sin kx cos t

T

46

(a) For fundamental tone: n1

T

m

p T

m

(d) Sonometer: n

1

2l

T

m r 2d

m

p

2l

T

m

2p T

2l m

4L

(c) Only odd harmonic are found in the vibrations of an open organ pipe and

n1 : n2 : n3 ...... 1: 2 : 3:.....

17. Vibrations of open organ pipe:

(a) For fundamental tone: n1 v / 2 L

(b) For first overtone (second harmonic): n2 2n1

(c) Both even and odd harmonics are found in the vibrations of an open organ pipe and

n1 : n2 : n3 :...... 1: 2 : 3:.....

18. End correction: (a) closed organ pipe: L Lpipe 0.3d

(b) Open organ pipe: L Lpipe 0.6d ; where d= diameter=2r

47

(c) e

(b) l2 e

l2 3l1

2

(d) n

3

l

4

v

or , 2 l2 l1

2 l2 l1

Vair air

Vrod rod

(a) Both ends open and clamped in middle:

(i) Fundamental frequency, n1 v / 2l

(ii) Frequency of first overtone, n2 3n1

(iii) Ratio of frequencies, n1 : n2 : n3 :.... 1: 3: 5:....

(b) One end clamped

(i) Fundamental frequency, n1 v / 4l

(ii) Frequency of first overtone, n2 3n1

(iii) Ratio of frequencies, n1 : n2 : n3 :.... 1: 3: 5:....

22. Frequency of a tuning fork: n

and

=density

t

l2

E

; where t=thickness, l =length of prong, E= Elastic constant

(a) Observer stationary and source moving:

(i) Source approaching: n'

v

v vs

n and '

v vs

v

v

v vs

n and '

v vs

v

48

v v0

n and '

v

v v0

n and '

v

(i) S and O moving towards each other: n'

v v0

n

v vs

v v0

n

v vs

v v0

n

v vs

v v0

n

v vs

v vm v0

v vm vs

vs v, n'

2vs

n

v

(ii) Moving observer passes a stationary source: n

(i) Source moving towards wall

(a) Observer between source and wall

n'

v

n for direct waves

v vs

n'

v

n for reflected waves

v vs

49

2v0

n

v

2vvs

n ; for

v vs 2

2

n'

v

n for direct waves

v vs

n'

v

n for reflected waves

v vs

(a) Observer between source and wall

n'

v

n for direct waves

v vs

n'

v

n for reflected waves

v vs

n'

v

n for direct waves

v vs

n'

v

n for reflected waves

v vs

(i) S and O stationary at the same place and target approaching with speed u

vu

2u

'

n'

n or, n 1 n (for u<<v)

v

v u

(ii) S and O stationary at the same place and target receding with speed u

v u

2u

'

n'

n or, n 1 n for u v

v

vu

v vsub

2v

n 1 sub

v vsub

v

(Upper sign for approaching submarine while lower sign for receding submarine)

(i) Transverse Doppler Effect: There is no transverse Doppler effect in sound. For velocity component

vs cos

50

n'

v

n (- sign for approaching and + sign for receding)

v vs cos

(a) Red shift (when light source is moving away):

n'

1 v / c

1 v / c

n or, '

1 v / c

1 v / c

v

c

v

c

(b) Blue shift (when light source is approaching)

n'

1 v / c

1 v / c

n or, '

1 v / c

1 v / c

v

c

v

c

v

c

(d) Transverse Doppler Effect

For light, n' 1

1 v2

v2

n ( for v c)

1

2

c2

2c

2v

n

c

51

Appendix

Formula and constants

1. Exponents

2. Basic Units

Exponent

Prefix

103

Milli

106

Micro

109

Nano

1012

Pico

1 inch

25.4 mm

1 ft

30.48 cm

1 mile

1.61 km

1 yd

0.914 m

1m

3.28 ft

3. Greek Alphabets

Alpha

Iota

Beta

Kappa

Gamma

Delta

Mu

Lambda

Rho

Upsilon

Sigma

Tau

Epsilon

Nu

Phi

Zeta

Xi

Kai

Eta

Omicron

Theta

Pi

52

Psi

Omega

Study Tips

Combination of Subjects

Study a combination of subjects during a day i.e. after studying 2-3 hrs of

mathematics shift to any theoretical subject for 2 hours. When we study a

subject like math, a particular part of the brain is working more than rest of

the brain. When we shift to a theoretical subject, practically the other part of

the brain would become active and the part studying maths will go for rest.

Revision

Always refresh your memory by revising the matter learned. At the end of

the day you must revise whatever youve learnt during that day.

Use All Your Senses

Whatever you read, try to convert that into picture and visualize it. Our eye

memory is many times stronger than our ear memory since the nerves

connecting brain to eye are many times stronger than nerves connecting

brain to ear.

Breathing and Relaxation

Take special care of your breathing. Deep breaths are very important for

relaxing your mind and hence in your concentration. Pranayam can do

wonders to your concentration, relaxation and sharpening your mind (by

supplying oxygen to it). Aerobic exercises like skipping, jogging, swimming

and cycling are also very helpful.

53

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