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Next Generation Wireless Networks:

exploring cognitive or smart radios

A technology investigation report


submitted by:
Souma Badombena-Wanta

To Dr. Jeremy Allnutt

As part of TCOM551-Digital Communications

GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY


The Volgeneau School of Information Technology and Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering
Fairfax, VA

May 2008
Table of Contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……..1

1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….1

2. An overview of the wireless ecosystem ………………………..……..…………….……………….2


2.1. The current scene and context ……………………………………………………………..….2
2.2. Next Generation Networks: “achieving a ubiquitous society”……………………3
3. Definition………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………3
3.1. The origin of cognitive or smart radio………………………………………….……………3
3.2. Why “cognitive” or “smart” radios?............................................................3
3.3. The need and motivation for cognitive radios……………………………..……………4
4. Description………………………………………………………………………………..…………..……………5
4.1. Features and components of a cognitive radio……………………….…………………5
4.2. From Software Defined Radio (SDR) to Cognitive Radio (CR)…………….………7
6. Technology and implementation……………………………………………………………………..……8
6.1. Core concepts……………………………………………………………………………………..……8
6.2. Key Enablers………………………………………………………………………………..………….10
6.3. Key challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………10
7. The potential impacts of Cognitive Radios………………..…………………………………………10
7.1. The advantages of cognitive radio……………………………………………………..……10
7.2 Market adoption and commercial applications……………………………………….10
8. Relevant research and ongoing work………………………………………………………………….11
8.1. Implementers and success stories…………………………………………………………..11
8.2. Further potentialities: cognitive radio and satellites……………………….………11

9. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……12
Terminology and Definitions

CR: Cognitive Radio


SDR: Software Defined Radio
A/D: Analog-to-Digital convertor
D/A: Digital-to-Analog convertor
DSP: Digital Signal Processor
MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple Output
UWB: Ultra Wide Band
3G Third Generation mobile cellular systems, e.g. based on CDMA
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
LTE: Long Term Evolution
HSDPA: High Speed Digital Packet Access
GSM: Global System for Mobile communications
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
ITU: International Telecommunication Union
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Software Defined Radio (SDR)
Radio in which some or all of the physical layer functions is Software Defined.
Software Controlled Radio
Radio in which some or all of the physical layer functions is Software Controlled.
Adaptive Radio
Radio in which communications systems have a mean of monitoring its own performance and a
mean of varying its own parameters by closed-loop action to improve its performance.
Policy
(a) A set of rules governing radio system behavior. Policies may originate from regulators,
manufacturers, developers, network and system operators, and system users.
(b) A machine interpretable instantiation of policy as defined in (a)
Intelligent Radio
Cognitive radio that is capable of machine learning.
Abstract

The field of wireless communications is currently experiencing a tremendous revolution


characterized by the proliferation of new technologies, standards and devices leading to a
dramatic increase of users and customers in the market. This situation is obviously causing the
fundamental and enabling resource which is the radio spectrum to be subject to different
challenges resulting in increased interference, channel blocking, allocation defaults and wasted
bands of the spectrum. To be able to remedy these deficiencies and also create a suitable
environment for future and imminent opportunities, advanced, powerful and effective
solutions have to be implemented allowing the best management and optimization of spectrum
resources by operating on different assets. This paper therefore investigates and describes the
concept of cognitive radio as a next generation wireless network technology with a
considerable potential impact.

1. Introduction

Technologies and markets are quickly evolving in the wireless arena and tremendous and
enormous opportunities await us. Wireless technology is poised to dramatically revolution the
way people communicate and also the way machines communicate. The radio spectrum
remains the unique resource that enables and sustains all types of wireless communication.
With the multiplication of transmission technologies and wireless devices provoking an
explosive growth of users bound to be very mobile, spectrum availability and management
becomes a challenge for service providers and operators. The spectrum is regulated by the FCC
which specifies and assigns different usable frequencies to operators according to their
services. (see Annex A). The widespread adoption of various wireless technologies has
provoked a tremendous demand for bandwidth that is expected to increase into the future.

The current method utilized in managing co-existence of multiple wireless systems requires
truncating the available bandwidth into frequency bands and allocating them to different
market licensed users. It has been revealed that this technique of spectrum licensing has
allowed a very crowded spectrum with nearly all frequency bands already assigned to different
users. The main challenge today is to find ways to detect unoccupied bands in the spectrum to
accommodate secondary wireless devices without interfering with the communications of the
primary or licensed users of the spectrum. With reduced spectrum available to be licensed to
new wireless services, the proposed approach defines an innovative strategy in the FCC's
spectrum management techniques which will be creating new opportunities for a better
spectrum reuse scheme. The cognitive radio technology sets the foundation for the deployment
of smart flexible networks that cooperatively adapt to increase the overall network
performance[6]. In this paper, we will be giving an overview of next generation wireless
paradigms to come and then focus on the cognitive radio technology by touching different
technical aspects of it.

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2. An overview of the wireless ecosystem

2.1. The current scene and context

The wireless ecosystem features today, several technologies and standards that allow a broad
range of users to communicate by operating or using their devices. Wireless services are
increasingly ubiquitous and crucial components in our global telecommunications
infrastructure. We have witnessed the development and rollout of various technologies such as
Wi-Fi (802.11 a/b/g/n), Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, GPRS, CDMA, which have created enormous
growth and value among markets. Studies have shown that these technologies are extensively
employed by users making use of the radio spectrum frequency bands assigned by the FCC, be
they licensed or unlicensed. This has caused the spectrum to be poorly utilized and to be
referred as underutilized. With newly unfolding broadband technologies such as WiMax, EVDO,
LTE, MIMO, UWB, Mobile IP, it will be likely that spectrum resources will highly solicited given
the increased number of services that will be made available. With such a proliferation of new
wireless services being offered over satellites, over cellular networks, and over WLANs, this is
raising concern over how to allocate or reallocate scarce RF spectrum. This calls for a better
spectrum management technology.

2.2. Next Generation Networks: achieving a ubiquitous society

As technology evolves, we are becoming a more and more digitally-oriented society with
increased needs and services. Considering all current and potential instances, and also ever
increasing demands of the market, the telecommunications landscape is providing growth
opportunities in terms of innovative solutions. The future ecosystem will be mainly
characterized by Next Generation Networks which will help achieve increased mobility,
broadband, seamless and ubiquitous communications in the future. In this perspective,
cognitive radio comes as a crucial enabler and driver that will provide a suitable path to radio
network access. Future communication systems will have to seamlessly and opportunistically
integrate multiple radio technologies and heterogeneous wireless access networks in order to
offer context-dependent ubiquitous connectivity and information access. The growing demand
for large data rates shows an increased lack of spectrum. New paradigms for efficiently
exploiting the spectrum are clearly needed in this case. A continuously growing role for smart
adaptive spectrum agile radios exploiting the capabilities of reconfigurable radio architectures
is to be expected. Hence, the next generation wireless networks will combine high-speed
mobile communications with the current Internet architecture to create novel ways to
communicate, access content, operate business transactions, and provide entertainment.

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3. Definition

3.1. The origin of Cognitive Radio

In the first doctoral dissertation on cognitive radio published in May 2000, Joseph Mitola
described how a cognitive radio could improve the flexibility of personal wireless services
through a new language called the radio knowledge representation language. Mitola in his PhD
thesis [2] explains: “The term cognitive radio identifies the point in which wireless personal
digital assistants (PDAs) and the related networks are sufficiently computationally intelligent
about radio resources and related computer-to-computer communications to detect user
communications needs as a function of use context, and to provide radio resources and wireless
services most appropriate to those needs.” [2]This explanation refers to a vision of an intelligent
wireless device employed by a mobile user. And wherever the user goes, the cognitive device
will adapt to the new environment allowing him/her to be “always connected”. Dr Joseph
Mitola III was therefore the first to coin the term ‘cognitive radio’.
Subsequent to this, the FCC was able to endorse Dr. Mitola’s solution and managed to provide
another version of the definition of a cognitive radio. FCC indeed describes cognitive radio as a
system which could negotiate cooperatively with other spectrum users to enable more efficient
sharing of spectrum. A cognitive radio could also identify portions of the spectrum that are
unused at a specific time or location and transmit in such unused ‘white spaces,’ resulting in
more intense, more efficient use of the spectrum while avoiding interference to other users. [1]

Several other industry and scientific institutions such as the IEEE also prominently gave working
definitions of the term. The IEEE elaborated the following definition: “A type of radio that can
sense and autonomously reason about its environment and adapt accordingly. This radio could
employ knowledge representation, automated reasoning and machine learning
mechanisms in establishing, conducting, or terminating communication or networking functions
with other radios. Cognitive radios can be trained to dynamically and autonomously adjust its
operating parameters.” [3]

3.2. Why “cognitive” or “smart” radios?

By referring ourselves to the term “cognitive” we will still be trying to understand the notion of
cognitive radio. Hence, in an attempt to dig deeper in the definition and get a more elaborated
explanation, we will first seek the meaning of the term “cognitive”.
The term cognitive radio is derived from “cognition”. According to Wikipedia [5] cognition is
referred to as:

Mental processes of an individual, with particular relation


Mental states such as beliefs, desires and intentions
Information processing involving learning and knowledge
Description of the emergent development of knowledge and concepts within a group

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Resulting from these explanations we can say more explicitly that a cognitive radio is a self-
aware communication system that efficiently uses spectrum in an intelligent way. It
autonomously coordinates the usage of spectrum in identifying unused radio spectrum on the
basis of observing spectrum usage. The classification of spectrum as being unused and the way
it is used involves regulation, as this spectrum might be originally assigned to a licensed
communication system. Figure 1 shows a detailed illustration of a cognitive process.

Fig 1. Cognitive computer cycle.


Source: (Figure c) 2004 Joseph Mitola III reprinted with permission from “Cognitive Networks:
Toward self-aware Networks” (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, London, p. 175.

3.3. The need and motivation for cognitive radio

The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is divided in two categories of bands: licensed and
unlicensed bands. Users can freely broadcast in unlicensed. Nevertheless, the amount of
interference generated by a communication system functioning in those bands has to be
limited in order to avoid interference with other users’ communications. As a result some
restrictions on the power spectral density are usually established. However an extremely high
number of users transmitting on the same unlicensed band (in the same area), can be
responsible of an high overall aggregated interference, sufficient to prevent communications.
Licensed services are instead designed to efficiently utilize the spectrum, with the aim of
assuring a quality of service for primary users. The licensed spectrum is not used for example in
some geographical regions; there are also many applications for emergency were the use of the
spectrum has a very low usage rate. Furthermore, by scanning the radio spectrum in some

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revenue-rich urban areas, we would find that some frequency bands are largely unoccupied
most of the time, that some other frequency bands are only partially occupied, and that the
remaining frequency bands are heavily used [7]. In the light of these observations, the concept
of spectrum gaps has been defined. A spectrum gap is a band of frequencies allocated to a
primary user, but, at a particular time and specific geographic location, the band is not being
used by that user. In order to improve spectrum utilization, these spectrum gaps or holes could
be utilized by secondary users at the right time and location.
Cognitive radio therefore basically allows to fulfill the necessity of increased efficiency in the
radio spectrum occupation. The basic idea rests in the fact that a CR terminal can sense its
environment and location and then adapt some of its features such as power, frequency,
modulation allowing to dynamically reuse any available spectrum as illustrated in Fig. 1. This
could in theory lead to a multidimensional reuse of spectrum in space, frequency and time,
exceeding the severe limitations in the spectrum and bandwidth allocations that have impaired
broadband wireless communications development. With reference to the spectrum, a cognitive
should therefore fulfill the following spectrum-oriented functionalities: Spectrum sensing
spectrum management, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing.

Fig.2 : The Spectrum hole concept


Source: Reprinted with permission from [6] Hossain, Bhargava, Cognitive Wireless
Communication Networks,© Springer, New York, 2007

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4. Description

4.1. Features and components of a cognitive radio

As we previously mentioned, in contrast to current systems where the spectrum allocation is


static, future cognitive radio devices will be able to seek and use in a dynamic way the
frequencies for network access and this will be done by autonomous detection of vacant bands
in the radio spectrum. One cognitive radio incorporates several sources of information,
determines its current operating settings, and collaborates with other cognitive radios in a
wireless network. In an attempt to describe a cognitive radio we are to identify different
functions or modules representing essential features for its normal functioning or operation.
The main components of a cognitive radio transceiver are the radio front-end and the baseband
processing unit. The components of a cognitive radio RF front-end are as follows [9]:
The RF filter: the RF filter selects the desired band filtering the received RF signal
through a bandpass filter.
The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA): the LNA amplifies the desired signal while
simultaneously minimizing noise component.
The Mixer: in the mixer, the received signal is mixed with locally generated RF
frequency and converted to the baseband or the intermediate frequency (IF).
A Voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO): The VCO generates a signal at a specific
frequency for a given voltage to mix with the incoming signal. This procedure
converts the incoming signal to baseband or an intermediate frequency.
A Phase locked loop (PLL): The PLL ensures that a signal is locked on a specific
frequency and can also be used to generate precise frequencies with fine resolution.
A Channel selection filter: The channel selection filter is used to select the desired
channel and to reject the adjacent channels.
An Automatic gain control (AGC): The AGC maintains the gain or output power level
of an amplifier constant over a

From these features, we can notice and conclude that a cognitive radio is a software defined
radio that additionally senses its environment, tracks changes and reacts upon its finding.
Figure 3 [6], shows a block diagram of a cognitive radio system. The notion of SDR is highlighted
in the following section.

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Fig 3. Schematic Block Diagram of a CR (SDR) Transceiver
Source: Friedrich K. Jondral, Software-Defined Radio—Basics and Evolution to Cognitive Radio
Universit¨at Karlsruhe (TH), Institut f¨ur Nachrichtentechnik, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany

4.2 From Software Defined Radio to Cognitive Radio

The idea of a cognitive radio extends the concepts of a hardware radio and a Software Defined
Radio from a simple, single function device to a radio that senses and reacts to its
operating environment. We can obviously remark that cognitive radio systems are therefore
tightly related to software-defined radio (SDR) or even almost practically similar. With SDR, the
definition of some parameters of the communication is allowed by a software embedded in the
radio terminal, allowing a high level of reconfigurability of signalling technique and spectrum
occupation. Cognitive radio is even smarter than SDR, since the aim is to have a radio that can
sense and is aware of its environment and that can learn from its environment for the
best spectrum and resources usage. [7]
Joseph Mitola who was recognized for also coining the term of software radio said, "A software
radio is a radio whose channel modulation waveforms are defined in software.
That is, waveforms are generated as sampled digital signals, converted from digital to analog
via a wideband DAC and then possibly upconverted from IF to RF. The receiver, similarly,
employs a wideband Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) that captures all of the channels of the
software radio node. The receiver then extracts, downconverts and demodulates the channel
waveform using software on a general purpose processor." [2]
In a software-defined radio, a wideband analog-to-digital converter captures signals from a
wide swath of spectrum. The system then processes the signal with software, using general-
purpose microprocessors. Figure 4 [12] shows in a 3-D image the overall modular diagram of a
SDR system.

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Fig 4. 3D Modular Diagram of the SDR Transceiver system
Source: IEEE Spectrum, Issue Vol II, Photo Credits: john hersey/ bryan christie design
(http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/feb07/4892)

5. Technology and Implementation

5.1. Core concepts

A cognitive radio wireless system is considered as an advanced technology integration


environment with focus on building adaptive, spectrum-efficient systems with emerging
programmable radios. Figure 5 shows the fundamentals integration modules that intervene in a
CR/SDR implementation. The primary building blocks in this a typical preliminary (tentative)
cognitive radio system implementation would include [11]:
The radio hardware: the radio hardware includes radio frequency circuitry and signal
processing devices.
The software modules: software modules represent code that has been loaded into field
programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), digital signal processors (DSPs), or embedded
general purpose processors.
The Middleware: the middleware layer attempts to reduce the details of specific devices
and software modules to common abstractions. For example, setting the transmit
frequency of the radio frequency circuitry.
The Logical Radio Layer: depending on the radio configuration, the hardware and
software can be programmed to act like multiple radio links are available. For example,
the radio might support communications on several frequencies, time slots, or CDMA
codes, each of which looks like an independent link. The logical radio layer implements
this abstraction.

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The Device Manager: the device manager loads radio configurations into the hardware
components and sets-up the logical radios.
The Configuration Manager: the configuration manager determines which radio
configurations are available on the physical radio for rapid loading into the hardware.
The Module Libraries: The module libraries are collections of radio functions. For
example, modulations (AM, FM, BPSK, QPSK), error control, encryption, and adaptive
algorithms. The module libraries are built with a variety of tools (e.g. general purpose
compilers, cross compilers, hardware design languages, and FPGA design tools).
Coordinating the multiple sources that may go into building a specific module is a
challenging task.
Rules Engine and Policies: policies are used to limit the operation of the radio due to
regulatory, geographical, or physical constraints. Policies should be usable independent
of a particular radio. A “rules engine” is used to interpret policies. Device Managers,
Logical Radios, Middleware, and hardware drivers might use the rules engine and
loaded policies to determine allowed operation.
The Smart Controller: a “smart controller” manages all of the radio resources outlined
above.

Fig. 5 Cognitive radio integration components


Source:Cognitive Radio (presentation by Nikhil Adnani http://www.sce.carleton.ca/courses/sysc-
4700/w07/SYSC4700-CourseNotes-W07/20-CognitiveRadio-NAdnani-20Mar07.pdf

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6.2. Key enablers

From analyzing previously described core concepts, we come to naturally deduct that a
practical implementation of a CR/SDR system is essentially governed by a number of main or
principal elements thus underlying the design of a CR/SDR systems. These key technology
elements are: the fast processors (DSP) and the wideband A/Ds.

6.3. Key Challenges

The design and implementation of cognitive radio systems comes obviously with significant
challenges that add more complexity in the process. Cognitive radio systems are deemed to be
intricate and are to be implemented according to some requirements such as: co-existence with
legacy wireless system, usage of their spectrum resources, no interference with them. As such,
it poses a number of challenges for policy makers. Some of these challenges are general and
indirect. For example, the implications of software radio for industry structure and competition
along the wireless value chain will determine which (if any) segments of value chain will need to
be regulated in the future. Standardization is another area where cognitive radio is likely to
have an important impact. Efforts are being made by standard bodies to be able to create full
and functional standards for the cognitive radio technology.

7. Potential impacts of Cognitive Radio

7.1. Advantages of Cognitive Radio

Migrating software definition to radios opens a broad range of opportunities to improve radio
communications and wireless networking services. Along with that flexibility comes a challenge
to soundly and robustly manage all the components that compose a cognitive radio.
The promise of cognitive radios is improved use of spectrum resources, reduced engineering
and planning time, and adaptation to current operating conditions, but we mainly see as
advantages of cognitive radio the following:
Improving spectrum utilization and efficiency,
Improving link robustness and reliability,
Less expensive and cost-effective radios
Advanced network topologies and architectures,
Enhancing SDR techniques,
Automated radio resource or spectrum management.

7.2 Market adoption and commercial applications

The military has been interested in cognitive and software-defined radio for some time, and not
surprisingly, some of the first implementations have been in military applications. First,
they have a pressing need to be able to support multiple protocols to allow their radios to
work around the globe and to be capable of integrating signals from many RF sources

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(satellite, terrestrial, etc.). Second, they have a strong need for security and need to be
able to protect their ability to communicate in hostile environments (e.g., in the face of
jamming by enemy and congested battlefield conditions). But the commercial domain is gaining
momentum as far as adoption and implementation with several companies experimenting and
trialing cognitive radio systems. The commercial market segments therefore possess a number
of targeted applications for which they feed ideas, plans and experimentations. These
applications are:
Cell phones, Supporting CDMA and GSM, WiMax
Cellular Base Stations (MIMOs)
802.11 a/b/g, future support for n
Disaster Coordination, RF Translation

8. Relevant research and ongoing work

8.1. Implementers and success stories

The cognitive radio techniques appear to be a promising approach. Beyond these initial
deployments, several entities have started publicly acknowledged initiatives into cognitive radio
including DARPA, the SDR Forum, IEEE, and the FCC. Many companies already have commercial
products running different SDR radio communication protocols and standards. Companies that
are working on SDR solutions include Intel, Morphics Technology, Chameleon, Vanu Inc., and
Raytheon, among many others. There is also significant academic research going on in SDR
areas. Researchers are exploring new energy-efficient algorithms, reconfigurable architectures
based on ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits), digital signal processing for SDRs, and
the use of FPGAs (field-programmable gate arrays) for SDR silicon. In addition, Intel is working
with United States, European, and some Asian regulatory authorities to adapt regulatory
guidelines for agile radio technology.
Within the industry Vanu Inc. a Cambridge, MA based company have been able to win
accreditation and recognition as a SDR provider. The Vanu Software Radio GSM Base Station
from Vanu can support multiple cellular technologies and frequencies at the same time and can
be modified in the future without any hardware changes. Several other institutions are also
currently pursuing cognitive radio research including E2R, Virginia Tech, Winlab, and BWRC.

8.2. Further potentialities: cognitive radio and satellites

The introduction of Software Radio Technology at the satellite level has particular interest for:
(1) Improving the functionalities of a payload/repeater, (2) introducing standard updates.
(3) modifying the mission of a payload/repeater, or (4) Introducing new concepts (e.g.
adaptative coding and modulation).

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9. Conclusion

The successful deployment of cognitive radio technology is one of, if not the most significant
currently identified opportunities to dramatically expand the data carrying capacity of our finite
wireless spectrum. Cognitive radio brings a new level of sophistication to wireless
communications technology. Despite recent successful implementations and considerable
advancements, some research challenges remain to be overcome before a truly practical
system might be deployed. In spite of the technical challenge, it is clear that existing
approaches to spectrum management, which date to the very early days of radio technology,
will soon be insufficient to meet the demands of modern wireless communications. Cognitive
radio offers hope and opportunity to meet this demand with a system that is compatible with
existing deployed wireless systems, stimulates new innovation, reduces regulatory charges,
stimulate market competition, preserves the rights of incumbent spectrum license holders, and
benefits the population overall.

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References

[1] Federal Communications Commission, Cognitive Radio Technologies Proceeding (CRTP),


http://www.fcc.gov/oet/cognitiveradio/.http://www.fcc.gov/oet/ea/presentations/files/may04
/May_04-Software_defined&Cognitive_Radio-AL.pdf
[2] Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_radio#cite_note-1 (query: “cognitive
radio) -(http://www.it.kth.se/~jmitola/Mitola_Dissertation8_Integrated.pdf)
[3] (IEEE 1900.1) Draft Document, “Standard Definitions and Concepts for Spectrum
Management and Advanced Radio System Technologies,” June 2, 2006.
http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/emc/emc/1900/3/index.htm
[4] J. Mitola III and G. Q. Maguire, “Cognitive radio: making software radios more personal,”
IEEE Pers. Commun., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 13–18, 1999.
[5] Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org, May 2008, Search query: cognitive
[6] http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/receivers/cognitive_radio/cognitive_radio.php
[7] A. Menouni Hayar1, R. Knopp, Mobile Communications Laboratory Institute, Eurecom,
Sophia Antipolis, FranceSOC Laboratory, ENST Sophia Antipolis
[8] GENI: Global Environment for Network Innovations, September 15, 2006
[9] Hossain, Bhargava, Cognitive Wireless Communication Networks, Springer, New York, 2007
[10] Cognitive Radio (presentation by Nikhil Adnani http://www.sce.carleton.ca/courses/sysc-
4700/w07/SYSC4700-CourseNotes-W07/20-CognitiveRadio-NAdnani-20Mar07.pdf
[11] Mahmoud, Qusay, Cognitive Networks, Towards Self-Aware Networks, John Wiley & Sons,
London
[12] IEEE Spectrum, Issue Vol II (article by Roy Rubenstein ) , Photo Credits: john hersey/ bryan
christie design
[13] Reed, Jeffrey, Software Radio, A modern approach to radio engineering, 2e ed., Prentice
Hall, New York 2002
Annex A: US RF Spectrum published in the Scientific American Issue of March 2006
COPYRIGHT 2006 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC (http://www.wel.atr.jp/~sun/19804824.pdf)
Annex A