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Renewable Energy and Energy

Management

Prof. Dr. Andreas Hornung


Fraunhofer UMSICHT
Institutsteil Sulzbach-Rosenberg
University of Birmingham
Universit di Bologna
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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Introduction

Fraunhofer is Europes largest application-oriented


research organization with a global presence
Research and development

International research with focus on direct use for both


private and public sector, and for the benefit of society

Application-orientated fundamental research

Entrepreneurship

Institutes organized as profit-centers

A third of the budget are revenues


from industrial projects

Spin-offs are promoted

Contracting parties/ clients

Industrial and service companies

Public sector

Facts and figures

> 22,000 staff members

Sulzbach-Rosenberg

> 66 research institutes

UMSICHT Institute

1.9 bn annual research budget

10 Offices & Project Centers in Asia Pacific

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Center for Energy Storage


Structure

Project partners

Funding

Sulzbach-Rosenberg / Oberhausen
20 million
Straubing / Stuttgart

System
analysis

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Chemical
storage
Catalysis and process

Bavarian State Ministry of Economy,


Infrastructure, Transport and Technology

Chemical storage
Methods/technical
implementation

Heat storage

Center for Energy Storage


Structure
New building 2016
Technikum

Haus 4

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Center for Energy Storage


Structure
System analysis
Energy
Raw materials
Storage demands

Chemical storage
Thermochemical conversion (BioPyroEnergy)
Conversion of H2 and CO2
Synthesis short- and long chain alkanes and alcohols

Thermal storage
Latent- and thermochemichal storage units

Components of compressed air energy storage

Storage of CHP plants

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Introduction

Fraunhofer UMSICHT can offer end-to-end innovative


waste-to-energy solutions
Consulting &
Studies

From the
idea

Development &
Design

Construction

to the
product

Pilot plant
operation

Processimplementation

Feasibility Economy Ecology Safety Legal / Political Framework

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

The German Energiew ende


A showcase for the commitment of
an industrial nation towards
becoming a renewable society and
the central role of bioenergy

Transition

Fraunhofer UMSICHT

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

AGENDA

1. Fraunhofer-UMSICHT, Institute Branch Sulzbach-Rosenberg


2. Global Challenges in energy supply

3. European energy market


4. The German Energiewende

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Global challenges
S carecity of raw m aterials
S upply of non-renw eable energy res ources

Crude oil

41 64
23
59 134
75

Natural gas

40

Uranium

325 365

126

Black coal

2.712

2.838

262

Soft brown coal

4.014

500
Years

1000

1500

Reserves

2000

2500

3000

3500

4.276

4000

Resources

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT
Quelle: BGR 2009; Darstellung verndert. Nur konventionelles Erdl und Erdgas

Globale Challenges
Global Equality
Energy cons um ption in MWh/pers on/y ear
Res s ource cons um ption in Mg/pers on/y ear

53

115
12
32

5
3

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Quellen: Sustainable Europe Research Institute, www.materialflows.net, 2007,
US Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual, 2008

Clim ate politics


Copenhagen 2009: unable to fulfill the high ex pectations

11

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AGENDA

1. Fraunhofer-UMSICHT, Institute Branch Sulzbach-Rosenberg


2. Global Challenges in energy supply

3. European energy market


4. The German Energiewende

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Estimated world wood pellet production trends

World wood pellet production in ktonnes

16,000

292
49

Australasia + South Africa

14,000

South America

4,320

North America

12,000

561
50

168
47

Other Europe & Russia

4,100

EU27
10,000

53
92

8,000

43
52
2,235

6,000

2,665

1,435

3,135
1,337
864

806

9
507
4

1,998

1,654

92

1,256
28

64

4,000

2,000

840

988
2
1,205

1,275
4
1,360

2000

2001

2002

2
816

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1,754
2003

2,278

2004

8,764

9,286

7,507
6,072
4,696

3,100

2005

Source: Ecofys

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Wood pellet trade streams above 10 ktonnes (2010)

Source: Ecofys
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EU wood pellet markets

Large s cale pow er generation


Dis trict heating and CHP
Bulk res idential heating
Bag res idential heating
Ex porting countries

Source: Ecofys

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Current energy m ix ture of s om e EU-m em bers

60%

50%

40%

Oil

Gas
Carbon
30%

Nuclear
Biomass, biogas
Hydropower

20%

Other renewables
10%

0%
Germany

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France

Poland

Sweden

Renew able energy potential


S olar

Wind

Spain, Italy

UK, Northern Germany and France

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EU "20-20-20"

Climate and Energy Package 2009:

A 20 % reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990


levels

Raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from


renewable resources to 20 %

20 % improvement in the EUs energy efficiency

EU directives 2003/30/EC & 2009/30/EC

10 % share of renewable energy in the transportation sector

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

EU "20-20-20"
Dev elopm ent from tw o ex am ple m em bers
United Kingdom

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

S w eden

AGENDA

1. Fraunhofer-UMSICHT, Institute Branch Sulzbach-Rosenberg


2. Global Challenges in energy supply

3. European energy market


4. The German Energiewende

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Germany some facts

Area:
357,000 km

Inhabitants :
80.5 mil. people
GDP:
32600 (42,800 $)
Unem ploy ed Youth:
7,6 %

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Energy production
S RU-S zenario: replacem ent of conv entional pow er
plants
Gros s electricity produktion 2005 2050
700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
2005

2010

2015

Conv entional pow er plants


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2020

2025

2030

2035

Expansion of conventional plants

2040

2045

2050

Renew able Energies

Inversity of supply and demand

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Challenges for the future energy s upply


Change of s tructures
2050

Today

Environmental compatibility
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Acceptance

Authorization

Remuneration

Introduction
Conventional power supply

Controllable

Supply

Demand

Consumption

Generation
Haushaltsgeld.net, Andreas Carjell, Viktor Mildenberger , Petra Bork, Dieter Schtz, Andreas Morlok / alle pixelio.de

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Introduction
Future power supply

Controllable

Supply

Demand

Consumption

Generation
Haushaltsgeld.net, Andreas Carjell, Viktor Mildenberger , Petra Bork, Dieter Schtz, Andreas Morlok / alle pixelio.de

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Introduction
Future power supply

Controllable

Load transfer

Supply

Demand

Consumption

Efficiency
Generation
Haushaltsgeld.net, Andreas Carjell, Viktor Mildenberger , Petra Bork, Dieter Schtz, Andreas Morlok / alle pixelio.de

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Controllable

Grids

Regional
decoupling

Introduction
Grids and Storage

Demand

Storage

Temporal
decoupling

Supply

Load transfer

Consumption

Efficiency
Generation
Haushaltsgeld.net, Andreas Carjell, Viktor Mildenberger , Petra Bork, Dieter Schtz, Andreas Morlok / alle pixelio.de

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

System research
Powerproduction in Bavaria 2023
Biomass
Biomasse
9%

Windpower
Windkraft
18%

Photovoltaics
Photovoltaik
14%

Gas
Gas
33%

Coal
Steinkohle
8%
Hydropower
Wasserkraft
17%

Surplus
berschuss
1%
Eigene Darstellung nach Energiekonzept 2011

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System reseach
Compensation Demand
GIS grid

Grid 0,083 x 0,083


ca. 9 x 6 km
6.953 cells
N-S length: 886 km
W-O width: 636 km
Ideal distribution network within each cell

C.Doetsch: Future Electric Energy Storage/Balancing Demand, IEA, Paris, 23.01.13

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Background
Analysis of 146 Regions

Base facts

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Basis BMU leadscenarios 2010


146 regions
Allocation according to number inhabitants
and structure
Ideal distribution network within each region,
no exchange between regions

C.Doetsch: Future Electric Energy Storage/Balancing Demand, IEA, Paris, 23.01.13

Background
Compensation demand, sorted
20
10

2030

Power [GW]

ca. 1 TWh
0

1000

2000

3000

-10

-20

4000

5000
time [h]

6000

7000

8000

ca. 27,7 TWh

-30
-40
-50
-60
-70

C.Doetsch: Future Electric Energy Storage/Balancing Demand, IEA, Paris, 23.01.13

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Background
Compensation demand, sorted
20
10

2030

Power [GW]

ca. 1 TWh
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

-10

5000
time [h]

6000

7000

8000

ca. 27,7 TWh

-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
20

ca. 3,3 TWh

10

2050

Power [GW]

1000

2000

3000

-10

4000

5000
time [h]

6000

7000

8000

-20
-30

ca. 80 TWh

-40
-50
-60
-70
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C.Doetsch: Future Electric Energy Storage/Balancing Demand, IEA, Paris, 23.01.13

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Thermal conversion of biomass and efficiency strategies

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Gliederung der Vorlesung

Thermal Conversion
Efficiency

Process elements
Examples of integration
To do
Conclusion

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Thermal conversion in combination with CHP


high

gasification Gas engines

Power

Oxygen

Combustion Steam and gas turbines

Reforming Gasmotoren/Dual-Fuel-engines
Pyrolysis Dual-Fuel-engines
low

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Efficiency of a process
All related to the primary energy content of the biomass

Total enfficiency = Efficiency unit 1 X efficiency unit 2 X .

S ingle efficiencies
Losses of energy of biomass in conversion process
Heat losses
Chemical energy to power

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Increasing efficiency by
Less process units
Less complex gas cleaning
Alternative engines
Gas or diesel engine, counter piston engine
Increase of the amount (yield of conversion) of biomass used within a
conversion process
Use of process waters Reforming
Use of process water within AD
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Process elements 1
Pyrolysis

Hot gas filter

Feedstock preparation
Condensation

Heat carrier

Electrostatic precipitator

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Process elements 2

Cyclon

Heat exchanger

gasifier

Biomass feed

Gas cleaner
Pyrolysis
CHPs
Ash-Separation

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Process elements 3

EBRI Video zur Veranschaulichung


Beispiel aus der Praxis

1:12

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Thermal conversion of biomass


combined CHP solutions
A. Gasification - Syngas Gas engines ..Gssing, Ulm
limited to a few biomasses, high invest
B. Pyrolyse - gasification - Syngas Gas engines ..KIT, Wehrle
more biomass types possible, high Invest
C. Pyrolyse /Reforming Gasification Dual Fuel Motoren ..EBRI
high efficient, flexible feeds
D. Pyrolyse/Reforming BAF Dual Fuel engines..WSE
low invest, biomass and fossil residues

E. Thermo-catalytic-Reforming Dual Fuel engines..Umsicht


low invest, richt in gas, low in char, highly integrated
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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Measures
Simplification of the gas treatment
Hot gas filter
catalytic tar cracker
Tar stripping
Cyclone
Cooler
Quench
Electrostatic precipitator
Can be all removed despite the quench.

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Increased cold gas efficiency by reforming

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Steam Reforming
more power in the gas

H2

CO

CO2

CH4

CxHy

N2

45

Zusammensetzung [Vol.%]

40
35

30
25
20

Less water and gas phase, more power


in the gas

15
10

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14

14

14

14

13

13

13

Effizienzsteigerung durch integrierte Konversion von


Biokohle
Ash content of biochar works as reforming catalyst

Cleaner process gas, higher amount of synthesis gas, less char


Lower TAN numbers

TAN: mg KOH/ g for titration to neutral

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Winkler process for the conversion of coal


Application for biochar and Pyrolysis water
- ambient pressure and 600 C

Pyrolysekoks

Ascheaustrag
Pyrolysewasser
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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

TAN (total acid number) organic phase mg KOH/g


Wood, fast pyroylsis

140

Sewage sludge

19

De-Inking Sludge

33

Brewers grain

60

Wood , intermdediate Pyrolysis

39.5 48

TCR , AD digestate

Biodiesel

up to 3

Diesel

0,1

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Reduced process elements for scale down.

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Summary
Cost of feedstock
flexibility in feedstock

Primary conversion Losses Power Total


combustion steam turbine

Pyrolysis gasification gas engine

TCR process
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100%

10%

75%

25%

100%

15%

35%

45%

45%

32%

25%

38%

Haloclean

Pilot Anlage 500 kg/h und industrielle


Anlage 20.000 t/a

Pyrolyse von Stroh bzw. Raps

Verwendung der Pyrolysegase auf


BHKWs;
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Verwendung der Pyrolysele

100 kg/h unit

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Der Pyroformer
100 kg/h

Aston University in EBRI Birmingham


400 KWel

Zyklon

Wrmeaustauscher

Vergaser

Biomassevorlage
Gaswscher
Pyroformer
BHKWs
Asche-Separation

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Erweitertes Bioenergiekonzept
Bioabfallvergrung und thermokatalytisches Reforming

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Konzept der Biobatterie


Bedarfsgerechte Kopplung einzelner
Technologieelemente

Pyroformer Birmingham

Cowatec Sulzbach-Rosenberg

Haloclean Karlsruhe

WSE Newport

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Erweitertes Bioenergiekonzept
Konzeptionelles Anlagendesign an einer Biogasanlage

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Pyrolysis

Various reactors and three main pyrolysis procedures in practice


Fast pyrolysis

Intermediate pyrolysis
Slow pyrolysis
Most significant difference is the residence time of the solid phase
within the reactor seconds, minutes, up to hours and correlated energy
transfer and temperature distribution
Gas phase residence times for fast and intermediate pyrolysis are usually
below 2s

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Fast Pyrolysis Reactors


Rotating cone

Fluidised bed
HeissZyklon
Sand-Loop
Biobrennstoff

l
Gas

Heiss-Zyklon
Kondensator

Biobrennstoff

kalter
Biobrennstoff
Dampf

Koks

Sand
Bett

l, Gas

heisse Scheibe

Sand Loop
Koksverbrennung

zum
von
Koksverbrennung

siehe auch
Vortex Reaktor

rotierende, heisse
Scheibe, Zylinder,
Messer

Gas-Loop

Circulated fluidised bed


HeissZyklon

SandLoop

Koks

Koksverbrennung
Gas-Loop

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Twin screw

l
Gas

zirkulierende Wirbelschicht
Bio brennstoff

ablative reactor

Heizer im Sand-Loop

LR-Mischreaktor
Kondensator

Biobrennstoff

Heiss-Zyklon

Gas
l
Koks

Vakuumpyrolyse

A.V. Bridgwater*, P. Carson and M.


Coulson
A com paris on of fas t and s low
py roly s is liquids from m allee

Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 27,


No. 2, 2007

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Conclusion from recent literature!

...

...
A.V. Bridgwater*, P. Carson and M. Coulson
A com paris on of fas t and s low py roly s is liquids from m allee
Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2007

to be agreed upon, but only for woody biomass

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intermediate

Mallee, fast pyrolysis at 500 C


75 % Liquid, 9 % Char, 11 % Gas

Beach wood
450 C
Wheat straw
450 C
fast
Wheat straw
500 C

Mallee, slow
500 C
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A.V. Bridgwater*,
P. Carson and M. Coulson
Fraunhofer UMSICHT
A com paris on of fas t and s low py roly s is liquids from m allee

Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2007

Simulation of tar formation


Different reaction mechanism
and Different Reactants

Oligomers

Chain Fragments
Tar

Chemical Structure
Molecular Weight Distribution

Modified
Chains
Side
Groups
Propagatio
n

Cellulose

Glucan

Xylan

Lignin

Products

Char

May cause sensible variation


on the overall kinetic rate
parameters as change the
operative conditions

Gas

Each biomass component is


considered as structural
reactant with an average
chemical composition

Each polymer type has its own


thermo-chemical characteristics and
must be considered separately
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0.2

0.05

0.18

0.045

H2
O

(m/z 155)
(m/z 151)

Arbitrary units

0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04

(m/z 136)

10

0.02
0.015

15

20

25

30

C/m in

0.6

10

15

20

25

30

C/m in

0.5

0.02

CO2

Heating rate: 25C/min

136 - 4-(Hydroxy-prop-2enyl)guaiacol

0.018

0.4

0.016

Arbitrary units

Arbitrary units

0.03
0.025

0.005

CO2 (m/z
44)

0.035

0.01

0.02

Water (m/z
18)

(Oxy-allyl)guaiacol

0.04
Arbitrary units

Heating rate: 25C/min

0.3
0.2
0.1

0.014
0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

0
0

C/m in

10

15

20

25

30

C/min

0.05

0.3

Heating rate: 25C/min

0.045

CO

0.25

0.04

155 Syringol

CO (m/z 28)

Methane (m/z
15)

Abundance

Arbitrary units

0.035

0.2
0.15
0.1

0.02
0.01
0.005
0

0
0

10

15
C/min

80 A. Hornung ITC-TAB

0.025
0.015

0.05

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0.03

20

25

30

10

20
C/min

30

0,55

Tar

Weight fraction

0,5

0,45

0,4

0,35

Heating rate

0,3
450

470

490

510

530

Tem perature C

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550

570

590

Haloclean a first approach for intermediate pyrolysis of biomass

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Pyrolysis of 19 t of straw in 2005, production of 6 t of


biochar slurries to be gasified for syngas production!

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Investigated materials
Feed

Yield

Energy (MJ/kg)

Tempera
ture

Coke

Liquids

Gas

Coke

Liquid

Olive stones 169,3 kg

450C

30%

47%

23%

30

Oil: 30 Water: 10

Rice husk 86,3 kg

450C

41%

41%

18%

21

Oil: 27 Water: 10

15

450C

33%

57%

10%

30

Oil: 34 Water: 2

26

500C

15%

52%

33%

26

Oil: 35 Water: 2,5

26

450C

38%

45%

17%

24

Oil: 16 Water: 2,5

19

550C

25%

50%

25%

24

450C

23%

56%

21%

500C

21%

57%

22%

Coco nut 13 kg

450C

34%

52%

14%

Rice bran

500C

20%

38%

42%

Brewers grain 2 kg

450C

23%

51%

26%

Wheat straw >15t


(2005)

450C

30%

50%

20%

Amount

RawMat

Rape seeds 611,15 kg


Rape residues 1292 kg

19

Beechwood 148,7 kg

3 kg

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22

25

Oil: 21 Water: 6

16

Products from pyrolysis of straw


(Feed approx. 1.4 kg/h, residence time 4 min (solid), 2s (gas))
80
60
40
20
0

325 C

350 C

375 C

385 C

400 C

Coke
wt%%
Koks
Gew.

73

48

38,2

36,2

33,5

wt%
lOil
Gew.
%

18

34

37,7

41,6

34,6

GasGew.
wt%%
Gas

18

24,1

22,2

31,9

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Haloclean - Intermediate Pyrolysis 12.000 t/a


First test of liquids from pyrolysis on dual fuel engines

Filter unit

Indirect cooling

Heat transfer
carrier

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Pyroformer Intermediate Pyrolysis and combined


Reforming
Biomass

Pyrolysis vapours

Biomass IN

Char back

Biochar
Dry ing - Torrefaction - Py roly s is Reform ing - Char Conditioning

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Pyroformer
Prof. Dr. A. Hornung
EBRI/Aston University
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Experimental set-up

Biochar

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Extended concept for biogas plants


Pyrolysis & Reforming

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A. Hornung, Aston Universitiy

A. Hornung, Aston Universitiy

A. Hornung, Aston Universitiy

A. Hornung, Aston Universitiy

Cyclone

Heat Exchangers

Gasifier

Feed units

Scrubber
Pyroformers
Engines
Char Discharge

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150 kW dual fuel multi cylinder Internal combustion CI engine from NEK

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Diesel

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Biodiesel

PO

PO-BD Blend

Lister Engine

Parameters

Cylinders
Power (kW)

2
15

Speed (rpm)

1000

Injection
Aspiration

Direct
Nature

As ton- IIT Ropar Energy for rural dis tricts


Wheat Straw

Pelletiser

Straw Pellets

Pyroformer

Heat

Non condensable gas

Condenser

CHP
Heat +Power
Bio-oil
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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Bio char

Combustion
Unit

Downscaling of the technology

This is the view of the components of the container plant.

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Technology can be build simplified and at low cost!

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Containerized mobile Pyroformer unit with engine

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

To improve the overall net energy yield obtained from


residual municipal solid waste (MSW), through a
combination of thermal pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion
This research will contribute towards:

utilising residual MSW to produce energy, instead of using landfill

increasing the net energy yield from MSW

meeting the Governments objectives in renewable energy

reducing GHG emissions

producing greener energy

producing digestate and char which can be applied to the land

providing alternatives for companies/local government for waste and


carbon management

producing decentralised heat and power


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The integrated pyrolysis and AD process

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Oil from digestate ThermoCatalyticReforming TCR


Product comparison
Unit

TCR digestate

Flashpyrolysis Wood8

Vegetable oil9,10

% (m/m)

75,3

37,1

77,5

% (m/m)

10,5

8,1

11,8

% (m/m)

1,4

0,3

2,7

% (m/m)

0,6

max. 10,0 mg/kg

% (m/m)

11,0

54,5

10,7

Water

% (m/m)

1,2

35,6

max. 75g/kg

Ash

% (m/m)

< 0,1

0,4

max.0,01

TAN

mg KOH/g

3,8

LHV

MJ/kg

33,8

14,4

36
Source: 8 D. Meier, et al., 2007; 9 DIN EN 51605 ; 10 Jrgen Karl, 2006

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NACH vORNE

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D. Woolf, et al.:Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change in Nature Communications 2010

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Power to Products & Cross Energy Management (P2P)3


The Biobattery
Power to
Products

H2 + CO2

Power to
Products

Char post-reforming
Bio-Methanisation

Oil
Power to
heat

Heat
storage

Thermal Catalytic Reforming

Storage

Gas

Biogas plant

Conditioning

Anaerobic digestate

Dual-fuel CHP motor

Power to
Products

CO2
Product to
Power

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Use of biogenic residue and waste streams


Dry fermentation of biogenic
waste

Agriculutral biogas plants

Dried anaerobic digestate

7500 biogas plants in Germany

140 compost facilities in Germany

60 Mt residues, mainly used as fertilizer.

From 2015 additional 4 Mt expected due


to changes in the waste directive

In many cases, a gate fee has to be paid


prior to application to land

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

The Biobattery
Central technology elements

Folie 137
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Pyrolysis

Reforming

Biogas

Gasifier

Biobattery
Concept

Biogas digestate

Synthesis gas

Electricity

Dual-Fuel-Engine *
*Oil mixed gemischt mit
Biodiesel

Industrial biowaste

Residues from
agriculture

Oil

Heat

Bunker fuels

Thermal Catalytic Reforming

Dep. from feedstock

Fertilizer

Sewage Sludge

Biochar

Use of all products


Municipal Biowaste

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Combustion

Extended concept for biogas plants


Pyrolysis & Reforming

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

A. Hornung, Aston Universitiy

A. Hornung, Aston Universitiy

A. Hornung, Aston Universitiy

A. Hornung, Aston Universitiy

Biobattery
Thermo Catalytic Reforming
Challenges

The Solution

Sustainable and cost-effective energy


sources from biomass residues is needed
worldwide

In some cases, there are significant costs


for disposal of biomass residues

For example, for fermentation residues


from biogas plants due to eutrophication
problems

Often threatened Sustainable


Competitiveness of many methods of
market changes

Regular changes in market prices for input


materials or products

Significant country-specific differences in


the market environment and regulatory

Tie-up of capital

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Fraunhofer UMSICHT developed Thermal


Catalytic Reforming
Suitable for wide range of solid biomass
Energy-efficient process
High quality of fuels
Robust and capital-efficient solution for
decentralized applications
High flexibility of a technology can be
standardized

TCR for digestate


Key component
Key Advantages
High quality of bio energy products
No expensive filtering requirements
Syngas enriched gas directly suitable for dual
fuel CHP engines
Variable product yields to accommodate
different application scenarios
Fully continuous process

Decomposition of biomass in an ambient pressure


thermal rector with controlled temperature zones
Activated bio char catalyzes cracking of higher
molecular weight organic compounds
Integrated reforming of bio oil and bio char using
the water vapor present in the reactor
Yielding high quality bio energy products in
variable composition:
Low particle, syngas enriched pyrolysis gas (bio syngas)
Low tar & reduced acidity bio-oil
Biochar and ash as solid products
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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Pyrolysis Units at Fraunhofer UMSICHT (2kg/h and 60 kg/h)

Extended bioenergy concept


Conceptual plant design on a biogas plant site

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Extended bioenergy concept


Biowaste fermentation & Thermal Catalytic Reforming
Siebreste

Bioabfall

Grrest

THE BIOBATTERY

MVA

Gas

Vorbehandlung

Fermentation

Bio wastel

BHKW

Digestate

Nachrotte

Kompost

Verwertung

Plastic waste

Biochar

Gas

Gas

Gas

Conditioning

Fermentation

CHP

Thermal Catalytic
Reforming

Folie 143
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

BAF-Reactor

Storage

Biobattery in Birmingham

Heat
and
Pow er

Severn Trent Water

Greenfinch Ltd ( Ludlow )


6,000 tpa Demonstrator
Rennie & sons(Bedford) 12,000 tpa
A. Hornung, Aston Universitiy

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Extended bioenergy concept


Analysis and heating values
H2
2

CO

CO2
2

CH44

CxHy
x
y

N2
2

40
35
30
25

H2

32 - 42 Vol.%

CO

15 - 19 Vol.%

CO2

19 - 24 Vol.%

CH4

7 - 8 Vol.%

10

2 Vol.%

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

14:30

14:20

14:10

Heating value 11 MJ/m

0
14:00

10 - 21 Vol.%

13:50

N2

15

13:40

CxHy

20

13:30

Product gas

composition [Vol.%]

45

Extended bioenergy concept


Analysis and heating values

Product oil

75,5 weight %

10,5 weight %

1,5 weight %

0,5 weight %

11 weight %

Water

1 weight %

Ash

< 0,1 weight %

TAN

< 4 mg KOH/g

Heating value

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

35,0 MJ/kg

Extended bioenergy concept


Analysis and heating values

Biochar

Low in oxygen,
Low in hydrogen

52 weight%

2 weight%

1 weight%

0,5 weight%

7 weight%

Ash

37,5 weight%

heating value 19,5 MJ/kg

C/O 10
H/C 0,45
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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 148
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Extended concept for biogas plants


Pyrolysis & Reforming
Condtioning

Pyrolysis & Reforming

Digestate

Heat

Variable substrate

Pyrolysiswater

Biogas plant

Thermal
Oil

storage

Gas

Gasification

Gas
CHP
Power

Folie 149
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Biomass residues

Biochar

Extended concept for biogas plants


Pyrolysis & Reforming
Condtioning

Pyrolysis & Reforming

Digestate

Heat

Variable substrate

Pyrolysiswater

Biogas plant

Thermal
Oil

storage

Gas

Gasification

Gas
CHP
Power

Folie 150
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Biomass residues

Biochar

Mobile heat
The mobile latent heat storage principle

Discharging
Charging

Folie 151
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Extended concept for biogas plants


Pyrolysis & Reforming
Condtioning

Pyrolysis & Reforming

Digestate

Heat

Variable substrate

Pyrolysiswater

Biogas plant

Thermal
Oil

storage

Gas

Gasification

Gas
CHP
Power

Folie 152
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Biomass residues

Biochar

Solid biofuel conditioning


Mechanical pre-treatment (Brewers Spent Grain)

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 155
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Hydrogen production 600 billion Nm3/a (50 Billion Hindenburgs)

Mainly produced from fossil fuels

48 % gas, 18 % coal, 30 % oil, 4 % electrolysis

Used for

60 % NH3 production
23 % in refineries
9 % methanol production
8 % steel production

Folie 156
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Dry cooling

Research lab

Biomass storage

Pyrolyse/gasification

Gas buffer
Folie 157
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

CHPs

Cyclone

Heat Exchangers

Gasifier

Feed units

Scrubber
Pyroformers
Engines
Char Discharge

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 160
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

LT Reforming subsequent pyrolysis

Sorption and

Rotary kiln

Condensation

LT Reforming

T
T

m
P

Feed

Filtration

P
T

Gasanalysis
heating value
oxygen
carbon monoxide

Coke

carbon dioxide
>C2

N2

hydrogen
water

Folie 161
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Generating the

H2,N2,
CH4,COx

Yields with and without catalyst

60

Amount of

50

organic Phase
13,9%

40
30
20

39,4%
22,5%

35,6%

9,6%
28% 28%
23%

10
0
gas /wt %
Folie 162
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Generating the

condensate
/ wt%

char /wt %

without catalysis
with catalysis

Measured flow rates after condensation


with and without catalysis

Volume flow m3/h

1,6
1,4
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0

0.47

0.74

0.72

0.74

without
catalysis

with catalysis

pyrolysis gas
after
condensation
N2

Increase of pyrolysis gas through catalysis 273 l/h, i.e. 58 % increase of pyrolysis gas

Folie 163
concerning
the heating value the pyrolysis gas corresponds to 240 l/h methan
Fraunhofer UMSICHT
Generating the

Yield of Hydrogen

Folie 164
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Generating the

Extended bioenergy concept


Analysis and heating values
H2
2

CO

CO2
2

CH44

CxHy
x
y

N2
2

40
35
30
25

H2

32 - 42 Vol.%

CO

15 - 19 Vol.%

CO2

19 - 24 Vol.%

CH4

7 - 8 Vol.%

10

2 Vol.%

Folie 165
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

14:30

14:20

14:10

Heating value 11 MJ/m

0
14:00

10 - 21 Vol.%

13:50

N2

15

13:40

CxHy

20

13:30

Product gas

composition [Vol.%]

45

Hydrogen production costs

Folie 166
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Hydrogen production costs on basis of electrolysis processes or via synthesis gases from
different fossil and renewable sources

Electrolysis processes require between 50 to 79 kWh to produce 1 kg hydrogen (40 kWh/kg)

The lowest production costs can be realised based on natural gas for 2,5 ct/kWh.

Folie 167
Quelle
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

S ource

Cos t for 1 kWh of hy drogen

Cos t of 1 kg of hy drogen

Wind pow er

8 13 ct

3.2 5.2 Euro

S olar pow er

20 ct, incl. transp., electrolysis

8 Euro

Water pow er

7 10 ct

2.8 4 Euro

Biom as s as s een today

13 ct

5.2 Euro

Natural gas

2.5 ct

1 Euro

Coal

5 12 ct (incl. sequestration)

2 4.8 Euro

S olartherm al

8 18 ct

3.2 7.2 Euro

Folie 168
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Production costs of bio hydrogen from BtVB


A 5 MWel unit (30.000 t/a) sewage sludge as fuel (30 % via Pyrolyse) and (70
% via gasification from wood) realises about 5000 t Biochar

Given 50 % Inerts and 50 % carbon are therefore 1250 t of carbon


105 M Mol carbon or 210 t hydrogen (half stociometirc conversion of carbon
with pyrolysis water) or 2,352,000 m3 hydrogen. CO is used to fire the
engines
21 Cent per m3 H2 or approx. 2,4 /kg (6 ct/kWh, pure biochar would result
in less than 3 ct/kWh), this fuels a fuel cell car for 250 km.

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Kapitel vor
Die Motoren

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Old charcoal pile

Reference picture: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohlenmeiler

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Classical charcoal production (Brazil)


air inlet holes
chimney

air inlet holes

air inlet holes

gate
Reference: Energie aus Biomasse; Kaltschmitt, Hartmann,Hofbauer; 2.edition; 2009 Springer publishing company

Folie 184
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Charcoal piles (Brazil)

REUTERS

Reference : newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine 16. december 2007


http://www.faz.net/aktuell/wissen/natur/umweltschutz-der-klimapfennig-fuer-den-urwald-1488091.html
Folie 185
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Mechanical fluidization
Torrefaction / Rotation cone BTG (The Netherlands)

Temperature: 200 400 C

Reference: http://www.btgworld.com/en/rtd/technologies/torrefaction

Folie 186
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Pilot plant BTG (The Netherlands)

Reference: http://www.btgworld.com/en/rtd/test-facilities/torrefaction

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

PYREG 500 carbonisation plant HTC process (Germany)


Biomass reactor: about 800 C
Biomass
storage
tank

input
rotary valve

Burning chamber: about 1250 C


Energy extraction
Exhaust fan

PYREG double auger reactor

chimney

flue gas
fuel gas
Burning chamber

discharge
rotary valve

Ignition boiler

Combustion air
Reference: brochure about PYREG 500 kW carbonisation plant
http://www.pyreg.de/website/resources/documents/pyreg_dt.pdf
Folie 188
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

PYREG 500 Carbonisation plant HTC process (Germany)

Reference: brochure about PYREG 500 kW carbonisation plant


http://www.pyreg.de/website/resources/documents/pyreg_dt.pdf
Folie 189
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

PYREG 500 Carbonisation plant HTC process (Germany)


Burning
Chamber

Ash discharge

Reactor

Feedstock
distributor

Control box

Flue gas pipe with


optional heat extraction
Reference: brochure about PYREG 500 kW carbonisation plant
http://www.pyreg.de/website/resources/documents/pyreg_dt.pdf
Folie 190
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

SIFIC process
lumpy wood

gas
heater

SIFIC
retort

1 preheating zone
2 carbonisation zone
3 cooling down zone

hot gas
fan

charcoal

Reference: Energie aus Biomasse; Kaltschmitt, Hartmann,Hofbauer; 2.edition; 2009 Springer publishing company

Folie 191
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Hydrothermal Carbonisation HTC continuous process

Reference: http://htc-anlagenbau.de/7.html and http://www.dampfturbinenkraftwerk.de/7.html

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Hydrothermal Carbonisation HTC continuous process

Temperature:
Pressure:

200 C
20 bar

Reference: http://www.suncoal.de

Folie 193
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Hydrothermal Carbonisation HTC batch process


charging with
biomass
heating
with steam

carbonisation
for about 10 h

exothermal

waste steam
Coal discharge

Reference: http://htc-anlagenbau.de/2.html

Folie 194
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Pyrolysis rotary kiln RWE Contherm plant (Germany)


Pyrolysis with high heat value feedstock
waste gas
to boiler
pyrolysis gas
to boiler

1. Waste/Feedstock storage
2. Shredder
3. Second storage
4. Crane
5. Material valve

6. Pyrolysis rotary kiln


7. Heating system
8. Discharge of solid
pyrolysis residues
9. Fan
10. Cyclon dust filter

Reference: http://www.techtrade.de/de/index.html

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Pyrolysis rotary kiln RWE Contherm plant in Hamm


(Germany)

Reference: http://www.techtrade.de/de/index.html

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Additional pyrolysis processes

Biochar produced as intermediate product or just


mineral residues occur.

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Fluidised bed
RTP (Rapid Thermal Processing) of Envergent (USA)

Temperature: ca. 500 C


Reference: http://www.envergenttech.com/files/rtp-from-envergent-2010.pdf

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Retention time: < 2 s

Fluidised bed
RTP (Rapid Thermal Processing) of Envergent (USA)

Reference: http://www.envergenttech.com/files/envergent_electricity_5406_en_wp_10v1.pdf

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MILENA Gasification plant (The Netherlands)

Reference: http://www.milenatechnology.com/

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MILENA gasification in the ECN (The Netherlands)

Reference: Paper of ECN


http://www.ph8.nl/upload/catalog/388/337178/6/Production%20of%20Synthetic%20Natural%20Gas%20%28SNG%29%20fro
m%20biomass.pdf or to find by http://www.renewableenergy.nl (Dahlman)
Folie 202
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Biochar

Introduction
Biochar
Reactions

Four Biochars
Biochar

C%

H%

N%

S %

As h %

O%*

HHV
(MJ/k
g)

BET S A
(m 2 /g)

Rapeseed

60.25

4.03

4.19

0.1

4.2

27.61

24.04

0.51

Sewage
Sludge

30.03

4.19

1.83

0.88

35.46

27.23

11.02

17.98

Wood
Pellets

71.58

4.62

0.54

0.22

2.64

20.4

28.78

0.073

Miscanthus

62.2

4.37

0.8

0.28

10.31

22.04

24.71

0.230

* Calculated by difference
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Reactions

Biochar
Reactions
Experimental Set Up

Reaction
No
1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8
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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Reaction

CO2 +
C
+
H2
CH4 +
3H2
CO +
H2
C
+
C
+
C
+
CO +

Enthalpy of
Reaction at 25oC, 1
atm (kJ/mol)
+172
+131

C
H2O

2CO
CO +

H2O

CO

+206

H2 O

CO2 +

-41.2

2H2
O2
O2
O2

CH4
CO
CO2
CO2

-74.8
-111
-394
-284

Experimental Set Up

Each run: 3g biochar

Reaction time: 30 mins


50ml/1.5 mins

Folie 205
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Results
Experimental Set Up
Res ults

Gas Com pos ition Vol' %

Wood Pellets : Tem perature

Results

70
60

H2

50

CO

40

CO2

30

CH4

20
10

C2H6

C2H4
600

650

700

750

Tem perature

800

850

900

C3H6

oC

Wood Pellets : S team Flow


Gas Com pos ition Vol %

Steam Flow: 0.172g/min/g biochar


70
60
50
40

H2

30

CO

20

CO2

10

CH4

0
0

0,05

0,1

0,15

0,2

0,25

S team Flow g/m in/g biochar

Temp: 850oC
Folie 206
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

0,3

Results

Gas Com pos ition Vol%

Mis canthus
70
60

H2

50

CO

40

CO2

30

CH4

20

C2H6

10

C2H4

0
600

700

800

Tem perature

( o C)

900

C3H6

Steam Flow: 0.172g/min/g biochar

Gas Ccom pos ition Vol%

Mis canthus
80
70

60
50

H2

40

CO

30

CO2

20

CH4

10
0

Steam Flow: 0.172g/min/g biochar


Temp: 850 oC
Folie 207
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

10

20

Tim e (m inutes )

30

40

Results
Gas Com pos ition Vol%

Rapes eed:S team Flow


70
60
50
40

H2

30

CO

20

CO2

10

CH4

0
0

0,1

0,2

0,3

S team Flow : g/m in/g biochar

Temp: 850oC
Gas Com pos ition Vol %

Rapes eed: Tem perature


80
70
60
50

H2

40

CO

30

CO2

20

CH4

10
0
600

650

700

750

Tem perature

800

850

900

oC

Steam Flow: 0.172g/min/g biochar


Folie 208
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Results

S ew age S ludge: S team Flow


Gas Com pos ition Vol %

70
60
50

H2

40

CO
30

CO2
CH4

20

C2H6

10
0
0

0,05

0,1

0,15

S team Flow g/m in/g biochar

Temp: 850oC

Folie 209
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

0,2

0,25

Results
Conv ers ion: Tem perature

Conv ers ion w t%

100
80

Wood
Pellets
Rapeseed

60
40

Miscanth
us

20
0
600

700
Tem perature ( o800
C)

900

Conv ers ion: S team Flow


Conv ers ion w t%

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Rapeseed
Wood
Pellets
Sewage
Sludge
0

0,1

0,2

S team Flow g/m in/g biochar

Folie 210
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

0,3

Bio-thermal valorisation of biomass - BtVB Process


Energy gras s
Mis canthus

Enhanced
Biogas plant

Microalgae
Integrated

Heat
OilSink
ex traction
Oils

Economy

Chem ical indus try

Minerals

Pharm aceutical indus try


2.000 3.000 EUR/t

16-17 MJ/kg

Lignin rich res idues

Algae cake

Liquid Fertilis er

Very broad

Twfeedstock
igs , leav es

Biochar turns carbon

Py roly s is

CO negativ e

S ew
age S ludge
spectrum

2
neutral into negative

Fertilis er / Black Earth

Gasifier
13-14 MJ/kg

Char

Vapours

enhanced
Gas ifier

CO2 neutral

for non woody


Wood

Cultiv ation

Heat

Broad spectrum of products

biomass

besideCHP
heat and power
Heat (4,5 MW)

Syngas

Folie 211
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Pow er (3,5 MW)

Bio-thermal valorisation of biomass - BtVB Process


Oil ex traction

Microalgae

Chem ical indus try


Pharm aceutical indus try
,

Liquid Fertilis er

Py roly s is

CO2 negativ e

Cultiv ation

Fertilis er / Black Earth

Char

Gas ifier

CO2 neutral

Heat

CHP

Syngas

Folie 212
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 213
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 214
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Algae
CO2

Carbohydrates

Radiation

Lipids

Heat

Proteins

Nutrients

Vitamins

Water

Pigments
Haematococcus pluvialis, light Microscope view
www.igb.fraunhofer.de

Folie 215
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Power

Heat

Power

Biogas

Algae
CO2

gases
CO2

Residues

Biogas unit

Cleaned exhaust

bioreactor

Szenario ueberherrn einscannen

Algae separation

Pyrolysis
Gasification
Heat

wet
dry
Folie 216
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Algae based biomass

Nutrients

It is not enough to use biomass instead of fossil fuels


Folie 217
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Biochar application Brazil (11 tons per ha).


Embrapa Research Station, Manaus, Brazil, Photo C. Steiner

The classical way is biochar from wood we are looking for alternatives

Folie 218
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 219
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Materials and Methods Soxhlet Extraction


Soxhlet extraction of
Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Biochar

Fractions:
-

F1 (251.7 mm), F2 (1.7 0.9 mm),


F3 (0.90.4 mm)

LUQUE DE CASTRO, M. D. & PRIEGO-CAPOTE, F.


(2010) Soxhlet extraction: Past and present
panacea. Journal of

30 g Char with 500 ml HPLC water

2, 4 and 6 hours extraction duration

Colorimetric analysis of Pb2+, K+, Na+

Chromatography A, 1217, 2383-2389.

Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43Folie 220


Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Elution of metal compounds Na+ and K+


Concentration K+ /ppm

Concentration Na+ /ppm


105

2050
1950
1850
1750
1650
1550

100
95
90
2

4
Ex traction tim e /h

2
Extraction time /h

F1 F2 F3
Folie 221
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Elution of non-metal compounds Cl- and NO3Concentration of NO3- /ppm

Concentration Cl- /ppm


130

120

110

100
90

4
2

4
Extraction time /h

F1 F2 F3
Folie 222
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

2
4
Extraction time /h

Elution of non-metal compounds PO43- and SO42Concentration SO42- /ppm

Concentration PO43- /ppm


50

340

40

310

30

280

20

250

10

220
2

Extraction time /h

F1 F2 F3
Folie 223
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

4
Extraction time /h

Results key- experiment


Concentration in ppm

Most of the element show

3200

highest release after 2 hours

2900
2600
K

2300
2000

Released percentages:

1700
2

300
250
200
150
100
50
0

~ 100 % of all Sulphate in

Cl-

form of Sulphur
Na+

- ~ 100 % of Potassium

PO4-P

Folie 224
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

4
Extraction duration in h

90 % of Chlorine

4-6 % of Sodium

4.5 % of Phosphorous

SO42-

Folie 225
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 226
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 227
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 228
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Folie 229
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

BiocharI

Carbon storage value

Fertiliser value

Amelioration properties
+ other

Quelle: Marta Camps Arbestain; A Biochar Classification System (and a Brief Introduction of IBI Guidelines)

Folie 230
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

HO

O
CH +
O

3C

O
O

CH

CH

O +

O +

C
HO

C
C
C

O
C

HO

O +

C
C

C
CH
O
O
O

C
HO H

O
O

O +
CH

CH

O +O

O +
C

O
O H+

C
HO
C

CH

HO
CC C

O +

C
C
O +

O
C
C

CH

CH
O

O
HOH

O
O
H
OH O
3HC O
O

H
O

HO

H
O +

O +
O

OH +
O

O +O
HO

O +
O

0.1
0.3
~600C

HO

O
O
C

Folie 231
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

HC
C
O
O
HO H O H
O
O
O
O
CH +
CH +
H
O O O

3C

H
C
CH +
C
O

Quelle: Lehmann et al., 2010, in: Imperial College Press, London

O
HO H

Pyrolysis Intensity

CO

0.3
0.5
~400C

0.5
1.0
~200C

OH

O/C
0.7
H/C
1.5
Temperature

HC HO

O +

CH

OH

OH

OH

OH

3CO O
+

CH3

OH

OH

O
HO

HO

HO

CH2 O

OH

OH

O
OH

CH +

OH

HO
O

OH

OH
OH

OH
H

HO

O
H

O
H
O O
H

H
OH
OH

H
O

OH

3C

H2O

OH

OH

CO, CO2, CH4


volatile organics

Relative Proportion

HO
HO

Turbostratic Carbon

Amorphous Carbon

Cellulose, Lignin etc.

Business Development

Folie 232
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Proces s Technology

As an additional option the pyrolysis-reforming process


can be combined with the bio-activated fuel process
Biogas digestate

Fertilizer

Organic waste & residues

Biochar

Pyrolysis-Reforming
Reactor

Thermal Power Plant

Agricultural residue

Pyrolysis
Vapors
... and many other
organic wastes

Bio Syngas
Dual fuel power generation

Crude Bio Glycerol

Bio-Activated Fuel
Reactor
or other long chain
oils & fats as well
as plastics wastes

Folie 233
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Bio-Aliphatic fuel
Decentral power & heat
generation

Proces s Technology

Bio-Activated Fuel reactor cracks melted plastics waste


utilizing the bio-oil contained in hot pyrolysis vapor
Key Advantages

Hot pyrolysis vapor


containing bio-oil is
flowed through heated
long chain oil or polymer
melt
Cracking of long chain
oils, waxes and waste
polymers at reduced
temperatures (200-450 C)
without catalyst
Avoids creation of chars

Yields dual fuel engine quality


fuels:

Bio-aliphatic Diesel fuel

Clean lean gas fuel rich in


H2, CO, CO2 and CH4

aqueous phase

Residues from feedstock


impurities
Folie 234
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

BAF
Reactor

Yields engine quality bio-aliphatic fuel for


dual fuel CHP engines

The fuel is stable for storage and


transportation

High energy efficiency of the overall process

Bio-oil reduces required cracking


temperature

Avoids creation of waxes from PE

Pilot scale (100 kg/hr) unit at Harper-Adams University

Proces s Technology

The pyrolysis-reforming reactor integrates intermediate


pyrolysis and reforming to yield high quality syngas, bio
oil & bio char
Key Advantages
High quality of bio energy products
No expensive filtering requirements
Syngas enriched gas directly suitable for dual
fuel CHP engines
Variable product yields to accommodate
different application scenarios
Fully continuous process

Decomposition of biomass in an ambient pressure


thermal rector with controlled temperature zones
Activated bio char catalyzes cracking of higher
molecular weight organic compounds
Integrated reforming of bio oil and bio char using
the water vapor present in the reactor
Yielding high quality bio energy products in
variable composition:
Low particle, syngas enriched pyrolysis gas (bio syngas)
Low tar & reduced acidity bio-oil
Biochar and ash as solid products
Folie 235
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Pyrolysis Units at Fraunhofer UMSICHT (2kg/h and 60 kg/h)

Proces s Technology

As an additional option the pyrolysis-reforming process


can be combined with the bio-activated fuel process
Biogas digestate

Fertilizer

Organic waste & residues

Biochar

Pyrolysis-Reforming
Reactor

Thermal Power Plant

Agricultural residue

Pyrolysis
Vapors
... and many other
organic wastes

Bio Syngas
Dual fuel power generation

Crude Bio Glycerol

Bio-Activated Fuel
Reactor
or other long chain
oils & fats as well
as plastics wastes

Folie 236
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Bio-Aliphatic fuel
Decentral power & heat
generation

Proces s Technology

Bio-Activated Fuel reactor cracks melted plastics waste


utilizing the bio-oil contained in hot pyrolysis vapor
Key Advantages

Hot pyrolysis vapor


containing bio-oil is
flowed through heated
long chain oil or polymer
melt
Cracking of long chain
oils, waxes and waste
polymers at reduced
temperatures (200-450 C)
without catalyst
Avoids creation of chars

Yields dual fuel engine quality


fuels:

Bio-aliphatic Diesel fuel

Clean lean gas fuel rich in


H2, CO, CO2 and CH4

aqueous phase

Residues from feedstock


impurities
Folie 237
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

BAF
Reactor

Yields engine quality bio-aliphatic fuel for


dual fuel CHP engines

The fuel is stable for storage and


transportation

High energy efficiency of the overall process

Bio-oil reduces required cracking


temperature

Avoids creation of waxes from PE

Pilot scale (100 kg/hr) unit at Harper-Adams University

Application S cenario

Our innovative pyrolysis-reforming technology offers


unique opportunities for biogas plant operators
Biogas plant

Pyrolysis-Reforming

CHP

Pyrolysis water
Substrate

Products &

Increased

Use of digestate &

added value

Bio-Gas Yield

further biomass sources

Gas

Oil

Biochar

Power

Heat

Use of digestate or biosolids deriving from bio-gas, bio-waste and purification


plants

Production of high-grade pyrolysis-gas and oil, as well as biochar using a combined


pyrolysis and reforming procedure

Direct coupling with a CHP enables local, flexible energy and heat generation
including integrated thermal use or a mobile heat storage option

Recirculation of pyrolysis water increases methane recovery in the biogas plant

Produced biochar can be used as fertilizer or for energy production

Folie 238
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Application S cenario

At an ultimate scale of implementation the plant could process


over 100 000 t/a of digestate producing just under 1 MWel
Illustrative Example

6 MW Biogas
Plant
Sample plant with
approx. 136000 t/a corn
& gras silage and cattle
manure feedstock

Diges tate, w et
9% DM
107000 t/a

Py roly s is Reform ing


1100 kg/h

Water Phas e
850 t/a

Bio Oil
570 t/a

Bio S y ngas
4800 t/a

Screw Extractor
Biochar
920 t/a
Diges tate, s ep.
30% DM
19000 t/a

Heat im port
from biogas CHP

Heat

Thermal Drying
1800 kWth

1100 kWth

Diges tate, dry


80% DM
7100 t/a

Notes: Illustrative plant working at 6500


operating hours per year. Data estimated
based on preliminary test results. Further
testing required

700 kWth

Folie 239
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Partly utilized for proces s heat

Dual fuel CHP


1 MWel

Pow er
6400 MWh/a

Bus ines s Cas e

In this large scale scenario the return of capital is still


estimated at approx. 13% due to lower power feed-in tarif
CAPEX
Plant Investment
Working Capital

Inputs
Wet Digestate
Bio Diesel

82 kEUR/a
for free
82 kEUR

Key As s um ptions
15 years duration
Power price of 220 /MWh
below 1000 kWel
Before financing,
subsidies and taxation

Folie 240
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

5780 kEUR
5500 kEUR
280 kEUR

Illustrative Example
based on estimates

Outputs
Power
Bio Char
Fertilizer

Py roly s is Plant
1100 kg/h 6500 h/a
1 MWel

Other OPEX
Labor
Maintenance
Insurance
Depreciation
Depreciation

432 kEUR/a
103 kEUR/a
296 kEUR/a
33 kEUR/a
456 kEUR/a
456 kEUR/a

1402 kEUR/a
1330 kEUR/a
42 kEUR/a
28 kEUR/a

EBIT

431 kEUR/a

RoC

13%

The financial analysis is forward-looking and based upon the current expectations, estimates
and projections; are not guarantees of future performance; and are subject to certain risk,
uncertainties and other factors, many of which are beyond Fraunhofer UMSICHT control.

Application S cenario

In this illustrative application scenario a pyrolysis-reforming


plant processes sewage sludge from a water treatment plant
Illustrative Example

Water Treatm ent


Plant

S ew age s ludge
3% DM,
75000 t/a

Py roly s is Reform ing


300 kg/h

Water Phas e
380 t/a

Bio Oil
60 t/a

Bio S y ngas
1000 t/a

Screw Extractor
Biochar
540 t/a, 55% Ash
S ludge, s ep.
30% DM
4500 t/a

Heat im port
required

Thermal Drying
400 kWth

Utilized for proces s heat

Heat
270 kWth

Dual fuel CHP


160 kWel

130 kWth
S ludge, dried
70% DM
2000 t/a

Folie 241
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Notes: Illustrative plant working at 6500


operating hours per year. Data estimated
based on preliminary test results. Further
testing required

Pow er
1050 MWh/a

Center for Energy Storage


Structure

Project partners

Funding

Sulzbach-Rosenberg / Oberhausen
20 million
Straubing / Stuttgart

System
analysis

Folie 242
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Chemical
storage
Catalysis and process

Bavarian State Ministry of Economy,


Infrastructure, Transport and Technology

Chemical storage
Methods/technical
implementation

Heat storage

Center for Energy Storage


System Analysis as a Focal Topic
System analysis

Electricity, heat, mobility

Bavaria, Germany and Europe

Period up to 2050

Storage requirements,
grid expansion

Scenario of energy industry in


Germany

Folie 243
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Center for Energy Storage


Chemical Storage Systems as a Focal Topic
Catalysis and process

Development of methods and


processes

Development of catalysts and


biocatalysts

Extension and optimization of


methods

www.rp-online.de

www.uni-hannover.de

Folie 244
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

www.idwf.eu

www.begerow.com

Center for Energy Storage


Chemical Storage Systems as a Focal Topic
Methods and
technical implementation

Procedural implementation
on pilot plant scale

Decentralized applications

Energetic and economic


evaluation

Quelle: www.bundeskanzlerin.de

Quelle: www.elektrolyse.de

Quelle: www.pressebox.de

Quelle: www.bundeskanzlerin.de

Folie 245
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Center for Energy Storage


Thermal Storage Systems as a Focal Topic
Thermal energy storage

Thermal storage as a
component of compressed
air energy storage

High-temperature storage

Latent heat storage

Thermochemical storage

Optimization of CHP plants

www.heizungsfinder.de

www.dlr.de

Folie 246
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Thermal Process Technologies


Thermal Energy Storage
High Temperature Storage

Folie 247
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

experience from comprehensive


research & development

Radial flow bulk bed storage for


dust-containing exhaust fumes

test-rig for material aging


(decomposition, formation of
dust, storage capacity)

Database on multiple storage


materials

CAD and CFD based


development and optimisation

system integration to enhance


the use of volatile waste heat

Thermal Process Technologies


Thermal Energy Storage
Latent Heat Storage Systems

Folie 248
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

mobile latent heat storage


systems

Heat exchanger and systems

test-rig for mobile systems as


well as for heat transmission
systems

database on suitable storage


media

Identification and qualification


of new storage media

analysis of technology, energy


and economic efficiency as well
as marketability

market potential analysis

system integration of mobile


latent heat storage systems

Thermal Process Technologies


Thermal Energy Storage
Thermochemical Storages

test system based on


magnesium oxide/ hydroxide

identification and analysis of


new and enhanced materials

test-bench for

Folie 249
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

material aging and


characterisation

different reactor designs


(laboratory scale)

analysis of materials concerning

surface texture

particle size

elementary composition
and crystalline structure

Thermal Process Technologies


Thermal Energy Storage
Storage Integration

Folie 250
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

integration of thermal energy


storages into new or established
processes

evaluation of technology and


ecology of storages and
peripheral devices

validation of economic and


energy efficiency

plants and process design

optimisation and adaptation of


facilities and processes

examination of the overall


contribution of energy from
source to sink

scientific consulting

FRAUNHOFER UMS ICHT

Further Reading
Thank You v ery m uch
for y our attention!
Kontakt
Fraunhofer UMSICHT
Fraunhofer-Instituts fr Umwelt-, Sicherheitsund Energietechnik UMSICHT
Institutsteil Sulzbach-Rosenberg
An der Maxhtte 1
92237 Sulzbach-Rosenberg
E-Mail:
info-suro@umsicht.fraunhofer.de
Internet: http://www.umsicht-suro.fraunhofer.de
Folie 251
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Prof. Dr. Andreas Hornung


Telefon: 09661-908 400
E-Mail: andreas.hornung@umsicht.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer UMSICHT
Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology UMSICHT
Institute Branch Sulzbach-Rosenberg

Prof. Dr. Andreas Hornung


Director Institute Branch

Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787 - 1826)

Researcher
Fraunhofer-Lines

Inventor
Optical instruments
Entrepreneur
Director and Partner of a glassworks

Folie 253
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft
Research and Development

Applied research in an international context, of direct


utility to private and public enterprise and of wide
benefit to society as a whole

Application-oriented basic research

Entrepreneurship

Institutes organized as profit-centers

A third of the budget are revenues


of industrial projects

Spin-offs are promote

Contracting parties/Clients

Industrial and service companies

Public sector

Daten und Fakten

More than 23 000 staff members

More than 67 research institutes

2 Mrd annual research budget

Folie 254
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Sulzbach-Rosenberg

DIRECTORATE
ENERGY

PROCESSES

PRODUCTS

ORGANIZATION

ENERGY SYSTEMS
ENGINEERING

BIOREFINERY/
BIOFUELS

MATERIAL SYSTEMS

ADMINISTRATION

Waste Heat to Power


Compressed Air Energy
Storage

ENERGY SYSTEMS
Energy Supply Systems
Energy System
Optimization

CHEMICAL ENERGY
STORAGE
Thermochemical Storage
Catalytic Processes
Biogas

ELECTRICAL,
THERMAL ENERGY
STORAGE
Electrochemical Storage
Thermal Energy Storage and
Systems

THINK TANK ENERGY

Bio-based Chemicals
Biofuels, Hydrcarbons
Thermochemical Conversion
Specialty Chemicals,
Formulations

PROCESS
INTENSIVATION
Water Processes
Adsorption Processes
Active Surfaces

INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
IT-Infrastructure
IT-Services
Application Development
Modelling and Simulation

PROCESS
ENGINEERING
Environmental Biotechnology
Bioprocess Engineering and
Fluid Separation
Biomass and Residue
Utilization
Membrane and Food Technology

THINK TANK
International Projects
Urban Production
Group Environmental and
Process Technology (RUB*)

Synthesis and Functionalization


Processing and Testing
Prototype, Design, Interaction

BIO-BASED
PLASTICS
Polymer Chemistry
Material Development
Processing and Applications
Production Scale-Up and Testing

Projects
Controlling
Human Resources
Adminstration
Travel and Central Services

PUBLIC RELATIONS
Press and Media Relations
Events
Internal Communications

Leather Technology
High Pressure Impregnation
Product Design by Pressure
(RUB*)

RESSOURCES AND
INNOVATION
MANAGEMENT
Sustainaiblilty Assessment
and Management
Material Flow Systems
EU, IPR, Strategy

THINK TANK
FUTURE PRODUCTS

Further Academic
Education
Human Resources
Development

Catalytic Conversion
Processes
Energy Efficiency and
System Analysis

THERMAL PROCESS
TECHNOLOGIES

RECYCLING
MANAGEMENT

NEW MATERIALS
Corrosion and Wear
Protection
Surface Engineering
Metallurgical Processes

TECHNICS

BIO. PROCESS
TECHNOLOGIES

R&D-Workshop
Construction and Facility
Management

OCCUPATIONAL
SAFETY AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION
LIBRARY

ENERGY SYSTEMS

Waste Management and


Recycling Technologies

ANALYTICS

Additive Manufacturing, FabLab


Sustainable Polymer Products

SULZBACH-ROSENBERG

Energy from Biomass


Thermal Storages

UMSICHT ACADEMY
LEATHERANDHIGH
PRESSURETECHNOLOGY

INSTITUTE BRANCH

Biogas Technologies
Wastewater Treatment and
Phosphorous Recovery
System analysis

INFRASTRUCTURE
Administration
Public Relations and Marketing
Central Technical Services

* Ruhr University Bochum As of: 24/4/2013

Fraunhofer UMSICHT
Our Organisation
Director: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dipl.-Ing.

Deputy Director: Dipl.-Ing.

Andreas Hornung

Gerold Dimaczek

Center for Energy Storage


Dr. James R. Gasson

Renewable
Energy

Business Development
Dipl.-Ing. Thorsten Hornung, MBA

Thermal Process
Technologies

Recycling
Management

Biological
Process
Technologies

New Materials

Dipl.-Ing.

Dr.-Ing.

Dr.-Ing.

Dipl.-Wi.-Ing.

Dr. HDR

Samir Binder

Michael Jakuttis

Matthias Franke

Fabian Stenzel

Patrick J. Masset

Catalytic
Conversion
Processes
Energy Efficiency
and System
Analysis

Energy from
Biomass
Thermal
Storages

Waste Management and


Recycling
Technologies

Biogas Technologies
Wastewater
Treatment and
Phosphorous
Recovery
System analysis

Corrosion and
Wear Protection
Surface
Engineering
Metallurgical
Processes

Infrastructure
Dipl.-Ing. Gerold Dimaczek
Administration
Dipl.-Bw. Brigitte Herbst
Folie 256
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Corporate Communications
Matthias Herms, M. A.

Central Technical Services


Helmut Heinl

Our sites
New building 2015

Haus 3

Haus 1

Haus 5

Haus 2

Haus 4

Folie 257
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Our services
Consulting &
Studies

From the
idea

Construction

to the
product

Pilot plant
operation

Processimplementation

Development &
Design

Feasibility

Folie 258
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Economy

Ecology

Safety

Legal / Political Framework

Our portfolio
Energy from biomass
and waste
Furnace technology

& development
CHP and incineration / RDF plants
Filter developement for emissions-reduction

Resource management
and recycling

Chemical energy storage


Thermochemical conversion

(BioPyroEnergy)
Conversion of H2 and CO2
Synthesis of short- and long chained alkanes and

alcohols

Thermal energy storage


Latent- and thermochemical

storage units

Utilization of residual materials


Recycling and resource concepts
Sustainability analysis

Components for compressed

Materials for
energy technology

Energy storage
system analysis

Corrosion and

Energy
Raw materials
Storage demand

abrasion protection
Functional coatings
Recycling of high-tech metals
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air storage units


Storage systems for CHP plants

Selected Technology Portfolio

The Biobattery

Anaerobic Digestion

Thermal Catalytic Reforming

Extended bioenergy- and plastics recycling concept

Recycling Concepts and Technologies for E-Scrap

Thermal Energy Storage Systems

New Materials

Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Anaerobic digestion
Residues 2 biogas
Focus:
Material flows of inferior and/or contaminated
production residues in different industrial sectors

Glue stock

Purposes:
Exploitation of the economic value through
anaerobic digestion
Additional generation of heat and electricity
Solution of disposal problems
Approach:
Identification of material flows
Quantification of potentials
Process engineering and optimization of the
anaerobic digestion
Techno-economic and socio-ecologic assessment
of the system
Concepts for the digestate utilization
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Deinking sludges
(phenol, cyanide)

Residues from citrus friut


processing industry
(phenol, biocide)

Residues from the


olive oil production
(phenolrich waste water)

Anaerobic digestion
Sustainable digestate management

Biogas plants

Relief of regions with nutrient oversupply

Reduction of disposal costs for digestate

Production of tradable fertilizer products

Avoidance of emissions

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Digestate as fertilizer
(surplus of nutrients)

The Biobattery concept

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The Biobattery concept

Us e of peak
electricity
Energy and
m aterial products

Flex ible technology pool


Us e of
res idues
Intelligent
integration

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Anaerobic digestion
Sustainable digestate management

Oil

Power

Gas

Heat
Biomass /
biogenic residues

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Pretreatment

Fermentation

Dewatering

TCR

Liquide phase

Solid phase

N-removal

Biochar

CHP

Thermal Catalytic Reforming


Innovative & economical biomass-to-energy solution
The Challenges

The Solution

Large volumes of biomass wastes available


globally

Fraunhofer UMSICHT offers an innovative


Thermal Catalytic Reforming technology for
a broad range of residual biomass

Significant opportunities for rural areas and


industries in decentralized smaller scale
energy solutions
A number of technologies is competing in
the biomass waste-to-energy market
including anaerobic digestion,
fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis
However for many biomass wastes these
technologies are limited in feedstock and
product options or do not maximize the
primary energy utilization

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Producing quality fuels for power


generation in CHP engines and valuable bio
char as soil enhancer
Cost effective solution for decentral
applications

Thermal Catalytic Reforming


Feedstock and application

Biogas digestate

Syngas

Power

Dual Fuel Engine*


* Oil blended withbio diesel

Sewage sludge

Agricultural residues

Oil

Heat

Bunker Fuel

Thermal Catalytic Reforming

Fertilizer*

Industrial biowastes

Biochar*

* Dependent on
Feedstock

Use of all Products


Municipal biowastes

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Thermal Use

Thermal Catalytic Reforming


Key components
Key Advantages

Thermal Catalytic Reforming

High quality of bio energy products


No expensive filtering requirements
Syngas enriched gas directly suitable for dual
fuel CHP engines
Variable product yields to accommodate
different application scenarios
Fully continuous process

Decomposition of biomass in an ambient pressure


thermal rector with controlled temperature zones
Activated bio char catalyzes cracking of higher
molecular weight organic compounds
Integrated reforming of bio oil and bio char using
the water vapor present in the reactor
Yielding high quality bio energy products in
variable composition:
Low particle, syngas enriched pyrolysis gas (bio syngas)
Low tar & reduced acidity bio-oil
Biochar and ash as solid products
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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Pyrolysis Units at Fraunhofer UMSICHT (2kg/h and 60 kg/h)

Extended bioenergy- and plastics recycling concept


Conventional biowaste treatment process
biowaste

Plastics from
biowaste

digestate

Incinerator

Gas

compost

Pre-Treatment

Fermentation

CHP

Composting

Separation of plastics from biowaste


Fermentation and subsequent composting of biowaste
Incineration of high calorific plastic waste (gate fee)

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Utilization

Extended bioenergy- and plastics recycling concept


Optimized biowaste treatment process
biowaste

digestate

Plastic waste

biochar

Gas

Gas

oil

Pre-Treatment

Fermentation

CHP

TCR-Reactor

Gas

BAF-Reactor

Energy storage

Separation of plastics from biowaste


Fermentation and subsequent thermo-catalytic reduction (TCR) of biowaste
Cracking of plastic waste in a bio-activated fuel reactor (BAF)
Energetic utilization of pyrolysis-oil and gas from biowaste and plastics
Energetic optimization of the process by utilization of surplus electricity from
solar- and wind power (energy storage)

Folie 270
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Biogas

In Total: 7772

Elektrical capacity: 3530 MWel

digestate
storage

fertilizer

Biogasplants in Germany
(2013)

Biomethane
slurry

processing
plant

Biogas
energy
crops

Power
Methane
fermentation

Heat

Heat
CHP plant

organic
waste
Haushaltsgeld.net, Andreas Carjell, Viktor Mildenberger , Petra Bork, Dieter Schtz, Andreas Morlok / alle pixelio.de

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Recycling Concepts and Technologies for E-Scrap


Conventional E-Scrap treatment process
E-Scrap

Dust and
Residues

Incinerator
Sanitary
Landfill

Hazardous
Comp.
Pre-Treatment

Sorting

Smelters

EoL-Treatment

Mechanical treatment of E-Scrap


Manual and automatically sorting of hazardous components
Delivery of metal fractions to centralized smelters
Incineration or landfill of huge amounts of waste fractions like dust and solid
residues

Folie 272
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Recycling Concepts and Technologies for E-Scrap


Optimized E-Scrap treatment process
E-Scrap

Dust and
Residues

Oil

Gas

Hazardous
Established
Comp.
Recycling Routes
Pre-Treatment

Sorting

Coke
Pyrolysis
& CHP

Residue
Utilization

Metal
Alloy

Energy storage

Manual and mechanical treatment of E-Scrap


Manual and automatically sorting of hazardous components and fractions like waste
printed circuit boards
Pyrolysis of sorted fractions and waste fractions
Energetic utilization of pyrolysis-oil and -gas from organic compounds
Energetic optimization of the process by utilization of surplus electricity from
solar- and wind power (energy storage)

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Thermal Process Technologies


Thermal Energy Storage
High Temperature Storage

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

experience from comprehensive


research & development

Radial flow bulk bed storage for


dust-containing exhaust fumes

test-rig for material aging


(decomposition, formation of
dust, storage capacity)

Database on multiple storage


materials

CAD and CFD based


development and optimisation

system integration to enhance


the use of volatile waste heat

Thermal Process Technologies


Thermal Energy Storage
Latent Heat Storage Systems

Folie 275
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

mobile latent heat storage


systems

Heat exchanger and systems

test-rig for mobile systems as


well as for heat transmission
systems

database on suitable storage


media

Identification and qualification


of new storage media

analysis of technology, energy


and economic efficiency as well
as marketability

market potential analysis

system integration of mobile


latent heat storage systems

Thermal Process Technologies


Thermal Energy Storage
Thermochemical Storages

test system based on


magnesium oxide/ hydroxide

identification and analysis of


new and enhanced materials

test-bench for

Folie 276
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

material aging and


characterisation

different reactor designs


(laboratory scale)

analysis of materials concerning

surface texture

particle size

elementary composition
and crystalline structure

Thermal Process Technologies


Thermal Energy Storage
Storage Integration

Folie 277
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

integration of thermal energy


storages into new or established
processes

evaluation of technology and


ecology of storages and
peripheral devices

validation of economic and


energy efficiency

plants and process design

optimisation and adaptation of


facilities and processes

examination of the overall


contribution of energy from
source to sink

scientific consulting

New Materials Technologies


Developments and patents
Centrifugal atomization

Thermal spraying
Hot gas atomisation
Folie 278
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Corrosion facilities

New Materials Technologies


Wear resistance of densified oxide coatings
Material properties improve: lower porosity, higher hardness

Densification of mixed ceramics YSZ / Al2O3 50:50 as well

YSZ / Al2O3
50:50

untreated

Fraunhofer UMSICHT

YSZ / Al2O3
50:50

untreated
Temperature [C]

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Hardness [HV]

Porosity [%]

Max. 67 % lower porosity, max. 50 % higher hardness

Temperature [C]

New Materials Technologies


In-field corrosion tests
Test duration: >1600 h, air-cooled corrosion probes
Significant lower attack (flue side) for modified samples
Treated samples

Duration: 1900 h, T = 450C

YSZ:Al2O3 75/25
YSZ: Al2O3 75/25
Alloy 625

YSZ:Al2O3 = 50:50
250 m

Untreated samples

Duration: 1630 h, T = 430C

Pure YSZ

YSZ
Alloy 625

YSZ:Al2O3 = 50:50
250 m
100 mm
Folie 280
Fraunhofer UMSICHT

New Materials Technologies


Surface modification of glass fiber clothes

Folie 281
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Our Partners
Bayerisches Staatsministerium fr
Wirtschaft und Medien, Energie
und Technologie
Bayerisches Staatsministerium fr
Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz

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FRAUNHOFER UMSICHT
Institute Branch Sulzbach-Rosenberg

Thank You very much for


Your Attention

Contact
Fraunhofer UMSICHT
Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety,
and Energy Technology UMSICHT
Institute Branch Sulzbach-Rosenberg

E-Mail:
Internet:

info-suro@umsicht.fraunhofer.de
http://www.umsicht-suro.fraunhofer.de

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Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Prof. Dr. Andreas Hornung


Director Institute Branch
Telefon: 09661-908 403
E-Mail: andreas.hornung@umsicht.fraunhofer.de