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Prinsip Kerja

Timbangan
Yusuf Umardani

Metrologi dan
Instrume
ntasi
UGM

Timbangan/Neraca/Balance/Scale
1
Adalah istrumen untuk mengukur massa atau berat
sebuah benda.
1

Asal katabalance, diturunkan dari bahasa Latin bilanx


(having two pans), kadang-kadang juga disebut dengan
scale atau scales (Old English, meaning dishes or
plates).

Dalam perkembangannya, balance dibedakan dari


scale karena balance adalah untuk timbangan
yang lebih presisi daripada scale, dengan rentang
antara mikro-gram hingga beberapa kiligram.

Sejarah timbangan

Teknologi timbangan
1.
2.
3.

Mechanical balance
timbangan mekanik
Strain gauge and load cell based balance
Electromagnetic force based balance

Mechanical
balances

Mechanical balance principle

Strain gauge

Strain
adalah besarnya
deformasi
sebuah benda pada akibat
diterapkannya
Jikafraksi
mengacu
pada dari
gambar
() didefiniskan gaya.
sebagai
perubahan
panjang berikut, secara khusus strain

RA
l
A

l
Strain
gauge
(tampak
dari atas)

Teknologi strain gauge


http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/chpt_9/7.html

Jika hambatan
kabel
diperhitungkan

Hambatan strain
gate berubah oleh

beban dan suhu


faktor suhu harus

dikompensasi

Strain gauge
Kompensasi akibat hambatan
kabel

t
e
r
h
u
b
u
n
g
k
e

Tidak ada arus


yang mengalir
lewat kabel 3
karena
hambatan
dalam
voltmeter
sangat tinggi,
Voltmeter
langsung

t
e
r
m
i
n
a
l

Kompensa
si suhu

Contoh 2 strain gauge


Kompensasi suhu dan hasil pengukuran lebih
baik

4 strain gauge:
Konfigurasi paling baik
R1 R 2

R3 R 4

Persamaannya: V Vs

R2

RR

12

R4

RR
34

Contoh instalasi 4 strain gauge


http://www.rdpe.com/ex/hiw-sglc.htm

Contoh instalasi 4 strain gauge


http://www.rdpe.com/ex/hiw-sglc.htm

Load Cells
http://www.ishida.com/technologies/lo
adcell/

Timbangan untuk
beban yang
besar (ton),
biasanya
menggunakan
load cell

Load Cells:
Spring element configuration
1
The spring element becomes
slightly distorted when a weight is
applied.

2
When
looking
at the movement
of
the
spring
element,
we can
recognize a general parallelogram
configuration,
indicating
the
phenomenon
of
the
Roberval
mechanism.

In addition, the elastic area of


aluminum alloy is used for the bridge,
indicating that Hookes law is satisfied.

Load Cells:
1
Principal of the load cell
Let's look, once again, at the motion of the spring element.
2

3When a weight is applied, which portions of the bridge become distorted?


4
5

Distortion appears to be greatest at the four thinnest points.

When needles are positioned at these thinner points, they indicate that
tension bears upon certain points while other points experience compression.
The weight applied to the load cell can be measured by the degree of distortion.

Load Cells: Strain gauge


1

The strain gauge is used to detect such distortion. A


fine resistance wire is printed in zig-zag pattern on a small
chip.

Distortion in the direction indicated by the arrow, that is,


variation in tension and compression is detected as a change
in electrical resistance.

Load Cells: Strain gauge


1

Let's examine how the strain


gauge varies according to
elastic deformation.

2
3
4

The becomes
wire on the
strainand
gauge
thinner
longer
when
pulled,
while
it
becomes
thicker
and
shorter
when compressed.
When it becomes thinner and
longer, the resistance increases.
While the wire becomes thicker
and shirter, the resistance
decreases.

1
2

Load Cells: Strain gauge


This is just like water flowing through a tube.

If the tube is stretched, it becomes thinner and longer, making water flow more
difficult. If the tube is returned to the original position, water flows easily.

The strain gauge therefore shows increased resistance when stretched. On


the other hand, the gauge shows a small resistance when compressed.

Electromagnetic theory
1

The interactive force (F) between a magnetic field and a current-carrying


conductor (at a right angle to each other) is determined by the equation below,

F ilB B nl
whereby I represents the current, l is the total length of coil
wire, and B is the magnetic flux density in the air gap.
1

The force F points in the third direction in space, that is, perpendicular to the
directions of current and magnetic field.

Electromagnetic Force-balance
1

This isbeam
the configuration
of force-balance
sensor.
Weighing
balances without
product on scale
pan.

2
The weighing beam starts to incline when the weight is
applied on scale pan.
3 The
photo sensor detects the minute incline
immediately.

Electromagnetic Forcebalance
1

The controller increases the current to


electromagnetic coil in order to balance the weighing
beam based on the detection result of photo sensor.

Electromagnetic Forcebalance
1

change
current
is directly
proportional
to the
change
ofThis
weight,
thisof
current
change
can be
used as weight
signal.

The force-balance sensor does not detect physical change but change
of current directly, it can achieve accurate and high-speed weighing.

Electromechanical force balance


compensation
principle. The output
voltage is
proportionate to the
weight on the pan.

Fig. 7 Diagram of the


electromagnetic force

Electromagnetic force
balance

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