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Ch06HW
Due:9:30amonMonday,March7,2016

PSS6.1EquilibriumProblems
LearningGoal:
TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy6.1forequilibriumproblems.
Apairofstudentsareliftingaheavytrunkonmoveinday.Usingtworopestiedtoasmallringat
thecenterofthetopofthetrunk,theypullthetrunkstraightupataconstantvelocityv .Each
ropemakesanangle withrespecttothevertical.Thegravitationalforceactingonthetrunkhas
magnitudeFG .
FindthetensionT ineachrope.

PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGY6.1Equilibriumproblems
MODEL: Makesimplifyingassumptions.
VISUALIZE:

intosymbols.
Identifyallforcesactingontheobject,andshowthemonafreebodydiagram.
Theseelementsformthepictorialrepresentationoftheproblem.
SOLVE: ThemathematicalrepresentationisbasedonNewton'sfirstlaw:

F net = F i = 0
i

Thevectorsumoftheforcesisfounddirectlyfromthefreebodydiagram.

Model
Thetrunkismovingataconstantvelocity.Thismeansthatyoucanmodelitasaparticleindynamicequilibriumandapplythestrategyabove.
Furthermore,youcanignorethemassesoftheropesandtheringbecauseitisreasonabletoassumethattheircombinedweightismuchlessthanthe
weightofthetrunk.

Visualize
PartA
Themostconvenientcoordinatesystemforthisproblemisoneinwhichtheyaxisisverticalandtheropesbothlieinthexyplane,asshownbelow.
Identifytheforcesactingonthetrunk,andthendrawafreebodydiagramofthetrunkinthediagrambelow.Theblackdotrepresentsthetrunkasitis
liftedbythestudents.

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Correct

PartB
Inthefreebodydiagramdrawninthepreviouspart,differentsymbolsareusedtorepresentthetensionsinthetworopes.Thisnotationcouldbe
simplifiedbyidentifyingausefulrelationshipbetweenthesetwoforces.Whichofthefollowingstatementsproperlydescribestherelationshipbetween
themagnitudeT1 ofthetensionforceinrope1andthemagnitudeT2 ofthetensionforceinrope2?
T1 > T2

,becausethefirstropeattachedmustholdthefullweightofthetrunkbeforethesecondropeisattached.

T1 < T2

,becauserope1isshorterthanrope2.

T1 = T2

,becausetworopesattachedtothesameobjectshouldhavethesametension.

T1 = T2

,becausetheropesattachtothetrunkatthesamepointandatthesameangle.

Correct
Thisisatypeofreasoning,usedofteninphysics,calledasymmetryargument.Sincetheropesareinidenticalsituations,exceptforonebeing
themirrorimageoftheother,theyhavetopossessidenticaltensions.Sincethetwotensionforceshaveequalmagnitude,justuseT todenote
themagnitudeofthetensionforceineitherrope.Withtheinformationyouhavegatheredhere,youcanbuildacompletepictorialrepresentation:

Solve
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PartC
FindtheforceoftensionT ineachrope.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Sincewearetoldthatthetrunkmovesupataconstantvelocity,wesaythatitisindynamicequilibrium.Whenanobjectisinstaticor
dynamicequilibrium,Newton'sfirstlawstatesthatnonetforceactsupontheobject.Asstatedinthestrategyabove,themathematical

representationofNewton'sfirstlawis i Fi = 0 .Thisisavectorequationthatcorrespondstotwoseparateequationswhenwrittenin
componentform:oneequationinthexdirection, i (Fi ) x = 0,andoneequationintheydirection, i (Fi ) y = 0.
Inthisparticularproblem,eventhoughsomeoftheforcesactingonthesystemaretwodimensional,itisnotnecessarytosetupNewton'sfirst
lawinbothdirectionstofindthetensionintheropes.Thesymmetryargumentthatallowedustostatethatthetwotensionshavethesame
magnitudehasreducedthenumberofunknownstoone,T .So,tofindT itissufficienttosetupandsolveNewton'sfirstlawinjustone
direction.

Hint2.SetupNewton'sfirstlawintheydirection
Sincetheropesmakethesameanglewiththevertical,andthetwotensionshavethesamemagnitude,theycomponentofthetensioninboth
ropesmustbethesamelabelitTy .
WhichofthefollowingequationsisthecorrectformofNewton'sfirstlawfortheycomponentofthenetforceactingonthetrunk?

Ty F G = 0

2Ty F G = 0

2Ty + F G = 0
Ty + F G = 0

Ty cos F G = 0

Correct
Now,expressTy intermsofT andsolvethisequationforT .Notethattheotherequilibriumcondition, i (Fi ) x = 0,givesanequation
forT thatissatisfiedbyanyvalueofT ,sonousefulinformationcanbefound.ThisiswhyyouneedtouseNewton'sfirstlawinthey
direction.

Hint3.Relatetheycomponenttothetotaltensioninonerope
FindTy ,themagnitudeoftheycomponentofthetension.
Ty

T cos()

FG
2cos()

Assess
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PartD
Toassesswhetheryourresultsmakesense,sortthefollowingsituationsaccordingtowhetherthetensionintheropesincreases,decreases,oris
unchangedasaresultofthechangementionedineachpicture.Ineachcase,assumethatalltheconditions,otherthanthosementionedineach
Dragtheappropriateitemstotheirrespectivebins.

Correct
Now,useyourmathskills.LookatyourexpressionforT fromPartC.HowdoesT changeif increasesordecreases?HowdoesT changeif
proportionaltoFG andinverselyproportionaltocos .ThismeansyourmathematicalexpressionforT correctlypredictswhatyourintuitionhas
suggested.Yourcalculationsdomakesense!

Problem6.2
Thethreeropesinthefigurearetiedtoasmall,verylightring.Twooftheseropesareanchored
towallsatrightangleswiththetensionsshowninthefigure.

PartA
WhatisthemagnitudeofthetensionT 3 inthethirdrope?
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T3

= 94 N

Correct

PartB
WhatisthedirectionofthetensionT 3 inthethirdrope?

= 58 belowhorizontal

Correct

PSS6.2DynamicsProblems
LearningGoal:
TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy6.2fordynamicsproblems.
Aboxofmass3.06kg slidesdownaroughverticalwall.Thegravitationalforceontheboxis30N.Whentheboxreachesaspeedof2.5m/s ,youstart
pushingononeedgeoftheboxata45 angle(usedegreesinyourcalculationsthroughoutthisproblem)withaconstantforceofmagnitudeFp =23N,
asshownin.Thereisnowafrictionalforcebetweentheboxandthewallofmagnitude13N.
Howfastistheboxsliding2.8s afteryoustartedpushingonit?

PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGY6.2Dynamicsproblems
MODEL: Makesimplifyingassumptions.
VISUALIZE: Drawapictorialrepresentation.

tofind.Thisistheprocessoftranslatingwordsintosymbols.
Useamotiondiagramtodeterminetheobjectsaccelerationvectora.
Identifyallforcesactingontheobject,andshowthemonafreebodydiagram.
ItsOKtogobackandforthbetweenthesestepsasyouvisualizethesituation.
SOLVE: ThemathematicalrepresentationisbasedonNewton'ssecondlaw:

F net = F i = ma.
i
Thevectorsumoftheforcesisfounddirectlyfromthefreebodydiagram.Dependingontheproblem,either

Solvefortheacceleration,andthenusekinematicstofindvelocitiesandpositionsor
Usekinematicstodeterminetheacceleration,andthensolveforunknownforces.

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Model
Startbymakingasimplifyingassumption:Wewillassumealltheforcesactingontheboxareconstant,sonowyoucanmodeltheboxasaparticle
movingwithaconstantacceleration.

Visualize
PartA
Usingoursimplifiedmodel,inwhichweknowthattheforcesareconstant(butwedon'tknowwhattheirmagnitudesare),whichofthefollowingmotion
diagramswouldbeareasonablerepresentationofthemotionofthebox?

Checkallthatapply.
A
B
C
D

Correct
Beforeyoustartpushingonthebox,theboxisacteduponbyonlythegravitationalforcethatpullstheboxdownward.Theresultingacceleration
vectorisdirecteddownward.Itshouldbenotedthatthereisnofrictionalforceatthispoint,sincethenormalforceactingontheboxfromthe
verticalwalliszeroatthispoint.
Theimportantpointinthebox'smotionisthemomentwhenyoustartpushingonit.Atthatmoment,threepossiblescenariosmayoccur.Thebox
maycontinuetoslidedownthewallatanincreasingspeed,butwithasmalleraccelerationthanbeforebecauseoftheopposingeffectofthe
pushingforceandfrictionalforce.Inthiscase,awouldpointdownward(diagramD).Alternatively,iftheopposingeffectofthepushingforceand
frictionalforceweresuchthatthebox'sspeedwoulddecrease,theboxwouldbeslowingdownasitmovesdownwardandawouldpointupward
(diagramB).Somewhereinbetweenthesetwocases,athirdscenarioarisesinwhichthenetforceontheboxiszeroandtheboxslidesdownthe
wallataconstantspeed(diagramA).Onlythedirectionandmagnitudeofthenetforcecantellyouwhichofthesescenariosisthecorrectonefor
thisproblem.Keepinmindthatinallcasesthemotionisalwaysvertical,meaningthatthehorizontalcomponentoftheaccelerationmustbe
zero.

PartB
Stillusingoursimplifiedmodel(inwhichwedonotknowthemagnitudesoftheforces),drawafreebodydiagramshowingalltheforcesactingonthe
constantforcesofunknownmagnitude,youdonotneedtodrawthevectorstoscale,butyourfinaldiagramshouldbephysicallyreasonable.

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Correct

Ifallthevectorsinyourfreebodydiagramweredrawnwiththeircorrectrelativelengths,theirvectorsumF net
= F i wouldprovidesome
i
accelerationwithoutfirstperformingsomecalculationsbasedonNewton'ssecondlaw.

Notethatinthediagramabove,acoordinatesystemwasestablishedsothatthepositivexaxispointstotherightandthepositiveyaxispoints
upward.Thisisthesamecoordinatesystemusedthroughouttherestofthisproblem.Keepinmindthatyouaretryingtofindthebox'sspeed2.8
s afterstartingtopushonit.

Solve
PartC
Findthebox'sspeedv f at2.8s afteryoufirststartedpushingonit.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Thisisaonedimensionalkinematicsproblem.Youaregiventhebox'sinitialspeedandneedtocalculateitsfinalspeedafteracertainperiodof
time.Youknowthatmotionoccursonlyintheverticaldirection,sothere'snoneedtowritedownanyequationinthexdirection.Allyouneedis
a y ,theycomponentofthebox'sacceleration,whichcanbecalculatedbyapplyingNewton'ssecondlawinthe y direction.

Hint2.SetupNewton'ssecondlawintheydirection
Newton'ssecondlawstatesthat(Fnet ) y ,theycomponentofthenetforceactingonanobject,isequaltotheycomponentoftheobject's
accelerationmultipliedbyitsmass,thatis,(Fnet ) y

= ma y

UsingthecoordinatesystemshowninPartB,enteranexpressionfor(Fnet ) y intermsoftheforcesactingonthebox.Usef ,FG ,andn for

themagnitudesofthefrictionforce,thegravitationalforce,andthenormalforce,respectivelyuseFp forthemagnitudeofthepushingforce.

Hint1.FindFpy ,theycomponentofthepushingforce
Enteranexpressionfortheycomponentofthepushingforce,Fpy .Recallthatyoupushontheboxata45 angle.UseFp forthe
magnitudeofthepushingforce.

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F py

F p sin(45)

(F net )

= (F i )

f F G + F p sin(45)

ma y

Hint3.Determinewhichkinematicequationtouse
Whichofthefollowingequationsisthemostappropriateonetocalculatethebox'sspeed2.8s afteryoufirststartedpushingonit?

2
fy

= v

2
iy

+ 2a y (y f

yi )

v f y = v iy + a y t

y f = y i + v iy t +

1
2

ay (t)

vf

= 3.2 m/s

Correct

Assess
PartD
Assumingthattheangleatwhichyoupushontheedgeoftheboxisagain45 ,withwhatmagnitudeofforceFp shouldyoupushiftheboxwereto
slidedownthewallataconstantvelocity?Notethat,ingeneral,themagnitudeofthefrictionforcewillchangeifyouchangethemagnitudeofthe
pushingforce.Thus,forthispart,assumethatthemagnitudeofthefrictionforceisf = 0.566Fp .

Hint1.Dynamicequilibrium

Iftheboxslidesdownthewallataconstantvelocity,itsaccelerationmustbezero.Thisistheconditionfordynamicalequilibrium,orF net

= 0

.SetupagainNewton'ssecondlawintheydirectionasyoudidinthepreviouspart,keepinginmindthatnowthemagnitudeFp ofthepushing
forceisunknown.Usetheequilibriumcondition(Fnet ) y = 0,andsolveforFp .
Fp

= 24 N

Correct
Yourresultsmakesense.Ifyoupushwithaforceofmagnitude23N,asdescribedinPartC,theboxwillcontinuetospeedupbecausethey
componentofthenetforce,andthereforetheycomponentofthebox'sacceleration,remainsnegative(i.e.,itpointsdownward).Inthiscase,the
effectofthepushingforceissimplytoreducethemagnitudeofthebox'sacceleration.Then,toreducethebox'saccelerationfurthertozero,you
needtopushwithaforceofmagnitudeFp > 23N,asyouhavejustcalculated.Notethatifyoupushedevenharder,theaccelerationwill
becomepositive,causingtheboxtoslowdownandpossiblycometoastop.Thesearethethreescenarioswhosemotiondiagramswere
identifiedinPartA.

Problem6.10
Ahorizontalropeistiedtoa58.0kg boxonfrictionlessice.Whatisthetensionintheropeif:
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PartA
Theboxisatrest?
T

= 0N

Correct

PartB
T

= 0N

Correct

PartC
Theboxv x =5.00m/s anda x =4.80m/s 2 ?
T

= 278N

Correct

Problem6.13
Awomanhasamassof55

kg

PartA
Whatisherweightwhilestandingonearth?
w Earth

= 540N

Correct

PartB
Whatishermassonthemoon,whereg

= 1.62 m/s

m M oon

= 55kg

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Correct

PartC
Whatisherweightonthemoon?
w M oon

= 89N

Correct

Belowareeightcratesofdifferentmass.Thecratesareattachedtomasslessropes,as
indicatedinthepicture,wheretheropesaremarkedbyletters.Eachcrateisbeingpulledtothe
rightatthesameconstantspeed.Thecoefficientofkineticfrictionbetweeneachcrateandthe
surfaceonwhichitslidesisthesameforalleightcrates.

PartA
Ranktheropesonthebasisoftheforceeachexertsonthecrateimmediatelytoitsleft.
Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Generalproblemsolvingstrategy
Tomakereasonablecomparisonsamongforcesyoushouldproceedasfollows:
1.Isolateindividualobjectsviafreebodydiagrams.
2.Identifytheforcesthatactoneachobject.
3.Determinetheaccelerationofeachobject.
4.Finally,applyNewtons2ndlawtoeachobject.
analyzethisproblem.

Hint2.Evaluatetheeffectoffriction
Thecoefficientoffrictionbetweeneachcrateandthesurfaceonwhichitslidesisidentical.Basedonthisfact,isthefrictionalforceactingon
eachcrateidentical?
yes
no

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Correct
Thefrictionalforceactingoneachcrateistheproductofthecoefficientoffrictionandthenormalforceactingoneachcrate.Sincethe
onlytwoverticalforcesactingoneachcratearethenormalforceandtheforceofgravity,thenormalforcemustbeequaltotheforceof
gravity.Thus,thenormalforceisproportionaltothemassofeachcrate,andsincethecoefficientsareallequal,thefrictionalforceisalso
proportionaltoeachcratesmass.

Hint3.Examinethetopchainofcrates
ExaminetheentirechainofthreemassespulledbyropeA,andconsiderthetotalfrictionalforceimpedingthischainsmotion.Towhatvalueof
massisthisforceproportional?
1kg
2kg
3kg
4kg
5kg
6kg

Correct
Sincethechainhasatotalmassof6kg ,thefrictionalforceactingontheentirechainisproportionalto6kg .This"chain"ofreasoning
canbecontinuedtoanalyzealleightropes.

Correct

AGymnastonaRope
Agymnastofmass52.0kg hangsfromaverticalropeattachedtotheceiling.Youcanignoretheweightoftheropeandassumethattheropedoesnot
stretch.Usethevalue9.81m/s 2 fortheaccelerationofgravity.

PartA
CalculatethetensionT intheropeifthegymnasthangsmotionlessontherope.

Hint1.Abodyinstaticequilibrium
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Thegymnastishangingatrest.Thismeansthatthegymnastisinstaticequilibriumand,accordingtoNewton's1stlaw,thenetforceactingon
thegymnastiszero.

Hint2.Findwhatforcesactonthegymnast
Whataretheforcesactingonthegymnast?
Thetensionintheropeonly.
Theweightofthegymnastonly.
Thetensionintheropeandtheweightofthegymnast.
Thegymnastisatrestsonoforcesareactingonher.

T

= 510 N

Correct

PartB
CalculatethetensionT intheropeifthegymnastclimbstheropeataconstantrate.

Hint1.Abodyindynamicequilibrium
Thegymnastismovingwithaconstantvelocity.Thismeansthatthegymnastisindynamicequilibriumand,accordingtoNewton's1stlaw,the
netforceactingonthegymnastiszero.
T

= 510 N

Correct
actingonthegymnastiszero.Sincetheonlytwoforcesactingonthegymnastaretensionandweight,thetensionintheropeineachcaseis
equalinmagnitude(andoppositeindirection)tothegymnast'sweight.

PartC
CalculatethetensionT intheropeifthegymnastclimbsuptheropewithanupwardaccelerationofmagnitude1.50m/s 2 .

Hint1.Newton's2ndlawofmotion
AccordingtoNewton's2ndlaw,ifabodyaccelerates,themagnitudeofthenetforceFnet actingonitequalstheproductofthemassmofthe
bodyandtheaccelerationa ofthebody:
.

F net = ma

Hint2.Findanexpressionforthenetexternalforce
Theonlyforcesactingonthegymnastarethetensionintheropeandherownweight.WhichofthefollowingrelationsgivesthenetforceFnet
actingonthegymnastwhileacceleratinguptherope?
Takethepositivedirectionoftheyaxistobeupward.Here,mandg denote,respectively,themassofthegymnastandtheaccelerationdue
togravity.
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F net = T mg

F net = T + mg
F net = T mg

F net = T + mg

Hint3.Findthesignoftheacceleration
Ifyoutakethepositiveyaxistobeupward,thenistheaccelerationofthegymnastclimbinguptheropepositiveornegative?
positive
negative

T

= 588 N

Correct

PartD

Hint1.Newton's2ndlawofmotion
AccordingtoNewton's2ndlaw,ifabodyaccelerates,themagnitudeofthenetforceFnet actingonitequalstheproductofthemassmofthe
bodyandtheaccelerationa ofthebody:

Hint2.Findanexpressionforthenetexternalforce
Theonlyforcesactingonthegymnastarethetensionintheropeandtheweightofthegymnast.Whichofthefollowingrelationsgivesthenet
forceFnet actingonthegymnastwhileslidingdowntherope?
Takethepositiveyaxistobeupward,andletmandg denote,respectively,themassofthegymnastandtheaccelerationduetogravity.

F net = T mg

F net = T + mg
F net = T mg

F net = T + mg

Hint3.Findthesignoftheacceleration
Ifyoutakethepositiveyaxistobeupward,thenistheaccelerationofthegymnastassheslidesdowntheropepositiveornegative?
positive
negative

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= 432 N

Correct
Inthisproblem,thedirectionsofvelocityandaccelerationhappenedtobethesame.Iftheyaredifferent,itisthedirectionoftheacceleration,not
thedirectionofvelocity,thatdeterminesthemagnitudesoftheforces.Newton's2ndlawhasnothingtodowiththeobject'svelocity.

PushingaChairalongtheFloor
Achairofweight85.0Nliesatopahorizontalfloorthefloorisnotfrictionless.YoupushonthechairwithaforceofF =40.0Ndirectedatanangleof
38.0 belowthehorizontalandthechairslidesalongthefloor.

PartA
UsingNewton'slaws,calculaten ,themagnitudeofthenormalforcethatthefloorexertsonthechair.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Tosolvethisproblemyouneedtofocusontheforcesthathaveaverticalcomponent.Infact,becausethedirectionofmotionishorizontal(the
chairslidesalongthefloor),boththeaccelerationofthechairandthenetforceactingonthechairarepurelyhorizontal.Thiscanbetrueonlyif
thenetverticalforceactingonthechairiszero,thatis,ifthenormalforceexertedonthechairbythefloorbalancesalltheotherverticalforces
actingonthechair.
Also,inanyprobleminvolvingforcesyoushouldalwaysdrawafreebodydiagramthatshowsalltheforcesactingonthesystem.Todothat,
chooseacoordinatesystemandidentifyalltheforcesactingonthechair.

Hint2.Choosingthecorrectfreebodydiagram

Letf bethefrictionforce,F betheforceyouexertonthechair,and

wbetheweightofthechair.Ifyouchoosethexaxistobeparalleltothe
floor,whichfreebodydiagramwouldcorrectlyrepresentthesituationdescribedintheintroductionofthisproblem?

Hint1.Directionofthefrictionforce
Forceoffrictionopposesrelativemotionbetweensurfaces.
a
b
c
d

Hint3.Findtheverticalnetforce
Letthepositiveyaxispointupward,andletn bethemagnitudeofthenormalforceexertedonthechairbythefloor,w bethemagnitudeofthe
F

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weightofthechair,andFy bethemagnitudeoftheycomponentoftheforceyouexertonthechairwhenyoupushit.Whatistheverticalnet
force,thatis,theycomponentofthenetforce,actingonthechair?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Fromyourfreebodydiagramyoucanseethatthenormalforcepointsupward,whereastheweightpointsdownward.Moreover,theforce
thatyouexertonthechairhasaverticalcomponent,whichisparalleltotheweight.
nw

n+w

n + w + Fy

n w Fy

Hint4.Findtheverticalcomponentoftheforcethatyouexertonthechair
FindFy ,themagnitudeoftheverticalcomponentoftheforcethatyouexertonthechairwhenyoupushit.

Hint1.Componentsofavector
ConsideravectorAthatformsanangle withthepositivexaxis.ThexandtheycomponentsofAare,respectively,
andAy

A x = A cos

= A sin ,

whereAisthemagnitudeofthevector.
Fy

= 24.6 N

n

= 110 N

Correct

Sixboxesheldatrestagainstidenticalwalls.

PartA
Ranktheboxesonthebasisofthemagnitudeofthenormalforceactingonthem.
Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Sinceeachboxisatrest,Newtons2ndlawstatesthattheforcesactingoneachboxmustsumtozero.Applythisfacttothehorizontalforces
actingoneachbox.

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Correct

PartB
Ranktheboxesonthebasisofthefrictionalforceactingonthem.
Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Determinethedirectionofthefrictionalforce
Inwhichdirectiondoesthefrictionalforceoneachboxact?
horizontalonly
verticalonly
bothhorizontalandvertical

Hint2.Newton's2ndlaw
Theforceoffrictiononeachboxactsintheverticaldirection.Sinceeachboxisatrest,Newtons2ndlawstatesthattheforcesactingoneach
boxmustsumtozero.Applythisfacttotheverticalforcesactingoneachbox.

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Correct

RollingFrictionandBicycleTires
93.9m.Assumethatthenethorizontalforceisduetorollingfrictiononlyandtakethefreefallaccelerationtobeg =9.80m/s 2 .

PartA
Whatisthecoefficientofrollingfriction r forthetireunderlowpressure?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Therearetwomainpartstothisproblem:
2.Findanequationthatallowsyoutorelatethebike'saccelerationtoitsinitialvelocity,itsfinalvelocity,andthedistanceittravels.

Hint2.Howtoeliminatethemass
Tosolvefortheaccelerationa x ,usethefollowingequations:
F x = ma x

,Fx

,andn

= n
r

= mg

wheremisthemassoftheobjectandn isthenormalforce.
Youshouldnowbeabletofindanexpressionfora x thatdoesnotdependonthebike'smass.

Hint3.Kinematicequation
Thebestkinematicequationtouseinthisproblemis
vx

= v 0x

+ 2a x (x x 0 )

sinceitrelatesaccelerationtoquantitiesgivenintheproblem.Solvethisequationfora x intermsofthedistancetraveledandtheinitialand
finalvelocitiesofthebike.
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= 2.20102

Correct

PartB
Whatisthecoefficientofrollingfriction r forthesecondtire(theoneinflatedto105psi )?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
YoushouldsolvethispartusingthesamestepsyouusedinPartA.

= 4.44103

Correct

Problem6.21
A3800kg truckisparkedona12 slope.

PartA
f

= 7700N

Correct

Newton's1stand2ndLaws
LearningGoal:
TounderstandthemeaningandthebasicapplicationsofNewton's1stand2ndlaws.
Newton'slawsarefundamentalinmechanics.TheirmathematicalexpressionsareverysimplebutconceptualunderstandingofNewton'slaws,whichis
necessaryforsolvingnontrivialproblems,isnotsimpleatall.

Newton's1stlaw
ThecommontextbookstatementofNewton's1stlawmayseemratherstraightforward.Hereitis:
Anobjecthasaconstantvelocity(possiblyzero)ifandonlyifthenetforceactingontheobjectiszero.
Inotherwords,ifthevectorsumoftheforcesappliedtotheobjectiszero,theobjectwouldbeeitheratrestoratconstantvelocity(thatis,theobject
wouldhavezeroacceleration).Ifsuchasumisnotzero,theobjectcannotpossiblybemovingataconstantvelocity.

Framesofreference
ThestatementofNewton's1stlawbecomesabitmorecomplicatedinactualapplications.Imagineyourselfinacar.TounderstandNewton's1stlawfully,
weneedtheconceptofaframeofreference.Aframeofreferenceisasetofcoordinatesusedtomeasuredistancesandtimes.Inyourframeofreference,
Inyourframeofreference,thecarisalwaysatrest.Itisentirelypossiblethatthenetforceactingonthecarisnotzero:Thecarmay(intheframeof
referenceofanobserverstandingontheground)beaccelerating,turning,orbraking.Yetinyourframeofreference,thecarwouldremainatrestbecause,
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Inertialframesofreference
It'stemptingtoignorethisdifficultybysayingthattheframeofreferenceattachedtothecarissomehowwrong.Theobserverontheground,incontrast,is
right:Theobserverseesthemotionofthecarasitreallyis.However,suchalineofreasoningseemsflawed,becauseitraisesthequestionofhowto
determinewhichframesofreferenceare"right"andwhichonesare"wrong."
ThisiswhatNewton's1stlawsettles.Newtonestablishedtheconceptofaninertialframeofreference.Aninertialframeofreference,bydefiniton,isonein
whichthestatementofNewton's1stlawis,infact,true.

Newton's2ndlaw
Itisimportanttoknowthattheframeofreferencebeingusedis,infact,inertial.OnlythendoesNewton's2ndlawworkinasimpleandelegantform.
Newton's2ndlawestablishestherelationshipbetweenthenetforceactingonanobject,themassoftheobject,anditsacceleration:

F net = ma

or
a=

net

NotethatNewon's2ndlawallowsonetofindthemagnitudeoftheobject'sacceleration.Italsoestablishesthefactthattheaccelerationofanobjecthas
thesamedirectionasthenetforceactingontheobject.

ApplyingNewton'slawsininertialandnoninertialframes
Iftheframeofreferenceisnotinertial,usingNewton's2ndlawtocalculateaccelerationisstillpossiblebutmaybefarmorecomplicated.Objectsthat
experiencezeronetforcemayaccelerate,andobjectsthatmoveatconstantvelocitymayexperienceanetforcenotequaltozero.Theimportantquestion
is:Whichframesofreferenceareinertialandwhichonesarenot?Thisalsoraisesthefollowingquestion:Arethereanyinertialframesofreferenceinthis
universe?
Newtonpostulatedthatinertialframesofreferencedoexist.Thisstatement,coupledwiththedefinitionofinertialframesofreference,maybeconsidereda
moreproperwaytostateNewton's1stlaw.
Onlyanexperimentcanestablishwhetheraparticularframeofreferenceisinertial(or,tobeprecise,"inertialenough"forthepurposesneeded).Letusgo
backtothecarexample.Theframeofreferenceattachedtotheground,wewouldusuallysay,isinertial.Thatis,ifwegetanobjectandmakesurethatall
mostproblemsthatwewillbesolving,theframeofreferenceoftheearthwillbeconsideredaninertialframeofreference.Forallpracticalpurposes,this
meansthatNewton's2ndlawwillworkinit.
However,itisinstructivetounderstandthattheearthprovidesareferenceframethatislessthan"perfectlyinertial."Anobserveronthesun,forinstance,
wouldnoticethattheobjectinquestiondoes,infact,haveanacceleration:thecentripetalaccelerationassociatedwiththeorbitalmotionoftheearth
aroundthesun!Thebestinertialframeofreferenceistheoneassoicatedwithdistantstarsandanyotherframeofreferencethatismovingataconstant
velocityrelativetodistantstars.
TheconceptualquestionsthatfollowshouldhelpyoulearntoapplyNewton's1stand2ndlawsproperly.Notethat,throughoutthisproblem,wewillassume
thattheframeofreferenceassociatedwiththeearthisperfectlyinertial.

PartA
Whichobjectprovidesaninertialframeofreference?
thetipofthemovingsecondhandofaclock
arockthrownverticallyupward
apendulumswingingwithnoairresistance

Correct
Assumingthattheearthprovidesaninertialframeofreference,anobjectmovingataconstantvelocityrelativetotheearthwouldalsoprovidean
inertialframeofreference.

PartB
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Checkallthatapply.
Theelevatorisaninertialframeofreference.
Theelevatorisnotaninertialframeofreference.
Theelevatormaybeatrestforthedurationoftheentireexperiment.
Theelevatormaybemovingataconstantvelocityupward.
Theelevatormaybemovingataconstantvelocitydownward.
Theelevatormustbeaccelerating.

Correct

PartC
Checkallthatapply.
Theelevatorisaninertialframeofreference.
Theelevatorisnotaninertialframeofreference.
Theelevatormaybeatrest.
Theelevatormaybemovingataconstantvelocityupward.
Theelevatormaybemovingataconstantvelocitydownward.
Theelevatormaybeaccelerating.
Theelevatormustbeaccelerating.

Correct

PartD

swinging,andthestringisobservedtomakeaconstantangleof45 withthehorizontal.Noforcesotherthantensionandgravityareactingonthe
Checkallthatapply.
Thetrainisaninertialframeofreference.
Thetrainisnotaninertialframeofreference.
Thetrainmaybeinstantaneouslyatrest.
Thetrainmaybemovingataconstantspeedinastraightline.
Thetrainmaybemovingataconstantspeedinacircle.
Thetrainmustbespeedingup.
Thetrainmustbeslowingdown.
Thetrainmustbeaccelerating.

Correct
restrelativetothetraincar.Therefore,thecarisnotaninertialframeofreference.Itmustbeacceleratingrelativetotheearth,althoughitisnot
clearexactlyhow.
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PartE
Considerthetraincardescribedinthepreviouspart.Anotherexperimentisconductedinit:Anetforceof20
Canyoudeterminetheaccelerationoftheobjectwithrespecttothetrain,and,ifso,whatisitsvalue?

isappliedtoanobjectofmass5

kg

Yes0.25
Yes4.0

m/s

m/s

Yes100

m/s

Nothereisnotenoughinformation.

Correct

Thetraincarisnotaninertialframeofreference,soF net

wouldnotworkhere.

= ma

PartF

m/s

.Whatisthenetforceactingonthecar?

0 N

10000 N

17320 N

20000 N

Correct
Thecarhaszeroaccelerationtherefore,itexperienceszeronetforce.AccordingtoNewton's1stlaw,nonetforceisrequiredtomaintaina
constantvelocity(inaninertialframeofreference,ofcourse).Thecarhasaconstantveclocityrelativetotheearththerefore,thecarisalsoan
inertialframeofreference.

PartG

m/s

car

CarAexperiencesgreaternetforcethancarB.
CarBexperiencesgreaternetforcethancarA.
Bothcarsexperienceequalnetforces.

Correct
Eachcarhaszeroaccelerationtherefore,thenetforceoneachcar,accordingtoNewton's1stlaw,iszero.

PartH
Inaninertialframeofreference,aseriesofexperimentsisconducted.Ineachexperiment,twoorthreeforcesareappliedtoanobject.The
magnitudesoftheseforcesaregiven.Nootherforcesareactingontheobject.Inwhichcasesmaytheobjectpossiblyremainatrest?
Theforcesappliedareasfollows:

Checkallthatapply.

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Hint1.Usingthenetforce
Inaninertialframeofreference,thestateofrestisonlypossiblewhenthenetforceactingontheobjectiszero.Inwhichcasescantheforces
2N2N
200N200N
200N201N
2N2N4N
2N2N2N
2N2N3N
2N2N5N
200N200N5N

Correct

PartI
Inaninertialframeofreference,aseriesofexperimentsisconducted.Ineachexperiment,twoorthreeforcesareappliedtoanobject.The
magnitudesoftheseforcesaregiven.Nootherforcesareactingontheobject.Inwhichcasesmaytheobjectpossiblymoveataconstantvelocityof
256 m/s ?
Theforcesappliedareasfollows:

Checkallthatapply.

Hint1.Usingthenetforce
Inaninertialframeofreference,movingataconstantvelocityisonlypossiblewhenthenetforceactingontheobjectizzero.
2N2N
200N200N
200N201N
2N2N4N
2N2N2N
2N2N3N
2N2N5N
200N200N5N

Correct
Youshouldhavenoticedthatthesetsofforcesappliedtotheobjectarethesameastheonesintheprevousquestion.Newton's1stlaw(andthe
2ndlaw,too)makesnodistinctionbetweenthestateofrestandthestateofmovingataconstantvelocity(evenahighvelocity).Inbothcases,
thenetforceappliedtotheobjectmustequalzero.
Althoughsomeofthequestionsinthisproblemmayhaveseemedtrickyandunfair,thesubtletieshereareimportantinimprovingconceptual
understanding.Thatunderstanding,inturn,willenableyoutocorrectlysolvecomplexcomputationalproblemsusingNewton'slaws.

PhETTutorial:Forcesin1D
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandtherelationshipbetweenappliedforce,netforce,acceleration,andmassfor1dimensionalmotion.
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Forthisproblem,usethePhETsimulationForcesin1DMotion.Thissimulationallowsyoutopushondifferentobjectswithacertainhorizontalforceand
seetheresultingmotion.Youcancontrolthemassoftheobjectanditscoefficientoffriction.Whiletheobjectisbeingpushed,youcanseegraphs
showingtheforce,velocity,acceleration,and/orpositionasafunctionoftime.

sideofthewindow,andyoucanalsoturnfrictionofforon.
Feelfreetoplayaroundwiththesimulation.Whenyouaredone,clickClearandturnofffrictionpriortobeginningPartA.

PartA
Choosethe200kg filecabinet.Settheappliedforceto400N(totheright).Besurefrictionisturnedoff.
Whatisthenetforceactingonthefilecabinet?
Themagnitudeofthenetforceisgreaterthan400
Themagnitudeofthenetforceislessthan400

,directedupwardandtotheright.

,directedtotheright.

Thenetforceiszero.
Themagnitudeofthenetforceis400

,directedtotheright.

Themagnitudeofthenetforceisgreaterthan400

,directeddownwardandtotheright.

Correct
Sincethereisnofriction,theonlyhorizontalforceisduetotheappliedforce.Thenormalforce(directedupward)andtheforceofgravity(directed
downward)exactlycancelout.Thisisshowninthefreebodydiagram.

PartB
Whataretheaccelerationa andvelocityv ofthefilecabinet4s afterthepersonbeginspushingonitwithaforceof400N?
a = 0.5 m/s
a = 2 m/s

, v = 8 m/s

, v = 8 m/s

a = 400 N, v = 4 m/s

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Correct
ApplyingNewtons2ndlaw,a = Fnet /m = (400 N)/(200
velocityisgivenbyv = at = (2 m/s 2 )(4 s) = 8 m/s.

kg) = 2 m/s

.Theaccelerationisconstant,andsinceitstartsfromrest,the

PartC
Ifthemassofthefilecabinetisincreasedbyafactorofthree(withtheappliedforceheldconstant),whathappenstotheacceleration?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
occurredwiththeoriginalmass.
Theaccelerationdoesnotchangesincetheforcedoesntchange.
Theaccelerationincreasesbyafactorofthree.
Theaccelerationdecreasesbyafactorofthree.

Correct
SinceFnet

,theaccelerationisinverselyproportionaltothemass.

= ma

PartD
appliedforceofzeroandpressreturnorenter.Theappliedforceinthegraphshoulddroptozero,andthepersonshouldbestandingstill.What
happenstotheobjectaftertheappliedforcegoestozero?
Theobjectcomestorestalmostinstantaneously.
Theobjectmovesataconstantspeedforawhileandthenslowsdownandeventuallycomestorest.
Theobjectslowsdownandeventuallystopsmoving.
Theobjectsaccelerationbecomeszero,anditsvelocityremainsconstant.

Correct
Becausethefrictionisturnedoff,therearenohorizontalforcesactingontheobjectiftheappliedforceissettozero.Thismeansthatthe
accelerationmustbezero,causingthevelocitytoremainconstant.Thefilecabinetneverslowsdownorstops!

PartE
velocityis

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
LookattheVelocityvs.Timegraphduringthetimeintervalwhentheappliedforceisdecreasing.

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constant.
decreasing.
increasing.

Correct
Eventhoughtheaccelerationisdecreasingastheappliedforceisdecreasing,theaccelerationisstillpositive,sothevelocitymuststillbe
increasing.Asmalleraccelerationcausestherateofchangeofthevelocitytodecrease.YoushouldseethisintheVelocityvs.Timegraphas
theaccelerationgoesdown,theslopeoftheVelocityvs.Timegraphdecreases.

PartF
Whatistheminimumforcethatmustbeexertedonthefilecabinetsothatthecabinetaccelerates?
Alittlelessthan400N
Alittlelessthan2000N
Roughly0.3N
Anyarbitraryforcegreaterthanzerocausesthecabinettoaccelerate.
Alittlelessthan600N

Correct
Themaximumforceofstaticfrictionisgivenbyf max = mg,where isthecoefficientofstaticfriction,misthemass,andg isthe
accelerationduetogravity.Theforceofstaticfrictionwillbeexactlyequaltotheappliedforceuptothisamount.Iftheappliedforceisgreater
thanthisamount,thecabinetaccelerates.

PartG
Withanappliedforceof600

,theaccelerationis

verysmall(a

<< 1 m/s

since600Nisjustabitstrongerthanthemaximumforceofstaticfriction.

aconstant1m/s .
2

initially1m/s 2 ,andthenitincreasesasthecabinetsspeedincreases.
roughly3

m/s

Correct
ThenetforceonthecabinetisFnet = (600 400)N = 200 N,sotheaccelerationisa
constantintimesincetheforceoffrictiondoesnotdependonthevelocity.

= 200 N/(200 kg) = 1 m/s

.Thisaccelerationis

PartH
Changethecoefficientofkineticfrictionto0.3(from0.2)byclickingMoreControlsandthentypinginthevalueforcoefficientofkineticfriction.How
doestheminimumforcerequiredtoacceleratethecabinetandtheresultingaccelerationforaforceof600Ncomparetothecasewhenthecoefficient
ofkineticfrictionis0.2?

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Theminimumforceisgreater,andtheaccelerationissmaller.
Theminimumforceisgreater,andtheaccelerationisthesame.
Theminimumforceisthesame,andtheaccelerationislarger.
Theminimumforceisthesame,andtheaccelerationissmaller.

Correct
Theminimumforcetoacceleratethecabinetdoesntchangesincethecoefficientofstaticfrictiondidnotchange.Theaccelerationismuch
smallerwhenthecoefficientofkineticfrictionis0.3sincetheforceofkineticfrictionincreases,causingthenetforceonthecabinettodecrease.

PartI
ClicktheClearbutton,andresetthecoefficientofkineticfrictionto0.2forthefilecabinet.Settheappliedforceto600N,andpressGo.Whilethe
cabinetismoving,typeinanappliedforceofzeroandpressreturnafterthecabinethasbeendisplacedroughly8m.Aftertheappliedforceisturned
off,whathappenstothecabinet?
Itslowsdownwithanaccelerationofa

= 2 m/s

Itcontinuesmovingataconstantspeed.
Itslowsdownwithanaccelerationofa

= 0.2 m/s

Correct
Becausethenetforceonthecabinetis Fnet

,theaccelerationisa

= mg

= F net /m = g = 2 m/s

PhETInteractiveSimulations

VideoTutor:BallLeavesCircularTrack

PartA
Considerthevideodemonstrationthatyoujustwatched.Whichofthefollowingchangeswouldmakeitmorelikelyfortheballtohitboththewhitecan
andthegreencan?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
track.
Newtonssecondlawsaysthatanetforceactingontheballwillchangetheballsmotionthatis,itsspeedand/ordirection.Newtonsfirstlaw
saysthat,intheabsenceofanetforce,theballsmotionwontchange.
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Aftertheballleavesthetrack,doesanetforceactonit?Drawafreebodydiagramfortheballifyourenotsure.
Tohitthegreencan,theballmustcontinuefollowingacurvedpath.Whatwouldbeneededtomakethathappen?
Rolltheballslower.
Useaballthatisheavierthantheoriginalball.
Useaballthatislighterthantheoriginalball,butstillheavierthananemptycan.
Rolltheballfaster.
Noneoftheabove

Correct
ByNewtonsfirstlaw,afterithasleftthecirculartrack,theballwilltravelinastraightlineuntilitissubjecttoanonzeronetforce.Thus,theball
canonlyhitthewhitecan,becausethatistheonlycanintheballsstraightlinepath.

Problem6.28
A1400kg steelbeamissupportedbytworopes.

PartA
Whatisthetensioninrope1?
T1

= 9000N

Correct

PartB
Whatisthetensioninrope2?
T2

= 6100N

Correct

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Problem6.39
12cm.

PartA
Whatresistiveforce(assumedtobeconstant)doesthewoodexertonthebullet?
f

= 5700N

Correct

PartB
Howlongdoesittakethebullettocometorestafterenteringthewood?
t

= 6.5104s

Correct

Problem6.42
Sam,whosemassis80kg ,takesoffacrosslevelsnowonhisjetpoweredskis.Theskishaveathrustof250Nandacoefficientofkineticfrictionon
snowof0.1.Unfortunately,theskisrunoutoffuelafteronly11s .

PartA
WhatisSam'stopspeed?
v

= 24

m
s

Correct

PartB
HowfarhasSamtraveledwhenhefinallycoaststoastop?
s

= 426m

Correct

Problem6.34
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Seatbeltsandairbagssavelivesbyreducingtheforcesexertedonthedriverandpassengersinanautomobilecollision.Carsaredesignedwitha
carcrumples.Anoccupantrestrainedbyseatbeltsandairbagsdecelerateswiththecar.Bycontrast,anunrestrainedoccupantkeepsmovingforwardwith
nolossofspeed(Newton'sfirstlaw!)untilhittingthedashboardorwindshield.Theseareunyieldingsurfaces,andtheunfortunateoccupantthen

PartA
andiftheairbagdeploys.
F net

= 8900N

Correct

PartB
Estimatethenetforcethatultimatelystopsthepersonifheorsheisnotrestrainedbyaseatbeltorairbag.
F net

= 1.8106N

Correct

PartC
HowdotheforceinpartAcomparetothepersonsweight?
Fnet
w

= 17

Correct

PartD
HowdotheforceinpartBcomparetothepersonsweight?