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# Resources

## CHAPTER 1 COMPUTERISED TOOLS.................................................. 2

1.1 Types of Ventilation Models .............................................................. 3
1.1.1 Network (Zonal) Models .................................................................. 3
1.1.2 Integration of Models with Thermal Models.................................. 4
1.1.3 Computational Fluid Dynamics...................................................... 6
1.2 Comparison of Simulation Models ................................................... 7
1.3 Contact Information for Ventilation Models ..................................... 8
CHAPTER 2 EXAMPLES OF COMPUTERISED TOOLS ..................... 10
2.1 EXAMPLE 1: STACK SIM Version 1 .................................................11
2.1.1 INPUT PARAMETERS ....................................................................11
2.1.2 RESULTS ........................................................................................13

## Chapter 1 Computerised Tools

Learning Objectives
After you have completed this chapter you should be able to:
1. Understand the different computerised tools that are available for modelling
ventilation.
2. Define the inputs, applications and limitations of the different ventilation
models.

## 1.1 Types of Ventilation Models

1.1.1 Network (Zonal) Models
Network models use air flow networks to represent all openings in each
individual zone. A network is developed for infiltration openings, representing the
natural porosity of the building fabric and for purpose provided openings such as
open windows or air vents in the building envelope or between individual zones.
Each network may consist of many flow paths interconnecting the zones or rooms
with differing pressure or temperature.
Single Zone
For a single zone network air flow model, the building considered is
treated as a single zone. Air flow paths are represented by infiltration routes and
purpose provided openings. This model is an acceptable approximation for open
plan buildings or small family homes. The model assumes doors in the buildings
are left open or are relatively leaky.
Figure 1: Single zone air flow paths (Liddament, 1996)

Multi Zone
A multi zone network air flow model is more complex than a single zone
model. The building is divided up into a number of single zones where internal
pressures and temperatures are distinct from one another, separated by internal
partitions. This type of model is applicable to commercial and multi story
buildings in which floor space is divided up into separate rooms.
Figure 2: Multi zone air flow paths, (Liddament, 1996)

## 1.1.2 Integration of Models with Thermal Models

Thermal models consider the heat transport into and out of the buildings
predicting the thermal movements of conduction, convection and radiation, taking
account of heat storage in and transfer through the building fabric, solar gains,
and other heat gains and losses.
These models when integrated with an air-flow model can be used for
estimating the internal temperature distribution of a building for determining the
impact of the ventilation, heating and cooling systems on thermal comfort. The
energy used by the heating and/or cooling systems for conditioning the air may
also be predicted by these models.
A Thermal Energy Balance method is used by the thermal models.
Thermal Energy in = Thermal Energy out
Air flow simulations use a mass balance method for estimating the
internal room pressure (Pint), similarly thermal simulations use a thermal energy
balance for estimating the internal room temperature (tint).
There are various methods of integrating the thermal and airflow models,
ideally the two models would be completely integrated in such a way that the
governing equations are solved simultaneously; this method is direct coupling,
figure 5.

## Figure 5: Direct coupling simulation technique of thermal and airflow

models, (Liddament, 1996)

## However a simpler method is to solve the governing equations separately

with a feedback link between the two simulations or sequential coupling, figure 6

## Figure 6: Sequential coupling simulation technique of thermal and air flow

models, (Liddament, 1996)

Figure 7 shows the various types of input data needed to satisfy the air flow
models (mass balance) and the thermal models (heat balance) and the feedback
links that simulations may use to integrate the two models.
Figure 7: Input data and feedback links for coupled simulation of
thermal and air flow models, (AIVC Guide 5, 2002)

## 1.1.3 Computational Fluid Dynamics

This modelling method divides the space being modelled into 30000 or more
individual control volumes or elements. Each individual control volume or
element has independent properties of air flow, turbulence, energy propagation
and contaminant spread, from which the pattern of air flow and distribution of
temperature or pollutants can be represented and modelled by a series of
discretised transport equations. The output to the user is a graphical view of the
temperature, pollution and air flow distribution of the space considered.
In structure these equations are identical but each equation represents a
different physical parameter.
This method is much more complicated and time consuming than the
network models. It involves much more input parameters with greater accuracy.
However the modelling results are more accurate and cover a greater range of
properties of the thermal and airflow properties of the modelled spaces.
Figure 8: Image of the air and thermal flows inside a room using
CFD software. (Somarathne S, Seymour M, Kolokotroni M, 2002)

## 1.2 Comparison of Simulation Models

MODELLING
TECHNIQUE

INPUT
PARMETERS

APPLICATIONS
(simulation and
prediction)

LIMITATIONS

Single zone
network Model

Flow coefficient
External pressure
Flow exponent
Building envelope
details (area of opening
ect)
Mass flow rate through
opening/s

## Only 1 zone can be

simulated
Assumption that air in
zone is uniformly mixed
No information on air
distribution

Multi zone
network model

model plus

## Air change rate as a

function of climate and
building air leakage
Ventilation and air
infiltration rate
Rate and direction of
airflow through
individual openings
Internal zone pressures
As single zone network
model plus

## As single zone network

model plus
Velocity (speed and
direction of flow
through each opening)
Thermal properties of
surfaces and/or surface
temperatures
Level of turbulence of
flow through diffusers
or fans
Boundary obstacles
Exterior air
temperatures
Location of openings
As single zone network
model plus

## Pattern of air flow

between zones.
Room air flow.
Air change efficiency.
Temperature
distribution.
Air velocity
distribution.
Turbulence
distribution.
Pressure distribution.
Fire and smoke
movement.
Air flow around
buildings.
Pollutant removal
effectiveness
As Multi zone network
model plus

Computerised
Fluid Dynamics

Combined
Thermal and
Air flow

Exterior air
temperatures.
Thermal properties of
surfaces
Ventilation Strategy
Internal set point
temperatures
Heat sources and sinks

## Total thermal exchange

from and within
buildings.
Impact of ventilation,
heating and cooling
systems on thermal
comfort
Energy performance of
ventilation strategy.
Performance of
building energy
management strategies.
Internal room
temperatures.

## 1.3 Contact Information for Ventilation Models

Ventilation Modelling
Tools

DEVELOPER

LOCATION

Single Zone
Ventilation
AIM-2

## Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Energy Performance of Buildings Group,
Indoor Environment Department,
Enviromental Energy
Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory,
Berkeley, CA 97420, USA

LBL

## Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Building 90, Room 3074, 1 Cyclotron Road,
Berkeley,
California 94720, USA

VENT

Dr David Etheridge
Nottingham University
Martin W. Liddament

AIDA

Paper based

## Visual Basic Code

CIBSE GUIDE A

CEN-implicit

Multi Zone
Ventilation
AIOLOS

Matheos Santamouris
Organisation: University of Athens
Group Building
Environmental Studies, Building Phys.-V,
University
Campus, 157 84 Athens, Greece

## Included in book:Allard F (1998), Natural

Ventilation in Buildings: A
Design Handbook, James &
James.

BREEZE

## BRE Building Research Establishment,

Bucknalls Lane, Garston, Watford, United
Kingdom

Commercial

COMIS

## Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Address: Building 90, Room 3074, 1
California 94720, USA

Commercial

NIST
BR/A313 NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland
20899, USA
J&W Consulting Engineers AB

http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/IAQana
lysis/
http://projects.bre.co.uk/natvent/

CONTAMW

NatVent

http://www-epb.lbl.gov/comis/

Ventilation + Thermal
Model
IES

TAS

Energy Plus

## IES Ltd (UK) : Helix Building, Kelvin

Campus, West of Scotland Science Park,
Glasgow, G20 0SP, UK Tel: +44 (0)141
945 8500

Commercial

## Environmental Design Solutions Limited

13-14 Cofferidge Close
Stony Stratford
Milton Keynes
MK11 1BY
United Kingdom
Tel. +44 (0)1908 261461
Fax. +44 (0)1908 566553

Commercial

US Department of Energy

http://www.ies4d.com

http://www.edsl.net/

http://www.eere.energy.gov/buil
dings/energyplus/
Passport Plus

Matheos Santamouris
Organisation: University of Athens
Group Building
Environmental Studies, Building Phys.-V,
University
Campus, 157 84 Athens, Greece

Summer

Matheos Santamouris
Organisation: University of Athens
Group Building
Environmental Studies, Building Phys.-V,
University
Campus, 157 84 Athens, Greece

## Chapter 2 Examples of Computerised tools

Learning Objectives
After you have completed this chapter you should be able to:
1. Complete an example of a working ventilation model

## 2.1 EXAMPLE 1: STACK SIM Version 1

This software tool uses a single zone model to calculate the airflow rates through
specified inlets and outlets.
Figure 9 Snap shot of StackSim Welcome Screen

## 2.1.1 INPUT PARAMETERS

STACK DATA
2
Outlet Opening Area (m )
Outlet Opening Orientation (N)
Hight of Outlet Opening Above Building Top (m)
Neutral Pressure Level (m)

## LEVEL 1,2,3 DATA

Height of Level (m)
Zone Temperature (C)
3
Zone Volume (m )
2
Zone Floor Area (m )
Ratio of wall width with window to width of
2
Opening area (m )
Orientation (N)
Opening Height above this Level (m)
Cp and Cd
Stack
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3

0.5
270
2.5
10.5

3.25
25
180
60
2
0.5
270
1.85

Calculated
Calculated
Calculated
Calculated

The simulation tool allows the building to be simulated under steady state
or transient conditions.

Weather Data
Ambient Temperature
Wind Speed (m/s)
Wind Direction

25
3
0

Simulation Results

## Height of top if Stack slice (m)

Air temperature in stack slice (C)
Pressure at top of slice
Height of required NPL above ground
(m)
Stack pressure at NPL (Pa)
Opening height of window above
ground (m)
Room volume (m3)
Room temperature (C)
Stack pressure at window height (Pa)
Stack pressure difference across
window (Pa)
Height of stack outlet above ground (m)
Stack Pressure at shaft outlet (Pa)
Stack pressure difference across stack
outlet (Pa)
Window opening Cp
Stack outlet opening Cp
Wind pressure at window (Pa)
Wind pressure at stack outlet (Pa)
Net wind pressure (Pa)
New stack pressure (Pa)
Driving pressure (Pa)
Pressure loss across stack outlet (Pa)
Pressure drop across window (Pa)
Air flow rate through window (m3/s)
Air flow rate through stack (m3/s)
Air change rate in each room (1/h)

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

3.25
27
-0.252

6.5
28
-0.629

9.75
29
-1.13

Stack
Outlet
12.25
30
-1.61

10.5
-1.245
1.85

5.1

8.35

180
25
-0.144
1.102

180
25
-0.521
0.724

180
25
-1.022
0.223
12.25
-1.610
0.364

-0.917

-0.917

-0.917

-4.902

-4.902

-4.902

0.202
1.466
1.668

0.202
1.089
1.291

0.202
0.587
0.790

-0.955
-5.104

0.364
1.304
0.479

0.927
0.340

0.425
0.1556

9.572

6.803

3.123

-0.975

TRANSIENT SIMULATION
Max Ambient air temperature

25

(C)

15

(C)

25

(C)

18

(C)

Building Type

Light

2.1.2 RESULTS

## Figure 11 Screen shot of Transient Results

PARAMETRIC ANAYSIS RESULTS

## Figure 12 Screen shot of parametric analysis of

transient results