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Literature review

There are two main sources of wastewater which are from domestic and commercial
or industrial sources. In domestic case, the wastewater basically come from
residential, nonindustrial business and institutional sources. Usually, the wastewater
from domestic sources is uniform in composition. For industrial sources, it usually
contains substances derived from raw materials, intermediate product, by product
and end product. Compare to domestic sources, the composition in industrial
sources is more variable.
Filtration is defined as the removal of suspended solid in fluid or gas by physical or
mechanical mean. The porous medium is used to retain the particles. Filtration
process is one of the processes that use in wastewater treatment to improve the
water quality (). The common filter media used in the filtration are carbon filter and
sand filter (). Both of these filter can be used for conventional and biological filter.
For carbon filter, it is good at removing chemicals in term of tastes and odours. It is
also use to remove wide range of organic compound. In the other word, activated
carbon filter is use to remove selected dissolved chemicals. Sand filter is commonly
used in industries due to ecofriendly, simple and inexpensive. The sand filter is
using percolating water through sand bed as the principle. In general, sand filter is
use to remove suspended solids. The filter stopping power is depending on the size
of grains. The smaller the diameter of grains, the longer the particle remain in the
filter and thus the higher the filters stopping power.
In our project, we are focusing on four quantitative analysis; turbidity, pH,
conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Turbidity basically is a cloudiness or haziness of
a fluid. It measure how much the light transmitting through the fluid. The
transmitting properties of the fluid or water is basically due to the presence of
suspended materials. From the Figure 1, as the turbidity increase, the water become
cloudier.

The next parameter is pH. PH basically measure the concentration of hydrogen ion
in the solution. It also measure the acidity and basicity of an aqueous solution.
Microorganism is active in the range of pH 6.5 to 8. If the pH is less than 6.5 or more
than 8, the biological activities of the microorganism will completely stop. The third
parameter is dissolved oxygen. Dissolved oxygen is defined as the amount of
oxygen present in the water. Usually, the colder water contain more dissolved

oxygen compare to warmer water. The important of studying the dissolve oxygen is
to determine the type of organism live in the water.

Figure 2: The different type of organism in different level of dissolve oxygen.


The last one is conductivity. Conductivity is refer to ability of substance to conduct
or transmit heat or electricity. By knowing the conductivity, the quantity of dissolve
inorganic material present in the water can be observed. Increase in the
conductivity will show the abnormal discharge of water.