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The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was designed by Duke

University psychiatrist William W.K. Zung MD (1929-1992) to assess the level

of depression for patients diagnosed with depressive disorder.[1]
The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale is a short self-administered survey to quantify
the depressed status of a patient. There are 20 items on the scale that rate the affective,
psychological and somatic symptoms associated with depression. [citation needed]
There are ten positively worded and ten negatively worded questions. Each question is
scored on a scale of 1 through 4 (based on these replies: "a little of the time", "some of
the time", "good part of the time", "most of the time").[citation needed]
Scores on the test range from 20 through 80. The scores fall into four ranges: [citation needed]

20-44 Normal Range

45-59 Mildly Depressed

60-69 Moderately Depressed

70 and above Severely Depressed

The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale has been translated into many languages,
including Arabic,[2] Azerbaijani,[3]Dutch, German, Portuguese,[4] and Spanish.[5]
he Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was designed by William W. K. Zung M.D,
(1929-1992) a professor of Psychiatry from Duke University, to quantify a patient's level
of anxiety.[1] [2]
The SAS is a 20-item self-report assessment device built to measure anxiety levels,
based on scoring in 4 groups of manifestations: cognitive, autonomic, motor and central
nervous system symptoms. Answering the statements a person should indicate how
much each statement applies to him or her within a period of one or two weeks prior to
taking the test. Each question is scored on a Likert-type scale of 1-4 (based on these
replies: "a little of the time," "some of the time," "good part of the time," "most of the
time"). Some questions are negatively worded to avoid the problem of set response.
Overall assessment is done by total score.
The total raw scores range from 20-80. The raw score then needs to be converted to an
"Anxiety Index" score using the chart on the paper version of the test that can be found
on the link below. The "Anxiety Index" score can then be used on this scale below to
determine the clinical interpretation of one's level of anxiety:

20-44 Normal Range

45-59 Mild to Moderate Anxiety Levels

60-74 Marked to Severe Anxiety Levels

75-80 Extreme Anxiety Levels

Geriatric Depression Scale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 30-item self-report assessment used to
identify depression in the elderly. The scale was first developed in 1982 by J.A. Yesavage and others.[1]



2Scale questions and scoring

3See also

4External links


The GDS questions are answered "yes" or "no", instead of a five-category response set. This simplicity
enables the scale to be used with ill or moderately cognitively impaired individuals. The scale is
commonly used as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. One point is assigned to
each answer and the cumulative score is rated on a scoring grid.[2] The grid sets a range of 0-9 as
"normal", 10-19 as "mildly depressed", and 20-30 as "severely depressed".
A diagnosis of clinical depression should not be based on GDS results alone. Although the test has wellestablishedreliability and validity evaluated against other diagnostic criteria, responses should be
considered along with results from a comprehensive diagnostic work-up. A short version of the GDS
(GDS-SF) containing 15 questions has been developed,[3]and the scale is available in languages other
than English. The conducted research found the GDS-SF to be an adequate substitute for the original
30-item scale.[4]
The GDS was validated against Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRS-D) and the Zung SelfRating Depression Scale (SDS). It was found to have a 92% sensitivity and a 89% specificity when
evaluated against diagnostic criteria. [5]

Scale questions and scoring[edit]

The scale consists of 30 yes/no questions. Each question is scored as either 0 or 1 points. The following
general cutoff may be used to qualify the severity:

normal 0-9,

mild depressives 10-19,

severe depressives 20-30.

DASS, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales,[1] is made up of 42 self-report items to be

completed over five to ten minutes, each reflecting a negative emotional symptom. [2] Each
of these is rated on a four-point Likert scale of frequency or severity of the participants'
experiences over the last week with the intention of emphasising states over traits. These
scores ranged from 0, meaning that the client believed the item "did not apply to them at
all", to 3 meaning that the client considered the item to "apply to them very much, or most
of the time". It is also stressed in the instructions that there are no right or wrong

1Scales and Subscales




5External links

Scales and Subscales[edit]

The sum of the relevant 14 items for each scale constitute the participants' scores for
each of Depression, Anxiety andStress,[2] including items such as "I couldn't seem to
experience any positive feeling at all", "I was aware of the dryness of my mouth" and "I

found it hard to wind down" in the respective order of the scales. The order of the 42
items has been randomised so that items of the same scale are not clustered together.
Each of the scales is then broken down into subscales comprising two to five items each.
The Depression scale has subscales assessing dysphoria, hopelessness, devaluation of
life, self-deprecation, lack of interest/involvement, anhedonia and inertia.
The Anxiety scale assesses autonomic arousal, skeletal muscle effects, situational
anxiety and subjective experience of anxious affect.
The Stress scale's subscales highlight levels of non-chronic arousal through difficulty
relaxing, nervous arousal and being easily upset/agitated, irritable/over-reactive and

The main purpose of the DASS is to isolate and identify aspects of emotional
disturbance; for example, to assess the degree of severity of the core symptoms of
depression, anxiety or stress. The initial aims of the scale's constructions were to define
the full range of core symptoms of depression and anxiety, meet rigorous standards
of psychometric adequacy, and develop maximum discrimination between the depression
anxiety scales. While the DASS can be administered and scored by individuals
without psychology qualifications, it is recommended that the interpretation and decisions
based on results are made by an experienced clinician in combination with other forms of

The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales were developed by researchers at
the University of New South Wales(Australia).[3]
The test was developed using a sample of responses from the comparison of 504 sets of
results from a trial by students, taken from a larger sample of 950 first year university
student responses.[1] The test was then normed on a sample of 1044 males and 1870
females aged between 17 and 69 years, across participants of varying backgrounds,
including university students, nurses in training and blue and white collared employees of
a major airline, bank, railway workshop and naval dockyard. The scores were
subsequently checked for validity against outpatient groups including patients suffering
from anxiety and depressive disorders, insomniacs, myocardial infarction patients, as well
as patients undergoing treatment for sexual, menopausal and depressive disorders.
While the test was not normed against samples younger than 17, due to the simplicity of
language, there has been no compelling evidence against the use of the scales for

comparison against children as young as 12.[1] The reliability scores of the scales in terms
of Cronbach's alpha scores rate the Depression scale at 0.91, the Anxiety scale at 0.84
and the Stress scale at 0.90 in the normative sample. Themeans and standard
deviations for each scale are 6.34 and 6.97 for depression, 4.7 and 4.91 for anxiety and
10.11 and 7.91 for stress, respectively. The mean scores in the normative sample did
vary slightly between genders as well as varying by age, though the threshold scores for
classifications do not change by these variations.[1] The Depression and Stress scales
meet the standard threshold requirement of 0.9 for research, however, the Anxiety scale
still meets the 0.7 threshold for clinical applications, and is still close to the 0.9 required
for research.

1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Lovibond, S.H.; Lovibond, P.F. (1995). "Manual for the Depression
Anxiety Stress Scales" (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation. (Available from The
Psychology Foundation, Room 1005 Mathews Building, University of New South Wales,
NSW 2052, Australia)
2. ^ Jump up to:a b Lovibond, P.F.; Lovibond, S.H. (March 1995). "The structure of negative
emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the
Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories". Behaviour Research and Therapy 33 (3):
335343. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U. PMID 7726811.
3. Jump up^ University of New South Wales Depression Anxiety Stress

he Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck and other colleagues, is
a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used for measuring the severity
of anxiety in children and adults.[1] The questions used in this measure ask about
common symptoms of anxietythat the subject has had during the past week (including the
day you take it) (such as numbness and tingling, sweating not due to heat, and fear of the
worst happening). It is designed for individuals who are of 17 years of age or older and
takes 5 to 10 minutes to complete. Several studies have found the Beck Anxiety Inventory
to be an accurate measure of anxiety symptoms in children and adults.[1][2]

1Question breakdown, scoring and interpretation

1.1Interpretation of scores
2Two factor approach to anxiety

3Clinical use


5See also


Question breakdown, scoring and interpretation[edit]

Each question inquires about how bothersome a symptom of anxiety has been for the
subject over the past month. Scoring the BAI is based on a 0-3 point scale, with each
question being scored as follows based on participant response:

0 points: NOT AT ALL

1 point: MILDLY: It did not bother me much.

2 points: MODERATELY: It wasn't pleasant at times.

3 points: SEVERELY: It bothered me a lot.

The point values of the chosen answer choices are then summed to produce a total
measure score. The BAI has a maximum score of 63.

Interpretation of scores[edit]
The following guidelines are commonly used in interpreting the total score:

0-9: minimal anxiety

10-16: mild anxiety

17-29: moderate anxiety

30-63: severe anxiety

Note: women with anxiety disorders tend to score 4 points higher than men with anxiety

Two factor approach to anxiety[edit]

Though anxiety can be thought of as having several components, including cognitive,
somatic, affective, and behavioral components, Beck et al. included only two components

in the BAI's original proposal: cognitive and somatic.[4] The cognitive subscale provides a
measure of fearful thoughts and impaired cognitive functioning, and the somatic subscale
measures the symptoms of physiological arousal.[5]
Since the introduction of the BAI, other factor structures have been implemented,
including a four factor structure used by Beck and Steer with anxious outpatients that
included neurophysiological, autonomic symptoms, subjective, and paniccomponents of
anxiety.[6] In 1993, Beck, Steer, and Beck used a three factor structure including
subjective, somatic, and panic subscale scores to differentiate among a sample of
clinically anxious outpatients[7]
Because the somatic subscale is emphasized on the BAI, with 15 out of 21 items
measuring physiological symptoms, perhaps the cognitive, affective, and behavioral
components of anxiety are being deemphasized. Therefore, the BAI functions more
adequately in anxiety disorders with a high somatic component, such as panic disorder.
On the other hand, the BAI won't function as adequately for disorders such as social
phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder, which have a stronger cognitive or behavioral

Clinical use[edit]
The BAI was specifically designed as "an inventory for measuring clinical anxiety" that
minimizes the overlap between depression and anxiety scales.[4] While several studies
have shown that anxiety measures, including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), are
either highly correlated or indistinguishable from depression,[9][10][11] the BAI is shown to be
less contaminated by depressive content[4][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]
Since the BAI does only questions symptoms occurring over the last week, it is not a
measure of trait anxiety or state anxiety. The BAI can be described as a measure of
"prolonged state anxiety," which, in a clinical setting, is an important assessment. A
version of the BAI, the Beck Anxiety Inventory-Trait (BAIT), was developed in 2008 to
assess trait anxiety rather than immediate or prolonged state anxiety, much like the STAI.
However, unlike the STAI, the BAIT was developed to minimize the overlap between
anxiety and depression.[20]
A 1999 review found that the BAI was the third most used research measure of anxiety,
behind the STAI and the Fear Survey Schedule,[21] which provides quantitative information
about how clients react to possible sources of maladaptive emotional reactions.
The BAI has been used in a variety of different patient groups, including adolescents.
Though support exists for using the BAI with high-school students and psychiatric
inpatient samples of ages 14 to 18 years,[22] the recently developed diagnostic tool, Beck

Youth Inventories, Second Edition, contains an anxiety inventory of 20 questions

specifically designed for children and adolescents ages 7 to 18 years old. [23]

Though the BAI was developed to minimize its overlap with the depression scale as
measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, a correlation of r=.66 (p<.01) between the
BAI and BDI-II was seen among psychiatric outpatients,[24]suggesting that the BAI and the
BDI-II equally discriminate between anxiety and depression. [25]
Another study indicates that, in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders
including social phobia, panic disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia,
agoraphobia, or generalized anxiety disorder, the BAI seemed to measure the severity of
depression. This suggests that perhaps the BAI cannot adequately differentiate between
depression and anxiety in a primary care population.[26]
In a study examining the BAI's use on older adults with generalized anxiety disorder, no
discriminant validity was seen between the BAI and measures of depression. This could
perhaps be due to the increased difficulty in discriminating between anxiety and
depression in older adults due to "de-differentiation" of the symptoms of anxiety with the
aging process, as hypothesized by Krasucki et al.[27]
Finally, the mean and median reliability estimates of the BAI tend to be lower when given
to a nonpsychiatric population, such as college students, than when given to a psychiatric

Beck Hopelessness Scale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) is a 20-item self-report inventory developed by Dr. Aaron T.
Beck that was designed to measure three major aspects of hopelessness: feelings about the future, loss
of motivation, and expectations.[1] The test is designed for adults, age 17-80. It measures the extent of
the respondent's negative attitudes, or pessimism, about the future. It may be used as an indicator of
suicidal risk in depressed people who have made suicide attempts. The test is multiple choice. It is not
designed for use as a measure of the hopelessness construct but has been used as such. Sufficient
data about the use of the test with those younger than 17 has not been collected. It may be administered
and scored by paraprofessionals; but must be used and interpreted only by clinically trained
professionals, who can employ psychotherapeutic interventions. Norms are available for suicidal patients
and depressed patients and drug abusers.[2]



1Reliability and Validity

2DMCA Notice


4See also


Reliability and Validity[edit]

The BHS moderately correlates with the Beck Depression Inventory, although research shows that the
BDI is better suited for predicting suicidal ideation behavior.[3] The internal reliability coefficients are
reasonably high (Pearson r= .82 to .93 in seven norm groups), but the BHS test-retest reliability
coefficients are modest (.69 after one week and .66 after six weeks).[1]
Dowd [4] and Owen[5] both positively reviewed the effectiveness of the instrument, with Dowd concluding
that the BHS was "a well-constructed and validated instrument, with adequate reliability." [4]

DMCA Notice[edit]
In 2012 the scale became the subject of a much circulated DMCA notice that resulted in the temporary
shutdown of 1.45 million education blogs[6] due the scale's inclusion in a single blog several years prior
to the incident, sparking widespread indignation.[7] Beck Hopelessness Scale is sold as a product
by Pearson,[8] along with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) [9]and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDIII) [10]

The Beck Hopelessness Scale questionnaire consists of twenty true/false questions examining the
respondents attitude for the past week, such as

I might as well give up because theres nothing I can do to make things better for me
I happen to be particularly lucky and I expect to get more of the good things in life than the
average person

I never get what I want, so its foolish to want anything

My past experiences have prepared me well for my future

See also[edit]

Aaron T. Beck

Beck Depression Inventory

Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry


Beck Hopelessness Scale: Exploring its Dimensionality in Patients with Schizophrenia

1. ^ Jump up to:a b Beck A.T. (1988). "Beck Hopelessness Scale." The Psychological