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Prehistoric to Egyptian Architecture

Arch. Josephine Sandy R. Lu


UM CAFAE

INTRODUCTION
History of Architecture

It is a record of man's effort to build beautifully. It traces


the origin, growth and decline of architectural styles
which have prevailed lands and ages.

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INTRODUCTION
Historic Styles of Architecture

The particular method, the characteristics, manner of


design which prevails at a certain place and time.

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INTRODUCTION
Building
A basic need
A social act

Arki-tekton (Greek)
master builder

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WHAT IS THE

PRIMARY AIM
OF ARCHITECTURE?
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SHELTER
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INTRODUCTION
ARCHITECTURE had a simple origin in the primitive

efforts of mankind to provide protection against


inclement weather, wild beasts, and human enemies

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INTRODUCTION
Influences of the Development of Architecture

a) Geographical: the study of the Earth and its lands, features,


inhabitants, and phenomena

b) Geological: the science and study of physical matter that constitutes


the earth

c) Climatic: encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity,

atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and


other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of
time

d) Religious
e) Socio-political
f) Historical
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HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF ARCHITECTURE


Egyptian

Pre-Historic

Near East

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Byzantine

Greek

Roman

Early Christian

Romanesque

Islamic

Gothic

Renaissance

18th-19th C:
Revival

20th C:
Modern

HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF ARCHITECTURE

Pre-Historic

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PREHISTORIC
Megalithic Sites in Europe

(describes structures made of large


stones, utilizing an interlocking
system without the use of mortar or
cement)
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PREHISTORIC
Before 9000 BC, nomadic
life of hunting & food
gathering
The success of the human
race was largely due to the
development of tools
made of stone, wood, bone
By 9000 BC, farming and
agriculture was practiced fertile soil and plentiful
food

Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo


sapiens, Homo sapiens sapiens

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PREHISTORIC

Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo


sapiens, Homo sapiens sapiens

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No organized religion
Respect for the Dead:
burial rites & monuments

PREHISTORIC
3 CULTURAL STAGES
I.

STONE AGE
a.) Paleolithic (Old Stone Age )
b.) Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age)
c.) Neolithic (New Stone Age )

II. BRONZE AGE


III. IRON AGE

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PREHISTORIC
STONE AGE
a.) Paleolithic (Old Stone Age )
concerned with the origins and development of early human
culture between the first appearance of man as a tool-using
mammal
man was a food gatherer, depending for his subsistence on
hunting wild animals and birds, fishing, and collecting wild
fruits, nuts, and berries

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PREHISTORIC
STONE AGE
b.) Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age)
gradual domestication of plants and animals and the formation
of settled communities at various times and places

c.) Neolithic (New Stone Age )


domestication of plants and animals
development of pottery, polished stone tools and more
complex, larger settlements such as atal Hyk and Jericho

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PREHISTORIC
3 CULTURAL STAGES
II.

BRONZE AGE
- Innovation of the technique of smelting ore

III. IRON AGE

- prevalent use of iron


- introduction of alphabetic characters, and the consequent
development of written language which enabled literature and
historic record
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PREHISTORIC: ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER


MATERIALS
Animal skins & bones, trees & plants,

stones & rocks

CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM
Existing or excavated caves

Megalithic, most evident in France,

England and Ireland

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PREHISTORIC: ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER


DECORATION
Caves paintings
Sculpture

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Lascaux Cave, France

PREHISTORIC
3 CLASSIFICATIONS OF EARLY KNOWN TYPES OF
ARCHITECTURE
1. Primitive Dwellings
2. Religious Monuments
3. Burial Grounds

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PREHISTORIC: PRIMITIVE DWELLINGS


Hunters and fishermen - rock caves, (manifestly the

earliest form of human dwellings)

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PREHISTORIC: PRIMITIVE DWELLINGS


Tillers of the soil - arbours of trees, and from them

fashioned huts of wattle and daub

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WIGWAM - Domed structure

PREHISTORIC: PRIMITIVE DWELLINGS


Shepherds - coverings of skins

which only had to be raised on


posts to form tents.

TEEPEE - Conical tent


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traditionally made of
animal skins or birch barks

PREHISTORIC: RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS


MENHIR

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single, large upright monolith

arranged in parallel rows,


sometimes reaching several
miles and consisting of
thousands of stones

memorial of victory over


one tribe

PREHISTORIC: RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS


DOLMEN

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tomb of standing stone


usually consisting of three or
more upright stones capped
with a large flat horizontal
capstone

PREHISTORIC: RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS


CROMLECH

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enclosure formed by huge


stones planted on the ground
in circular form

PREHISTORIC: RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS


CROMLECH

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Stonehenge, England

PREHISTORIC: RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS


RECONSTRUCTED PLAN OF
STONEHENGE, ENGLAND
made up of concentric rings with

the following:
a) Outer ring 106 ft. in diameter
b) Isolated blue stone
c) Innermost circle
d) Smaller blue stone

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PREHISTORIC: RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS

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Known in the 12th century as


Dance of the Giants

Known today as the Sarcen


Circle

Druids celebrating summer


solstice

PREHISTORIC: BURIAL MONUMENTS


TUMULUS (PASSAGE GRAVE)

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mound of earth & stones raised


over a grave or graves of ordinary
persons

dominant tomb type

has corridor lined with large stone


slabs leading to a circular
chamber with corbelled vault

prototype of Egyptian pyramids

PREHISTORIC: BURIAL MONUMENTS


TUMULUS

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PREHISTORIC: BURIAL MONUMENTS


TUMULUS

Treasury of Atreus, Greece

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HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF ARCHITECTURE

Pre-Historic

Near East

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NEAR EAST
4000 BC to 4th century

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NEAR EAST: GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE


Near East/ West Asiatic

Architecture flourished &


developed in the Twin Rivers
Tigris & Euphrates
also known as Mesopotamia
(refers to Persia, Assyria &
Babylon)

GREEK: mesos = middle;


potamos = river
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NEAR EAST: GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE


One of the earliest seats of civilization,
great fertility
cradle and tomb of nations and empires

The plain of Mesopotamia, once the seat of a high

civilization, was irrigated by numerous canals


between the above-mentioned rivers, and was highly
cultivated, supporting an immense population round
Nineveh and Babylon.

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NEAR EAST: GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE


Chaldea or Lower Mesopotamia
alluvial - thick mud or clay
usual building material - soil made
into bricks
ordinary sundried bricks - general
body of the walls
"kiln-burnt" and sometimes glazed or
vitrified bricks of different colors used as a facing
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NEAR EAST: GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE


Assyria
followed Babylonians in the use

of brick

faced the walls internally and

externally with alabaster or


limestone slabs carved with low
bas-reliefs and inscriptions

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NEAR EAST: GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE


Persia
Hard, colored limestones (building of Susa and

Persepolis)

Roof-timbers (obtained from Elam)


Persian tiles - world-famous for their beauty of texture

and colors

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NEAR EAST: GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE


Due to floods & heavy rains,

it resulted in the conversion


of its earthen into clay to
produce bricks in Assyria
and Babylon

Due to rare experience of

rain in Persia , they used


timber and coloured
limestone

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NEAR EAST: CLIMATIC INFLUENCE


Chaldea and Assyria
floods and heavy rains = Ziggurats

Persia
dry & hot climate = open columned type temples
country of sunshine, gardens and deserts

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NEAR EAST: RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE


Babylonia and Assyria
polytheism - worship of heavenly bodies, divisions

of the universe, and local deities

chief gods:
a) Anu - sky god
b) Baal - earth god
c) Ea water god

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NEAR EAST: RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE


Persia
Monotheism
system of ethical forces, believers of good and evil

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NEAR EAST: SOCIAL-POLITICAL INFLUENCE


Assyrians
sturdy, warlike, but cruel people
conquering monarchs took thousands of prisoners

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NEAR EAST: SOCIAL-POLITICAL INFLUENCE


Babylonian
among the three were considered extraordinary

because achieved highest degree of civilization


(e.g. irrigation, trade, cuneiform, Law of
Hammurabi)

Assyrian and Persian


believed in military superiority thus manifested

in their buildings

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NEAR EAST: HISTORICAL INFLUENCE


Chaldean Period (4000 to 1250 B.C.)

Assyrian Period (1250 to 606 B.C.)


Babylonian Period (606 to 538 B.C.)
Persian Period

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NEAR EAST: HISTORICAL INFLUENCE


Eannadu - earliest Babylonian king mentioned in the

cuneiform inscriptions who reigned B.C. 4500

Sargon (B.C. 722-705) - the most celebrated Assyrian

king; erected the great palace at Khorsabad

Reigns of Darius (B.C. 521-485); and Xerxes (B.C. 485-

465) - most interesting palaces were erected at Susa


and Persepolis.

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NEAR EAST: HISTORICAL INFLUENCE


The country remained under the rule of the Persians

until the time of Alexander the Great, B.C. 333, when


it became a possession of the Greeks. The conquest
of Egypt by Cambyses, B.C. 525, and the dazzling
impression left by the marvelous buildings of
Memphis and Thebes, caused the development of the
use of the column amongst the Persians.

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NEAR EAST: HISTORICAL INFLUENCE


In the seventh century A. D., the Arabs overran the

country and settled there Bagdad becoming a new


capital of great magnificence. Towards the close of
the tenth century, the Turks, a barbarous people
pouring in from the east, settled in the country, which
is at the present moment in a desolate state owing to
Turkish misrule.

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NEAR EAST: ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER


Massiveness

Monumentality
Grandeur

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NEAR EAST: ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES


ASSYRIAN &
BABYLONIAN
Arcuated type of

construction; Arch,
vault and flat strips,
buttresses with
glazed tile adornment

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NEAR EAST: ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES


ASSYRIAN & BABYLONIAN
colossal winged bulls, carved alabaster

slabs, sculptured bas-reliefs

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NEAR EAST: ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES


PERSIAN
Columnar and

trabeated with flat


timber roof
sometimes domed

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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


BABYLON
ZIGGURATS or Holy

Mountains

chief building structure,

square or rectangle in plan

w/ steeply battered sides


an open platform on top
containing the Fire Altar

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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


BABYLON
ZIGGURATS or Holy
Mountains
The angles of these

temples were made to


face the cardinal points
surmounted by a richly
decorated temple
chamber, which served as
a shrine and observatory
from which astrological
studies could be made
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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


BABYLON
ZIGGURATS or Holy
Mountains
Development
Archaic ziggurat
Two or Three-staged
ziggurat
Seven-staged ziggurat
during the Assyrian
period
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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


BABYLON
ZIGGURATS or Holy

Mountains

The White Temple, Warka

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Development
Archaic ziggurat - usually
have one flat top
rectangular mound carrying
the upper temple

NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


BABYLON
ZIGGURATS or Holy

Mountains

The Ziggurat, Nimrod


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Development
Two or Three-staged
ziggurat - rectangular in
plan, design w/ several
tiers or stages

NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


BABYLON
ZIGGURATS or Holy

Mountains

The Ziggurat, Ur
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Development
Two or Three-staged
ziggurat - rectangular in
plan, design w/ several
tiers or stages

NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


BABYLON
ZIGGURATS or Holy

Mountains

Development
Seven stages square base
ziggurat
Palace of Nebuchadnezzar
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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


ASSYRIA
Palace
Palace of Sargon,
Khorsabad
entrance portals flanked with

statues of headed winged


bulls & lions
contains 700 rooms
with its various courts,
chambers, and corridors is
supposed to have occupied an
area of 25 acres
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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES

Palace of Sargon, Khorsabad


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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


ASSYRIA
Palace Parts
a) SERAGLIO palace proper which includes the kings residence,

mens apartment & reception courts for visitors

b) HAREM - private apartments of the prince and his family, womens

apartment

c) KHAN - service chambers, a Moslem inn for travelers

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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


PERSIA
Palace
PALACE PLATFORM,
PERSEPOLIS
occupies 1500 & 1000 ft. &
is elevated 40 ft.
one of the important capitals
of Persia
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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


PERSIA

PALACE PLATFORM,
PERSEPOLIS
contains the following:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Palace of Darius
Palace of Xerxes
Hypostyle Hall of Xerxes
Hall of Hundred columns by
Darius
Propylaea entrance to hall
designed by Xerxes
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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


PERSIA
Hall of Hundred Columns
225 feet square
probably used as an audience

and throne-hall

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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


PERSIA
Hypostyle Hall of
Xerxes
probably used as a

throne room
originally had
seventy-two black
marble columns, 67
feet in height,
arranged in a
somewhat novel
manner supporting a
flat roof.
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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


PERSIA
PALACE PLATFORM,
PERSEPOLIS
Steps leading to the

eastern portico of the


Apadana (Audience Hall)
of Persepolis

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NEAR EAST: EXAMPLES


PERSIA
PALACE PLATFORM, PERSEPOLIS

Winged bulls with


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CAFAE)
human
faces

Bas Relief

NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


PLAN
A special character

was given to the


temples of the early,
and the palaces of the
later period, by raising
them on terraces or
platforms some 30 feet
to 50 feet in height

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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


PLAN
Angles of the

Assyrian ziggurats
face the cardinal
points of the compass

Assyrian palaces

were designed so as
to be effective
internally and
externally, being
raised on the
platforms
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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


WALL
Assyrians - used

stone only as a
facing to their brick
walls

- the massive walls,


which were of cased
brickwork, only
remain, the columns
being of wood having
perished.
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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


WALL
In Persia - the walls which were thin have disappeared, leaving

the massive stone or marble blocks forming the door and


window openings, immense columns, and broad stairways
which alone have survived the ravages of time.

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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


WALL
The slabs of

alabaster with
which the walls of
the palaces were
faced reveal
much of the
social history of
the people.

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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


OPENINGS
Lighting to the temples is

conjectural, but it appears


to have been effected by
means of a clerestory

Use of the arch, both

circular and pointed

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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


OPENINGS
Doorways - of great size, give

buildings a sufficient supply


of light and air, and openings
may also have been formed in
the upper parts of the walls

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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


ROOFS
The roofing appears

to have been effected


by means of timber
beams reaching from
one column to the
next, and resting on
the backs of the
"double-bull" capitals

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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


ROOFS
Halls of the palaces were covered with

brick tunnel vaults, but in many cases


the roof of considerable thickness was
flat, formed of very tough but plastic
clay and debris, and kept in condition
by being occasionally rolled

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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


COLUMNS
Primarily of wood, but in the later

period at Persepolis, built them of


the natural stone

Capitals were double-bull, double-

unicorn, double-horse, doublegriffin type and the Ionic scroll


occurs in some examples.

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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


MOULDINGS
Assyrian palaces - sculptured slabs and colored surfaces
Persepolis - bead, hollow and ogee mouldings in the bases,

while the volutes of the capital were treated with plain sinkings.

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NEAR EAST: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


ORNAMENT
Assyrian sculptures in

alabaster exhibit
considerable technical
skill and refinement

Notable repousse

pattern work on
bronze bowls, shields,
and gate fittings

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HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF ARCHITECTURE


Egyptian

Pre-Historic

Near East

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EGYPTIAN
From 5000 BC to 1st
century AD

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EGYPTIAN: GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE


Egypt known as The Land of Pharaohs

Nile River: means of communication, trade route &

lifeline

Egypts greatest wealth was its fertile soil

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EGYPTIAN: GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE


STONE: abundant building material

SAND DRIED BRICKS: made up of clay & chopped stone

for pyramids & temples

DATE PALM: for roofing


PALM LEAVES: for roofing materials
ACACIA: boats

SYCAMORE: mummy cases

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EGYPTIAN: CLIMATIC INFLUENCE


Flat roofs without

drainage (no downspout


or gutters) due to
absence of rain
No windows to cut heat
penetration and
sandstorm
Unbroken massive walls
protected the interior
from the fierce heat of
the sun
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EGYPTIAN: RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE


Pyramids were built because

they believed in Life after


Death & for the preservation
of the dead body
Pharaoh is not only king but
also god both political &
religious ruler, when he dies
he becomes Osiris, god of
dead
monotheistic in theory &
polytheistic in practice
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EGYPTIAN: RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE


DIFFERENT EGYPTIAN GODS
AMUN-RA: chief god
RAH: symbol of the sun , hope for eternal life
ATUM: world creator
OSIRIS: god of the dead
ISIS: wife of Osiris

HORUS: sky god, son of Osiris, also reincarnation of Ra

himself

SET : dead god of evil, brother of pleasure


THOT: ibis headed god of wisdom

ANUBIS: jackal headed god of death


PTAH: god of craftsmen
SERAPIS: bull god
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EGYPTIAN: SOCIAL & POLITICAL INFLUENCE


MONARCHY form of government
PHARAOH King of Egypt, ruler, highest priest in Egypt
VIZIER Kings most powerful official
CHANCELOR- controls the royal treasuries, granaries & supervises the census
CHIEF STEWARD - in charge of the Kings personal estate & household

SOCIAL RANKS
a)

NOBLE FAMILIES

b)

SOLDIERS, VIZIERS, CHANCELLORS, CHIEF STEWARDS

c)

FISHERMEN, FARMERS, CRAFTMENS, MERCHANTS - ordinary Egyptians

d)

SLAVES - lowest form

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EGYPTIAN: HISTORICAL INFLUENCE


30 DYNASTIES (started from 3rd Millennium BC to

Roman Period. Egypt was part of Persian)

Empire for 2 Centuries, before the invasion of

ALEXANDER the Great

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EGYPTIAN: HISTORICAL INFLUENCE


I. ANCIENT KINGDOM (1ST 10TH Dynasty)
Development of two types of tombs
a) Mastaba
b) Pyramid

II. MIDDLE KINGDOM (11th 17th Dynasty)


Important Personalities
a) MENTUHETEP II developed the 3rd type of tomb: Rockcut Tomb
b) SENUSRET erected the earliest known Obelisk, Heliopolis.
c) AMENEMHAT I founded Great Temple of Ammon Kharnak
(grandest of all temples)
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EGYPTIAN: HISTORICAL INFLUENCE


III. NEW EMPIRE ( 18th 30th Dynasty )
Important Personalities
a) THOTMES 1- began the additions to the Temple of Ammon, Karnak
b) HATSHEPSUT queen of Egypt, famous for her funerary temple at Mt.
Deir el Bahari
c) AMENOPHIS III erected the Colossi of Memnon, one of the wonders of
the ancient world
d) RAMESES I began the construction of the Great Hypostyle Hall, Karnak
e) RAMESES II finished the construction of the Hypostyle Hall &
erection of the Rock Temple, Abu Simbel

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EGYPTIAN: HISTORICAL INFLUENCE


IV. THE PTOLEMAIC PERIOD
Important Personalities
a) PTOLEMY II built the Pharaohs or the Light House
b) PTOLEMY III founded the Greatest Serapeum at Alexandria

V. The Roman Period (BC 30 - AD 395)


VI. Later Periods (AD 395 to the present day)

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EGYPTIAN: ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER


Simplicity

Monumentality
Solidity or massiveness

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EGYPTIAN: ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES


BATTERED WALL - inclination from base to top

of the facade.

HIEROGLYPHICS - used as ornaments, pictures

& writings from the walls

DECORATIONS - mouldings such as "gorge" or

"hollow and roll" was inspired by reeds; Torus


moulding

SYSTEM OF CONSTRUCTION
a) POST & LINTEL
b) COLUMNAR OR TRABEATED
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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
The Tombs were of three main types:
a) Mastabas
b) Royal pyramids
c) Rock-hewn tombs

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
1.) TOMB: MASTABA
first type of Egyptian tomb
Tomb-houses that were made to

take the body at full length

rectangular flat-topped funerary

mound, with battered side


(angled at 75 degrees), covering
a burial chamber below ground

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
1.) TOMB: MASTABA
Parts:
a) outer chamber
b) SERDAB: inner chamber with
STELAE (stone with name of
deceased inscribed);
contains statue of deceased
and offering table
c) chamber containing the
sarcophagus, reached by
an under ground shaft
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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
1.) TOMB: MASTABA

Mastaba at Saqqara

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
2.) TOMB: PYRAMID
massive funerary structure of stone or brick
square plan and four sloping triangular sides meeting at the

apex

evolved from MASTABA


with four sides facing the cardinal points
made by 100,000 men for 100 years

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
2.) TOMB: PYRAMID
- STEPPED PYRAMID

PYRAMID OF KING
ZOSER or ISER built by
IMHOTEP, oldest surviving
masonry building structure
in the world
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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
2.) TOMB: PYRAMID
- BENT OR BLUNT
PYRAMID

PYRAMID OF
SENEFERU

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
2.) TOMB: PYRAMID SLOPE OR TRUE PYRAMID
PYRAMIDS OF GIZA
The four sides, which, as in all

the pyramids, face the cardinal


points, are nearly equilateral
triangles

The Great Sphinx shows King

Chepren as a man-lion
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protecting
his country

EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
2.) TOMBS: PYRAMID SLOPE OR TRUE
PYRAMID

PARTS OF A PYRAMID
COMPLEX
Elevated Causeway

Offering Chapel
Mortuary
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AR.Valley
Building

EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
2.) TOMBS: PYRAMID - SLOPE OR TRUE PYRAMID

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
2.) TOMBS: PYRAMID - SLOPE OR TRUE PYRAMID

Pyramid of Cheops
Grand Gallery
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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
3.) TOMBS: ROCK-HEWN
OR ROCK-CUT
cut deep into the mountain

rock or hillsides
For nobility, not royalty

Tombs at Beni-Hassan
Four out of the 39 tombs are accessible to the

public: Amenemhet, Khnumhotep II, Baqet


III, Khety

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
3.) TOMBS: ROCK-HEWN
OR ROCK-CUT
Tomb of Amenemhet, Beni-Hassan

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
3.) TOMBS: ROCK-HEWN
OR ROCK-CUT

Tomb of Amenemhet, Beni-Hassan

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
3.) TOMBS: ROCK-HEWN
OR ROCK-CUT
Tomb of Baqet, Beni-Hassan

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
3.) TOMBS: ROCK-HEWN
OR ROCK-CUT
Tomb of Kheti, Beni-Hassan

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
4.) OBELISK

upright stone square in plan,


with an electrum-capped
pyramidion on top

sacred symbol of sun-god


Heliopolis

usually came in pairs fronting


temple entrances

height of nine or ten times the


diameter at the base

four sides feature hieroglyphics

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Great Temple of
Ammon Karnak, Luxor

EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
4.) OBELISK

Piazza of S. Giovanni, Rome


Originally from the Temple of

Ammon, Karnak

oldest of its kind in Rome


brought to Rome by command of

emperor Constantine II

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
4.) OBELISK

Obelisk of Thutmoses I, Temple of


Amun-Ra
21.2 m high and weighs nearly

150 tons

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
5.) PYLON

monumental gateway to
the temple consisting of
slanting walls flanking the
entrance portal

often decorated with


scenes emphasizing a
king's authority since it
was the public face of a
cult building

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Pylon of Rameses II, Luxor Temple

EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
5.) PYLON

Temple of Isis, Philae


150 ft. broad
6o ft. high

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES
sanctuaries that only Kings and Priests can penetrate
only a high priest can enter in both types of temple
for mysterious rites and priestly processions which took place
within guarded precincts
a) CULT: built for the worship of the gods
b) MORTUARY: built in honour of the Pharaohs

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES

PARTS OF AN EGYPTIAN TEMPLE


a) Entrance Pylon - massive sloping towers fronted by an

obelisks known as gateways in Egypt

b) Hypaethral Court - large outer court open to the sky


c) Hypostyle Hall - a pillared hall in which the roofs rest on

column.

d) Sanctuary - usually surrounded by passages & chambers

used in connection with the temple service

e)
Avenue of Sphinx - where mystical monster were placed
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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES

PARTS OF AN
EGYPTIAN TEMPLE
a) Entrance Pylon

b) Hypaethral Court
c) Hypostyle Hall
d) Sanctuary
e) Avenue of Sphinx
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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES

PARTS OF AN
EGYPTIAN TEMPLE
a) Entrance Pylon

b) Hypaethral Court
c) Hypostyle Hall
d) Sanctuary
e) Avenue of Sphinx
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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES

Great Temple of Ammon, Karnak


grandest temple & work of many kings
Originally commenced by Amenemhat

about B.C. 2466

occupying an area of 1,200 ft. x 360 ft


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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES
Great Temple of Ammon, Karnak

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES
Great Temple of Abu Simbel
Example of rock-cut temple

Constructed by Rameses II
Entrance forecourt leads to

imposing pylon with 4 rockcut colossal statues of


Rameses sitting over 20 m
high

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES
Great Temple of Abu Simbel,

Inner sanctum

The Abu Simbel Temple is

aligned so that the sun's rays


penetrate an inner sanctuary
twice each year. They then
illuminate the figures of Ptah,
Amun, the deified Ramesses
II and Re.

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES

Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir El-Bahari


quite different from all others in

Egypt, and consists of three terraced


courts stepped out of the rock and
connected by inclined planes

Hatshepsut was the first female

pharaoh of Egypt. She reigned


between 1473 and 1458 B.C. Her name
means foremost of noblewomen.

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
6.) TEMPLES
Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir El-Bahari
Hatshepsut's chancellor, royal architect Senunmut oversaw construction

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
7.) SPHINX
a) Androsphinx - a mystical monster with a body of a lion and head of a man
b) Hieracosphinx - body of a lion & head of a hawk
c) Criosphinx - body lion & head of a ram

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
7.) SPHINX
Great Sphinx, Giza
The greatest

monumental sculpture
in the ancient world, it
is carved out of a
single ridge of
limestone 240 feet (73
meters) long and 66
feet (20 meters) high

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
8.) CAPITALS & COLUMNS
a) Bud & Bell Capital
b) Volute Capital
c) Hathor Headed Capital
d) Polygonal Columns
e) Palm type Capital

Osiris Pillars
g) Papyrus Capital
h) Square Pillars
f)

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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
8.) CAPITALS & COLUMNS

Lotus Bud
Capital
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Palm Capital

Bell Capital

Hathor Capital

EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
9.) MOULDINGS

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Gorge and Hollow


Moulding

Torus Moulding

EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
9.) ORNAMENTS
a) Lotus Papyrus & Palm

for fertility
b) Solar Discs & Vultures
w/ wings for
protection
c) Spiral & feather
ornament for
eternity
d) Scarab or sacred beetle
for resurrection
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EGYPTIAN: EXAMPLES
9.) ORNAMENTS

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EGYPTIAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


PLAN
Externally the massive pylons ornamented with

incised decorations formed the chief facade, a contrast


being obtained by the /slender obelisks which usually
stood in front of them, while the approach was through
an impressive avenue of innumerable sphinxes.

The walls, the pylons, and other features are placed on

different axes, free from any pretence of regularity.

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EGYPTIAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


WALLS
Immensely thick, and in important buildings were of
granite, while in the less important they were of brick
faced with granite.
The faces of the temple walls slope inwards or batter
towards the top, giving them a massive appearance
For the purposes of decoration, the walls, even when of
granite, were generally covered with a fine plaster, in
which were executed low reliefs, treated with bright color.
Simplicity, solidity, and grandeur, qualities obtained by
broad masses of unbroken walling, are the chief
characteristics of the style.
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EGYPTIAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


OPENINGS
These were all square-headed and covered with

massive lintels, for the style being essentially


trabeated.

Window openings are seldom found in temples, light

being admitted by the clerestories.

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EGYPTIAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


ROOFS
These were composed of massive blocks of stone
supported by the enclosing walls and the closely spaced
columns.
Being flat, they could be used in dwelling-houses as a
pleasant rendezvous for the family in the evening for the
enjoyment of the view and the fresh breezes which spring
up at sunset, and at certain seasons may have been used
for repose. They may also have been used in the daytime,
if protected from the sun by temporary awnings.
The flat roofs of the temples seem to have been used in the
priestly processions.
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EGYPTIAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


COLUMNS
The columns, seldom over 6 diameters in height, were

made to represent the stalks, and at intervals appear


to be tied by bands.

The capitals were mostly derived from the lotus plant.

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EGYPTIAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


MOULDINGS
hollow and bead
ORNAMENTS
This was symbolical, and was an important element in the
style, including such features as the solar disc or globe
and the vulture with outspread wings, as a symbol of
protection, while diaper patterns, spirals and the feather
ornament were largely used. The scarab, or sacred beetle,
was considered by the Egyptians as the sign of their
religion,
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