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Animal Tissues

In some ways, the human body is like a complex machine. For example, all parts of an
automobile cannot be made from a single type of material. Metal capable of withstanding the heat of
the engine, cannot be used for windows or tires. Similarly, the many parts of the human body are made
of collections of specialized cells and the materials surrounding them. Muscle cells that contract to
produce body movements have a different structure and function from epithelial cells that protect,
secrete or absorb.
A tissue (to weave) is a group of cells with similar structure and structure and function, as well as
similar extracellular substances located between the cells. The microscopic study of tissue is called
Histology. Knowledge of tissue structure and function is important in understanding how individual cells
are organized to form tissues and how tissues are organized to form organs, organ systems and the
complete organism. There is a relationship between the structure of each tissue type and its function
and between the tissues in a organ and the organs function.
Learning Objectives:
At the end of this topic, you should be able to:

differentiate the main types of animal tissue

identify the animal tissues and describe their location structure, and function in our body system,
explain how their structure relates to function of each animal tissue and how they differ to each
list the major functions of each of the main types of animal tissue
Distinguish among skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues


Epithelial Tissues

It is made of closely-packed cells arranged in flat sheets. It also forms the surface of the skin,
line the various cavities and tubes of the body, and cover the internal organs.
The subset of epithelial that forms the interface between the internal and external environments
are the lining of the mouth and the esophagus (squamous epithelium), lining of the kidney tubules
(cuboidal epithelium) and the lining of the digestive and respiratory tracts (columnar epithelium).
The function of epithelia always reflects the fact that they are boundaries between masses of
cells and a cavity or spaces. The epithelium of the skin protects the underlying tissues from the cells
from bacteria, harmful chemicals, ultraviolet light; drying and from the dehydration. The columnar
epithelium of the intestine, secrets digestive enzyme into the intestine and absorbs the products of
digestion from it. It secretes mucus which keeps it from drying out and traps inhaled dust
Most of its cells have cilia on their apical surface that propel the mucus with its load of foreign matter
back up to the throat.

Squamous Epithelium - Frog Skin

B. Connective tissues

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Columnar Epithelium

The cells are embedded in a great amount of extracellular material. Matrix is secreted by the
cells. It consists of protein fibers embedded in an amorphous mixture of protein-polysaccharide
(proteoglycan) molecules.
The supporting connective tissue gives strength, support, and protection to the soft parts of the
body. The cartilage is elastic and can be considered as bone without calcium deposits in the matrix. It
can found in the nose, ears, larynx, and trachea. In the bone, the matrix contains collagen fibers and
mineral deposits. It is the most abundant mineral is calcium phosphate although magnesium, carbonate
and fluoride ions are also present. The functions of the bone serve as framework for movement, for
support and protection and for the manufacture of blood cells.
The dense protective tissue often called fibrous connective tissue. The tendons have a dense
tissue with tough fibers. It connects muscle to bone and it can be found through out the body. Its fibers
are all oriented parallel to each other and it connects muscles to parts of the skeleton. The ligament is
attached in one bone to another. It contains bone collagen and also the protein elastin (tough and
elastic). Elastin permits ligaments to be stretched.
The loose connective tissue is distributed throughout the body. The four main types of the blood are
the red blood cells or erythrocytes which carry oxygen, the white cells or leucocytes which aid in
fighting infection, the platelets or thrombocytes which are important in blood clothing and the blood
plasma which is composed of living cells surrounded by a nonliving matrix. The cells can be found in
the lymph are called lymphocytes. Its function is to control of diseases and maintenance of osmotic

C. Muscular tissue

It is highly specialized for producing movement of the body or of its part. The skeletal muscle
(voluntary) is made of long fibers whose construction provides the force of locomotion. These move the
body appendages like the arms and the legs. The smooth muscle (involuntary) Lines the walls of the
hallow structures of the body such as; intestine, urinary bladder, uterus and blood vessels. The cardiac
muscle (heart) is a muscle which has branched long cells. The nuclei are centrally located.

D. Nervous tissue

It is made up of cell called neurons. Neurons have the properties of conduction and irritability.
Neurons are specialized for the conduction of nerve impulses. Typical neurons consist of a cell body
which contain nucleus, a number of short fibers dendrites extending from a cell body and a single
long fiber, the axon. The brain is large, highly organized receptor and correlation. Appropriate
responses are interpreted in the brain and then passed on to the effectors organs.