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Indian Onion&Garlic Processing


I. Introduction of Onions and Garlic in India
1. Indian Onions
India is the second largest onion producing country in the world, which
has exported 1238,102.60 MT of fresh onions to the world for the worth
of Rs. 2,300.57 crores during the year 2014-15. Major onion growing
areas in India are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat,
Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Tamil Nadu. And
Maharashtra with 27.72% onion production ranks first during these
onion areas.
Indian onions are various in colors: Agrifound Dark Red, Agrifound Light
Red, NHRDF Red, Agrifound White, Agrifound Rose and Agrifound Red,
Pusa Ratnar, Pusa Red, Pusa White Round. Indian onion has two
harvesting periods: the first period from November to January and the
second period from January to May.

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2. Indian Garlic
Garlic is the second important bulb crops grown after onion. Indian
garlic production in world is very huge quantity and it generally ranks the
second following China. The main garlic producing areas in India are
Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh. These four areas can
respectively produce garlic of above 200,000 Mt. The garlic bulbs are
generally white and big in size-about 4.5-5.0cm in diameter. Average
yield is about 17-18 tonnes from a hectare. Indian garlic is well-known
for its aroma with sweetness.

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II. Market for Onion and Garlic Processing


1. Onion processing market
There is a huge demand for Indian onion in the world. Indian onions are
mostly exported in the form of dehydrated onion, canned onion and
onion pickle. Onions in India are processed into different forms of
products: onion paste, dehydrated onion flakes, onion powder, onion oil,
onion vinegar, onion sauce, pickled onion, onion wine and beverage etc.
By rough estimate, around 6.75% of onion produced is going for
processing. There is increasing demand for onion processed products
due to its convenience to handle and use for customers and added onion

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values for manufacturers.


2. Garlic processing market
Garlic is one of the important bulb crops. It is used as a vegetable or
condiment like pickle as important ingredient vinegar through India.
Moreover, garlic is useful in various food products and herbal products.
Garlic is often processed into these products like garlic powder, garlic
salt, garlic vinegar, garlic oil, garlic juice and so on. Most of countries use
these processed products in their food preparations like chutneys,
pickles, curry powders, curried vegetables, meat and meat product
preparations, tomato ketchup, etc.. And garlic processed products also
have been extensively used as a popular remedy for various ailments and
psychological disorders.

III. Onion Products Processing


1. Onion paste

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Onion paste is one of the common ingredients required in preparing


gravy for most of the Indian style paneer curries. Major production steps
are as follows:
Fresh onions-onion peeling-onion root cutting-onion rinsing-onion
slicing/shredding-onion crushing-onion milling-onion acidifying and
heating-onion enzymolysis-onion beating-secondary milling-secondary
heating-onion concentrating-onion paste
canning-sealing-sterilizing-cooling-finished product
2. Dehydrated onion flake
Slicing and washing
Use onion root cutting machine to cut onion tops and roots, then peel
onions by peeling machine. Cut peeled onions with the thickness of
4-4.5mm by the slicing machine. Clean onion slices with water.

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Dewatering and drying


Remove the surface water of onions by the high speed rotation by the
dewatering machine. Then lay these dewatered onion flakes on the
drying plates with its hole diameter of 3*3mm or 5*5mm, and put drying
plates on the drying vehicles. At last push into the drying oven for
dehydration.
Thus, dehydrated onion flakes can be achieved.
Dehydration onions are featured with easy transportation and longer
shelf life due to the bulk reduction and less moisture than fresh onions.
By proper grinding, dehydrated onion flakes are easily processed into
onion powder. Onion powder dissolves very easily and reconstitute
quickly compared to onion flakes. So it is convenient to use onion
powder to add the onion flavor for lots of foods.
3. Onion Oil

Onion oil is the flavoring substance which is widely used in the seasoning
of processed products. Onion oil also can be regarded as the natural

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food preservative for certain food. The methods for processing onions
into onion oil are as follows: distillation, solvent extraction, super critical
fluid extraction and etc..
4. Onion pickles
Onion pickling methods approximately consist of venegar based pickling
and oil based pickling. The former is favored in the United States and
Europe and the later is utilized in Asia and Africa. Pickled onions are
generally crisp and crunchy, and have a very sharp taste.
5. Onion beverage/sauce: onions are rich in sugars and other nutrients,
so they can be processed into onion wine, onion beverage and onion
sauce.

IV. Garlic Products Processing Equipment


Garlic is often processed into garlic powder, garlic salt, garlic vinegar,
garlic oil, garlic juice and so on. Before processing, garlic should be
broken to separate the cloves. Garlic powder is made after flaking, drying
and grinding the cloves. For making paste wet cloves are pilled and grind.
The main garlic processing machines with high quality and low cost in
the industrial production are: garlic grader, garlic separating machine,
garlic peeling machine, garlic slicing machine, garlic paste making
machine and so on.
1.Garlic grader machine

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Garlic grading machine is mainly used for sorting garlic bulbs according
to their sizes. It can finish 5-step process to sort the garlic into 6 grades.
There are working holes of successively-increased sizes in every step; the
garlic can drop from the working hole if its size is smaller than the hole
size, and then the grading is done. The processing step can be
customized as required.
2. Garlic separating machine
The garlic bulb separating machine is used to separate the bulbs into
cloves. The separating working is done by rollers of the machine. The
gaps between the rollers can be adjusted to suit the garlic with different
sizes. The machine is easy to operate and one person is enough to
complete the whole separation process.
3. Garlic slicing machine

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The slicing machine can cut garlic cloves into slices in large quantity,
suitable for kinds of garlic. The thickness of the slices can be adjusted
freely depending on the production demand and the finished slices are
smooth and uniform.
4. Garlic paste making machine
The garlic paste machine has working blades which is rotating in high
speed to cut raw materials into small pieces till muddy and pasty. The
fineness of finished products is adjustable as required. The final product
will not lose its natural properties as its flavor and nutrient value are
remained.

V. Conclusion
Onion and garlic processed products are usually treated as the important

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ingredient of Indian cooking. It helps in absorption and digestion of food.


In domestic market, processed and value added products are gaining
importance in the households restaurants, eateries, caterers, and clubs
use them regularly. With the medical property, these products have wide
application in medicine. In the world market, the demand for onion and
garlic products is increasing as they are hygiene and easy to handle, able
to avoid wastage. There are good prospects for these processed
products to export to gulf countries and even Europe.