Anda di halaman 1dari 81

COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Sector:

CONSTRUCTION

Qualification Title:

CARPENTRY NC II

Unit of Competency:

INSTALL FRAMING WORKS

Module Title:

INSTALLING FRAMING WORKS

Technical Education and Skills Development Authority


Jacobo Z. Gonzales Memorial School of Arts and Trades
San Antonio, Bian City

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 1 of 81

HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING


MATERIAL
Welcome to the module in installing framing works. This module contains
training materials and activities for you to complete.
You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to
complete each learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome are
Information Sheets, Self-Checks, Operation Sheets and Job Sheets. Follow these
activities on your own. If you have questions, don't hesitate to ask your facilitator for
assistance.
The goal of this course is the development of practical skills. To gain these
skills, you must learn basic concepts and terminology. For the most part, you'll get
this information from the Information Sheets and multimedia materials
This module was prepared to help you achieve the required competency, in
"Installing Framing Works".
This will be the source of information for you to acquire knowledge and skills in
this particular competency independently and at your own pace, with minimum
supervision or help from your instructor.
Remember to:
Work through all the information and complete the activities in each section.
Read information sheets and complete the self-check. Suggested references
are included to supplement the materials provided in this module.
Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager. He/she is
there to support you and show you the correct way to do things.
You will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and practice on the
job. Make sure you practice your new skills during regular work shifts. This way you
will improve both your speed and memory and also your confidence.
Use the Self-checks, Operation Sheets or Job Sheets at the end of each
section to test your own progress.
When you feel confident that you have had sufficient practice, ask your Trainer
to evaluate you. The results of your assessment will be recorded in your Progress
Chart and Accomplishment Chart.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 2 of 81

UNIT OF COMPETENCY

INSTALL FRAMING WORKS

MODULE TITLE

INSTALLING FRAMING WORKS

MODULE DESCRIPTOR

This module covers the required competencies in


preparing appropriate materials, tools and
equipment for installing framing works, layingout/erecting and assembling post and girts, layingout/installing floor joists , laying-out/installing wall
studs, laying-out/fabricating/installing roof frames,
laying-out/installing ceiling joist.

NOMINAL DURATION

80 hrs.

CERTIFICATE LEVEL

NATIONAL CERTIFICATE LEVEL II

PREREQUISITE

SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES:


Upon completion of this module, the trainee/student must be able to:
LO 1. Prepare appropriate materials, tools and equipment for installing
framing works
LO 2. Lay-out/erect and assemble post and girts
LO 3. Lay-out/install floor joists
LO 4. Lay-out/install wall studs
LO 5. Lay-out/fabricate/install roof frames
LO 6. Lay-out/install ceiling joist

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 3 of 81

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

Plans and details are correctly interpreted according to job requirements


Appropriate materials, tools and equipment are selected and prepared
consistent with job requirements
Materials are re-checked and properly staged according to job requirements
Defective materials are reported to immediate supervisor following standard
operating procedures
Posts and girts are laid-out, marked and cut according to working drawings and
specifications with tolerance of 3 mm on all measurements, plumbness, and
levelness
Posts are erected vertically based on plans and specifications with tolerance of
+ 3 mm on all measurements
Girts and girders are attached to the posts horizontally according to plans and
specifications
Unexpected situations are responded to in line with work place requirement
Housekeeping is performed according to safety regulations
Appropriate PPE is used according to job requirements
Floor joists are set out, cut and fixed, and laterally supported at + 3 mm on all
measurements and levelness in accordance with working drawings and
specifications
Joists are trimmed for openings and fixed with fastenings according to the
requirements of the working drawings and specifications
Wall studs are identified, measured and cut based on working drawings and
specifications with tolerance of + 3 mm maximum on all measurements
Horizontal studs are laidout and installed based on working drawings and
specifications with tolerance of + 3 mm maximum on all measurements
Types of roof and other components are fabricated, laid-out and installed
according to working drawings and specifications with tolerance of + 3 mm on all
measurements, plumbness, levelness and squareness
Roof components are installed according to working drawings and specifications
Ceiling joists are identified, measured, and cut according to working drawings
and specifications with tolerance of + 3 mm on all measurements, levelness and
squareness
Ceiling joists are laid-out and installed according to working drawings and
specifications with tolerance of + 3 mm on all measurements, levelness and
squareness
Unexpected situations are responded to in line with work place requirement
Housekeeping is performed according to safety regulations
Appropriate PPE is used according to job requirements and OHS specifications

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 4 of 81

LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 1

Prepare appropriate materials, tools


and equipment for installing framing
works

CONTENTS:
Characteristics of common Philippine Lumber
Material Specifications
Types and Parts of a Frame Constructions

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Plans and details are correctly interpreted according to job requirements
2. Appropriate materials, tools and equipment are selected and prepared
consistent with job requirements
3. Materials are re-checked and properly staged according to job requirements
4. Defective materials are reported to immediate supervisor following standard
operating procedures
5. Unexpected situations are responded to in line with work place requirement
6. Housekeeping is performed according to safety regulations
7. Appropriate PPE is selected according to job requirements
CONDITIONS:
You must be provided with the following:
1.
WORKPLACE LOCATION
2.
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Claw Hammer
Pencil/Marking pen
Pull-Push Rule
Nylon String
Steel Square
Try-square
Hand Saw
Chalk Line
3. TRAINING MATERIALS
Leaning Packages
Bond paper
Ball pens
ASSESSMENT METHOD

Personal Protective
Equipment
Portable Circular Saw
Plan and working drawings
Lumber
Nails
Plywood

Manuals
Related References

Portfolio

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 5 of 81

Learning Experience
PREPARE APPROPRIATE MATERIALS, TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT FOR
INSTALLING FRAMING WORKS
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

Read Information Sheet No. 5.1-1 on


Characteristics of Common Philippine
Lumber
Compare your answer to the answer
key

Answer Self-Check No. 5.1-1


Read Information Sheet No.5.1-2 on
Material Specifications

Compare your answer to the answer


key

Answer Self-Check No. 5.1-2


Read Information Sheet No. 5.1-3 on
Types and Parts of a Frame
Construction
Answer Self-Check No. 5.1-3

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Compare your answer to the answer


key

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 6 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.1-1


CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON PHILIPPINE LUMBER
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the TYPES and
CHARACTERISTICS of COMMON PHILIPPINE LUMBER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Banuyo similar to narra, furniture


Dao streaked decorative lumber
Dungon heavy structural, wine red (twisted)
Guijo basic structural, heavy framing
Ipil heavy structural (post and girder)
Kalantas lightweight decorative lumber (absorbs moisture)
Kamagong from mabolo, darkest tone lumber
Lanite light color, light framing
Manggachapui yellow, furniture lumber
Maranggo resonant wood (used on musical soundboard)
Molave (Mulawin) heavy structure (post and girder)
Narra decorative
Supa dark red structural lumber
Tindalo structural general frame
Yakal basic, heavy structural (post, girder, stringer)
Apitong general framing (porous) easily twisted
Katmon light framing
Mayapis light framing
Palosapis furniture, sashes, pale (darken with age)
Pine wood ornamental, lightweight
Red lauan light framing
Santol sculptural
White lauan light framing
Tanguile basic framing

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 7 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.1-1


Check your mastery in the different characteristics of common Philippine
lumber by completing the tasks below.
IDENTIFICATION: Identify the characteristic of the Philippine lumber listed below.
Write you answer on the corresponding column.
DUNGON
GUIJO
IPIL
KATMON
LANITE
MAYAPIS
MOLAVE
RED LAUAN
TANGUILE
YAKAL
LIGHT FRAMING

BASIC FRAMING

HEAVY STRUCTURAL

1. __________________

1. __________________

1. __________________

2. __________________

2. __________________

2. __________________

3. __________________

3. __________________

3. __________________

4. __________________

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 8 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.1-1


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

LIGHT FRAMING

BASIC FRAMING

HEAVY STRUCTURAL

1. LANITE

1. GUIJO

1. DUNGON

2. KATMON

2. YAKAL

2. IPIL

3. MAYAPAS

3. TANGUILE

3. MOLAVE

4. RED LAUAN

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 9 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.1-2


MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the TYPES,
STANDARD SIZES, and USES of LUMBER for CONSTRUCTION CARPENTRY.
The primary components used in frame construction are lumber and
hardware. This section includes information on the types and sizes of lumber as well
as a description of various metal fasteners.
A. Lumber
Lumber varies greatly in structural characteristics. A carpenter must learn
about lumber so that he can choose the most suitable material for each job.
1. Grades
Lumber, as it comes from the sawmill, is divided into three main classes: yard
lumber, structural material and factory and shop lumber. It is classified on the
basis of quality. The carpenter must choose a quality that is suitable for the intended
purpose. At the same time, he must exercise economy by not choosing a better (and
therefore more expensive) grade than is required.
Lumber is subdivided into classifications of select lumber and common
lumber.
Select Lumber - Select lumber is of good appearance and finishing. It is
identified by the following grade names for comparison of quality:
o Grade A is suitable for natural finishes and is practically clear.
o Grade B is suitable for natural finishes, is of high quality, and is generally
clear.
o Grade C is suitable for high-quality paint finishes.
o Grade D is suitable for paint finishes between high-finishing grades and
common grades and has somewhat the nature of both.
Common Lumber - Common lumber is suitable for general construction and
utility purposes. It is identified by the following grade names for comparison of
quality:
o No. 1 common is suitable for use without waste, it is sound and tight
knotted, and it may be considered watertight lumber.
o No. 2 common is less restricted in quality than No. 1, but of the same
general quality. It is used for framing, sheathing, and other structural forms
where the stress or strain is not too great.
o No. 3 common permits some waste, and it is lower in quality than No. 2. It
is used for such rough work as footing, guardrails, and rough flooring.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 10 of 81

o No. 4 common permits waste, is of low quality, and may have coarse
features such as decay and holes. It is used for sheathing, subfloors, and
roof boards in the cheaper types of construction, but its most important
industrial outlet is for boxes and crates.
o No. 5 common is not produced in some kinds of lumber. It is used for
boxes, crates, and dunnage, for which the quality requirement is very low.
CODE FOR SURFACED LUMBER
Code Meaning
S1E
S2E
S1S
S2S
S1S1E
S2SIE
S1S2E
S4S

SURFACED
SURFACED
SURFACED
SURFACED
SURFACED
SURFACED
SURFACED
SURFACED

1 EDGE
2 EDGES
1 SIDE
2 SIDES
1 SIDE AND EDGE
2 SIDES AND 1 EDGE
1 SIDE AND 2 EDGES
4 SIDES

2. Uses of Lumber
a.
Frames. Building frames are the wood forms constructed to support the
finished members of a structure. These include posts, girders (beams), scabs,
joists, subfloors, sole plates, girts, knee braces, top plates, and rafters. No. 2
common lumber is used for framing. Heavy frame components, such as
beams and girders, are made by combining several pieces of framing
material.
b.
Walls. The exterior wall of a frame structure usually has three layers:
sheathing, building paper, and siding. Sheathing and siding lumber are
normally grade No. 2 common softwood, which is with solid knots, no voids.
Siding is either vertically or horizontally applied. Theater construction may
limit available material to lap siding for both horizontal and vertical surfaces.
For local procurement, there are several types of drop and bevel siding, which
is applied horizontally.
3. Sizes
Lumber is usually sawed into standard dimensions (length, width, and
thickness). This allows uniformity in planning structures and in ordering materials.
Table 1 lists the common widths and thicknesses of wood in rough and in dressed
dimensions in the US. Standards have been established for dimension differences
between the quoted size of lumber and its standard sizes when dressed.
Quoted size refers to dimensions prior to surfacing. These dimension
differences must be taken into consideration. A good example of the dimension
difference is the common 2 x 4. As shown in Table 1, the familiar quoted size 2 x 4 is
JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 11 of 81

the rough or nominal dimension, but the actual dressed size is 1 1/2 x 3 1/2 inches.
Lumber is sawn in standard sizes used for light framing.
Thickness: 1, 2, and 4 inches.
Width: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 inches.
Length: 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 feet.
The actual dimensions of dressed lumber are less than the sewn dimensions
because of drying and planing (or finishing). For the relative difference between
sewn (standard or nominal) dimensions and actual sizes of construction lumber, see
Table 2-1.

Table 1. Nominal and dressed sizes of lumber

Plywood is usually 4 x 8 feet and varies from 1/8 to 1 inch in thickness.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 12 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.1-2


Check your mastery in the different material specifications by completing the
tasks below.
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Read the statement carefully. Choose the letter of the correct
answer. Write the letter of your choice on the space provided.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 13 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.1-2


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.
1.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 14 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.1-3


TYPES AND PARTS OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the Different
TYPES and PARTS A OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION
PLATFORM FRAME
In platform-frame construction, first
floor joists are completely covered with
sub-flooring to form a platform upon
which exterior walls and interior partitions
are erected. This is the type of
construction most generally used in home
building. Platform construction is easy to
erect. It provides a work surface at each
floor level and is readily adapted to
various methods of prefabrication. In
platform systems it is common practice to
assemble wall framing on the floor and tilt
the entire unit into place.

BALLOON FRAME
In balloon-frame construction,
exterior wall studs continue through
the first and second stories. First floor
joists and exterior wall studs both bear
on the anchored sill. Second-floor
joists bear on a minimum 1x4-inch
ribbon strip, which has been let-in to
the inside edges of exterior wall studs.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 15 of 81

COMBINATION FRAME
A modification of the old
braced frame which was of heavy
timbers with every joint mortised
and tenoned. The modification
consists of lighter timbers and
less mortising and pinning to save
material and labor.

Parts of a Framed House


1.

Bridging is a set of wood fitted in pairs from the lower side of one floor joist to
the upper side of adjacent joist and crossed to distribute the load. Sometimes
pieces of solid stocks of equal with to the joist are used.
2. Ceiling is the finish covering of the joist of a roof system.
3. Fascia is a wood member used on the outer face of a box cornice where it is
nailed to the end of the rafters.
4. Girder is the beam that supports the roofing.
5. Joist is one of parallel framing members used to support floor and ceiling
loads. It is supported by beams, girders, or bearing wall.
6. Post/column is a vertical structure support. It may be circular or rectangular
in shape.
7. Purlin is a horizontal lumber used to support rafters between the plate and
the ridge board.
8. Rafteris one of a series of structural members of a roof designed to support
roof and loads.
9. Roof ridge is the horizontal line at the junction of the top edge of two roofs
surfaces where an external angle greater than 180 degrees is formed.
10. Roofing is a material applied to the roofs as covering to make the internal
part of a building waterproof.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 16 of 81

11. Stud refers to one of a series of structural wood lying vertically


along the
walls and partitions.
12. Truss is a structural unit assembled in the form of a triangle. It provides a rigid
support over wide spans with minimum amount of material.
13. Wall is a vertical plane structure found inside or outside a building. It is made
of lumber, board, concrete or hollow blocks.

PARTS OF A FRAMED HOUSE

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 17 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.1-3


Check your mastery in the different parts of a framed by completing the
taskshouse below.
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Read the statement carefully. Choose the letter of the correct
answer. Write the letter of your choice on the space provided.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 18 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.1-3


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.
2.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 19 of 81

LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 2

Lay-out/erect and assemble post and


girts

CONTENTS:
Post
Girts and Girders
Load Conditions and Structural System Response

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Posts and girts are laid-out, marked and cut according to working drawings
and specifications with tolerance of 3mm on all measurements,
plumbness, and levelness
2. Posts are erected vertically based on plans and specifications with
tolerance of + 3mm on all measurements
3. Girts and girders are attached to the posts horizontally according to plans
and specifications
4. Unexpected situations are responded to in line with work place requirement
5. Housekeeping is performed according to safety regulations
6. Appropriate PPE is used according to job requirements
CONDITIONS:
You must be provided with the following:
1.
WORKPLACE LOCATION
2.
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Claw Hammer
Pencil/Marking pen
Pull-Push Rule
Nylon String
Steel Square
Try-square
Hand Saw
Chalk Line
3. TRAINING MATERIALS
Leaning Packages
Bond paper
Ball pens

Personal Protective
Equipment
Portable Circular Saw
Plan and working drawings
Lumber
Nails
Plywood

Manuals
Related References

ASSESSMENT METHOD
Portfolio

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 20 of 81

Learning Experience
LAY-OUT/ERECT AND ASSEMBLE POST AND GIRTS
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

Read Information Sheet No. 5.2-1 on


Post
Compare your answer to the answer
key

Answer Self-Check No. 5.2-1

Evaluate your own work using the


Performance Criteria Checklist
Perform Operation Sheet No. 5.2-1 on Present your work to your trainer for
Erecting Post
evaluation
Keep a copy of your work for the next
activities
Read Information Sheet No.5.2-2 on
Girts and Girders
Compare your answer to the answer
key

Answer Self-Check No. 5.2-2


Read Information Sheet No. 5.2-3 on
Load Conditions and Structural
system Response

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 21 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.2-1


POSTS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the TYPES OF
WOOD POST and METHODS OF PLUMBING POST.
Wood posts may be solid, built-up, or spaced. In selecting a wood post, the
following should be considered: lumber species, structural grade, modulus of
elasticity, and allowable compressive, bending and shear stress value permitted for
the intended use. In addition, attention must be paid to the precise loading conditions
and the types of connections used.
Wood posts are loaded axially in compression. Failure can result in crushing
of wood fibers if the maximum unit stress exceeds the allowable unit stress in
compression parallel to the grain. The load capacity of the post is also determined by
its slenderness ratio. As the slenderness ratio of a post increases, a post can fail
from buckling.
A. Types of Wood Posts/Columns

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 22 of 81

B. Methods of Plumbing Posts


After the corner post, T-post, and intermediate wall studs have been nailed to
the plates or girts, the walls must be plumbed and straightened so that the
permanent braces and rafters may be installed. This is done by using a level or
plumb bob and a chalkline.
Plumbing Posts
There are two methods for plumbing posts.
Method 1: To plumb a corner with a plumb bob
1. To plumb a corner with a plumb bob, first attach to the bob a string long enough
to extend to or below the bottom of the post.
2. Lay a rule on top of the post so that 2 inches of the rule extends over the post
on the side to be plumbed.
3. Then hang the bob-line over the rule so that the line is 2 inches from the post
and extends to the bottom of it.
4. With another rule, measure the distance from the post to the center of the line
at the bottom of the post; if it does not measure 2 inches, the post is not plumb.
5. Move the post
inward or outward
until distance from
the post to the
center of the line is
exactly 2 inches.
Then nail the
temporarily brace
in place.
6. Repeat this
procedure to the
other face of the
post. The post is
then plum. This
process is carried
out to the
remaining post of
the building.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 23 of 81

Method 2: An alternate method of plumbing a post


1. Attach the string of the plumb bob securely at the top of the post to be
plumbed, making sure that the string is long enough to allow the plumb bob to
hung near the bottom of the post.
2. Use two blocks of wood identical in thickness as gage blocks.
3. Tack one block near the top of the post between the plumb bob string and the
post (gage block No. 1).
4. Inserting the second block between the plumb bob string and the bottom of
the post (gage block No. 2) .
5. If the entire face of the second block makes contact with the string, the post is
plumb.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 24 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.2-1


Check your mastery in the erecting and plumbing the posts by completing the
tasks below.
Arrange in order the steps of plumbing a corner post by writing the number
on the space provided.

_____________ Lay a rule on top of the post so that 2 inches of the rule extends
over the post on the side to be plumbed.
_____________ To plumb a corner with a plumb bob, first attach to the bob a
string long enough to extend to or below the bottom of the post.
_____________ Move the post inward or outward until distance from the post to
the center of the line is exactly 2 inches. Then nail the
temporarily brace in place.
_____________ Then hang the bob-line over the rule so that the line is 2 inches
from the post and extends to the bottom of it.
_____________ With another rule, measure the distance from the post to the
center of the line at the bottom of the post; if it does not measure
2 inches, the post is not plumb.
_____________ Repeat this procedure to the other face of the post. The post is
then plum. This process is carried out to the remaining post of
the building.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 25 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.2-1


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.
2

Lay a rule on top of the post so that 2 inches of the rule extends over
the post on the side to be plumbed.

To plumb a corner with a plumb bob, first attach to the bob a string
long enough to extend to or below the bottom of the post.

Move the post inward or outward until distance from the post to the
center of the line is exactly 2 inches. Then nail the temporarily brace in
place.

Then hang the bob-line over the rule so that the line is 2 inches from
the post and extends to the bottom of it.

With another rule, measure the distance from the post to the center of
the line at the bottom of the post; if it does not measure 2 inches, the
post is not plumb.

Repeat this procedure to the other face of the post. The post is then
plum. This process is carried out to the remaining post of the building.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 26 of 81

OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.2-1


Title:

Erect Post

Performance Objective:
Supplies and Materials:
Tools and Equipment:

Given the necessary materials, you should be


able to erect post
Lumber, fasteners

circular saw
hand saw
hammer
wrecking bar

folding rule
try square
Plumb bob
Spirit level

Steps/Procedure:
Step 1. Prepare all the materials needed including the
braces that will be used in supporting the post.
Step 2. Temporarily place the post on the concrete
foundation. Then plumb the post. Follow the
proper plumbing techniques in plumbing a post.
Step 3. Mark the position of the hole of the metal strap
to the post where the bolt will be placed.
Step 4. Make a bore on the post. The diameter of the bore should fit the bolts to
be used.
Step 5. Replace the post on the concrete foundation.
Test the plumbness of the post on its side and
at its adjacent side.
Step 6. Place temporary braces on the post.
Step 7. Fasten the post with bolts and nuts securely on
the concrete foundation. Use appropriate tools
in tightening the nuts.
Step 8. Have instructor check your work.
Assessment Method:
Portfolio
Demonstration

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 27 of 81

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST


OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.2-1
Name of Trainee:______________________________ Date: __________________

CRITERIA

YES

NO

1. Did I laid-out, marked and cut the post according to


the working drawing?
2. Are the required measurements on the materials
(wood post) in correct based from the plan?
3. Is the post erected vertically with tolerance of 3
mm?
4. Did I use appropriate personal protective equipment
in erecting the post?

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 28 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.2-2


GIRTS AND GIRDERS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the PARTS OF A
FRAMED HOUSE.
Beams and girders are of solid timber or built-up construction in which
multiple pieces of nominal 2-inch thick lumber are nailed together with the wide faces
vertical. Such pieces are nailed with two rows of 20d nails-one row near the top edge
and the other near the bottom edge. Nails in each row are spaced 32 inches apart.
End joints of the nailed lumber should occur over the supporting column or pier. End
joints in adjacent pieces should be at least 16 inches apart. Glued-laminated
members are also
used. Beams and
girders that are not
continuous are tied
together across
supports. Bearing of at
least 4 inches is
required at supports.
The decision to
use one girder over
another is a function of
cost, availability, span
and loading conditions,
clearance or headroom requirements,
and ease of
construction.
Girders in
residential construction
are usually one of the
following types as
illustrated.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 29 of 81

Girders carry a large part of the building weight. They must be rigid and properly
supported at the foundation walls and on the columns. They must be installed
properly to support joists. The ends of wood girders should bear at least 4 inches on
posts.
SIZE REQUIREMENTS
Carpenters should understand the effect of length, width, and depth on the
strength of wood girders before attempting to determine their size.
Principles that govern the size of a girder are the:
Distance between girder posts
Girder load area
Total floor load on the girder per square foot
Load on the girder per linear foot
Total load on the girder
Material to be used
Wood moisture content and types of wood used, since some woods are
stronger than others

Built-up girder
details

A girder should be just large enough to support an ordinary load. Any size
larger than that wastes material. For greater carrying capacity, it is better to increase
a girder's depth (within limits) than its
width. When the depth of a girder is
doubled (the width of lumber, such as 2 x
8 or 2 x 6), the safe load increases four
times. For example, a girder 3 inches
wide and 12 inches deep will carry four
times as much weight as a girder 3
inches wide and 6 inches deep.
Joist -to-girder attachment

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 30 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.2-2


Check your mastery in the girts and girders by completing the tasks below.
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Read the statement carefully. Choose the letter of the correct
answer. Write the letter of your choice on the space provided.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 31 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.2-2


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.
3.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 32 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.2-3


LOAD CONDITIONS AND STRUCTURAL SYSTEM RESPONSE
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the TYPES OF
BUILDING LOADS.
Building loads can be divided into two types based on the orientation of the
structural actions or forces that they induce:
Vertical Loads

Dead (gravity)
Live (gravity)
Snow (gravity)
Wind (uplift on roof)
Seismic and wind (overturning)
Seismic (vertical ground motion)

Horizontal (Lateral) Loads

Wind
Seismic (horizontal ground motion)
Flood (static and dynamic hydraulic
forces)
Soil (active lateral pressure)

Gravity loads act in the same direction as gravity (i.e., downward or vertically)
and include dead, live, and snow loads. They are generally static in nature and
usually considered a uniformly distributed or concentrated load.
A buildings structure weight is called the dead load. The dead load per square
foot of floor area is carried directly or indirectly to the girder by bearing partitions.
The weight of furniture, persons, and other movable loads, not actually a part of
the building but still carried by the girder, is called the live load.
Snow on the roof is considered part of the live load.
Wind uplift forces are generated by negative (suction) pressures acting in an
outward direction from the surface of the roof in response to the aerodynamics of
wind flowing over and around the building.
Vertical forces are also created by overturning reactions due to wind and
seismic lateral loads acting on the overall building and its lateral force resisting
systems. Earthquakes also produce vertical ground motions or accelerations
which increase the effect of gravity loads.
The primary loads that produce lateral forces on buildings are attributable to
forces associated with wind, seismic ground motion, floods, and soil. Wind and
seismic lateral loads apply to the entire building. Lateral forces from wind are
generated by positive wind pressures on the windward face of the building and by
negative pressures on the leeward face of the building, creating a combined pushand-pull effect.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 33 of 81

LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 3

Lay-out/install floor joists

CONTENTS:
Floor Joist
Standard Size of Floor Opening
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Floor joists are set out, cut and fixed, and laterally supported at + 3mm on
all measurements and levelness in accordance with working drawings and
specifications
2. Joists are trimmed for openings and fixed with fastenings according to the
requirements of the working drawings and specifications
3. Unexpected situations are responded to in line with work place requirement
4. Housekeeping is performed according to safety regulations
5. Appropriate PPE is used according to job requirements
CONDITIONS:
You must be provided with the following:
1.
WORKPLACE LOCATION
2.
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Claw Hammer
Pencil/Marking pen
Pull-Push Rule
Nylon String
Steel Square
Try-square
Hand Saw
Chalk Line
3. TRAINING MATERIALS
Leaning Packages
Bond paper
Ball pens

Personal Protective
Equipment
Portable Circular Saw
Plan and working drawings
Lumber
Nails
Plywood

Manuals
Related References

ASSESSMENT METHOD
Portfolio

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 34 of 81

Learning Experience
LAY-OUT/INSTALL FLOOR JOISTS
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

Read Information Sheet No. 5.3-1 on


Floor Joist
Compare your answer to the answer
key

Answer Self-Check No. 5.3-1


Read Information Sheet No.5.3-2 on
Standard Size of Floor Opening
Answer Self-Check No. 5.3-2

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Compare your answer to the answer


key

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 35 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.3-1


FLOOR JOISTS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the PARTS OF A
FLOOR SYSTEM and STEPS IN LAYING OUT A PLATFORM FLOOR
ASSEMBLY.
The wood floor framing system consists of the common floor joists, cross
bridging, solid bridging, and others.
1. Floor Joist - One of a series of parallel beams of timber, reinforced concrete,
or steel used to support floor and ceiling loads, and supported in turn by larger
beams, girders or bearing walls; the widest dimension is vertically oriented.
2. Common Joist, Bridging Joist - A joist on which floor boards are laid;
neither supports a joist nor is it supported by another joist.
3. Binding Joist, binder - A beam which supports the common joists of a wood
floor above and the ceiling joists below; commonly joins two vertical posts.
4. Girder - A large or principal beam of steel, reinforced concrete, or timber;
used to support concentrated loads at isolated points along its length.
5. Bridging - A brace, or a system of braces, placed between joists to stiffen
them, to hold them in place, and to distribute the load.
6. Cross bridging, Diagonal bridging, Herringbone Strutting Diagonal
bracing, in pairs, between adjacent floor joists to prevent the joists from
twisting.
7. Block bridging, Solid bridging, Solid Strutting - Short members (boards)
which are fixed vertically between floor joists to stiffen the joists.
8. Bridging Floor - A floor supported by common joists, without girders.
9. Principal Joist - A large joist that carries much of the floor load.
10. Sleeper Joist - Any joist resting directly on sleepers
11. Ledger, Ribbon or Ribband - a horizontal member which is housed in the
studs of balloon framing and carries joists.
12. Ledger Strip, Ribbon Strip - On a beam which carries joists flush with the
upper edge of the beam (or girder), a strip of lumber which is nailed to the

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 36 of 81

side of the beam (along its bottom edge), forming a seat for the joists and
helping to support them.
13. Sill - a horizontal timber, at the bottom of the frame of a wood structure, which
rests on the foundation.

Floor Joists on Beams/Girders


A wood floor is a horizontal structural
system composed primarily of the following
members:
joists
girders
sheathing
Wood floor systems have traditionally
been built of solid sawn lumber for floor joists
and girders, although parallel chord wood
trusses and wood I-joists are seeing increasing
use, and offer advantages for dimensional
consistency, and spans. Floor joists are
horizontal, repetitive framing members that
support the floor sheathing and transfer the live
and dead floor loads to the walls, girders, or
columns below.
Girders are horizontal members that
support floor joists not otherwise supported by interior or exterior load-bearing walls.
Floor sheathing is a horizontal structural element, usually plywood or
oriented strand board panels, that directly supports floor loads and distributes the
loads to the framing system below. Floor sheathing also provides lateral support to
the floor joists.
JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 37 of 81

Laying out and Constructing a Platform Floor Assembly


After the foundation is completed and the concrete or mortar has been
properly set up, assembly of the floor system can begin.
The construction of a platform floor assembly is normally done in the
sequence shown below:
Step 1.

Check the foundation for squareness.

Step 2.

Lay out and install the sill plates.

Step 3.

Build and/or install the girders and supports.

Step 4.

Lay out the sills and girder for the floor joists.

Step 5.

Lay out the joist locations for partitions and floor openings.

Step 6.

Cut and attach the joist headers to the sill.

Step 7.

Install the joists.

Step 8.

Frame the openings in the floor.

Step 9.

Install the bridging.

Step 10. Install the subflooring.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 38 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.3-1


Check your mastery in the load conditions and structural system response by
completing the tasks below.
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Read the statement carefully. Choose the letter of the correct
answer. Write the letter of your choice on the space provided .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The letter H in the Figure 1 is pointing to the ______.


a) sill
c) bearing pole
b) termite shield
d) sill sealer
The letter C in the Figure 1 is pointing to the ______.
a) tail joist
c) joist header
b) trimmer joist
d) common joist
The letter F in the Figure 1 is pointing to the ______.
a) tail joist
c) joist header
b) trimmer joist
d) common joist
The letter G in the Figure 1 is pointing to the ______.
a) tail joist
c) joist header
b) trimmer joist
d) common joist
The letter L in the Figure 1 is pointing to the ______.
a) joist header
c) column
b) beam or girder
d) triple joist

Figure 1

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 39 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.3-1


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

A
C
B
D
B

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 40 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.3-2


FLOOR OPENINGS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the PARTS OF A
FLOOR OPENING and PROCEDURES IN FRAMING.
Headers, trimmers and tail joists form the framing for floor openings.
Trimmers and headers are doubled when the header span exceeds 4 feet. Headers
more than 6 feet in length are supported at the ends by joist hangers or framing
anchors unless they are bearing on a partition, beam or wall. Tail joists which exceed
12 feet in length are supported on framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than
nominal 2x2 inches.
Headers run at right angles to the direction of the joists and are doubled. Trimmers
run parallel to the joists and are actually doubled joists.
Joists are framed to the headers where the headers form the opening frame at right
angles to the joists.
These shorter joists, framed to the headers are called tail beams, tail joists, or
header joists.
The number of headers and trimmers required at any opening depends upon the
shape of the opening, whether it is a simple rectangle or contains additional angles ; upon
the direction in which the opening runs in relation to the direction in which the joists run ; and
upon the position of the opening in relation to partitions or walls.

A typical procedure for framing an opening like the one shown is given below:
Step 1. First install full-length trimmer
joists A and C, then cut four header pieces
with a length corresponding to the distance
between the trimmer joists A and C.
Step 2. Nail two of these header pieces
(headers No. 1 and No. 2) between trimmer
joists A and C at the required distances.
Step 3. Following this, cut short tail joists X
and Y and nail them to headers No. 1 and
No. 2. Check the code to see if the hangers
are required.
Step 4. After headers No. 1 and 2 and tail
joists X and Y are securely nailed, headers No. 3 and No. 4 can be installed and
nailed to headers No. 1 and No. 2. Then, joists B and D can be placed next to and
nailed to trimmer joists A and C, respectively.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 41 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.3-2


Check your mastery in identifying the different parts of floor opening by
completing the tasks below.
IDENTIFICATION: Identify the different parts of floor opening by writing your answer
beside the numbers

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 42 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.3-2


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 43 of 81

LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 4

Lay-out/install wall studs

CONTENTS:
Components of a Wall
Measuring and Cutting Studs
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Wall studs are identified, measured and cut based on working drawings and
specifications with tolerance of + 3mm maximum on all measurements
2. Horizontal studs are laidout and installed based on working drawings and
specifications with tolerance of + 3mm maximum on all measurements
3. Unexpected situations are dealt with according to company rules and
regulations
4. Appropriate PPE are used according to OSHC regulations
5. Housekeeping is performed according to safety standards and regulations
CONDITIONS:
You must be provided with the following:
1.
WORKPLACE LOCATION
2.
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Claw Hammer
Pencil/Marking pen
Pull-Push Rule
Nylon String
Steel Square
Try-square
Hand Saw
Chalk Line
3. TRAINING MATERIALS
Leaning Packages
Bond paper
Ball pens

Personal
Protective
Equipment
Portable Circular Saw
Plan and working drawings
Lumber
Nails
Plywood

Manuals
Related References

ASSESSMENT METHOD
Portfolio

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 44 of 81

Learning Experience
LAY-OUT/INSTALL WALL STUDS
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

Read Information Sheet No. 5.4-1 on


Components of a Wall
Evaluate your own work using the
Performance Criteria Checklist
Perform Operation Sheet No. 5.4-1 on Present your work to your trainer for
Laying-out Wall
evaluation
Keep a copy of your work for the next
activities
Read Information Sheet No. 5.4-2 on
Measuring and Cutting Studs
Evaluate your own work using the
Performance Criteria Checklist
Perform Operation Sheet No. 5.4-2a Present your work to your trainer for
on Assembling the Wall
evaluation
Keep a copy of your work for the next
activities
Evaluate your own work using the
Performance Criteria Checklist
Perform Operation Sheet No. 5.4-2b Present your work to your trainer for
on Erecting the Wall
evaluation
Keep a copy of your work for the next
activities
Evaluate your own work using the
Performance Criteria Checklist
Perform Operation Sheet No. 5.4-2c Present your work to your trainer for
on Plumbing and Aligning the Wall
evaluation
Keep a copy of your work for the next
activities

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 45 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.4-1


COMPONENTS OF A WALL
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to IDENTIFY the
COMPONENTS OF A WALL .
A. Components of a Wall
Residential wall systems have traditionally been constructed of dimension
lumber, usually 2x4s or 2x6s, although engineered wood studs and cold-formed
steel studs are now seeing increased use.
The figure below identifies the structural members of a wood frame wall. Each
of the members shown on the illustration is then described. You will need to know
these terms as you proceed through this module.

Blocking (spacer)A wood block used as a filler piece and support between
framing members.
Cripple studIn wall framing, a short framing stud that fills the space
between a header and a top plate or between the sill and the soleplate.
Double top plateA plate made of two members to provide better stiffening
of a wall. It is also used for connecting splices, corners, and partitions that are
at right angles (perpendicular) to the wall.
HeaderA horizontal structural member that supports the load over an
opening such as a door or window.
King studThe full-length stud next to the trimmer stud in a wall opening.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 46 of 81

PartitionA wall that subdivides space within a building. A bearing partition


or wall is one that supports the floors and roof directly above in addition to its
own weight.
Rough openingAn opening in the framing formed by framing members,
usually for a window or door.
Rough sillThe lower framing member attached to the top of the lower
cripple studs to form the base of a rough opening for a window.
SoleplateThe lowest horizontal member of a wall or partition to which the
studs are nailed. It rests on the rough floor.
StudThe main vertical framing member in a wall or partition.
Top plateThe upper horizontal framing member of a wall used to carry the
roof trusses or rafters.
Trimmer studThe vertical framing member that forms the sides of rough
openings for doors and windows. It provides stiffening for the frame and
supports the weight of the header.

B. Exterior Wall Framing


Studs are at least nominal 2x4 inches with the 4-inch dimension forming the
basic wall thickness
Stud spacing is normally 16 inches in exterior walls, although 24-inch spacing
of 2x4 studs is acceptable
Studs are arranged in multiples at corners and partition intersections to
provide for rigid attachment of sheathing, siding and interior wall finish
materials.

Multiple Studs at Corners

Wall Framing at Intersecting Partitions

C. Exterior Wall Openings


A header of adequate size is required at window and door openings
Headers may be supported by doubled studs or, where the span does not
exceed 3 feet, framing anchors may be used with single supporting studs
Where the opening width exceeds 6 feet, triple studs are used with each end
of the header bearing on two studs.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 47 of 81

D. Interior Partition Framing


There are two types of interior partitions:
1. Bearing partitions which support floors, ceilings or roofs
Studs at least nominal 2x4 inches
Plates are lapped or tied into exterior walls at intersection points
Single top plates are permitted where joists or rafters are supported
directly over bearing wall studs
Studs supporting floors are spaced a maximum of 16 inches on center
Studs supporting ceilings may be spaced 24 inches on center
Headers in bearing walls are used to carry loads over openings, as
required for exterior walls
2. Non-bearing partitions which carry only the weight of the materials in the
partition, including attachments in the finished building.
Studs are nominal 2x3 or 2x4 inches and may be installed with the wide
face perpendicular or parallel to the wall surface
Single top plates are used
Stud spacing is 16-or 24-inches on center as required by the wall covering

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 48 of 81

OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.4-1


Title:

Layout a Wall

Performance Objective:

Given the necessary materials, you should be


able to layout a wall

Supplies and Materials:

Working Drawing/ Plan


Lumber, fasteners, pencil

Tools and Equipment:

hand saw
hammer

folding rule
try square
chalk line

Steps/Procedure:
Step 1. Mark the locations of the soleplates by measuring in the width of the
soleplate (e.g., 3") from the outside edge of the sill on each corner. Snap a
chalkline to mark the soleplate location, then repeat this for each wall.
Step 2. The top plate and soleplate are laid out together. Start by placing the
soleplate as indicated by the chalkline and
tacking it in place. Lay the top plate against
the soleplate so that the location of framing
members can be transferred from the
soleplate to the top plate. Also tack the top
plate. Tacking prevents the plates from
moving, which would make the critical layout
lines inaccurate.
Step 3. Lay out the common stud positions.
To begin, measure and square a line 15" from one end. Subtracting this "
ensures that sheathing and other panels will fall at the center of the studs. Drive a
nail at that point and use a continuous tape to measure and mark the stud
locations every 16". Align your
framing square at each mark.
Scribe a line along each side of
the framing square tongue
across both the soleplate and
top plate. These lines will show
the outside edges of each stud,
centered on 16" intervals.
Assessment Method:
Portfolio
Demonstration

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 49 of 81

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST


OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.4-1
Name of Trainee:______________________________ Date: __________________

CRITERIA

YES

NO

1. Did I lay-out and mark the location of the wall


according to the house plan?
2. Did I use appropriate personal protective equipment
in laying out the wall?
3. Did I perform housekeeping according to safety
regulation?

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 50 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.4-2


MEASURING AND CUTTING STUDS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the HOW TO
MEASURE AND CUT STUDS
A. To determine the stud length when the installation is
directly on a concrete slab
Simply subtract the thickness of the soleplate (1")
and double top plate (3") from the desired ceiling
height and add the thickness of the ceiling material.
The length of the stud is based on the ceiling height,
which is 96", plus the " thickness of the ceiling
material, less the combined plate thicknesses of
4", or 92". (This assumes that the flooring material
has no appreciable thickness.)

B. To determine the stud length when the thickness of the


underlayment must be considered
The length of the stud should be 925/8"; i.e., ceiling
height plus the combined thicknesses of the ceiling
material and underlayment (" + 5/8"), less the
combined thicknesses of the plates (4"). (Again, we
are assuming a flooring material of no appreciable
thickness.)
C. To determine the stud length for non-bearing wall that
does not require the use of a double top plate
The calculated stud length is 1" longer (941/8").

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 51 of 81

D. To determine the length of a window or door trimmer stud


Subtract the thickness of the soleplate from the height of the header.
If the installation is on a wood floor, the thickness of the underlayment must
also be subtracted.
E. To determine the length of a cripple stud above a door or window
Combine the height of the trimmer and the thickness of the header, then
subtract that total from the length of a regular stud.
F. To determine the length of a cripple stud below a window
Determine the height of the rough opening from the floor, then subtract the
combined thicknesses of the rough sill and soleplate.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 52 of 81

OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.4-2a


Title:
Performance Objective:

Assemble the Wall


Given the necessary materials, you should be
able to assemble a wall

Supplies and Materials:

Working Drawing/ Plan


Lumber, fasteners

Tools and Equipment:

circular saw
hand saw
hammer
wrecking bar

folding rule
try square
chalk line

Steps/Procedure:
Step 1. Start by laying the soleplate near the edge
of the floor. Then, place the top plate about
a regular stud length away from the
soleplate. Be sure to use treated lumber if
the soleplate is in contact with a masonry
floor.
Step 2. Assemble the corners and partition Ts using
the straightest pieces to ensure that the
corners are plumb. Also, save some of the
straightest studs for placement in the wall
where countertops or fixtures will hit the
centers of studs (such as in kitchens,
bathrooms, and laundry rooms).
Step 3. Lay a regular stud at each X mark with the
crown up. If a stud is bowed, replace it and use
it to make cripples.
Step 4. Assemble the window and door headers and
put them in place with the crowns up.
Step 5. Lay out and assemble the rough openings,
making sure that each opening is the correct
size and that it is square.
Step 6. Nail the framework together. For 2 4 framing,
use two 16d nails through the plate into the end
of each stud. For 2 6 framing, use three nails.
The use of a nail gun is recommended for this
purpose; however, do not attempt this if you
have not received proper training in the use of
this tool.

Assessment Method:
Portfolio
Demonstration

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 53 of 81

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST


OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.4-2a
Name of Trainee:______________________________ Date: __________________

CRITERIA

YES

NO

1. Did I cut/trim the needed materials (lumber)


according to dimension as specified in the house
plan?
2. Is the assembled wall in according to the house plan
and specifications of 3 mm on all measurements,
plumbness,, levelness and squareness?
3. Did I deal with unexpected situations accordingly?
4. Did I perform housekeeping according to safety
regulation?
5. Did I use appropriate personal protective equipment
in assembling the wall?

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 54 of 81

OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.4-2b


Title:
Performance Objective:

Erect the Wall


Given the necessary materials, you should be
able to erect a wall

Supplies and Materials:

Working Drawing/ Plan


Lumber, fasteners

Tools and Equipment:

circular saw
hand saw
hammer
wrecking bar

folding rule
try square
measuring rods

Steps/Procedure:
Step 1. If the sheathing was installed with the wall laying down, or if the wall is
very long, it will probably be too heavy to be lifted into place by the
framing crew. In that case, use a crane or the special lifting jacks made
for that purpose . Use cleats to prevent the wall
from sliding.
Step 2. Raise the wall section and nail it in place using
16d nails on every other floor joist. On a
concrete slab, use preset anchor bolts.
Step 3. Plumb the corners and apply temporary exterior
bracing. Then erect, plumb, and brace the
remaining walls. The bracing helps keep the
structure square and will prevent the walls from
being blown over by the wind. Generally, the
braces remain in place until the roof is complete.
Step 4. As the walls are erected, straighten the walls and nail temporary interior
bracing in place.
Assessment Method:
Portfolio
Demonstration

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 55 of 81

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST


OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.4-2b
Name of Trainee:______________________________ Date: __________________

CRITERIA

YES

NO

1. Did I use a cleat to prevent the wall from sliding while


erecting the wall?
2. Is the erected wall in according to the house plan and
specifications of 3 mm on all measurements,
plumbness, levelness and squareness?
3. Did I secure the wall with temporary exterior and
interior bracing?
4. Did I use appropriate personal protective equipment
in assembling the wall?
5. Did I perform housekeeping according to safety
regulation?

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 56 of 81

OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.4-2c


Title:

Plumb and Align a Wall

Performance Objective:

Given the necessary materials, you should be


able to plumb and align a wall

Supplies and Materials:

Working Drawing/ Plan


Lumber, fasteners

Tools and Equipment:

hand saw
hammer
wrecking bar

folding rule
try square

Steps/Procedure:
Step 1. Plumb one corner post with a level or a plumb bob. Nail temporary braces
to hold the post in place. Repeat this procedure for all corner posts.
Step 2. Fasten a chalk line to the outside of one corner post at the top and stretch
the line to the corner post at
the opposite end of the
building. Then fasten the line
to this post.
Step 3. Place a 3/4-inch block under
each end of the line for
clearance.
Step 4. Place temporary braces at
intervals small enough to
hold the wall straight.
Step 5. Nail the brace when the wall
is far enough away from the
line to permit a 3/4-inch
block to slide between the
line and the plate.
NOTE: Do not remove the temporary
braces until you have completed the
framingparticularly the floor or roof diaphragm that sits on top of the wallsand
sheathing for the entire building.
Assessment Method:
Portfolio
Demonstration

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 57 of 81

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST


OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.4-2c
Name of Trainee:______________________________ Date: __________________

CRITERIA

YES

NO

1. Is the erected wall in according to the house plan and


specifications of 3 mm on all measurements,
plumbness, levelness and squareness?
2. Did I use appropriate personal protective equipment
in laying out the wall?
3. Did I perform housekeeping according to safety
regulation?

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 58 of 81

LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 5

Lay-out/fabricate/install roof frames

CONTENTS:
Types of Roof Designs
Roof Frames
Parts of a Roof
Tension and Compression of Truss
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Types of roof and other components are fabricated, laid-out and installed
according to working drawings and specifications with tolerance of + 3mm
on all measurements, plumbness, levelness and squareness
2. Roof components are installed according to working drawings and
specifications
3. Unexpected situations are responded to in line with work place requirement
4. Housekeeping is performed according to safety regulations
5. Appropriate PPE is used according to job requirements and OHS
specifications
CONDITIONS:
You must be provided with the following:
1.
WORKPLACE LOCATION
2.
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Claw Hammer
Pencil/Marking pen
Pull-Push Rule
Nylon String
Steel Square
Try-square
Hand Saw
Chalk Line
3. TRAINING MATERIALS
Leaning Packages
Bond paper
Ball pens

Personal
Protective
Equipment
Portable Circular Saw
Plan and working drawings
Lumber
Nails
Plywood

Manuals
Related References

ASSESSMENT METHOD
Portfolio

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 59 of 81

Learning Experience
Lay-out/fabricate/install roof frames
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

Read Information Sheet No. 5.5-1 on


Types of Roof Design
Compare your answer to the answer
key

Answer Self-Check No. 5.5-1


Read Information Sheet No. 5.5-2 on
Roof Frames

Compare your answer to the answer


key

Answer Self-Check No. 5.5-2


Read Information Sheet No. 5.5-3 on
Parts of a Roof

Compare your answer to the answer


key

Answer Self-Check No. 5.5-3

Evaluate your own work using the


Performance Criteria Checklist
Perform Operation Sheet No. 5.5-3 on Present your work to your trainer for
Laying-out Truss
evaluation
Keep a copy of your work for the next
activities
Read Information Sheet No. 5.5-4 on
Tension and Compression of
Truss
Answer Self-Check No. 5.5-4

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Compare your answer to the answer


key

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 60 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.5-1


TYPES OF ROOF DESIGNS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the Different
TYPES OF ROOF DESIGNS.
A roof in residential construction is typically a sloped structural system that
supports gravity and lateral loads and transfers the loads to the walls below.
Generally, the four options for wood roof construction are
roof trusses
rafters and cross-ties
rafters with ridge beams (i.e. cathedral ceiling)
timber framing
The major types of roofs are:
1. Shed Roof, Lean-to Roof or Pent Roof - a roof shape having only one
sloping plane.
2. Gable Roof or Pitch Roof - a roof having a single slope on each side of a
central ridge; usually with a gable at one or both ends.
3. Hip Roof or Hip and Valley Roof a roof which slopes upward from all four
sides of a building, requiring a hip rafter at each corner.
4. Pyramidal Roof - a hipped roof that usually has four to six sloping surfaces,
terminating in a peak.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 61 of 81

5. Pavilion Roof - a roof hipped equally on all sides, so as to have a pyramidal


form; a pyramidal hipped roof.
6. Gambrel Roof - a roof which has two pitches on each side (U.S.); in
Great Britain called a Mansard Roof
7. Sawtooth Roof - is a development of the shed roof made into a series of
lean-to roofs covering one building. This is commonly used in factories where
extra light is required through the clerestories formed in the vertical portion of
the roof.
8. Butterfly Roof - is a two shed roof where the slopes meet at the center of the
building.
9. Dome - is a hemispherical form of roof usually found in observatories.
10. Conical Roof or Sphere - is a steep roof of circular section that tapers
uniformly from the circular base to a central point. - is a steep roof of circular
section that tapers uniformly from the circular base to a central point.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 62 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.5-1


Check your mastery in the different types of roof design by completing the
tasks below.
IDENTIFICATION: Identify the types of roof design in the illustration. Write your
answer on the space provided.

1. ____________________________

2. ____________________________

3. ____________________________

4. ____________________________

5. ____________________________

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 63 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.5-1


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Gable roof
Hip roof
Cross gable roof
Gambrel roof
Shed

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 64 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.5-2


ROOF FRAMES
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to IDENTIFY the PARTS
OF ROOF FRAMES
Some important roof terms are:
1. Common rafters - These are framing members that extend at right angles
from the plate line to the roof ridge. They are called common rafters because
they are common to all types of roofs and are used as the basis for laying out
other types of rafters.
2. Hip rafters - These are roof members that extend diagonally from the corner
of the plate to the ridge.
3. Valley rafters - These rafters extend from the plate to the ridge along the
lines where two roofs intersect.
4. Jack rafters - These are a common rafter. The three kinds of jack rafter are:
Hip jack, which extends from the plate to the hip rafter.
Valley jack, which extends from the ridge of the valley rafter.
Cripple jack, which is placed between a hip rafter and a valley rafter. The
cripple jack rafter is also part of a common rafter, but it touches neither
the ridge of the roof nor the rafter plate.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 65 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.5-2


Check your mastery in identifying the different parts of roof frames by
completing the tasks below.
IDENTIFICATION: Look at the illustration below. Identify the parts of the roof frames
by writing your answer on the space provided.

1. _______________________________
2. _______________________________
3. _______________________________
4. _______________________________
5. _______________________________
6. _______________________________
7. _______________________________
8. _______________________________

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 66 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.5-2


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Hip rafter
Ridge or Ridge board
Valley jack rafter
Common rafter
Hip jack rafter
Valley rafter
Overhang
Plate

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 67 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.5-3


PARTS OF A ROOF TRUSS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the PARTS OF A
ROOF TRUSS.
Roof trusses incorporate rafters (top chords) and ceiling joists (bottom
chords) into a structural frame fabricated from 2-inch-thick dimension lumber, usually
2x4s or 2x6s. A combination of web members are positioned between the top and
bottom chords, usually in triangular arrangements that form a rigid framework.
Roof trusses are able to span the entire width of a home without interior
support walls, allowing complete freedom in partitioning interior living space.
Truss Framing and Parts of a Truss
A truss is a structure composed of a combination of members, usually in some
triangular arrangement so as to constitute a rigid framework. The major parts of a
truss are:
1. Chord - A principal member of a truss which extends from one end to the
other, primarily to resist bending; usually one of a pair of such
members. The two types of chord members are the upper or top
chord and the lower or bottom chord.
2. Web - In a truss, any member which joins the top and bottom chords. There
are two types of web members: the vertical web members and the
diagonal web members.
3. King post - A vertical member extending from the apex of the inclined rafters
to the tie beam between the rafters at their lower ends. A joggle post
is a king post having shoulders or notches at its lower end to
support the feet of struts.
4. Collar beam - A horizontal member which ties together (and stiffens) two
opposite common rafters, usually at a point about halfway up the
rafters.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 68 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.5-3


Check your mastery in the different parts of a roof by completing the tasks
below.
IDENTIFICATION: Look at the illustration below. Identify the parts of the roof frames
by writing your answer on the space provided.

1. ___________________________
2. ___________________________
3. ___________________________
4. ___________________________
5. ___________________________

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 69 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.5-3


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Slope
Rafter
Bottom Chord
Splice
Web

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 70 of 81

OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.5-3


Title:

Layout Truss

Performance Objective:

Given the necessary materials, you should be


able to layout truss

Supplies and Materials:

Working Drawing/ Plan


Lumber, fasteners

Tools and Equipment:

circular saw
hand saw
hammer
wrecking bar

folding rule
try square
measuring rods

Steps/Procedure:
Step 1. Get the material to a level spot of ground where work benches will be
almost level.
Step 2. Obtain from the blueprints the measurement of all pieces to be used in the
truss.
Step 3. Lay out the length on the different sizes of timber and cut them accurately.
Step 4. After all lengths are cut, lay them in their correct position to form a truss.
Step 5. Nail them together temporarily.
Step 6. Lay out the location of all holes to be bored. Recheck the measurements
for accuracy.
Step 7. Bore holes to the size called for on the print. Use a brace and bit or the
woodborer that accompanies the air compressor. Bore holes perpendicular to the
face of the timber.

Truss Layout
Assessment Method:
Portfolio
Demonstration

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 71 of 81

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST


OPERATION SHEET NO. 5.5-3
Name of Trainee:______________________________ Date: __________________

CRITERIA

YES

NO

1. Did I lay out the length of the different sizes of timber


and cut them accurately?
2. Did I assemble truss components according to
working drawing s and specifications with tolerance
of 3 mm on all dimensions, plumbness, levelness
and squareness?
3. Did I use appropriate personal protective equipment
in cutting formwork materials?
4. Did I perform housekeeping according to safety
regulations?

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 72 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.5-4


TENSION AND COMPRESSION OF TRUSS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the TENSION
AND COMPRESSION OF A TRUSS
All trusses in a roof structure are designed for the worst possible combination
of dead, live and wind loads. The individual truss members are designed to restrain
the corresponding forces i.e., tension or compression, or a combination of bending
with either the tension or compression force.
a. Tension (pulling). With this type of force the member being pulled or subjected
to a tension force is said to be in tension. The ability of a member to
restrain tension forces depends on the material strength of the member and
its cross-sectional area.
b. Compression (pushing). When a structural member is subjected to this type of
force it is sometimes referred to as a column. Unlike a tension member, the
ability of a column to restrain compression forces is not simply a function of
the cross-sectional area, but a combination of the material strength, the
column length and the cross-sectional shape of the column.
In view A, the ends of the two top chords (A-B and A-C) are being pushed
together(compressed). The bottom chord prevents the lower ends (B and C) of the
top chords from pushing out; therefore, the bottom chord is in a pulling-apart
state(tension). Because the lower ends of the top chords cannot pull apart, the peak
of the truss (A) cannot
drop down.
In view B, the
long webs are secured
to the peak of the truss
(A) and also fastened to
the bottom chord at
points D and E. This
gives the bottom chord
support along the
outside wall span. The
weight of the bottom
chord has a pullingapart effect (tension) on
the long webs.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 73 of 81

In view C, the short webs run from the intermediate points F and G of the top
chord to points D and E of the bottom chord. Their purpose is to provide support to
the top chord. This exerts a downward, pushing-together force (compression) on
the short web.
In view D, you can see that the overall design of the truss roof transfers the
entire load (roof weight, snow load, wind load, and so forth) down through the
outside walls to the foundation. Web members must be fastened at certain
points along the top and bottom chords in order to handle the stress and weight
placed upon the truss.

The balance of tension and compression gives the truss its


ability to carry heavy loads and cover
wide spans.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 74 of 81

SELF- CHECK NO. 5.5-4


Check your mastery in the tension and compression of truss by completing
the tasks below.
IDENTIFICATION: Look at the illustration below. Identify the tension and
compression member of the roof truss by writing your answer on the space
provided. Write T if the truss member is a tension member or C if it is a
compression member.

1. ____________
2. ____________
3. ____________
4. ____________
5. ____________

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 75 of 81

ANSWER KEY 5.5-4


Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer
back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

C
C
T
T
C

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 76 of 81

LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 6

Lay-out/install ceiling joist

CONTENTS:
Ceiling Joist
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Ceiling joists are identified, measured, and cut according to working
drawings and specifications with tolerance of + 3 mm on all measurements,
levelness and squareness
2. Ceiling joists are laid-out and installed according to working drawings and
specifications with tolerance of + 3 mm on all measurements, levelness and
squareness
CONDITIONS:
You must be provided with the following:
1.
WORKPLACE LOCATION
2.
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Claw Hammer
Pencil/Marking pen
Pull-Push Rule
Nylon String
Steel Square
Try-square
Hand Saw
Chalk Line
3. TRAINING MATERIALS
Leaning Packages
Bond paper
Ball pens

Personal Protective
Equipment
Portable Circular Saw
Plan and working drawings
Lumber
Nails
Plywood

Manuals
Related References

ASSESSMENT METHOD
Portfolio

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 77 of 81

Learning Experience
Lay-out/install ceiling joist
Learning Activities

Special Instructions

Read Information Sheet No. 5.6-1 on


Types of Roof Design
Evaluate your own work using the
Performance Criteria Checklist
Perform Job Sheet No. 5.6-1 on Install Present your work to your trainer for
Ceiling Joist
evaluation
Keep a copy of your work for the next
activities

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 78 of 81

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 5.6-1


CEILING JOISTS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Upon completing this section, you should be able to Identify the PARTS of
CEILING FRAMES and Know how to INSTALL it.
A wood ceiling framing system consists of a framework of joists composed of
the ceiling joists, the binding joist or binder, the plate joist and the ceiling strap.
1. Ceiling joist - one of several small beams to which the ceiling of a room is
attached. They are mortised into the sides of the binding joists, nailed to the
underside of these joists, suspended from them by straps.
2. Binding joist or binder - a beam which supports the common joists of a
wood floor above and the ceiling joists below; commonly joins two vertical
posts.
3. Plate joist - a horizontal board which connects and terminates the ceiling
joists. It provides the line and rigidity at the ends of the joists and connects the
suspended ceiling to the walls.
4. Ceiling strap - a strip of wood, nailed to the underside of floor joists or rafters,
from which a ceiling is suspended or fastened.

Roof Framing Ceiling Joists


Parallel to Rafters
Ceiling joists are usually
installed 16 inches or 24 inches
on center, starting at one side of
the building and continuing
across, parallel to the rafters.
Extra joists, if needed, may
be placed without affecting the
spacing of the prime joists.
Selecting and installing the ceiling joists are much the same as for floor joists.
Ceiling joists are nailed to both the plates and the rafters, if possible, and lapped and
nailed over bearing partitions. Joists that lie beside rafters on a plate are cut at the
same pitch as the rafter, flush with the top of the rafter. Joists are installed crown or
camber up.

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 79 of 81

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 80 of 81

JZGMSAT
QA
SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II
Install Framing
Works

Date Developed:
Sept. 1, 2011
Developed by:
Glenn F.
Salandanan

Document No.
Issued by:
Revision
____

Page 81 of 81