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Endless attentiveness is the price of liberty and Industrial Security is one

critical area, which calls for unrelenting attention being bestowed upon. The
fundamental concept of Security Systems or Security Services denotes care or
vigilance or constant watch, but its connotations, applications and dimensions have
undergone perceptible changes with every succeeding technological leap forward.
Several security experts reiterate that security both as a concept and as an activity
is much more than mere watch and ward. Contemporary circumstances have
necessitated a high degree of strategic and tactical operations in the area of
security duties if they are to be truly effective. This is more because of the changes
in the socio-economic and corporate-industrial environment in India and all over the
The growth of world into a work shop on account of industrialization
highlights the need to take utmost precautions and care to safeguard men and
material from all kinds of hazards, losses, and threats, either internal or external or
both, without which the functional pre-requisites would remain without being met.
This fundamental requirement is both biogenic as well as socio genic because the
principle survival of the fittest applies to organizations as it applies to individuals.
Industrial Security may therefore be defined as the state of industrial
undertakings being secure from real or potential dangers to which they are normally
exposed. It aims at securing and protecting the industrial installations from
damages, destruction, mischief, industrial espionage, industrial sabotage,
subversion and all other risks and threats which are capable of endangering the
lives and properties.
. Industrial security depends upon a large number of factors such as the
actual location of the industry, nature and composition of the population, nature
and characteristics of personnel employed in such an industry, influence of labor on
various unions and above all the professional standards of the industrial security
personnel and the types of equipment to press into service to guard against all
seen as well as unseen situations. Industrial Security in its broader context
includes industrial safety. When safety considerations are at a discount, the cost of
negligence is enormous, calamitous and often immeasurable and long lasting,
affecting even the future generations.
. The accident in Chernobyl for example, rocked the entire world. The fire that
broke out in the North Sea Oil Platform and nearer home, the Bhopal has disaster
and large-scale fire accident in the Indian Petrochemicals Limited call for eternal
vigilance. While wide ranging analyses and in-depth studies follow such mishaps at
the national and international level, recurrence of such incidences is an indicator of
how ill-prepared we are in combating or containing such events. Administratively or
economically it is not essential that every type of industry should be accorded the

same type of security coverage. The threat to any industry needs to be identified
and assessed in order to determine the degree and quantum of protection
warranted. This will help devise the security measures that may actually be required
for the industry under consideration. While devising security measures, the twin
principles of need based security and security in depth will have to be born in
The duties of such industrial security service personnel include
physical checking of personnel and property within specified parameters in
accordance with set procedures and organizational methods. The Intelligence wing
is vital and involves highly sensitive areas of operations. It deploys security
personnel in civilian clothes (without prescribed uniform) and focuses on
information gathering, intelligence activities, and uses subtle and covert methods
involving flexible procedures.

Why Industrial Safety is so important?
Industrial Security is used to protect industrial machines and plants
unauthorized access, sabotage, espionage and malicious manipulation.
Possible consequences of security incidents:

Loss of system availability

Impairment of system performance
Manipulation or loss of data
Loss of production control
Environmental disaster
Risk of death and serious injury
Damage to company image
Financial loss

Industrial Security vs. Office Security

There are different requirements in office and production environments,


Requirements that a Security Solution Must Meet in an Industrial Context

24/7/365 availability has top priority

Open standards for seamless communication and functionality
Common standards, e.g. Microsoft Software as base for automation solutions
Constant operability and assured system access
System performance
Protection against maloperations and sabotage
Know-how protection
System and data integrity
Continuous communication between office and production systems for realtime monitoring and controlling
Data transfer in real time for efficient production processes
Support throughout the lifecycle of a plant
Security trail and change management

Fundamental Industrial Security Level

Plant Security

Access blocked for unauthorized persons

Physical prevention of access to critical components

Network Security

Controlled interfaces between office and plant network e.g. via firewalls
Further segmentation of plant network

System Integrity

Antivirus and whitelisting software

Maintenance and update processes
User authentication for plant or machine operators
Integrated access protection mechanisms in automation components

Security Management Process

Security Management forms a major part of any Industrial Security concept
whereas the definition of Security measures depending on hazards and risks
identified in the plant. In line with this, attaining and maintaining the necessary
Security Level calls for a rigorous
Security Management process with:

Risk analysis including definition of

reducing the risk to an acceptable
technical measures
Regular / event-driven repetition

There is a need for manufacturers, system integrators and operators to take

account of Industrial Security where products, systems and processes must meet
applicable duty-of-care requirements, based on laws, standards, internal guidelines
and the state of the art

Risk analysis is the first step to determine security measures
The risk analysis is an important precondition for Security Management
relating to a plant or machine, aimed at identifying and assessing individual hazards
and risks.
Typical content of a risk analysis:

Identification of threatened objects

Analysis of value and damage potential
Threat and weak points analysis

Identification of existing security measures

Risk assessment

The identified and unacceptable risks must, by way of suitable measures, be

ruled out or typically reduced. Which risks are ultimately acceptable can only be
specified individually for the application concerned. However, neither a single
measure nor a combination of measures can guarantee 100% security.

Overview of Security Measures

1. Plant Security
Security organization and policies
Physical security
2. Network security
Network segmentation & DMZ
Firewalls and VPN
3. System integrity
Access protection
System hardening
Patch management
Malware protection