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15

CAMTECH/E/2002/AT/1.

CHAPTER 6

CAUSES OF FAILURES AND THEIR REMEDIES

6.1

CAUSES OF FAILURES
In most of the cases the causes of fault can be found by careful observation of the
condition of the windings, e.g. displacement of the turns or coils, coil insulation (brittle
or healthy), evidence of overheating, carbon deposit or flash marks on the core, supports,
the inner surface of the tank or cover. The following notes may be of help in identifying
the cause.

6.2

FAILURE DUE TO LIGHTENING DISCHARGE OR OVER VOLTAGE


This is characteristised by breakdown of the end turns close to the line terminal.
There may be a break in the turns or end lead, and also flash marks on the end coil and
earthed parts close to it, but the rest of the coils will found to be healthy.

6.3

SUSTAINED OVERLOADS
The windings in one or all phase would show signs of overheating and charring;
the insulation would be very brittle and would have lost all its elasticity.

6.4

INTER TURN SHORT, INTER LAYER SHORT, OR INTER COILS SHORT


The same signs as indicated for sustained over load would
be noticed, but only on affected coils, the rest of the coils being
intact.

FIGURE 6.1
INTER - TURN SHORT
CKT OF WINDING

6.5

DEAD SHORT - CIRCUIT


This can be identified by the unmistakable, lateral or axial
displacement of the coils. They may be loose on the core, some
turns on the outermost layer may have burst outwards and broken as
if under tension. If, in addition to these signs, the windings are also
completely charred, it is conclusive evidence that the short circuit
has continued for an appreciable period.

6.6

IF THE OIL SHOWS A LOW BDV


It does not necessarily mean that it has caused the breakdown. At high voltage
ratings, excessive moisture content in the oil may result flashover between the live parts
and earth.

Maintenance Handbook on Auxiliary Transformer

February, 2002

16

CAMTECH/E/2002/AT/1.

6.7

SUGGESTIONS TO AVOID FAILURE


1.

Artisans for maintenance should be well-versed with Aux. transformer and with
proper tools.

2.

Standard materials to be used for maintenance and repair.

3.

To avoid failure due to electricution of bird, primary bushing arching horn gap
should be in two halves.
Proper rating of fuses are to be used on primary and secondary side.

4.
5.

Any type of oil leakage to be attended as early as possible. Oil level on


conservator tank to be checked monthly and to be topped up with same oil if
required.

6.

Breather to be checked thoroughly.

7.

If BDV of oil is less than 30 KV, oil should be filtered by centrifusing plant of
proper size. If colour of oil is not clear then oil should be changed with new oil
(IS:335)

8.

All terminal and earth connection should be properly tightened.

9.
10.

IR value to be checked every three month and comparative record to be


maintained.
Check earth pit resistance in summer season

11.

Motorised Meggers should be used to measure IR values.

12.

Silicagel breather should have capacity of 250 gms at least.

13.

Conservator oil indicator glass should be clear and made of better transparent
sheet.

14.

Complete oil of AT should be changed by fresh oil during POH. Also change all
gaskets.

*****
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Maintenance Handbook on Auxiliary Transformer

February, 2002