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# 1

Unit 1

Introduction to Computers
Q 1: What is Computer?
Ans: Introduction:
The word computer is derived from the word compute. Which mean to
calculate. So a computer is normally considered to be a calculating device that
can perform arithmetic and logical operations at a very high speed. Computer is a
device that can compute at great speed. Actually, the main purpose of making
computer was to invent a machine which could make calculations at very high
speed.
Definitions:
A Computer is an electronic device that can accept data, store it arithmetically
and logically, process that information and give result from that processing.

Input / Data

Processing
OR

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Output / Result

## Computer is an electronic device that is used to solve various problems

according to a set of instructions given to it. A computer can accept data, process
data into useful information and store it for later use.
OR
A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions
stored in its memory that can accept data, work on the data according to given
commands, produce results and store the results for future use.
Q2: write down the Advantages of Computers.
Following are the Advantages of Computers:
1-Speed:
Computer is a very fast speed device. It can perform a task in few seconds. A
computer can perform billions of calculation in a second. The time used by a
computer to perform an operation is called the processing speed. Computer
speed is measured in Mega Hertz (MHz) or Giga Hertz (GHz)
2-Data Storage:
A computer has too much storage capacity. Once recorded, a piece of information
can never be forgotten.
3-Accuracy:
2

## The accuracy of computer is always high. A computer can be considered as 100%

accurate. The degree of a particular computer depends upon its design. But for a

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particular computer each and every calculation is performed with the same
accuracy.
4-Efficiency:
Efficiency is one of the most wonderful things about the computer. Computer can
perform multiple tasks simultaneously. For example preparation of the result of
examination, communicating on network and storage and retrieval of information
etc.
5-Processing:
A computer can process the given instructions. It can perform different types of
processing like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It can also
perform logical functions like comparing two numbers to decide which one is the
bigger etc.
6-Retriving:
A computer can recall (retrieve) the stored data and information as and when
required. The data stored in the computer can be used at later time. A computer
can recall the required data in a few seconds.
7-Control Sequence:
A computer works strictly according to the given instructions. It follows the same
sequence of execution that is given in a program.
8-Versatility:
3

A computer can perform any task, provided it can be reduced to a series of logical
steps.

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We can use a computer in hospital, bank or at home. We can use it for calculating
our budget or can play games. A variety of facilities are available through
computers.
9-Decision making capability:
A computer can take simple decisions, such as less than, greater than or equal to.
It also determines whether a statement is true or false.
10-Diligency:
Computer can never get tired. It performs more boring, repetitive and

CRUX
Computer has taken the business activities to new horizons, today it very possible
to commence business on a table using a single computer. Thanks to internet that
now we can get any kind of information we needed in just few seconds.
Q3: Give some examples of computer applications.
Ans: Here some examples of computer application are:

## Controlling space flight

Printing books
Checking out groceries at the checkout counter
Landing airplanes
Tracking inventory
Turning on lights at specified time

## Q4: What is the History of computers?

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## Ans: History and Development of computers:

At the early age people used pebbles, stones, sticks, scratches, symbols and
finger tips to count, which were later replaced by numbers.
The history of computing is divided into three ages during which man invented
and improved different types of calculating machines. These ages are,

## Q5: Write down the ages of computers?

Ans: Ages of Computer
At the early age people used pebbles, stones, sticks, scratches, symbols and finger
tips to count, which were later replaced by numbers.
The history of computing is divided into three ages during which man invented
and improved different types of calculating machines. These ages are,
1.

2.

3.

5

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About 3000 years BC, Chinese developed the first calculating machine named
Abacus or Soroban.
Abacus consists of a rectangular wooden frame having rods which carry round
beads. Counting is done by shifting the beads from one side to another.
Q6: Describe Napiers bones history?
Ans: Napiers bones: (1550-1617)
John Napier was a Scottish mathematician. He made the first calculating device
after abacus. It was called John Napiers bone or cardboard multiplication
calculator. In addition to multiplication this machine was also used to calculate
square roots and cube roots.
Q7: Describe Pascals Pascaline Calculator.
Ans: Pascals Pascaline Calculator:
Blas Pascal (1623-1662), the 18 years old son of a French tax collector,
developed the first mechanical calculating machine in 1642. This machine consists
of gears, wheels and dials. This device was known as pascaline and it was
capable of adding and subtracting operations.
Q8: Describe the Charles Babbage work in the history of computers?

Ans: Computer was invented because Necessity is the mother of invention. Man
always searched for a first calculating device it took a long time to invent the
digital computer. Brief history of Charles Babbage behind the invention of
computer is as follows

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## Charles Babbage: (1791-1871)

Charles Babbage an English mathematician also called Father of modern
computer. As he gave the true concept of computer at Cambridge University, he
developed Babbage Difference Engine in 1823 and Babbage Analytical Engine in
1833.
After 10 years, in 1842, he made a general-purpose computer named Analytical
Engine. This analytical engine could add, subtract, multiply and divide in
automatic sequence at a rate of 60 additions per second.
Lady Ada Augusta an assistant of Babbage is called the first programmer.
Q9: Describe Herman Hollerith and also write down the use of Punched Cards?
Ans: Herman Hollerith: (1862-1929)
In 1890, an American inventor Herman Hollerith applied the idea of punch boards
in the form of punch cards in computers for input and output. He invented a
punched card tabulating machine. This machine could add, multiply and sort
numbers. Data were feed and results were produced on punched cards.
As compared to todays machines, these computers were slow, usually processing
50-220 cards per minute, each card holding about 80 decimal numbers
(characters). At that time, however, punched cards were a huge step forward.
They provided a means for Input / Output (I/O) and memory storage on a huge
scale.
Q10: Give Von Neumann theory.
7

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Von Neumann contributed a new awareness of how practical and fast computers
should be built. These ideas, usually refer to as the stored program technique,
because essential for future generations of high speed digital computers and were
universally adopted. According to Von Neumann theory Data and program can
be stored in the same memory. Thus the machine can itself alter either its
program or internal data.
As a result of the ideas, computing and programming became much faster, more
flexible and efficient.
Q11: Write a note on different computer generations, briefly explaining their
features.
Ans: 1. First Generation:

## Computers of this generation used Vacuum tubes to perform calculations.

Vacuum tubes were used as the principle of electronic component. Each
computer had a different binary coded program called machine language that
told it to how to operate. This made the computer difficult to program and limited
its versatility and speed.
Main features:
The distinct features of first generation computers were:

## Major Innovation - Vacuum Tube

Main Memory - Punched Cards
Input Output Devices - Punched cards and papers
Languages - Low level machine language
Operating System - No operating system, human operators to set

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Computer Model:
EDVAC, ENIAC, UNIVAC-I etc belongs to first generation computers.
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Vacuum tubes were used as electronic component.

Electronic digital computers were developed for the first time.
These computers were the fastest calculating devices of their time.
Computations were performed in millisecond.

1. Too large in size
3. Non-portable
4. Limited commercial use
5. Air conditioning required
2. Second generation:
(Transistors 1955-1964)
In 1948 with the invention of transistors, vacuum tubes were replaced with
transistors. As a result, the size of electronic machinery has been shrunk.
Second generation computers replaced machine language with Assembly
language allowing abbreviated programming codes to replace long difficult
binary codes. More sophisticated high level languages such as COBOL
(Common Business Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Transistor) came into
common use during this time.
9

Main features:
Major Innovation - Transistors as main component.

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10

## Main Memory - RAM and ROM.

External Storage - Magnetic tapes and Magnetic Disk.
Input Output Devices - Magnetic tapes and Magnetic Disk.
Languages - Assembly language, some high level languages for Example
BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN.
Operating System - Human handles punched card.
Size - Main frame for example IBM-1401, NCR-300, IBM-600 etc.
Computer Model:
IBM 700 Series, IBM 1400 Series, IBM 1600 Series were developed in that period.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

More reliable
Less heat generated
Small in size as compared to first generation computers
Better portability
Less prone to hardware failures

1.
2.
3.
3.

10

## Air conditioning required

Software production was difficult and costly
Very costly for commercial use
Third generation:
(Integrated Circuits 1964-1975)

## The major invention of third generation computers was developed of the

silicone IC (Integrated Circuits). A single IC chip contains thousands of
transistors. These computers used magnetic core memory as internal storage.
This technology was Small-scale integration (SSI). Magnetic storage disks were
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11

computers.
Main features:

## Major Innovation - Integrated circuit (ICs) as basic electronic component.

Main Memory - PROM and DRAM.
External Storage - Improve disk (Floppy Disk)
Input and Output Devices - Keyboard for input, monitor for output.
Languages - More high level languages.
Operating System - Complete operating systems were introduced.
Size - Mini, for example: IBM SYSTEM / 360, ICH-360, HONEY WELL-316 etc.

Computer Model:
IBM 360, PDP series, ICL 1900, CDC 6600 were developed in that period.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## Smaller in size as compared to previous generation computers

Easily movable
More reliable.
Portable
Less electricity consumption.
Heat generation was rare.
General purpose computer.

11

## 1. Air conditioning was required in many cases due to ICs.

2. Very advance technology was required to make the ICs.
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12

4. Fourth generation:

(Microprocessors 1972-present)

In this generation ICs used very large scale integration (VLSI) technology is
using. In this technology circuits density approaching 10,000 components per
chip. Its memory access time was expressed in nanoseconds. A variety of
storage device were used for storing data. There was a great versatility of
input and output devices.
Main features:

## Major Innovation - LSIC and VLSIC (Micro Processor)

Main Memory - EPROM and SRAM.
External Storage - Floppy Disk and Hard Disk.
Input and Output Devices - Monitor for output.
Languages - Languages and application software.
Operating System - MS-DOS and PC-DOS
Size - Micro computer e.g. IBM-PC, Apple Macintosh etc.

Computer Model:
IBM 303, IBM 4300, CYBER 205 series, Intel 4004, XT, 4x86, Pentium I, II, III, IV

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Smaller in size
Very reliable
Heat generation is low
Big memory
Totally general purpose
Cheapest among all generations

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13

1. Very advanced technology was required to fabricate to the ICs.
5. Fifth generation:
(Present - Beyond)
Scientists claimed a challenge about an intelligent computer also known as
LOGICAL COMPUTER. It is a promise that such computers will real genuine real
intelligence. They will work logically and having own decision making power.
Scientists are working to increase the speed of computers. They are trying to
create a computer with real IQ with the help of advanced programming and
technologies.
Main Features:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Major Innovations - ULSIC (Ultra large scale integrated circuit)

Main Memory - EEPROM, SIMM and DIMM.
External Storage - Modified magnetic and Optical disks.
Input/output Devices - Keyboard, Pointing Device, Scanner as input and
Monitor as main output.
5. Languages - AI (Artificial Intelligence) Expert systems.
6. Operating System - GUI based e.g. Windows 95, Windows NT.
7. Size - Very small in size example: Laptop, Note book, Digital Diary, Palm top
and Pocket PC.
Computer Model:
Hall 9000
13

1. Very large storage capacity.
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## 2. Long bit processor builds.

3. Artificial Intelligence Language developed.
Q12. What are the types of computer?
Ans: There are three types of computers:
Types of computers

Analog Computers

Digital Computers

Hybrid Computers

Analog Computers:
Computers which measures variable quantities along a continuous scale are
called analog computers. Analog computers do not operate directly with
numbers or digits. The output can be obtained in analog signals that are in the
form of graph or wave. Its can store limited amount of data. Processing speed
of these computers is slow. These are being manufactured in small sizes.
Results obtained by analog computers are not accurate. Its readability is low
due to output in the form of signals. These computers can be used to measure
variable quantities such as weigh, height and temperature etc. Analog
computers are mainly used in the field of Engineering, Medicine and Research
centers. Thermometer, analog watch and weight machine are the examples of
analog computers.
14

Digital Computers:
Digital

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Digital computers work with digits. These computers measure any Physical
quantities along discrete or fixed scale. A digital computer is based on the rule
of counting. In fact, digital computers used digital signals, which can
distinguish between just two values 0 and 1. These computers can store large
amount of data. Processing speed of these computers is fast. These are being
manufactured in a wide variety of sizes. Results obtained by digital computers
are accurate. Its readability is high. These computers can be used to perform
mathematical and logical operations such as Addition, Multiplication, Division,
Subtraction, Less than, Equal to etc. These computers are commonly used in
offices, others institutions and even at home for personal use. Calculators,
digital watch, personal computer are the examples of digital computers.
Hybrid Computers:
Hybrid computers have combined features of both analog and digital
computers. Hybrid computers can get input and give results either in analog
form or in digital form. These computers can stores large amount of data as
compared to analog computers. Calculation speed of these computers is also
slow but fast than analog computers. These are being manufactured in various
varieties of sizes. Accuracy of these computers is high when output in digital
form and low when output in analog form. Its readability is high when output
in digital form and low when output in analog form. These computers can be
used to measure variable and physical quantities. Hybrid computers are
mainly used in engineering field and medical sciences. Medical Instruments,
ECG Machines and Petrol Pump Machines are the examples of hybrid
computers.
15

Ans:

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16

Analog Computers

Digital Computers

## These computers accept data in

continuous form and represent it in
Suitable form to perform scientific
operation.

## These are general purpose

computers in many sizes and
shapes.

## Analog data include distance, speed,

pressure, temperature, and current
etc.

form of digits.

## They are used for complex scientific

and mathematical operations.
These are also used in industrial
units.

## These computers are used for

arithmetic and logic operations.
Modern digital computers can store
large amount of data.

not accurate.

## They are used in almost every field of

health, supermarkets, factories,
banking etc.

## Q13. Write down the classification of computers according to purpose.

Ans: Classification of Computers According to Purpose:
1. General Purpose Computers

16

## General purpose computers are designed to solve a large variety of problems.

The different programs can be used to solve many problems. Most digital
computers are general purpose computers and used in business and
commercial data processing.

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17

## 2. Special Purpose Computers

A computer designed for machine control or process control would be
different than a general purpose computer. The special purpose computers
are designed to solve specific problems. The computer program for solving a
specific problem is built right into the computer. Most analog computers are
special purpose computers. These special purpose computers are widely used
in industrial robotics.
Q14: Write down the Classification of Computers According to Size.
Ans: Classification According to Size:
Computers are classified according to sizes, speed and memory capacity.
Computers are of different types:
1. SUPER COMPUTERS
Super computer are the largest, fastest and the most expensive computer
systems in the world. They are used to process complex scientific jobs.
These computers are very expensive and the speed is measured in billions
of instructions per seconds. Supercomputers are manufactured using
thousands of processors. Its size is equal to full room. These computers are
used in Applications in medicine, Aerospace, Online banking and weather
forecasting etc.
There are very few companies in the world produce super computers.
Cary research and
ETA system Inc.
17

## are two primary manufactures of super computers in United States.

Fujitsu
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Hitachi
NEC
These are the companies in Japan, which produce super computers.
Famous supercomputers are:
Cray-1
Cray-2
Cray-3
Cray XMP
ETA-10
2. MAINFRAME COMPUTERS
Mainframe computers are large, expensive and very powerful computers that can
handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously. These
computers are capable of processing data at very high speed, millions of
instructions per second and have access to billions of characters of data. The size
of Mainframe is equal to door size or half room size. Mainframes store large
amounts of data, instructions and information. Many people can make use of the
same machine at the same time. These computers are used in banks, educational
institutions, insurance companies and airlines etc. Mainframes are manufactured
by IBM (International Business Machine), NEC (National Electronics
Corporation), HP (Hewlett Packard). Following are the different models of
Mainframe Computers available in the market:

18

Mark I
Whirlwind
IBM 701
IBM 360

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3. MINI COMPUTERS
Mini computers were introduced in the 1960s. Mini computers are smaller than
mainframes, both in size and other facilities such as speed, storage capacity and
other services. They are versatile that they can be fitted where ever they are
needed. Their speeds are rated between one and fifty million instructions per
second (MIPS). They have primary storage in hundred to three hundred
megabytes range with direct access storage device. These computers are often
used by Small and medium-sized companies or University departments. IBM, DEC
and HP are the famous companies of Minicomputers. Following are the models of
minicomputers:

4.

DEC PDP
HP3000 series
IBM midrange computers
MICRO COMPUTERS

These are the smallest range of computers. They were introduced in the early 70s
having less storing space and processing speed. Micro computers of today are
equivalent to the mini computers of yesterday in terms of performing and
processing. They are also called computer of a chip because its entire circuitry is
contained in one tiny chip. These are single user computers. These are less
expensive computers. It has affordable price. Almost everyone can afford it. There
are several companies of Micro computers. The famous are Intel, IBM, Compaq
and Acer. Here are the models of Microcomputers:

19

486
Pentium I
Pentium II, III, IV

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AMD 500
Microcomputers are available in different type i.e. desktop computers, laptop
computers and palmtop computers etc.
Q15: Explain the types of Microcomputers.
Ans: Types of Microcomputers:
Following are the three types of Microcomputers:
Desktop Computer:
Desktop or PCs (Personal Computers), are used by one person at a time. They are
usually user machines but can be interconnected among themselves to from a
local area network. Their speed depends upon the processor installed in the
computer. They are cheaper and have been sold in millions.
Laptop Computer:
The smallest computer in size has been developed. This type of small computers
look like an office brief case and called "LAPTOP" computer (also notebook
computer or notebook). The laptops are also termed as "PORTABLE COMPUTERS."
Due to the small size and light weight, they become popular among the computer
users. The businessmen found laptop very useful, during traveling and when they
are far away from their desktop computers. A typical laptop computer has all the
facilities available in microcomputer. Its cost varies from several thousand dollars
or less.
20

Palmtop Computer:
A small computer, that literally fits in your palm. Compared to full-size computers,
palmtops are severely limited, but they are practical for certain functions such as
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21

phone books and calendars. Palmtops that use a pen rather than a keyboard for
input are often called hand-held computers or PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant)
Because of their small size, most palmtop computers do not include disk drives.
However, Many contain PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International
Association slots in which you can insert disk drives, modems, memory, and other
devices.
Q16. Describe the Impact of computers and Internet on society.
Ans: Computers and the internet allows society to communicate with each other
quickly and easily, provides society with a huge information database and
multiple sources to get information and allows humanity to do things that were
not possible before the invention of both the computer and the internet.
Probably the most important on our society is on information sharing.
Education:
Computers are very helpful in education. Educational institutes, from primary
university level, are using computers for various learning activities. Students can
prepare their projects easily with the help of computers. Many websites provides
tutorials. Some universities provide online lectures for the students.

21

Computer is now being widely used in business and industry. Any business
organization can use computers for marketing their products. Computer is also
used to manage the distribution system, advertising and selling activities. It can
also be used in deciding pricing strategies. These are also widely used in business
community to reduce the administrative paperwork and cost.
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Online Banking:
The advent of the internet and the popularity of personal computers presented
an opportunity for the banking industry. The use of computer at banks has
provided many benefits. It saves time and provides convenience for customers.
Many banks provide the facility of ATM machines that is used to withdraw cash
directly from machine. Banks provide credit cards for purchasing things using
internet. You can access and manage all of your banks accounts, from one site.
Most of the banks now work on online banking system.
Stock Exchange:
Stock Exchange is the most important place of businessmen. Many stock
exchanges use computers to conduct bids. The stock brokers perform all trading
activities electronically. They connect with computer where brokers match buyers
with sellers. It reduces cost as no paper or special building is required to conduct
these activities.
CRUX
Computers has taken the business activities to new horizons, today it is very
possible to commence business on a table using a single computer. Thanks to
internet that now we can get any kind of information we need in just few
seconds. A technological revolution is changing our way of life; the way we live,
work and play.
Q17. What is computer language? Write a note on computer languages.
22

Ans: Language:
Way of communication is called language

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## Programming Languages / Computer Languages:

A computer language is a way of communication between user and the
computer.
Each computer language has certain rules. These rules are called the syntax of
that language. There are two types of computer languages:
Low Level Language
High Level Language
Low Level Language:
A Language that is closed to computer and easily understandable by the
computer is called Low Level Language.
There are further subdivided into two types.
Machine Language
Assembly Language
Machine Language:
A language which is directly understandable by the computer without being
translated is called machine language.
Characteristics:

23

I.
II.
III.
IV.

## It is a machine dependent Language.

It is also called first generation Language.
It is written in the form of binary numbers that is in the form of 1 and
0.
Program written in the machine language is run very fast.

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V.

## Program development in machine language is very difficult.

Assembly Language:
A language which has same features as machine language but uses symbols
instead of 1 and 0 and also need to be translated before execution is called
assembly language.
Characteristics:
I.
II.
III.
IV.

## It was developed in 1950.

It is classified as second generation language.
We use symbols or mnemonics code, so it is called symbolic language.
The program used to translate assembly code into machine language is
called Assembler.

Assembly Code

Assembler

Machine Code

## High Level Language:

The language, which is closed to human language, is called high-level language.
High level languages are close to human languages and far from the machine
language. These are also called English Oriented Language. These are difficult
for machine. These are machine independent languages which are also known as
third generation languages. It is easy to operate, easy to understand and easy
for programming. Examples of High-level languages are C, C++, COBOL, PASCAL,
and FORTRAN etc.
24

## There are further two types of high-level language.

Procedural Language
Object Oriented Language
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## Data Base Query Language

Procedural Language:
Computer program follows a predetermined procedure.
The computer instructions are executed by the order in which they are written.
These instructions tell the computer what to do and how to do. These
languages are called third generation languages (3GL). The most popular
procedural language is:
FORTRAN stands for Formula Translation
BASIC stands for Beginner all-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
Object Oriented Language:
Object Oriented Programming is latest technology for writing computer program.
A computer program is written as a collection of number of objects. Each object
performs specific task. It consists of data and function.
The most commonly used object oriented languages are C++, Java with object
etc.
Data base Query Language:
These languages are based on special kind of database called a relational
database. These languages are used to store and retrieve data from a database.
The most commonly used Relational data bases are
SQL Server
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ORACLE
MS-ACCESS
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Q17. What are language translators / Processors? And also describe their types.
Ans: Language Translators:
Programs written in high level languages must be converted into machine
language for execution by the computer. Special program are used to convert a
source code into machine code. These programs are called Language Translators
or Processor.
There are three main types of language translators.

1.

Compiler
Interpreter
Assembler
Compiler:

## The language processor that translates programs written in high-level language as

a whole is called Compiler. The compiler translates the source code into object
code. The computer directly executes the object code.
If there is any error in the source program, the compiler specifies the error at the
time of compilation. All errors must be removed before the compiler can
successfully compile the source program.
Source program

Compiler

Object program

2. Interpreter:
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The language that executes a source program by translating and executing one
instruction at a time is called Interpreter. If there is any error in the program it

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indicates the error and stops the program execution. It does not create any
object file. It translates the source program each time the program is executed.
3. Assembler :
A program that translates an assembly code into machine code is called
Assembler. The assembler is a system program that is supported by the computer
manufacturer. It is written by system programmer with great care. It also
assembles the machine code in the main memory of the computer.

Short Notes
Q1: Define Assembler.
Ans: The program used to translate assembly code into machine language is
called Assembler.
OR
An assembler is a program that translates an assembly language program into
machine code.
OR
Assembler is a type of translator. It also works in the same way as compiler and
interpreter.
OR

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## Assembler is a program, which translate an assembly language program to its

machine language equivalent.
Q2: Define Compiler.
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## Ans: The language processor that translates programs written in high-level

language as a whole is called Compiler.
OR
A compiler is a program that translates the source program (source code) into
machine language (machine/object code). A compiler first reads the whole
program before executing it.
Q3: Define Interpreter.
Ans: The language that executes a source program by translating and executing
one instruction at a time is called Interpreter.
OR
An interpreter is another type of translator used for translating high-level
language into machine code. It takes one statement of a high level language and
translates it into a machine instruction, which is immediately executed.
Q4: Define Pascal.
Ans: A French mathematician Blaise Pascal introduced a programming language
by the name of PASCAL. It is a highly structured programming language. It was
developed in 1970's after the concept of structured programming.
OR

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In 1642 Balise Pascal, the 18 year old son of a French tax collector, invented a
numerical wheel calculator to help his father in calculation. This device was
known as Pascaline and was only able to add two numbers.
Q5: What was difference engine?
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## Ans: Charles Babbage a mathematician professor. He began to design an

automatic mechanical calculating machine which he called difference engine.
OR
An English mathematician, Professor Charles Babbage made a Difference Engine
Q6: What was analytical engine?
Ans: In 1842, Charles Babbage made a general-purpose computer named
Analytical Engine. The analytical engine could add, subtract, multiply and divide
in automatic sequence at a rate of 60 additions per second.
OR
The construction of what would now be called a general purpose fully program
controlled automatic mechanical digital computer, Babbage called this idea an
Analytical engine.
Q7: What was Punched card? / Define Herman Hollerith.
Ans: In 1890, an American inventor Herman Hollerith applied the idea of punch
boards in the form of punch cards in computers for input and output. He invented
a punched card tabulating machine.
OR

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## In 1890, Herman Hollerith developed the first electro-mechanical punched card

tabulator. The tabulator could real information that had been punched into cards.
These cards were maintained in stack form solutions to different problems could
be stored on different problems could be stored on different stacks of cards and
accessed when needed.
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## Q8: Write short on the following:

BASIC: BASIC was developed in 1964.
It was close the English.
A person having no knowledge of programming can learn it easily.
It can be used for business and scientific applications.
PASCAL: It was named due to a scientist name Blaise Pascal.
It was developed in early 70s.
It is highly structured programming language.
It is very popular in computer science.
FORTRAN: It as developed in 1957 for IBM computers.
It was designed to solve mathematical, scientific and engineering problems.
It has been revised many times.

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Q9: What are high level programming languages? How they differ from
Assembly language?

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Ans: There are many high level programming languages. For example; BASIC,
FORTRAN,
COBOL, PASCAL, ADA, C, C++ etc.
Difference: They differ from Machine Languages because they are easy to understand and
write.
The words and phrases used in high level languages are simple English words.
Q10: Why machine and assembly languages are called low level languages?
Ans: They are called low level languages because they are very difficult to
understand. They can only be understood by the computers.

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## Q11: Define a computer program.

Ans:
Computer program is a series of instructions to carry out any particular task
with the help of computer.
The computer program is prepared by computer programmer.
Q12: What is meant by CMI?
Ans:
CMI means computer managed instructions.
In this system, computer assigns students different tasks i.e. read certain book,
listened certain tape, attend certain lecture etc.
Q13: What is UPC?
Ans:
UPC means Universal Product Code.
It is black and white bar code printed on most of the products.
Q14: What is ENIAC?

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Ans: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was the first
electronic computer made in 1946 by John Presper Eckert and John Williams
Mauchly, at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. This was based on decimal
number system and it has no memory.
It could perform 5000 additions or 350 multiplications in one second. It contained
18000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and 60,000 switches and
occupied a two room car garage. It consumed 150 kW of power. It weighed 27
tons.
Q15: What is EDSAC?
Ans: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer (EDSAC) was first computer
based on stored program concept. It was completed by Mourice Wilkes at
Cambridge University in 1949.
Q16: What is EDVAC?
Ans: Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) was built by John
Williams Mauchly, John Presper Eckert at Moore School, Pennsylvania in 1951.
Q17: What is UNIVAC?
Ans: Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) was the first commercially used
computer made by John Presper Eckert and John Williams Mauchly in June 14,
1951.
Q18: What is ABC (ATANASOFF BERRY COMPUTER)?
Ans: ABC a special purpose computer was developed in 1938 by Dr. John Vincent
Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State College, USA.
Ans: Following are some advantages and disadvantages of computer in our life.
1. Computers make us more productive in many of our jobs.
2. In education they can help us for better understanding faster learning and
3. In hospitals we have better diagnosis, proper treatment and better healthcare.
4. In business, they are used to record stocks of raw materials as well as finished
products, making customer's bill, analyzing sales of various products etc.
5. In banks, they are used for day-to-day processing of customer's accounts and
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payments.
6. In manufacturing, they provide ways to develop a representation of the
product and to test it in a variety of simulated environments.
1. Unemployment due to automation.
2. Wastage of time and energy in useless computer activities.
3. Data security
4. Privacy
5. Computer Crimes

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## Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Maths teacher)

The Educators School Kasur Campus
E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com
Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)

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## Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Maths teacher)

The Educators School Kasur Campus
E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com
Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)