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SouthIndianInscriptions
The Tiruvalangadu copper-plates of the sixth year of
Rajendra-Chola I
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VolumeIII
Contents
Preface
Introduction

PartI
InscriptionatUkkal
Melpadi

......TheTamilportionofthegrantconsistsof524linesengravedontwenty Karuvur
one copperplates. The first 145 lines are actually taken up by the order Manimangalam
issued under the authority of the king by his ministers and other officers. Tiruvallam
The next 281 lines contain a detailed description of the boundary line. The PartII
last 98 lines state the conditions and privileges with which the village was KulottungaCholaI
granted as a devadana to the temple and supply the names of the artisans VikramaChola
who engraved the grant. The order was addressed to the headmen of the VirarajendraI
districts,theheadmenofthebrahmadeyavillagesandtheresidents(urar)of KulottungaCholaIII
the devadana, pallichchanda, kanimurruttu, vettipperu and ara PartIII
chchalabhogam villages in MenmalaiPalaiyanaurnadu, a subdivision of AdityaI
Jayangondasolamandalam. This classification seems apparently to ParantakaI
distinguish therevenue villages of the State from those granted to Gandaraditya
brahmanas, temples, Jaina shrines, Jaina teachers, and service imams ParantakaII
andcharitablefeedinghouses.Thekingbeingseatedinhisprivateroomon UttamaChola
Parthivendravarman
the upper storey of his palace at Mudigondasolapuram ordered that
AdityaIIKarikala
Palaiyanur in menmalai Palaiyanurnadu which originally was a brahmadeya
PartIV
of the assembly of Singalantakachaturvedimangalam in Naduvinmalai

copperplateTirukkalar

Perumurnadu should from the 6th year and the 88th day of his reign, cease
Tiruchchengodu
to be a brahmadeya and be included under vellanvagai villages. Healso
ArchaeologyLinks
orderedthatinconsequencethetax598kalanjuand one kunri of gold which
it was paying with Singalantakachaturvedimangalam must now bereduced ArchaeologySurveyofIndia
but that unlike other vellanvagai villages, it must be made to pay as of Sudharsanam
Pudukkottai
old[1] the permanent tax (in kind) of 3238 kalam 7 kuruni and 5 nali of
Thanjavur
paddytogetherwith193kalanju,1manjadi and 1 ma of gold, including palli
and be given over as a devadana to the temple of Mahadeva at
Tiruvalangadu.
Twoexecutive(karumemarayum)officersofthekingandtwoarbitrating(naduvillirukkum)officerspassed
theorderthattheroyalwritmaybeenteredintheaccountbooksjustasithadbeensignedandissuedby
the four secretaries (Olainayakam) on the strength of a letter received from the officer who wrote the
ordersoftheking,evidentlyunderhisdirectdictation.This order was further supported by the approval
andsignatureofthreechiefexecutiveofficers.Accordinglyonthe90thdayofthesameyear,twoofficers
ofthedepartmentoftaxes(puravuvarithinaikalam),andtheofficerscalledvaripothagam,mugavetti,varri
pothagakanku, variellidu, pattolai and Kizhmugavetti being present, the necessary entries were made in
theregisters.
Twootherofficersandathird,perhapsanonofficial,werealsoappointedtosuperintendtheceremonyof
goingroundthegrantedvillage and its hamlets accompanied by a female elephant (pidisuzhndhu padagai
nadakirathuorinSanskritkarinibhramana).Inlines128145,wearetoldthattheresidentsofthedistrict
who had also received a royal order to cooperate with the above said officers in walking round the
hamlets accompanied by the female elephant, in planting boundary stones and milkbush and in drawing
up the gift deed, met together, went in advance to receive the royal order (Thirumugham) placed it on
theirheadsandmakingdueobeisancetoit,walkedroundthehamletsofPalaiyanur.Ashorteulogyofthe
kinginTamilishereinsertedinlines131to142.Thekingisstatedtohaveconqueredwithhisgreatwar
like army Idaitturainadu, Vanavasi of extensive forests, Koillippakkadi and Mannaikkadakkam, to have
captured the crowns of the king and queen of Ilam (Ceylon), the beautiful crown and other jewels which
thePandyakinghaddepositedwiththekingofIlam(Ceylon),thewholeislandofIlamandalam,thecrown
andthegarlandoftheKeralakingandmanyancientislandsinthesea.Idaitturainadu which was for a
long time identified with the country comprising the small taluk of Yedatore in Mysore, has now been
satisfactorilyprovedbyDr.FleettobetheRaichurdoab.[2]KollippakkaihasbeenidentifiedbyMr.Lewis

satisfactorilyprovedbyDr.FleettobetheRaichurdoab.[2]KollippakkaihasbeenidentifiedbyMr.Lewis
RicewithKulpak in the Nizams Dominions.[3] It is not unlikely also that Mannaikkadakkam grouped with
the two above names, may have to be identified with Manyakheta (Malkhed) in the Nizams Dominiions
thoughhithertoithasbeentakentobeManneintheMysoreState.RajendraCholasseizureofthecrowns
of the Pandya, Ceylon and Kerala kings must have earned for hi the title Mudigonda Chola which title he
appearstohavecommemoratedbyfoundingthetowncalledMudigondacholapuram.[4]
The circumambulation of the village by the officers and the district people, accompanied by the female
elephantisdetailedinthepointtopoint description of the boundary line, which commences with 1. 145.
The eastern boundary touched the villages, Perumbur,[5] Kulapadi, Naaipadi, Mangalam and Manaiyil, all
ofwhicharestatedtohavebeenhamletsofSingalantakachaturvedimangalam.[6]Thesouthernboundary
similarly touched the village Mannalaiyamangalam and Tolugur which were also hamlets Singalantaka
chaturvedimangalam and Kuttukkumundur which was a hamlet of Nittavinodachaturvedimangalam.[7]
Incidentally in the description of this boundary line, reference is made to the high road leading from
TirupasurtoMerppadialiasRajasrayapuramwhichisofmuchinterest,ifbymenandwheeledtraffic.The
western boundary touched the villages of Kirainallur, Sakkaranallur,[8] Karaiappakkam, Midugur[9] all
hamlets of Singalantakachaturvedimangalam. The northern boundary touched the villages of Uppur,
Ganganerippattu, Polipakkam[10] and Kayarpakkam which were also hamlets of Singalantaka
chaturvedimangalam.
Theinscriptioncloseswithalistofprivileges(parihara)which,beingaroyalprerogative,weretransferred
fromthekingtothetempleofTiruvalangadu,onthevillagePalaiyanurbeingconvertedintoadevadana.
The list consisted of several fees, taxes and tolls such as nadatchi, uratchi, vattinali, pidanali, vannara
parai, kannalakkanam, kusakkanam, idaipattam, tariirai, taragu (or taragupattam), tattarpattam,
manrupadu, mavirai, tiyeri, virpidi, valamanjadi, nallavu, nallerudu, nadukaval, udupokku, ilaikkulam,
nirkuli,ulguandodakkuli.AsIhavestatedelsewhereitisdoubtfulifallthesetermshavetobetaken as
referringtoregularsourcesofrevenuetotheStateoraretobeconsideredmostlyasobligatoryservices
whichthekingalonecould enforce on the people for his personal enjoyment. The list is not exhaustive.
The Kasakudi plates mention under pariharas a larger number of items. There also it is stated that the
palace resigned them in favour of the donee.[11] The Leyden plates repeat almost all these terms under
parharasbutmentiontarippudavaiinsteadoftariiraiandaddthenewtermattukkirai.The Velurpalaiyam
and the Tandandottam plates published above add the terms puravupon, tirumukkanam, tattukkayam,
ilamputchi, idaipputchi (perhaps same as idaippattam), kulam (perhaps same as ilaikkulam),
paraikkanam[12]pattinaseri,ulaviyakkuli,urettu,angadikkuli[13]kadaiyadaikkay and uppukorchchaigai.
A set of vyavasthas (i.e., conditions of grant) were also imposed on the donee. Here again the exact
import of these conditions has not been properly understood. Some have taken it to be only permissive
rights just like the privileges mentioned above, granted to the donee but it would look apparently to be
different when we see that permission to build houses of bricks, to dig wells, to plant coconut trees in
rows, or to plant sweetscented verbina, may not generally have required a license. Still such are the
conditions (vyavastha) mentioned viz., that mansions and large edifices shall be built of burnt bricks
wellsandreservoirsshallbedugcoconuttreesshallbeplantedingrovesmaruvu,damanagam, iruveli,
senbagam,redlilies,mango,jack,coconut,arecaandsuchothertreesshallbeputinandplantedlarge
oilpressesshallbesetupandthattoddydrawersshallnotclimbthecoconutandpalmyratreeswithinthe
boundaries of the granted village. One or two other vyavastha regarding the irrigation of lands also
deservetobenoted.Usually the distribution of water for irrigation in each village appears to have been
fixed by some common understanding. This allotted quantity of water, the grant states, shall be utilized
bydiggingcanals.Cultivatorstowhomthecanalisnotintendedshallnotcutopenbranchchannelsfrom
it, nor bund up the water, nor raise it by small piccotas, nor bale it out by baskets and those who have
the right shall make the most economical use of the water without wasting it.[14] Canals flowing across
other villages to irrigate the lands of this village and vice versa shall be permitted to flow over the
boundary line and to cast up silt.[15] Besides, the embankments of tanks shall be allowed to be raised
withintheirlimits,sothattheymayholdthemaximumquantityofwater.
Thegrantthussetforthwasgiveneffecttobythedistrictpeople(nattom)ofPalaiyanur,anofficerofthe
department of taxes and two others, one of whom according to 1. 120 was an executive officer of the
king. The same was also done by the assembly of Singalantakachaturvedimangalam, represented by
Karanattan of that village by the villagers (urom) of Palaiyanur and the assembly of Nittavinoda
chaturvedimangalam.
The grant was entered in the accounts in the 7th year and the 155th day of the kings reign, there being
presentonthe occasion the officers already mentioned, together with some others. Four Sanskrit verses
withwhichtheinscriptionendssupplythenamesofthefoursculptorsofKanchipurawhobelongedtothe
HovyaorOvifamily,viz.,Aravamurta(i.e.,TamilAravamudu)histwobrothersRangaand Damodara and
hissonPurushottama.
TherearethreedatesgivenintheTamilportionoftheinscription.Thefirstwhichoccursinline6wasthe
eighteighth day of the sixth year when perhaps the king orally ordered the release of Palaiyanur from
beingabrahmadeyaofSingalantakachaturvedimangalam,itsinclusionasavellanvagaiand a devadana,
and its permanent settlement. The second ate, viz., the ninetieth day of the sixth year which occurs in
line 62, was actually the day on which the written order was issued under the signature of the several
officers of the king and was perhaps also entered in the books of the issuing office. The third date which
occursinline517andisoneyearand65dayslaterthantheseconddatewasevidentlythedateonwhich
the grant was executed and the necessary entries made in the account books of the villages concerned.

the grant was executed and the necessary entries made in the account books of the villages concerned.
Thelongdelayintheexecutionofthekingsordermusthavebeendueeithertothecomplicatedsystemof
administration or to the details of procedure adopted in separating Palaiyanur from Singalantaka
chaturvedimangalam.
[1]PerhapsbeforeithadbecomeabrahmadeyaoftheassemblyofSingalantakachaturvedimangalam.
[2]EpigraphiaIndica,Vol.XII,p.296.
[3]IndianAntiquary,Vol.XLIV,p.213f.
[4]MudigondasolanwasthenameofoneofthehallsintheroyalpalaceatGangaikondacholapuramsee
above,Vol.II,p.109.
[5]ThisvillageismentionedinNos.467and477oftheMadrasEpigraphicalCollectionfor1905.
[6]MentionedinNo.485of1905.
[7]MentionedNo.486of1905.
[8]MentionedinNo.473of1905.
[9]PerhapssameasMiduvurwhichoccursinNo.456of1905.
[10]MentionedinNo.455of1905.
[11]Above,Vol.II,p.353,I.131.
[12] This has been translated as tax on quarries. Possibly this term has to be connected with vannara
paraiwhichoccurselsewhere.Inthiscaseitmightmeanonlythefeeleviedonwashermensstones.
[13]Seep.222above.
[14] The phrase chennir pothvinnai seiyathathakavum anniradaithu paicha peruvathakavum has to be
explained in the sense in which the same phrase occurs in a different form at p. 46 of SouthIndian
Inscriptions, Vol. III. Here vetti corresponds to pothuvinnai of our inscription and ponnirvittu paichi
kolvathakavumtoanniradaithupaichaperuvathakavum.
[15] Melnadainirpaya is a phrase which generally occurs in the description of the boundary line of a
villagewhenthiscutsacrossachannel,thewasteweirofatankorastream.Evidentlyitmeansthatthe
boundarylinewhichpassesthroughthewaterisnoprohibitionforthewaterfromflowingoverthelineto
irrigateotherlands.Thesameistobeunderstoodinthecaseofthecastingupofsilt.

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