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The Heart


Increased Size
Muscular Wall -- increased in thickness
-- specifically in left ventricle

-- providing a more powerful contraction


Stroke Volume (SV)

due to the increased size -- enable the left ventricle to stretch more
-- increases the contractility causing it to increase SV
-- increases the blood supply to the body


Resting Heart Rate (RHR)

due to the increased SV

Increased Cardiac Output
due to increased SV -- during maximal exercise effort

-- resulted to: 1. greater oxygen supply,

2. greater waste removal,
3. improved endurance performance

Increased Blood Pressure (BP)


Congenital Heart Disease

includes abnormalities in cardiovascular structures that occur before
Heart valve defect - narrowing or stenosis of the valves, or a
complete closure that impedes or obstructs forward blood flow.
Defects in the walls between the atria and ventricles of the heart
(atrial and ventricular septal defects) - Holes or passageways
between the hearts different chambers may allow abnormal mixing
of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood between the right and left
sides of the heart.
Heart muscle abnormalities that can lead to heart failure.


is a type of progressive heart disease in which the heart is abnormally
enlarged, thickened, and/or stiffened.
Dilated cardiomyopathy - is a condition in which the heart's ability to
pump blood is decreased because the heart's main pumping chamber, the
left ventricle, is enlarged and weakened.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - thickening of the heart muscle. This
leads to stiffening of the walls of the heart and abnormal aortic and mitral
heart valve function, both of which may impede normal blood flow out of
the heart.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy - the rarest form of cardiomyopathy, is a
condition in which the walls of the lower chambers of the heart (the
ventricles) are abnormally rigid and lack the flexibility to expand as the
ventricles fill with blood.


Pericardial Disease
is inflammation of any of the layers of the pericardium.
The pericardium is a thin tissue sac that surrounds the heart and consists
- Visceral pericardium -- an inner layer that envelopes the entire heart
- A middle fluid layer to prevent friction between the visceral
pericardium and parietal pericardium
- Parietal pericardium -- an outer layer made of fibrous tissue

Constrictive Pericarditis - occurs when the pericardium

becomes thickened and scarred. This can make it difficult for the
heart to expand with blood.