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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
LEMBAR PENGESAHAN.....................................................................

ii

KATA PENGANTAR...............................................................................

iii

DAFTAR ISI.............................................................................................

iv

DAFTAR GAMBAR................................................................................

vi

DAFTAR TABEL.....................................................................................

vii

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN............................................................................

viii

BAB I

PENDAHULUAN
1.1

Latar Belakang...................................................................

1.2

Tujuan Penelitian...............................................................

1.3

Hipotesis.............................................................................

BAB II

TINJAUAN PUSTAKA
2.1 Tanaman Anting-anting (Acalypha indica Linn.)..............

2.1.1

Deksripsi Tanaman ..................................................

2.1.2

Kandungan Kimia dan Efek Farmakologik .............

2.2 Ekstraksi.............................................................................

2.2.1

Pengertian Ekstraksi.................................................

2.3 Radikal Bebas....................................................................

2.4 Antioksidan........................................................................

2.5 Penentuan Aktivitas Antioksidan Dengan Metode


DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil)....................................

2.6 Polifenol ............................................................................

2.7 Uji Toksisitas Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test


(BSLT) ...............................................................................

2.8 Spektrofotometri UV-Vis...................................................

2.8.1 Tinjauan Umum Spektrofotometri............................

2.8.2 Hukum Lambert-Beer...............................................

11

2.8.3 Jenis Spektrofotometer UV-Vis.................................

11

BAB III BAHAN DAN METODE


3.1 Waktu dan Tempat Penelitian.............................................

12

3.2 Bahan dan Alat...................................................................

12

3.2.1 Bahan........................................................................

12

3.2.2 Alat............................................................................

12

3.3 Metode Penelitian..............................................................

12

3.3.1

Pengumpulan Bahan Penelitian................................

3.3.2

Pembuatan Simplisia Daun Anting-anting...............

3.3.3

Penetapan Kadar Air, Kadar Abu Simplisia dan


Kadar Air Ekstrak Daun Anting-anting....................

13

3.3.4

Pembuatan Ekstrak Daun Anting-anting..................

14

3.3.5

Penapisan Fitokimia Ekstrak....................................

3.3.6

Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Metode BSLT....................... 17


3.3.6.1 Penetasan Telur Artemia salina Leach ......

3.3.7

12
13

15
17

3.3.6.2 Pengujian Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol daun


Anting-anting .............................................

17

3.3.6.3 Analisis Data .............................................

18

Penentuan Kadar Polifenol.......................................

19

3.3.7.1 Pembuatan Larutan Pereaksi...................... 19


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3.3.7.2 Penentuan Panjang Gelombang
Maksimum Biru Prusi................................ 19
3.3.7.3 Optimasi Waktu Inkubasi........................... 20
3.3.7.4 Pembuatan Kurva Kalibrasi Larutan
Standar Asam Galat.................................... 20

3.3.7.5 Pembuatan Larutan Uji............................... 21


3.3.7.6 Penetapan Kadar Polifenol Dengan
Metode Biru Prusi...................................... 21
....................................................................
3.3.8

Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Metode DPPH.................

22

3.3.8.1 Penetapan Panjang Gelombang


Maksimum.................................................. 22
3.3.8.2 Optimasi Waktu Inkubasi DPPH................ 22
3.3.8.3 Pembuatan larutan...................................... 22
3.3.8.4 Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan........................... 23
3.3.9 Korelasi dan Regresi................................................. 24
BAB IV HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN
4.1 Hasil Pengumpulan Bahan Penelitian................................. 25
4.2 Hasil Determinasi Tanaman................................................. 25
4.3 Hasil Pembuatan Simplisia Daun Anting-anting................. 25
4.4 Hasil Penetapan Kadar Air.................................................. 26
4.4.1 Hasil Penetapan Kadar Air.......................................... 26
4.4.2 Hasil Penetapan Kadar Abu........................................ 26
4.4.3 Hasil Penetapan Kadar Air Ekstrak............................ 27
4.5 Hasil Pembuatan Ekstrak Etanol daun Anting-anting......... 27
4.6 Hasil Uji Fitokimia.............................................................. 29
4.7 Hasil Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol daun Anting-anting
Metode BSLT (Brine Shrimp Lethaly Test)......................... 33
4.8 Hasil Penetapan Kadar Polifenol Metode Biru Prusi.......... 34
4.9 Hasil Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Metode DPPH.................. 35
4.10 Hasil Analisis Data.............................................................. 37
4.10.1 Korelasi..................................................................... 37
4.10.2 Regresi...................................................................... 38
BAB V KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN................................................... 41
5.1 Kesimpulan........................................................................... 41
5.2 Saran..................................................................................... 41
DAFTAR PUSTAKA...............................................................................

42

LAMPIRAN.............................................................................................

45

DAFTAR GAMBAR

Gambar

Halaman

1. Daun Anting-anting (Acalypha indica Linn)................................

2. Mekanisme Reaksi antara DPPH dengan atom H netral yang


berasal dari Antioksidan...............................................................
3. Struktur Polifenol.........................................................................

7
8

4. Ekstrak Etanol daun Anting-anting...............................................

28

5. Mekanisme Reaksi Uji Mayer......................................................

30

6. Mekanisme Reaksi Uji Wagner....................................................

31

7. Mekanisme Reaksi Hidrolisis Bismut..........................................

31

8. Mekanisme Reaksi Uji Dragendorff.............................................

31

9. Mekanisme Reaksi Uji Flavonoid................................................

32

10. Mekanisme Reaksi Uji Saponin...................................................

32

DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel

Halaman

1. Tingkat Keaktifan Aktivitas Antioksidan...................................................................

2. Tingkat NilaiToksisitas LC50...........................................................

3. Daerah Spektrum Elektromagnetik.................................................

10

4. Data Kadar Air Simplisia................................................................

26

5. Hasil Penetapan Kadar Air Ekstrak.................................................

27

6. Hasil Rendemen Ekstrak .................................................................

28

7. Hasil Uji Fitokimia.........................................................................

29

8. Hasil Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol 50%, 70% dan 96% daun
Anting-anting (Acalypha indica Linn)............................................

33

9. Hasil Penetapan Kadar Polifenol....................................................

35

10. Hasil % Inhibisi...............................................................................

36

11. Hasil Nilai IC50 (ppm).....................................................................

37

12. Hasil Korelasi Kadar Polifenol dengan Aktivitas Antioksidan.......

37

13. Hasil Regresi Sederhana kadar Polifenol dengan Aktivitas...........


Antioksidan

38

14. Interval Kategori Kekuatan Hubungan Korelasi ............................


39DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

Lampiran

Halaman

1. Skema Umum Penelitian.........

46

2. Hasil Determinasi Tanaman................................................................. 47


3. Hasil Perhitungan Rendemen Simplisia..........................................

48

4. Hasil Perhitungan Kadar Air, Kadar Abu dan Kadar Air Ekstrak...

49

5. Hasil Perhitungan Rendemen Ekstrak............................................

51

6. Hasil Perhitungan Larutan Induk 5000 ppm dan Larutan Uji 1000,
800, 600, 400, 200, 100, dan 50 ppm..............................................

53

7. Hasil Uji Toksisitas Metode BSLT.................................................

55

8. Hasil Perhitungan Nilai LC50 (Probit Analysis Methode)...............

56

9. Hasil Perhitungan larutan Pereaksi.................................................

65

10. Hasil Perhitungan Larutan Standar Asam Galat.............................

66

11. Panjang Gelombang Maksimum Biru Prusi....................................

67

12. Optimasi Waktu Inkubasi Asam Galat............................................

68

13. Kurva Kalibrasi Asam Galat...........................................................

69

14. Hasil Perhitungan Kadar Polifenol..................................................

70

15. Panjang Gelombang Maksimum DPPH..........................................

73

16. Optimasi Waktu Inkubasi DPPH....................................................

74

17. Hasil Perhitungan Aktivitas Antioksidan.......................................

75

18. Gambar Alat dan Hasil Penelitian..................................................

79

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