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PROJECT GUIDE :- Dr. R.K. Sunkaria.

ABSTRACT :- The main aim of the project is to develop an automatic plant irrigation system
using ATMEGA microcontroller. Irrigation is the main part of agriculture. Labour reduction
and water-saving technologies plays a major role in effective irrigation. This system will
provide us a simple and cost effective method to irrigate a plant automatically. Sensors and
other methods are used to water the plants when required.
METHODOLOGY :- The idea of the project is to implement an automatic irrigation system
by sensing the moisture of the soil. The working of the circuit is as follows. The soil moisture
sensor is inserted in the soil. Depending on the quality of the sensor, it must be inserted near
the roots of the plant. The soil moisture sensor measures the conductivity of the soil. Wet soil
will be more conductive than dry soil. The soil moisture sensor module has a comparator in
it. The voltage from the prongs and the predefined voltage are compared and the output of the
comparator is high only when the soil condition is dry. This output from the soil moisture
sensor is given to the input pin of the microcontroller. The microcontroller continuously
monitors the analogue input pin. When the moisture in the soil is above the threshold, the
microcontroller displays a message mentioning the same and the motor is off. When the
output from the soil moisture sensor is high i.e. the moisture of the soil is less. This will
trigger the microcontroller, which is connected to the base of the transistor. When the
transistor is turned on, the relay coil gets energized and turns on the motor. The LED is also
turned on and acts as an indicator. When the moisture of the soil reaches the threshold value,
the output of the soil moisture sensor is low and the motor is turned off.
TENTATIVE PHASE 1 :- The main objective of this project is to develop a microcontroller
based system to irrigate the plant automatically.

Sensors are used to measure the moisture content of soil in terms of voltage. Moisture
Sensor are copper clad of certain length, thickness and separated from each other at a
fixed distance. The copper clad acts as the sensor. It is immersed into the soil, whose
moisture content is under test. The soil is examined under two conditions, namely dry
and wet condition. Under dry condition, the probes are placed in the soil under dry
conditions and are inserted up to a fair depth of the soil. As there is no conduction
path between the copper clad, the sensor circuit remains open. Under excess water
condition the conductivity of the soil increases drastically and a steady conduction
path is established.
The microcontroller is the heart of the proposed system. It constantly monitors the
digitized parameters of sensor and verifies them with the predefined threshold values
and checks the condition for dry and wet soil, and correspondingly the relay is made
ON or OFF.

TENTATIVE PHASE 2 :- To improve the performance of the system following procedures

will be performed

Temperature sensor are to be added to observe the surrounding environment.

Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Eventually
water sprinklers will be used to maintain the surrounding temperature

Liquid crystal display model will be used to indicate the temperature and the state of
relay whether MOTOR ON or MOTOR OFF.
Data recorded from the practical usage of the system will be observed and measures
will be taken to improve the system by using different irrigation methods.


NAVREET KAUR (13104026)
RAJAT KAMBOJ (13104014)