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Chapter 2 Carbon Compound

Chapter 2 Carbon Compound Carbon is located in group 14. A carbon atom contain 6 electrons,

Carbon is located in group 14. A carbon atom contain 6 electrons, therefore the electronic configuration is 2.4. It has 4 valance electrons in the outermost orbital, as shown in the diagram. In order to achieve a stable outer octet of electrons, it forms four covalent bonds.

Example

Methane

Chapter 2 Carbon Compound Carbon is located in group 14. A carbon atom contain 6 electrons,
  • - When a carbon atom

combines with four hydrogen atoms, it forms a molecule of methane, CH4

Ethane

  • - If two carbon

atoms join, each can still combine with three hydrogen atoms to form a molecule of ethane, C2H6.

Number of Bonds Each carbon atom is tied to other atoms through four covalent bonds. All the four covalent bonds may exist in three forms as shown below:

1

Possesses just single bond Possesses a double bond Possesses a triple bond
Possesses just single bond
Possesses a double bond
Possesses a triple bond

Carbon Compounds Carbon compounds can be divided to:

  • 1 Organic carbon compounds

  • 2 Inorganic carbon compounds

Possesses just single bond Possesses a double bond Possesses a triple bond Carbon Compounds Carbon compounds

2

MUST Remember! Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Hydrocarbons

MUST Remember! Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen . Hydrocarbons Saturated Hydrocarbon

Saturated Hydrocarbon

  • 1 Hydrocarbon is a compound made out of the elements carbon and hydrogen only.

  • 2 Examples of hydrocarbon are alkane, alkene and alkyne.

  • 3 Hydrocarbon can be divided into two groups:

Saturated hydrocarbon

Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons where all its carbon atoms are tied to each other through single covalent bond only. Examples: alkanes

Unsaturated hydrocarbon

Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons which contains at least one double covalent bond among its carbon atoms. Examples: alkenes

MUST Remember! Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen . Hydrocarbons Saturated Hydrocarbon

Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Ethanol ( C2H5OH ), ethanoic acid (CH3COOH), metal methanoat (HCOOCH3), chloromethane (CH3Cl) and others are not hydrocarbons because the molecule

3

contains other elements such as chlorine or oxygen other than carbon and hydrogen. MUST Know! 1
contains other elements such as chlorine or oxygen other than carbon and hydrogen.
MUST
Know!
1
Satura
ted - All single bond between carbons
2
Unsaturate - Has at least one double/triple bond between carbons

Comparing Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon

 
   

Saturated

Unsaturated

Hydrocarbon

Hydrocarbon

Combustion

Produce less soot

Produce more soot

Reaction with bromine water

The brown colour of bromine remain

Decoloarise the brown colour of bromine

unchanged

Reaction with potassium manganate(VII)

The purple colour of potassium manganate (VII) solution remain

Decolourise the purple colour of potassium manganate (VII)

solution

unchanged

solution

Sources of Hydrocarbon:

The main sources of hydrocarbons are

  • 3 Coal

  • 4 Natural gas

  • 5 Petroleum

Combustion of hydrocarbon

All hydrocarbons undergo combustion with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (or carbon monoxide/carbon) and water. There are 2 types of combustion:

Complete combustion – organic compounds burn completely which form CO2 and

H2O

Incomplete combustion– organic compounds burn with limited supply of O2 which form C (soot), CO, CO2 and H2O.

4

Example

Complete combustion

C2H6 + 7/2 O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O

C3H6 + 9/2 O2 → 3CO2 + 3H2O

Incomplete combustion

C2H6 + 5/2 O2 → 2CO + 3H2O

C2H6 + 3/2 O2 → 2C + 3H2O

C3H6 + 3O2 → 3CO + 3H2O

C3H6 + 3/2 O2 → 3C + 3H2O

Note:

The soot from the combustion of a hydrocarbon depends on the percentage of carbon it contains.

6

7

Higher carbon percentage in the hydrocarbon molecule will result sootier flame.

8

Homologous Series

A series of compounds with similar chemical properties, in which members differ from one another by the possession of an additional CH2 group, is called a homologous series. Each homologous series must have the following four characteristics:

Every member in the homologous series can be represented by a common formula. For example:

Alkane: CnH2n+2 Alkene: CnH2n Alcohol: CnH2n+1OH Carboxylic acid : CnH2n+1COOH Ester: CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 Every member differ from others by the group -CH2- which has the relative mass 14. For example:

5

Members of the same homologous series can be prepared through one common method. For examples, All

Members of the same

homologous series can be prepared through one common method. For examples, All alkenes can be prepared by dehydration of relevant alcohols.

Preparing Ethene (Dehydration of ethanol):

C2H5OH → C2H4 + H2O

Preparing Propene (Dehydration of propanol)

C3H7OH → C3H8 + H2O Members of the homologous series have the same chemical properties.

For example:All alkenes show addition reaction as added into bromine. Members of the same homologous series have the same chemical properties because of the presence of a common functional group in all the molecules of the series. Functional group is a group of atoms tied together which will take part in a chemical reaction therefore determine the chemical properties of the series. Therefore, the homologous series is a family of organic compound that is made out of members with common functional group, common chemical properties, and consecutive members are differ by one carbon atom and two hydrogen atom, namely,

–CH2-.

Table below shows some homologous series and their respective general formula and functional group.

6

Carbon

General Formula

 

Functional group

Compounds

Alkane

CnH2n+2

 

Carbon-carbon single bond

-

C – C -

Alkene

CnH2n

 

Carbon-carbon double bond

-

C = C -

Alcohol

CnH2n+1OH

 

Hydroxyl group

-

OH

Carboxylic

CnH2n+1COOH

 

Carboxyl group

Acids

-

COOH

Esters

CnH2n+1COOCmH2 Carboxylate group

   

m+1

-

COO -

General Formula: CnH2n+2, n = 1, 2, 3, ...

Functional Group:

First 3 Members:

No Functional Group

Chemical Properties:
Chemical
Properties:

7

Alkane are the simplest family of hydrocarbons - compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only. They only
Alkane are the simplest family of hydrocarbons - compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only. They only

Alkane are the simplest family of hydrocarbons - compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only. They only contain carbon-hydrogen bonds and carbon-carbon single bonds.

Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon

Nomenclature = Naming method. All organic carbon compounds are named according to the number of carbon in the molecule. The name is made up of two parts: the stem and the suffix. The stem tells the number of carbon atoms The suffix tells the homologous series of the compound. Example:

Ethane is an alkane, the sten "eth" tell us that it has 2 carbon in the molecule, and the suffix "ane" indicates that it is a member of the alkanes homologous series.

Table below shows the naming code for the stem. In SPM, You will

Alkane are the simplest family of hydrocarbons - compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only. They only

8

need to remember the codes for the number of carbon atoms in a chain up to 6 carbons.

 

No of

Co

No of

   

carbons

de

carbons

Code

 

met

   
  • 1 7

h

hept

  • 2 eth

8

oct

pro
3

p

9

non

 
  • 4 but

10

dec

     

hende

 
  • 5 pent

11

c

  • 6 hex 12

 

dodec

Name of the First 8 Alkanes

Table below shows the molecular formula and name of the first 8 members of alkane.

Number of Carbon

Molecular Formula

Name

1

CH4

Methane

2

C2H6

Ethane

3

C3H8

Propane

4

C4H10

Butane

5

C5H12

Pentane

6

C6H14

Hexane

7

C7H16

Heptane

8

C8H18

Octane

Physical Properties

Alkanes are covalent compounds, hence their physical properties are similar to other covalent compounds. The atoms in an alkane molecule are bonded together by strong covalent bonds (intramolecular forces). The molecules are held together by weak Van der Waals forces (intermolecular

forces).

9

Boiling Points

Boiling Points Boiling Point of Alkane The boiling point of alkane increase when the number of

Boiling Point of Alkane The boiling point of alkane increase when the number of carbons in the molecule increases. This is due to the increase of Van der Waal force when the size of the molecule increases. The boiling points shown are all for the "straight chain" isomers when there are more than one. The first four alkanes are gas at room temperature.

Solubility Alkanes are insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents. The liquid alkanes are good solvents for many other covalent compounds.

Density The density of water is higher than density of most alkanes. When going down the series, relative molecular mass of alkanes is higher due to the higher force of attraction between molecules and alkane molecules are packed closer together.

Electrical Conductivity All members in alkanes do not conduct electricity. Alkanes are covalent compounds and do not contain freely moving ions.

10

Chemical Properties Of Alkanes

Alkanes are chemically less reactive compare to the other carbon compound such as alkene, alcohol or carboxylic acid. Alkanes do not react with chemicals such as oxidizing agents, reducing agents, acids and alkalis. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon with strong carbon-carbon (C – C) bonds and carbon-hydrogen (C – H) bonds. All the bonds are single bonds which require a lot of energy to break. Alkane just only undergo:

Combustion reaction Substitution reaction (with the presence of ultraviolet light)

Alkanes are chemically less reative because they contain only strong covalent bonds which need a lot of energy to break.

Combustion Of Alkanes

All alkanes undergo combustion to produce water and carbon dioxide (or carbon monoxide/carbon in incomplete combustion). There are 2 types of combustion:

complete combustion incomplete combustion

Complete Combustion Complete combustion (given sufficient oxygen) of any hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide and water.

Example:

Combustion of methane

CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O

Combustion of ethane

C2H6 + 7/2 O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O

11

Combustion of propane

C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O

Incomplete Combustion Incomplete combustion occurs when there isn't enough oxygen present. In an incomplete combustion, carbon or carbon monoxide will be produced as the product of the reaction. Carbon monoxide is a colourless poisonous gas.

Example:

Incomplete combustion of ethane C2H6 + 5/2 O2 → 2CO + 3H2O

C2H6 + 3/2 O2 → 2C + 3H2O Incomplete combustion of propane C3H8 + 7/2 O2 → 3CO + 4H2O

C3H8 + 2 O2 → 3C + 4H2O

MUST Know!

Enough oxygen → Complete combustion Not enough oxygen → Incomplete combustion

Trends The hydrocarbons become harder to ignite as the molecules get bigger. Combustion of alkanes with bigger molecule will produce more soot as the percentage of carbon of the molecule is higher.

Percentage of Carbon The amount of soot produced depends on the percentage of carbon in a hydrocarbon molecule. The percentage of carbon in a molecule can be calculated by using the following formula:

12

Percentage of carbon=Relative mass of carbons in 1 molecule

Relative mass of the

molecule×100%Percentage of carbon=Relative mass of carbons in 1 moleculeRelative

mass of the molecule×100%

Lets calculate the percentage of carbon in a methane and a hexane. Percentage of carbon in methane (CH4) [Relative Atomic Mass: Carbon: 12; Hydrogen: 1]

Percentage of carbon=1212+4(1)×100%=75%Percentage of

carbon=1212+4(1)×100%=75%

Percentage of carbon in hexane (C6H14)

Percentage of carbon=6(12)6(12)+14(1)×100%=83.7%Percentage of

carbon=6(12)6(12)+14(1)×100%=83.7%

Percentage of carbon in hexane is higher than in methane, therefore combustion of propane is sootier than combustion of methane

MUST Know! The bigger the molecule of an alkane, the higher the percentage of carbon, and hence produces more soot during combustion.

Substitution Reaction

Substitution reaction is a reaction where one atom (or a group of atoms) in a molecule is replaced by another atom (or a group of atoms). Substitution reaction of alkanes occurs when an alkane is mixed with a halogen in the presence of sunlight (ultraviolet light). Since the substitution reaction of alkanes is the reaction between alkanes and halogen, hence it is also called the halogenation reaction. Substitution reaction is a slow reaction.

MUST Know!

Substitution reaction of alkanes take place only in the presence of ultraviolet light (such

as sunlight).

13

Reaction between Methane and Chlorine

Reaction between Methane and Chlorine We can see that, in the reaction, each hydrogen atom in

We can see that, in the reaction, each hydrogen atom in the alkane molecule is substituted one by one by a chlorine atom. The sunlight or UV light is needed to break covalent bond in halogen and alkane

molecules to produce hydrogen and chlorine atom. Alkanes also react with bromine vapour in the presence of UV light, but with a much lower rate.

Structural Formula Of Carbon Compounds

A molecular formula is a chemical formula which shows the actual number of atoms of each
A molecular formula is a chemical formula which shows the actual number of atoms of
each element present in one molecule of a substance
A
structural
formula is
a chemical
formula
which
shows the

14

arrangement of the

atoms in a molecule of a substance.

Writing the Structural Formulae

Rules to be followed:

arrangement of the atoms in a molecule of a substance. Writing the Structural Formulae Rules to

All atoms are bonded together by covalent bond represented by a straight line. The bond can be a single bond, a double bond or a triple bond.

The number of covalent bonds at each atom is as follow:

Hydrogen: 1

Carbon: 4

Oxygen: 2

Steps to be followed:
Steps to be
followed:

Step 1: Determine the number of carbon in the molecule (Let's say 3 carbon atom) Step 2: Draw all the carbon atoms in a straight line and then draw the covalent bonds to connect all the carbon atoms.

Step 3: Draw additional single covalent bonds on each

arrangement of the atoms in a molecule of a substance. Writing the Structural Formulae Rules to

Step 4: Write the hydrogen

arrangement of the atoms in a molecule of a substance. Writing the Structural Formulae Rules to

15

atoms

Step 5: Check that each carbon atom has four single covalent bonds, each hydrogen

atoms Step 5 : Check that each carbon atom has four single covalent bonds, each hydrogen

atom has one single covalent bond.

Isomerism

Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae. Isomerism is the existence of two or more

atoms Step 5 : Check that each carbon atom has four single covalent bonds, each hydrogen

compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.

Examples of two isomers of butane

(The 2 molecules have same molecular formulae but different structural formulae) Isomers have different physical properties because they have different molecular structures. However, isomers have the same chemical properties because they belong to the same homologous series.

Alkene

16

9 General Formula: CnH2n, n = 2, 3, 4, .... Functional Group: 10 Double Bond 11
9
General Formula: CnH2n, n = 2, 3, 4, ....
Functional Group:
10
Double Bond
11
First 3 Members:
12
13
14
Chemical Properties:
15
16

17

17

MUST Know!

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbon.

  • 18 Alkenes are a family of hydrocarbons (compounds containing carbon and

hydrogen only) containing a carbon-carbon double bond. Therefore, alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbon.

  • 19 The general formula for alkene is CnH2n where n = 2, 3, ….

  • 20 There is no single carbon alkene because it need at least 2 carbon to form the

double bond. Hence "methene" doesn't exist.

  • 21 Naming Alkene

  • 22 As alkane, the name of straight chain alkenes are also made up of two component

parts, the stem and the suffix.

  • 23 We use the same code for the stem, as alkane.

  • 24 The suffix for alkene is "ene".

  • 25 Table belowe shows the molecular formula and name of the first six alkenes.

  • 26 Name

Formula

27

  • 28 Ethene

C2H4

29

C3H6

  • 30 Peopene

31

C4H8

  • 32 Butene

33

C5H10

  • 34 Pentene

35

C6H12

  • 36 Hexene

37

C7H14

  • 38 Heptene

39

  • 40 Isomerism Of Alkenes

  • 41 All the alkenes with 4 or more carbon atoms in them show isomerism.

  • 42 For example, butene has 3 isomer:

18

43 44 Example Draw the structural formulae for all 5 isomers of pentene. Answer: 45 46
43 44 Example Draw the structural formulae for all 5 isomers of pentene. Answer: 45 46
43
44
Example
Draw the structural formulae for all 5 isomers of pentene.
Answer:
45
46
Physical Properties Of The Alkenes
47
Alkenes are covalent compounds that consist of simple molecules.
48
The molecules of alkenes are held together by weak Van der Waals forces

19

(intermolecular forces).

49 As covalent componds, the physical properties of alkenes are similar to alkanes. 50 Boiling Points
49
As covalent componds, the physical properties of alkenes are similar to alkanes.
50
Boiling Points
51
MUST Know!
52
The first 3 alkenes are gases.
53
The Melting and boiling point of alkenes increases as the number of carbon per
molecule increases. (You must also know the explanation).
54
Alkenes have low melting/boiling points, owing to the weak intermolecular force.
55
At room temperature, ethene, propene and butene exist as gases while pentene to
decene exist as liquid .
56
As shown in the diagram below, the boiling point of alkenes increases as the
number of carbon atoms per molecule increases.
57
This is because as the number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkene increases,
the molecular size increases, and hence the inter molecular forces increases.
58
As a result, more heat energy is needed to overcome this forces during melting
and boiling, and hence the melting and boiling points increases.
59
60
As shown in the figure below, alkenes have boiling points lower than the alkanes
that have same number of carbons in their molecules.
61
This is because alkenes have less electrons per molecule compare to the

20

corresponding alkanes (that have same number of carbon per molecule).

62 As a result, the intermolecular force in alkenes is lower than the corresponding alkanes. 63
62
As a result, the intermolecular force in alkenes is lower than the corresponding
alkanes.
63
IMPORTANT to Know!
64
The strength of the Van der Waals force depends on the number of electrons and
the shape of the molecule.
65
More electrons → Stronger Van der Waals force
66
67
MUST Know!
Alkenes have boiling points lower than the alkanes that have same number of carbons in
their molecules.
68
Solubility and Conductivity
69
As most of the other covalent compound, alkenes are insoluble in water, but
dissolve in organic solvents.
70
Alkenes do not conduct electricity, because there is no free moving ions in them.
71
Density
72
The density of alkenes are low (lower than water).
73
However, the density increases as the number of carbon atoms per molecule

21

increases.

74

Preparing Alkene

75

76

77

Alkene can be prepared by

dehydration of alcohol

craking of alkane

78

79

Dehydration of Alcohol

When alcohol is heated, it will decompose to form alkene and water. For example,

heating ethanol will produce ethene, heating propanol will produce propene, and so on.

This process is called dehydration of alcohol.

80

81

Dehydration of Ethanol

C2H5OH → C2H4 + H2O

82

83

Dehydration of Propanol

C3H7OH → C3H6 + H2O

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92 Dehydration of Alcohols Using Aluminium Oxide as Catalyst 93 94 22
92
Dehydration of Alcohols Using Aluminium Oxide as Catalyst
93
94
22

Catalyst:

Aluminium oxide/ Porcelain chips

95 Dehydration of alcohols using an acid catalyst 96 97 Catalyst: Sulphuric acid or Phosphoric acid
95
Dehydration of alcohols using an acid catalyst
96
97
Catalyst:
Sulphuric acid or Phosphoric acid
Temperature: 170°C
Cracking of Alkane
98
Cracking is the name given to breaking up large hydrocarbon molecules into
smaller and more useful bits.
99
This is achieved by using high pressures and temperatures without a catalyst, or

lower temperatures and pressures in the presence of a catalyst.

100

23

Example: Cracking of butane

Example: Cracking of butane 101 102 103 Cracking of butane produces a mixture of methane, ethane,

101

101 102 103 Cracking of butane produces a mixture of methane, ethane, ethene and propene. 104

102

103

Cracking of butane produces a mixture of methane, ethane, ethene and propene.

104

Chemical Properties Of Alkenes

105

Alkenes are chemically more reactive than alkanes.

106

This because alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that have a double bond, C=C,

 

between two carbon atom.

107

Almost all of the chemical reactions of alkene occur at the double bond.

108

Alkenes can undergo:

1

Combustion reaction

2

Addition reaction

3

Polymerisation reaction

109

110

Combustion

 

Of Alkenes

111

Like

any other

 
24
24

hydrocarbons, alkenes burn in air or oxygen.

112

Like alkanes,

  • 1 alkene burns completely in the sufficient oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.

  • 2 alkene burns incompletely in limited supply of oxygen to produce carbon monoxide,carbon (in the form of soot) and water.

113

 

Examples

Complete combustion of ethene

114

C2H4 + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 2H2O

115

Incomplete combustion ethene

116

C2H4 + 2O2 → 2CO + 2H2O

117

C2H4 + O2 → 2C + 2H2O

118

The combustion of alkenes becomes more difficult and produces more soot when the size

of the alkenes molecules increases.

119

Percentage of Carbon

120

Example

Find and compare the percentage of carbon of ethene, propene and butene. [Relative

atomic mass: C = 12, H = 1] Answer:

Percentage of carbon of ethene (C2H4)

[Math Processing Error]Percentage of carbon=2(12)2(12)+4(1)×100%=85.7%

Percentage of carbon of propene (C3H6)

[Math Processing Error]Percentage of carbon=3(12)3(12)+6(1)×100%=85.7%

Percentage of carbon of butene (C4H8)

[Math Processing Error]Percentage of carbon=4(12)4(12)+8(1)×100%=85.7%

Note::

All alkenes have the same percentage of carbon.

25

 

121

Example

Find and compare the percentage of carbon of hexane and hexene. [Relative atomic mass: C = 12, H = 1]

 

Answer:

 

Percentage of carbon of hexane (C6H14)

 

[Math Processing Error]Percentage of carbon=6(12)6(12)+14(1)×100%=83.7%

Percentage of carbon of hexene (C6H12) = 85.7% (Refer to example above)

Note:

 

122

Percentage of carbon of alkene is higher compare to the alkane that has same

 

number of carbon per molecule.

123

Therefore, combustion of alkene will produce more sooty flame compared to their

corresponding alkane.

 

124

Alkenes has higher percentage of carbon compared to their corresponding alkane.

 

125

Addition Reaction Of Alkene

126

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbon, hence they undergo addition reactions.

127

Addition reaction occurs when other atoms are added to each carbon atom of the

double bond, –C=C– to form single covalent bond.

128

Example,

129

129
 

130

Alkenes

may undergo addition reaction with

131

halogen

132

steam

133

hydrogen

134

halogen halide

135

potassium permanganate(VII)

 

26

136

Hydrogenation Of Alkenes

137

Alkene can undergo reaction with hydrogen gas.

138

The process is also called hydrogenation.

139

Equation:

140

141

Note:

142

This

reaction convert

136 Hydrogenation Of Alkenes 137 Alkene can undergo reaction with hydrogen gas. 138 The process is

unsaturated hydrocarbon to saturated hydrocarbon.

143

144

Condition for the reaction:

  • 1 Catalyst: Platinum/nickel

  • 2 Temperature: 180ºC

This is the process used to produce margarine.

145

Reaction Of Alkenes With Hydrogen Halide

146

Alkenes react with hydrogen halides (such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide

and hydrogen iodide) at room temperature to produce saturated organic compounds called halogenoalkanes.

147

Ethene React with Hydrogen Chloride

136 Hydrogenation Of Alkenes 137 Alkene can undergo reaction with hydrogen gas. 138 The process is

148

149 (Ethene react

with hydrogen chloride produces chloroethane.)

150

Ethene React with Hydrogen Bromide

151

152 (Ethene react

136 Hydrogenation Of Alkenes 137 Alkene can undergo reaction with hydrogen gas. 138 The process is

27

with hydrogen bromide produces bromoethane.)

153

154

155

(Ethene react

with hydrogen

iodide produces

iodoethane.)

156

157

158

reaction.

159

160

161

When

ethane gas is

162

163

be decolourised.

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

Alkene is

converted to

become alcohol

Ethene React with Hydrogen Iodide

with hydrogen bromide produces bromoethane.) 153 154 155 (Ethene react with hydrogen iodide produces iodoethane.) 156

Halogenation Of Alkenes

Alkenes undergo addition reaction with halogen such as fluorine, chlorine,

bromine and iodine.

Since this is the reaction with the halogens, hence it is also called the halogenation

Equation below shows the addition reaction between ethene and bromine.

with hydrogen bromide produces bromoethane.) 153 154 155 (Ethene react with hydrogen iodide produces iodoethane.) 156

bubbled into bromine liquid, the brown colour bromine turn colourless.

The product produced is 1,2-dibromoethane.

If chlorine gas is used instead of bromine, the yellow colour of chlorine water will

Hydration Of Alkenes

Alkene can react with steam (water) to produce alcohol.

This process is an addition reaction.

It's also called the hydration reaction.

Equation below shows the addition reaction of ethene with steam.

with hydrogen bromide produces bromoethane.) 153 154 155 (Ethene react with hydrogen iodide produces iodoethane.) 156

28

171

172

The condition of the reaction is as below:

  • 1 Catalyst: Phosphoric acid

  • 2 Temperature: 300ºC

  • 3 Pressure: 60 atm

Alcohol can be changed back to alkenes through dehydration reaction.

173

Oxidation Of Alkenes

174

Alkenes can also react with oxidising agents such as potassium

permanganate(VII) to produce a diol.

175

A diol is an alcohol with 2 hydroxyl group (-OH).

176

177

This process is an addition reaction.

Chemical reaction below shows the oxidation reaction (also addition reaction)

between ethene and potassium permanganate(VII). 178 179 In the reaction, we use the square bracket with
between ethene and potassium permanganate(VII).
178
179
In the
reaction, we
use the
square bracket with an O, [O], to represent the oxidising agent.

180

181

The product produced is ethan-1,2-diol.

During the reaction, the purple colour of acidified potassium manganate (VII)

solution change to colourless.

182

Polymerisation Of Alkenes

183

Polymerisation is a process of combining monomer molecules together in a

chemical reaction to form polymer chains.

184

The molecule of alkenes can combine together through addition reaction to form a

long chain polymer.

185

In the reaction, alkene molecules undergo addition reaction at the temperature of

200°C and pressure of 1200 atm.

186

Thousands of alkene molecule join together to form a long chain molecules called

poly(ethene) - commonly called polythene ..

187

171 172 The condition of the reaction is as below: 1 Catalyst: Phosphoric acid 2 Temperature:

29

188 Differences Between Alkane And Alkene

 

189

190

Alkane

191 Alkene

192

General Formula

193 CnH2n+2

194 CnH2n

195

Types of hydrocarbon

196 Saturated

197 Unsaturatd

 

199

Less sooty flame

 

198

Combustion

when burnt

  • 200 Sootier flame when burn

201

Reaction with bromine

202

No change

  • 203 The reddish brown colour of bromine become

liquid

observed

colourless

204

Reaction with potassium

205

No change

  • 206 The purple colour of potassium

manganete(VII)

observed

manganete(VII) become colourless

207

Table below shows the difference between alkane and alkene.

 

208

Recommended Videos

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Testing for unsaturated hydrocarbons

 
 

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[This video shows the reaction between bromine with cyclohexane (an alkane) and cyclohexene (an alkene). Observe the change of the colour of bromine when dropped into cyclohexane and cyclohexene]

 

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Alcohol

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General Formula: CnH2n+1OH, n = 1, 2, 3, .......

   

Functional Group:

 

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Hydroxyl

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214 First 3 Members: 215 216 217 Chemical Properties: 218 219 220 1. Alcohols are compounds
214
First 3 Members:
215
216
217
Chemical Properties:
218
219
220
1.
Alcohols are compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane
have been replaced by an -OH group.
221
Naming Alcohols
222
All alcohol members have a suffix 'anol'. For example, methanol, ethanol,
propanol ......
223
The nomenclature of alcohol, like alkanes, is based on the number of carbon

atoms in the molecule, but the suffix 'ane' in the nomenclature of alkanes is replaced with the suffix 'anol'.

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224

The positions of the alkyl and hydroxyl groups that the attached to the carbon

chain are shown by numbering the carbon atoms. The hydroxyl group must always get

the smallest possible number.

225

226 Example 1 227 228 (Propan-2-ol) 229 Longest chain: 3 carbon (propanol) Position of hydroxyl group:
226
Example 1
227
228
(Propan-2-ol)
229
Longest chain: 3 carbon
(propanol)
Position of hydroxyl group: 2
Alkyl: -

Example 2

230

231 (Pentan-1-ol)

232

Longest chain: 5 carbon (pentanol) Position of hydroxyl group: 1 Alkyl: -

224 The positions of the alkyl and hydroxyl groups that the attached to the carbon chain

233

234

235

236

237

238

239 Example 3

240

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241

(2-methylpropan-2-ol)

242

Longest chain: 3 carbon (propanol) Position of hydroxyl group: 2 Alkyl: Methyl at 2nd carbon

Example 4

241 (2-methylpropan-2-ol) 242 Longest chain: 3 carbon (propanol) Position of hydroxyl group: 2 Alkyl: Methyl at

243

244

(3-methylbutan-1-

ol)

245

Longest chain: 4 carbon (butanol) Position of hydroxyl group: 1 Alkyl: Methyl at 3rd carbon

246

247

248 Example 5

249

250

(2,2-dimethylpropan-

1-ol)

251

Longest chain: 3 carbon

(propanol)

Position of hydroxyl

group: 1 Alkyl: 2 Methyls, both at 2nd carbon

241 (2-methylpropan-2-ol) 242 Longest chain: 3 carbon (propanol) Position of hydroxyl group: 2 Alkyl: Methyl at

252

Isomerism Of Alcohol

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253 Isomerism of alcohol is because of: 254 the position of hydroxyl group 255 the presence
253
Isomerism of alcohol is because of:
254
the position of hydroxyl group
255
the presence of branch (alkyl group) in the molecule
256
Example
Isomers of propanol
257
258
Isomers of
butanol
259

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260

Physical Properties Alcohol

261 Boiling Points

260 Physical Properties Alcohol 261 Boiling Points 262 263 The boiling point of an alcohol is

262

263

The

boiling point of an alcohol is always much higher than that of the alkane with the same number of carbon atoms. This is because, the presence of the hydroxyl group gives extra force between the molecules, hence more heat energy is needed to overcome the intermolecular force when boiling. The boiling points of the alcohols increase as the number of carbon atoms increases. This can be explained by the folloowing:

number of carbon increases, size of the molecule increases. intermolecular force increases. more heat energy is needed to overcome the intermolecular force.

Solubility of Alcohols in Water

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The small alcohols are completely soluble in water. However, solubility falls as the length of the

The small alcohols are completely soluble in water. However, solubility falls as the length of the hydrocarbon chain in the alcohol increases. Explanation:

Every alcohol consists of two parts, the hydrocarbon chain which is not soluble in water, and the hydroxyl functional group, which is soluble in water. In short chain alcohol, the hydroxyl group plays a major part in forming forces (hydrogen bond) in between water and alcohol molecule, therefore they are soluble in water. For the long chain alcohol, the hydroxyl group is just a small part of the molecule. Therefore, the insoluble long hydrocarbon chain contribute more to the forces in between water and alcohol molecule, causes the solubility

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