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Additional Mathematics Project Work

Form 5
2012
Task 1:
Mobile Telephone

Name: Jeremy Loo Kah Yow


Class: 5 Clancy
I/C No.: 950104-14-5159
Teacher: Pn. Yong Lai Yen
School: SMK(L) Methodist, Kuala Lumpur

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Contents
Cover Page

Contents

Acknowledgment

Objectives

Introduction

Hand Phone Traffic

11

Hand Phone Rate Plan Selection

14

Further Exploration

19

Conclusion

20

Reflection

21

Reference

22

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Acknowledgment

Firstly, I would like to thank God for His much-needed guidance and for granting me the
knowledge, wisdom, intuition and resourcefulness throughout this project. I would also like to
express my thanks to my teacher, Pn. Yong Lai Yen, in cementing the base of my knowledge
in the subject throughout the past one-and-a-half years. Lastly, but most certainly not the
least, I would like to record my appreciation for the support, both emotional and moral, given
to me by my friends and family.

Without them, I would not be able to accomplish what I have and I would definitely not be the
person I am today.

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Objectives

The objectives of conducting this project are as follows:


To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems.
To improve thinking skills.
To promote effective mathematical communication.
To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases a
student's interest and confidence.
To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.
To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning.
To develop a positive attitude towards mathematics.

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Introduction
History of Hand Phones

The first generation of wireless telephone technology is known as 1G or 1-G were


analog telecommunications standards introduced in the 1980s. Nippon Telegraph and
Telephone (NTT), in Japan, was the first to launch the first commercially automated cellular
network in 1979. It was launched in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, but within five years, it
had expanded to cover the whole of Japan and became the first nationwide 1G network.
This was followed by the launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in
Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981. The NMT was the first system to feature
international roaming. In the United States of America, the first 1G network to be launched
was the Chicago-based Ameritech in 1983 using the Motorola DynaTAC mobile phone. In the
early-to-mid 1980s, several countries then followed suit, including the United Kingdom,
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Mexico and Canada.

Storno 940 by NMT

The 1G system achieved speed between that of a 28k modem (28kbit/s) and a 56k
modem (56kbit/s), with actual download speeds of 2.9 kilobytes per second to 5.6 kilobytes
per second.
In 1991, the GSM standard was commercially launched in Finland by Radiolinja (now
part of Elisa Oyj). This heralded in the 2G system for the mobile phone. While the 1G systems
were analogous systems, the 2G systems were digitally encrypted. This made it much more
efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels as well as
introducing data services for the mobile, starting with Short Message Services (SMS) or text
messages.
There are several 2G standards. These standards can be categorized into TDMAbased and CDMA-based standards. TDMA stands for Time Division Multiple Access and
divides the signal into different time slots. Meanwhile, CDMA stands for Code Division
Multiple Access, and divides the signal into different frequencies.

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Illustration 1: TDMA Frame Structure

Illustration 2: CDMA Frame Structure


The GSM, which is TDMA-based, originally came from Europe, as stated above, but is
used in almost all countries today. It accounts for over 80% of all subscribers worldwide. Over
60 GSM operators are also using CDMA2000 in the 450MHz frequency band (CDMA450).
In the Americas and parts of Asia, the IS-95 or cdmaOne is used. It is CDMA-based
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and accounts for about 17% of all subscribers globally. Over a dozen CDMA operators have
migrated to GSM including operators in Mexico, India, Australia and South Korea.
In Japan, the PDC (TDMA-based) is used exclusively, while the iDen, also TDMAbased, is a proprietary network used by Nextel in the United States of America and by Telus
Mobility in Canada. The IS-136 or D-AMPS, which is TDMA-based, was once prevalent in the
Americas but have mostly migrated to GSM.
2G networks were built mainly for voice services and slow data transmission. However,
as time went on, there were several evolutions to this system. The first was the 2.5G, used to
describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-switched domain in addition to the
circuit-switched (HSCSD) domain. It is commonly known as the General Packet Radio
Service (GPRS). The GPRS could provide data rates from 56kbit/s up to 115kbit/s and can be
used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Internet access and
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS).
The CDMA2000 networks evolved as well through the introduction of 1xRTT. The
1xRTT supports bi-directional peak data rates up to 153.6kbit/s, with an average user data
throughput of 80-100kbit/s. It can also be used for WAP, SMS & MMS services, as well as
Internet access.
The next evolution was the Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), also
known as the 2.75G. EDGE, Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC)
which allowed improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. It
began in 2003, initiated by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States.
EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an upgrade that
provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks. The specification

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achieves higher data-rates (up to 236.8kbit/s) by switching to more sophisticated methods of


coding (8PSK), within existing GSM timeslots.
3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile
phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile
Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication
Union.
The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1998,
branded as FOMA. It was first available in May 2001 as a pre-release (test) of W-CDMA
technology. The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1
October 2001, although it was initially somewhat limited in scope; broader availability of the
system was delayed by apparent concerns over its reliability.
The first European pre-commercial network was an UMTS network on the Isle of Man
by Manx Telecom, the operator then owned by British Telecom, and the first commercial
network (also UMTS based W-CDMA) in Europe was opened for business by Telenor in
December 2001 with no commercial handsets and thus no paying customers.
The first network to go commercially live was by SK Telecom in South Korea on the
CDMA-based 1xEV-DO technology in January 2002. By May 2002 the second South Korean
3G network was by KT on EV-DO and thus the Koreans were the first to see competition
among 3G operators.
The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile Networks, on
CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology, but this network provider later shut down operations. The
second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon Wireless in July 2002 also on
CDMA2000 1x EV-DO. AT&T Mobility is also a true 3G UMTS network, having completed its

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upgrade of the 3G network to HSUPA.


The first pre-commercial demonstration network in the southern hemisphere was built
in Adelaide, South Australia by m.Net Corporation in February 2002 using UMTS on 2100
MHz. This was a demonstration network for the 2002 IT World Congress. The first commercial
3G network was launched by Hutchison Telecommunications branded as Three or "3" in J
June 2003.
Emtel Launched the first 3G network in Africa.
By June 2007, the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected. Out of 3 billion
mobile phone subscriptions worldwide this is only 6.7%. In the countries where 3G was
launched first Japan and South Korea 3G penetration is over 70%. In Europe the leading
country is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G. Other leading countries by 3G
migration include UK, Austria, Australia and Singapore at the 20% migration level. A confusing
statistic is counting CDMA2000 1xRTT customers as if they were 3G customers. If using this
definition, then the total 3G subscriber base would be 475 million at June 2007 and 15.8% of
all subscribers worldwide.

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Hand Phone Traffic


1.
0 to
700

800

900

1000 1100

1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

Users

B1

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.5

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

B2

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

B3

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.5

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

B4

0.1

0.4

0.5

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.4

0.6

0.7

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.1

B5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.1

H1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

H2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.3

H3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

H4

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

H5

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

S1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.05

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

S2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.05

0.1

0.2

S3

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.05

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

S4

0.05

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.2

S5

0.1

0.1

0.05

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.3

2.4

2.7

3.4

1.3

1.1

1.8

2.6

2.6

1.8

1.1

1.1

1.6

0.9

0.3

0.1

Time

0.3
Traffic
Volume
(Erlang)

Table 1
2.

In Table 1, there is a total traffic volume of 28.4 erlang. Therefore, the average traffic
volume is 1.183 erlang. The maximum traffic volume for the above 15 users is 360
erlang, assuming they speak for 24 hours a day.

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3.

The traffic volume peaks thrice throughout the day, once at 1100 hours, the second
time at 1700 hours, and the third time at 2100 hours. The traffic volume also
experiences troughs at 0000 hours, 1300 hours, 1900 to 2000 hours, and 2400 hours.
Therefore, the peak calling hour is at 1100 hours with 3.4 erlangs.

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4.

The method to reduce the traffic volume during the peak hour is to introduce a call

promotion during off-peak hours. Supposing that there are m+n customers, where m
customers subject their communicative activities to call rates, and n customers do not subject
their communicative activities to call rates, introducing a call promotion during off-peak hours
would incentivize m customers to call during off-peak hours instead of during peak hours,
thereby reducing the traffic volume during the peak hour.

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Hand Phone Rate Plan Selection


1. (i)
Post paid service
plans

Commitment fee (RM)

Call rate within the


same network (RM
per minute)

Call rate outside the


network (RM per
minute)

23

0.16

0.26

63

0.13

0.23

93

0.11

0.21

Table 2
Subscribers

Total phone calls per


day (minutes)

Calls within the same


network (minutes)

Calls outside the


network (minutes)

Businessman

253.2

63.3

189.9

Housewife

246

136.6

109.4

Student

192

149.3

42.7

Table 3
(ii) Assuming that there are 30 days in a month and the phone usage pattern is the same
every day, the Businessman would have made 379.8 minutes worth of calls within the
same network and 1139.4 minutes worth of calls out the network throughout the month.
If the Businessman uses Plan A, the Businessman would pay a total of RM380.00 after
rounding up. If the Businessman uses Plan B, the Businessman would pay a total of
RM374.45 after rounding up. If the Businessman uses Plan C, the Businessman would
pay a total of RM374.05 after rounding up. Therefore, Plan C is the most economical
plan for the Businessman.
Assuming that there are 30 days in a month and the phone usage pattern is the
same every day, the Housewife would have made 819.6 minutes worth of calls within
the same network and 656.4 minutes worth of calls out the network throughout the
month. If the Housewife uses Plan A, the Housewife would pay a total of RM324.80
after rounding up. If the Housewife uses Plan B, the Housewife would pay a total of
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RM320.50 after rounding up. If the Housewife uses Plan C, the Housewife would pay a
total of RM321 after rounding up. Therefore, Plan B is the most economical plan for
the Housewife.
Assuming that there are 30 days in a month and the phone usage pattern is the
same every day, the Student would have made 895.8 minutes worth of calls within the
same network and 256.2 minutes worth of calls out the network throughout the month.
If the Student uses Plan A, the Student would pay a total of RM232.95 after rounding
up. If the Student uses Plan B, the Student would pay a total of RM327.95 after
rounding up. If the Student uses Plan C, the Student would pay a total of RM245.35
after rounding up. Therefore, Plan A is the most economical plan for the Student.
(iii) The equation of the monthly payment is as below:
Monthly Payment =
(Calls within the same network(minutes) x RM0.11) +
(Calls outside the network(minutes) x RM0.21)
+ RM93

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Graph of Monthly Phone Bill (RM) against the Total Duration of Calls (Min)
a)

The maximum total duration of calls, if the telephone bill allocation is RM1000

per month, is approximately 4903 minutes. Therefore, the maximum total duration of calls, in
hours, is 81.717 hours. Hence, the maximum total duration of calls is 2.724 hours a day. This
is true when the RM93 is taken into account, making the telephone bill allocation for call rates
into RM907 instead of RM1000. The ratio of calls within the same network and calls outside
the network is also taken into consideration.
b)

The monthly hand phone bill, if the businessman limits his calls to 5000 minutes

per month, is RM1018. Once again, the commitment fee of RM93 and the ratio of calls within
the same network and calls outside the network is taken into consideration.
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2.
Time 0 to

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

2100

2200

2300

2400

0.1

0.05

0.05

0.1

700
0

Total phone calls per day


(minutes)

Calls within the same network


(minutes)

Calls outside the network


(minutes)

18

13.5

4.5

Starter Pack

Call rate within the same


network (RM per minute)

Call rate outside the network


(RM per minute)

RM8.50/pack
Pre-loaded with RM5 talktime.

RM0.36 before hitting RM1,


RM0.12 after RM1 total
usage.

RM0.36 before hitting RM1,


RM0.12 after RM1 total
usage.

Assuming that there are 30 days in a month and the phone usage pattern is the same every
day, I would have made 540 minutes of phone calls in a month, with 405 minutes of calls
within the same network and 135 minutes of calls outside the network. If I use Plan A, I would
pay a total of RM122.90 after rounding up. If I use Plan B, I would pay a total of RM146.70
after rounding up. If I use Plan C, I would pay a total of RM165.90 after rounding up. If I use
the Pre-paid Plan, I would pay a total of RM93.60 after rounding up, but ignoring the starter
pack price. Therefore, the Pre-paid Plan is the most economical plan for me.

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Further Exploration
Pr (received power)= Pt (transmitted power)
4 d 2

Coverage distance for carrier frequency of 900MHz:


1011 W = 5W

4 d 2

1011 W = 5W

4d 2
0.333

3.33x1012= 45W
d

1.502x1012 m=4 d 2
3.755x1011 m= d 2
1.195x1011 m=d 2
d = 1.195x1011 m
d =345687.720m
Coverage distance for carrier frequency of 1800MHz:
1011 W = 5W

4 d 2

1011 W = 5W

4d 2
0.166

1.66x1012= 45W
d

3.012x1012 m=4 d 2
7.53x1011 m= d 2
2.397x10 11 m=d 2
d = 2.397x1011 m
d =489591.667m
Due to the higher coverage distance, I, as the service provider, I would choose the carrier
frequency of 1800MHz.
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Conclusion

Handphones are taken for granted in today's world, especially with the advent of the newest
electronic gadgets, for example, the Samsung Galaxy S III, the HTC Droid Incredible 4G LTE,
the LG A340, the Lumigon T2, the Motorola RAZR V XT889, the Sony Xperia Miro, the Nokia
110, the BlackBerry 9320, the iPad 3, the iPod touch and the iPhone.

However, after extensive research, question answering and problem solving, I have come to
realize that handphones have an enriching history coupled with a near-mystical way of
functioning (to the average untrained person).

Handphones have the central aim of providing a mobile means of communication and has
empowered the commoner to experience the novelty of distant communication. The usage of
handphones have ensured that everyone may now have a functioning system to speak over
long distances.

In conclusion, handphones have evolved to be an integral and important part of our lives.
Many are of the opinion that most youths are unable to survive without their handphones.
Although this may be obviously untrue, it shows how handphones have become so vital to our
daily lives that we seem to be attached to it at all times. Therefore, we should be thankful to
those who have contributed throughout the years to the development and perfection of the
handphone.

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Reflection

While conducting this project, I have examined and disseminated much information, all of
which came from the Internet. Over the course of a few weeks, during which I completed this
project, I learnt many things, including the history of the handphone as well as the system by
which the telecommunicative portion of the system works.

In another aspect, however, I feel that this project have also taught me to manage my time
better. It has been an enjoyable and educational experience.

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Reference

Wikipedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1G
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2G
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3G

Scribd
www.scribd.com

Flickr
www.flickr.com

Connexions
cnx.org

The RadioPics Database


www.radiopics.com

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