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MAKALAH DASAR BIOKIMA HEREDITAS

DISUSUN OLEH:
SILVANI ALFAJRI

14.04.0.029

NURHASANAH SWANDI

14.04.0.034

SUSI SRIDAMAYANTI

14.04.0.005

JUMRIA

14.04.0.002

WIWIT ANUGRAH

14.04.0.004

SISKA

14.04.0.008

MARTINUS WEO

14.04.0.009

FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN


PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI
UNIVERSITAS RIAU KEPULAUAN
TAHUN 2016

KATA PENGANTAR
Keanugrahan inspirasi dari Tuhan yang Mahaagung menjadi kekuatan kepada
penulis makalah untuk segera menyelesaikan makalah ini. Oleh karena itu, tiada kata
yang terindah ucapan syukur tak terhingga karena penulis dapat menyelesaikan makalah
ini dengan pembahasan Dasar Biokimia Hereditas
Makalah ini kami buat untuk memenuhi tugas diskusi kelompok mata kuliah
Genetika dengan dosen pembimbing ibu Fauziah Syamsi, M. Si. Mengingat pentingnya
mahasiswa Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi untuk memahami Dasar Biokimia Hereditas,
maka makalah ini dibuat bertujuan untuk menambah wawasan dan pemahaman tentang
biokimia hereditas sebagai bekal menjadi guru biologi professional yang akan dating. Kami
berharap makalah ini bisa bermanfaat bagi kami dan pembaca lainnya.

Batam, 27 April 2016

Penyusun

DAFTAR ISI
KATA PENGANTAR...........................................................................................ii
DAFTAR ISI........................................................................................................iii
DAFTAR GAMBAR...........................................................................................iv
BAB I PENDAHULUAN.....................................................................................1
1. Latar Belakang.............................................................................................1
BAB II PEMBAHASAN..........................................................................................2
A. Asam Nukleat......................................................................................................2
1. DNA..........................................................................................................2
2. RNA...........................................................................................................4
B. Protein..............................................................................................................5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Komposisi dan cirri protein ............................................................................5


Struktur protein.............................................................................................5
Klasifikasi protein.........................................................................................7
Penamaan as. amino......................................................................................7
Penggolongan as. amino.................................................................................8
Ikatan peptida.............................................................................................10

C. Aliran Informasi Genetik................................................................................10


1. Kode Genetik..........................................................................................11
D. Sintesis Protein...............................................................................................13
1. Transkripsi................................................................................................14
2. Transmilasi...............................................................................................18
E. Replikasi DNA..............................................................................................21
F. Mutasi............................................................................................................26
G. Perbaikan Gen..............................................................................................33
BAB III PENUTUP............................................................................................35
A. Kesimpulan................................................................................................35
DAFTAR PUSTAKA..........................................................................................36

DAFTAR GAMBAR
Gambar 1.Untai helix DNA......................................................................2
Gambar 2.Komponen struktur protein........................................................3
Gambar 3.Gugus Samping.......................................................................6

Gambar 4. Jenis struktur protein.................................................................6


Gambar 5.As. amino non polar..................................................................8
Gambar 6. As. Amino polar......................................................................9
Gambar 7.As. gugus R positif...................................................................9
Gambar 8.As. gugus R negatif...................................................................9
Gambar 9. Ikatan peptida........................................................................10
Gambar 10.Alur dogma sentral................................................................11
Gambar 11.mRNA................................................................................14
Gambar 12.tRNA..................................................................................15
Gambar 13.rRNA.................................................................................15
Gambar 14.Elongasi..............................................................................16
Gambar 15.Tahap Transkripsi .................................................................18
Gambar 16.Asimilasi translasi.................................................................19
Gambar 17.Elongasi translasi..................................................................20
Gambar 18.terminasi translasi..................................................................20
Gambar 19.Inisiasi DNA........................................................................21
Gambar 20.Sintesis DNA primer.............................................................22
Gambar 21.Sintesis leading strand............................................................23
Gambar 22.Sintesis lagging strand............................................................24
Gambar 23.Penghapusan primer..............................................................25
Gambar 24.ligasi...................................................................................25