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Butt welds - Size

Weld cap width


Excess weld metal
height

Root penetration

Root bead width

Butt welds - Profile

x
x

Butt welds - Toe Blend

x
x

Butt welds - Weld Width

Under Fill

Incomplete
filled groove

Excess Weld Metal

Excess cap
reinforcement

Incompletely Filled Groove

Poor Restart

Poor stop/starts

Cap Undercut

Cap undercut

Overlap

Overlap

Overlap
DEFINITION:
An imperfection at the toe
or root of a weld caused
by metal flowing onto the
surface of the parent plate
without fusing to it.
CAUSES:
Contamination
Slow travel speed
High amperage
Welding technique

Overlap

Overlap

Lack of Fusion

Causes
Improper welding technique
Insufficient weld metal deposited

Inter
run Incompletely Filled Groove
`

Causes
Improper welding technique
Insufficient weld metal deposited

Slag Inclusions - Cap

Causes
Insufficient cleaning between passes
Contaminated weld preparation
Welding over irregular profile
Incorrect welding speed
Arc length too long

Gas pores / Porosity

Causes
Low welding current
Arc length too long
Excessive moisture in flux or preparation
Contaminated preparation
Damaged electrode flux
Removal of gas shield

Spatter

Causes
Excessive arc energy
Excessive arc length
Damp electrodes
Arc blow

Arc Strikes
Causes
Electrode straying onto
parent metal
Electrode holder with poor
insulation
Poor contact of earth
clamp

Mechanical damage can be defined as any surface


material damage cause during the manufacturing
process. This can included damage caused by:
Grinding

Hammering

Chiselling

Chipping

Breaking off welded attachments (torn surfaces)


Using needle guns to compress weld capping runs
ChiselChisel
MarksMarks
Chisel
Marks

Pitting Corrosion

Grinding Marks

Crater Crack and pipe

Porosity
Cluster porosity

Porosity

Gas pores

Porosity

Cluster Porosity

Cluster
porosity

Worm Hole

Herringbone
porosity

Lack of Fusion
Causes

Amperage too low


Contaminated weld
preparation
Amperage too high
(welder increases
speed of travel)

Slag inclusions

Parallel slag lines

Lack of sidewall
fusion with
associated slag

Lack of interun fusion


+ slag

Lack of side Wall Fusion

Lack of
sidewall fusion

Slag Inclusion

Interpass slag
inclusions

Slag Inclusions

Causes
Arc length too long
Incorrect welding speed
Insufficient cleaning between passes
Contaminated weld preparation
Welding over irregular profile

Wagon Track

Elongated
slag lines

Tungsten Inclusions

Causes
Contamination of weld Caused by tungsten touching
weld metal or parent metal during welding using the
TIG welding process

Excess Penetration

Causes
Excessive amperage during
welding of root
Excessive root gap
Poor fit up
Excessive root grinding
Improper welding technique

L.O.P

Causes
Too small a root gap
Arc too long
Wrong polarity
Electrode too large for joint
preparation
Incorrect electrode angle
Too fast a speed of travel for current

Root L.O.F

Lack of root
fusion

Root Welding Defects

Lack of
fusion

Incomplete
Penetration

Root L.O.F
Causes
Too small a root gap
Arc too long
Wrong polarity
Electrode too large for joint
preparation
Incorrect electrode angle
Too fast a speed of travel for
current

Root Concavity

Root concavity

Root Concavity

Causes
Root gap too large
Insufficient arc energy
Excessive back purge TIG

Burn Through

Causes
Excessive root grinding
Excessive amperage during welding of root
Improper welding technique
Slow travel speed
Large root gap/small root face (irregular fit up)

Burn Through

A shallow groove caused by contraction in the weld


metal along each side of the penetration bead or
can occur in the center of the weld bead

Shrinkage groove

Shrinkage groove

Insufficient weld metal


deposited in the root
pass

Too fast a cooling rate


during the application of
the root bead pass

Poor welding technique

Root piping

Root undercut

Causes
Root gap too large
Excessive arc energy
Small or no root face

Root undercut

Alignment Imperfection
Non-alignment of two abutting edges

2mm
Also Known as: Hi Low. Mismatch. or Misalignment

50mm
3mm

Angular distortion.
Measure the distance to the edge of the plate (50mm).
Use a straight edge (rule) to find the amount of distortion
then measure the space (3mm).
This reported as Angular distortion 3mm in 50mm