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A MANJAKOGRAMMAR

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE


TO THE NOMINAL GROUP

Thesis
for

submitted
degree
Doctor
the

of

of

the
of

Philosophy

University-of

London

by

Jan Karlik

Department

of Phonetics

School

Oriental

of

and Linguistics

and African
1972

Studies

Text cut off in original

Abstract.

The purpose of this

thesis

is

description

of

highlighting

the Nominal Group.

to present

the Manjako language

a grammatical

of Portuguese

Chapter

1 gives a brief general introduction


their language, land and culture,
and reviews
It outlines
the-theoretical
previous research.
description

and gives

orthography used.
Chapter 3 is devoted

to the Manjakos,
the results

a summary of the principal

the purpose of analysis.


Chapter 2 briefly
outlines

the phonology

Guinea,

basis
texts

of

of the
used for

of Manjako and the

to the Nominal, Group, its

Structure

and

Function.
and 6 describe the Sentence and String,
the
Clause, and the Verbal and Adverbial
Groups respectively,
thus
providing
a background, to the function
of the Nominal Group.
Chapters

4,5,

Chapter

7 deals with the Units at a Sub-rank to the Nominal


Group, the Numeral Phrase and the Demonstrative Phrase.
Chapters

8,9,

and 10 examine the constituents


of the Nominal. 7..
Group (and of other Units) at the Word Rank, the-Stem-Sub-rank,
and the Morpheme Rank respectively.
The texts
included

most frequently

drawnupon for, illustration

in the Appendix infull.

been found marginally-useful


an abridged form.

for

Certain
reference

texts

are,

which, have,
are included in

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
I wish to express my thanks to many members of the staff
of the
Department oX Phonetics
at the School of Oriental
and Linguistics
University
Studies,
of London, for their instruction
and African
in classes

and inspiration

to acknowledge my gratitude
his advice and constructive

outside

classes.

to my, supervisor,

In particular
Mr. J. Kelly,

I wish
for

criticism.

in linguistics
I am indebted to the Summer
For my initial
training
both the Australian
Institute
branof Linguistics,
and the British
Studies was
at the School of Oriental
ches. My training
and African
made possible by a Governing Body Award, and subsequent research in
in March and April 3.971 was facilitated
by a grant
from the Central Research Fund of the University
of London. I am
to Dr. C. Day and Mr. A. Shaw of the University
College
grateful

Dakar,

Senegal,

Computer Centre for

preparing

formation

from the textsp

Dakar for

his

programmes for

the retrieval

of in-

and to M. Galpin of the University


of
help in laboratory
work undertaken on the sounds of

Manjako.
I owe much to many Manjako friends who have helped me to learn
their languagel especially
to Ouep Mendy who has been my informant
and companion over much of the last seven years.
Much of the thesis has been typed by Mrs. K. Sparks whom I wish
I am grateful
to thank for her cheerfulness
and efficiency.
also
to Eversheds Ltd. of St. Albans who arranged for the photo-copying.
The thesis has been completed through the help of
checking and
who has spent long hours proof-reading,
I am indebted to her for many suggestions and ideas,
correcting.

my wife

the thesis and throughout she has played the


within
Together we give thanks to
part of a gentle "nagging conscience".
Almighty God for the strength He has granted,
incorporated

CONTENTS

A detailed

list

of contents

is

included

at the beginning

of each chaptei

ZM:
Chapter

1.1

Background

1.2

The basis

Chapter

8
of

A Phonological

2.2

Orthogr9phy
3

the

present

description

and Orthograph

Phonology

2.1

Chapter

Introduction

Outline

The Nominal

30
31
41

Grou

43

3-1

Struoture

45

3.2

Function

57

3.3

Nominal Concord

3.4

The Nominal Group. Complex

59
62

Chapter 4

The Sentence'

66

4-1

Structure

68

4-

Function

80

4.3

The String

85

Chater

The Clause

88

5.1

Structure

95

5.2

Hood and Theme

106

5.3

Transitivity

123

5-4

Punction

147

Chapter

The Verbal

6.1

Verbal

6.2

Adverbial

and Adverbial

Groups

Group

154
155
177

Group

Chapter

The Phrases

7.1

The Numeral

7.2

The Digit

7-3

Concord

7-4

The Demonstrative

Chapter

Phrase
Phrase

The Words

8.1

The Verbs

8.2

The Nominals

8-3

The

8-4

The Particles

Quasi-nominals

The Stem

9,

Chapter
9.1

Structure

9.2

Function

Chapter

10

Phrase

The Morphemes

10.1

The, Roots

10.2

The Derivational,

10.3

The Pronoun

10.4

The Inflexional

Affixes

Suffixes
Affixes

Conclusion
The Texts
Bibliograplxy

CHAPTER 1.

INTRODUCTION

ontents

page i
7

Map
Background

The Manjakos

1.2

The Manjako

Previous
The basis

land

language

and culture

Reseaxch
of

Theoretical

The Texts

The Manjako

and their

the

present

basis

8
10
13

desoription

16
16'
24

Story

28

CASAMANCE
Key:

Ceograhical

names, e. g. CHULAME

jfain Chieftaincies;
Tribes,
other
.

LtO

BACHUKI

e. g.

'e. g. Balckis
BALACH

BABOIANA

Jr
00,
o

3A

13 0LEBA

L-A CH

Balundo

Babok

KA

'-,,2Ag UJSDSE

A7

-Bayo4,
--,

ESSAU

7
16

1(1)
CHAPTER 1.
1.1.

SECTION 1.
The ManjakoE

:1

The Manjako

language

greater

number

Guinea

between

the
called

The language

is

called

is

spoken

lower

115,000

by about
in

resident

the

Portuguese

North-we'st

the

of

reaches

Manjakos,

Cacheu and

rivers

Geba).
in

several

dialects.

by the

largest

number

spoken

one spoken

language

and their

of whom are

Mansoa (also

and the

Backgrund

Baboque by the Portuguese.

around the administrative


township which is called

oentre
Teixeira

The most
of Manjakosq

This dialect

is

prestigious,
is

uBok,

spoken in and

of the land of the Manjakos,


Pinto

KanchungO by the Manjakos themselves.

by the Portuguese
Other principal

and

dialects

Bassarel
are those spoken around the principal
ohieftaincies:
(dialect
spoken: uXaam)p Churo (uChur), Pelundo (uLund),
(ujinjasa),
Calequisse (uLekis)p
Cajinjassa
Canhobe, (uNh6p)
Beniche (uNich),
Cai6 (u.Y8), Jets, (uTer), Pecixe (uLil),
Biangga

(u.Yangga),

Bara. (uRa),

Capual (uPuel).

The speakers of
these "lesser"
dialects
maintain that they are able to understand
the Baboque dialect
without difficulty,
as well as the dialects
spoken
in surrounding areasq but they find it difficult
to communicate with

members of more distant


isolated.
are relatively

if those areas
especially
So for example uLill
a dialect
spoken on
the island of Pecixeo although understood by the speakers of other
from neighbouring
dialects
areaso is not understood by the speakers
dialectal

groupsv

Churo.
distant
from
such
dialects
as
areasq
more
of
differences
In spite of these dialectal
and political
organization
(29
in number) rather than on some,
local
based on
chieftaincies
their
Manjakos
the
aware
of
common
are
well
central authority,
have been for

some time,

for

the
membership, and apparently
the
known
'Uanjacoll
name
as
early
as
a
supra-dialectal
as
was
name
the
Bulletin_
Bocand4
Bertrand
last
the
writes'in
century.
middle of
(1849)
XII
in an
Paris,
3e
de
s4rieq
de la SociA4 do G6ographie
tribal

1(1)
axticle

"De la langue de la Guin6 Portugaisell:

entitleh

"On les

tenue dans la
Manjacosq parce-que dans la conversation
langue de leur pays, ils r4p4tent
souventle mot Manjaco, qui
Idites donc, ' ou: 'je vous dis. 111S. W. Koelle quotes the
signifie:
(1854),
Mands&ko
in
his
Africans,
in the introductions
Polyglotta
name
0
(I.
his
he
the
Saxar
in
Word
List
Kanyop
B. 2
although
uses
names
and
and I. B-4).
appelle

According

to Fernando

Cultural

da Guin6

Manjaco

goes back

us the

information

tribe

Rogado Quintinho

Portugues
to

the

that

24 (1969)9

("Os

Povos

861)

the

da Guin6":
use of

18th

Century.

The same author

earlier

the

were

Manjakos

the
also

considered

Boletim
name
gives
to be

together

with the Papels and the Mancanhas, to whom


a collective
The name Br9me is still
name "Buramos" was given.
used
as an alternative
name for the Mancanhas.
According to Koellets
the Manjako language is one of
classification,
the North-West Atlantic
Group of languages.
The affinity
of Manjako
with two other languages of that Sub-group is indubitablet
the
a single

between the languages Manjakop Papel


and Mancanha may
be clearly
shown by lexical
What is
comparison of these languages.
not so clear is the relationship
of these three languages with other
languages of the North-West Atlantic
Group. When we study Koelle's
similarity

word lists,

we observe little

made up of the languages


(Papel), Kanyop (Manjako)"

lexical
similarity
"Bola (so. Mancanha),

between group IB
Sarar (Manjako), Pepel

on one hand, and Groups IA, IC and ID on the


It really
by geographical
other.
seems as if Koelle was influenced
Group"because,
considerations
when he compiled the "North-West Atlantic

lexical
again comparing his Word Lists,
we may establish
a more definite
affinity
of his Group IB with the 0 Group of his Group Kongo Ngola
languages (Group X), or even South-Eastern Languages (Group XI) than
Of course, with no adequate
with the other Sub-groups of Group I.
linguistic
to form a basis for re-classification,
the
evidence available
by
were doubtless influenced
successive generations
of comparativists
(1913;
Koelle's
Migeot
34) gives the grouping
Thus
classification.

.1

Pepel,

(1)

Bola, "Sararl,

6+17
Kanyo'p,
which use
...

and Westermann and Bryan (195f; '15) place Manjako among the West
Languages, in which Group are also e. g. Fulani,
Atlantic
Serer and
Greenberg (1955; 10) repeats Koellets
Wolof.
Sub-group IB with
("Bolaaa,
change

Sarar,

slight
as Koelle

Pepel,

Kanyop")

had grouped it, naming this


Sub-family
of the Ni ger-Congo family

and leaves

it

grouped

Gioup, the West Atlantic

larger

But with the present


in this small group of languages on the extreme
of interest
revival
I am confident
West coast of Africa,
that the linguistic
of
affinity
Manjako will be re-defined
and Manjako (together with Papel and Mancanha)
to
be
addedsome group with which it is more linguistically
will
comthan

patible

tidal

its

which

creeks

mangrove

land

and cultur

the Manjakos
and rivulets,

swamps which

The dry land,

just

immediate

present

The Manjako

2
The land

with

inhabit

eis

surrounded

when reclaimed

neighbours.

flat,

watered

in'their
serve

a few'feet

estuaries

Their

settlements

are small,

is fertile
grass,

by extensive
rice

as excellent

above sea-level,
,
is over-groymwith
not cultivated
vegetation:
The Manjakos build their clay huts near their
plantations.

by numerous

fields.

and where

scrub or jungle.

rice-fields

or ground-nut

of one
consisting
the ments house,
buildings:
usually

compound with three circular


straw-covered
the woments house, and the kitchen-shelter.
Around Cai6I instead of
there are long huts divided into sections.
On the
separate buildings2
island of eta, these enclose a square courtyard to which access is
gained through an elaborate'gateway.
Only in densely forested areas axe there

ever several hoiiseholds


together in one settlement,
living
and then the "village"
may consist
Marriage is virilocal
of perhaps a dozen compounds loosely scattered.

and Dolyeynous, so the household may consist of a man and his wife or
wives, his unmarried children,
and his married sons together with their
(but
and
children
vives
not, of course, married daughters, unless divorced).
However Greenberg 1963; P-8 mentions I'Mandyak" deleting
Sarar and
Kanyop. Homburger 1957; 54 remarks: I'Dans les lles on signale...
le papel, le brame ou mancania, le manjoco, etc. " same as in the
earlier
edition
of 1941.
10

It

is usual

that

their

establish

after

several

years of marriage,

the married

(1)

sons

with
away, where they settle
While they live-together
with the father

own compounds not far

their

wives and children.


authorityp
and his wives in one household, they are under the father's
deathp because,
the father's
and this continues to some extent until
they usually
brother

continue

in economic co-operation.

is his heir,

A man's younger
son as next in

with the younger sister's


The two factors,
succession.
virilocal
marriage and inheritance
by the younger brother,
the unity of the group".
combine to reinforce
brothers.
Marriage
is not permissible
between collaterals
of
reckoning their relationship
within four generations.
What towns there are, have been established
by the Portuguese: Cacheu
(the first
Pinto, the present
capital
of Portuguese Guinea), Teixeira
administrative

centre,

Cai6,

Calequisse

and Pelundo.

of each may be counted in hundreds, consisting


mainly
people, African tradesmen,
or Middle Eastern-busineaB

The population
of Portuguese
and lesser

towna
The Mmjakos who..find employment in'the
officials.
administrative
on the outskirts,
as they prefer to continue with their farming
settle
as well, and they do not mingle much with the rest of the Africanof the townships, who are mostly Mandingo, Fula, or
population
de-tribalized

Creole speakers

these townships
normally
*air

axe within

by all-weather

owing to guerilla

immigrated, from other


twenty miles of Teixeira

roads,

but of late

tribal
Pinto,

areas.

.-All
accessible

only by river-transport

or

activity.

The Manjakos are skilled


farmers.
With a wooden plough as their only
tool they grow a good yearly crop of rice for their staple diet as well
as ground-nuts,

sorghum, millet,
and cassava.
maize, sweet-poiatoes
With a matchet they do the clearing
and when no farming is to be done,
they Go to the jungle to get the few remaining necessities
of lifes
palm-nuts for the extraction
of oil,
palm-branches for roPe-making and
fencing,

and palm-wine

as a part-payment

for

to the, ancestral
or to use
spirits
Such cash as is needed comes'
price.

libations

of the bridal

). l

1(1)
mainly

from the sale of ground-nuts

Most areas are conveniently


is the prerogative
fishing

and palm-nuts.

situated

to fishing

of a few professional

Deep sea
sites.
fishermen who daily

''River fishing,
kinds of fish.
supply the markets with many different
is
Manjakos
and
on the other hand, is the spare time pursuit
of many
in various ways: damming tidal rivulets,
fish-traPs)
building
practised
This
catching the fish in circular
netsq' or even by line-fishing.
helps to supplement their diet for, of their livestockj
chickens I goats'
and pigs are seldom, and cows never, killed
except on ceremonial and
occasions.
ritual
The Manjakos are,

however,

cosmopolitan

in their

It is
outlook.
to go to the Casamance

a part of a young man's education


region of Senegal or to The Gambia for at least a year to do shareAccording to a census taken by
farming there before getting married.
Antonio Carreira on behalf of the administration
of Portuguese Guinea
leave their
in 1960, approxim tely Vo of the total Manjako population
considered

They stay abroad for


homes every year to seek employment elsewhere.
at the end of the harvestq about
one or two rainy seasonal returning
in Teixeira
Decemberv to pay their own and their families'
poll-tax
In recent years more and more of these young men and even women
Pinto.
in
the Casamanoe or in the Gambia, where Manjako
settle
now run in tens of thousands.
minorities
This of course tends to obliterate
in dialect
or
what differences
in outlook there may have been between the various
parochialism
permanently

The Baboque dialect


is becoming more prestigious
speakers.
(manjako
to
is
be
"pure
Manjakoll
coming
and
regarded as
mignx).
NMost
Manjakos follow their traditional
Vaxious trees or
religion.
by demon's to whom petiti'Onersbring
groves are believed to be visited
dialect

their

requests and blood sacrifices


of cows, pigsv goats and chickens.
Libations
are offered at the ancestral
pegs in each compound. Only a
small number of Manjakos axe Christians
or Mohammedans.

12

of illiterates

The percentage
as the estimated
a government

official.

and disciplined
fluent

readers

the first

average

i high,

(1)

perhaps not as high

although

Portuguese

Guinea which was put at 9wo by


Most of the Manjakos emigrating
make strenuous
to acquire the art of reading and many are
for

efforts
of French or English.

It

is

especially

among these that

of Scripture
portions
and of Manjako Reading books.
The books published so far are: Gospel o
have found wide acceptance.
(Scripture
Parables
Mark (duplicated
Lord
Gift Mission),
the
edition),
of
productions

Manjako Fables,

Readers I,

Joln 1-3, a book of writing

II,
aids

III,

Previous

Story, ' Easter

Sto

Gospel of

Let us Write,

the Gospel of Mark to be published


1.1

Christmas

of
and'a revised translation
by the British
and Foreign Bible Society:

Research

Although the name "Mands6koes" appears in Koelle's


Polvf--lotta
Africana
(1854), in his Comparative Vocabulary he gives lexical
items which are
headings: I. B. 2 Sarar and
doubtless Manjako words under two different
The first
I. B-4 Kanyop.
one is a dialect
spoken in the area of
the second one in the area of Canhobe.
the same as in Koelle's.
these two areas are still

Bassarel,

The Manjako names for


time.

seems that nearly a century elapsed before the name Manjako was again
(*).
linguistic
In 1947 a joint work by Ant6nio
in
writing
mentioned
barreira
and Jo5o Basso Marques was published as Monograph No. 3 by the
Centro de Estudos da Guin4 Portuguesa under the name "Subs:rdios para o
It

rnpua
1:
da
manjacall.
estudo

The work abounds in mistakes,

often

quite

ones such as could have been cleared up by asking the informant


So for enwmple, the morphemes of the paradigm "my cat"
a second question.
have been wrongly identified
instead of "undali + inji".
as "undal + injill
Consequently the rest of the Possesive Pronoun paradigm bears the marks

unnecessary

of the cat, the 2nd person being given as --iu, 3rd person as -iul,
while
The "Churo dialect"
the coxTect forms are -u and -ul.
of the same
paradigm has been enriched by the accidental
a4dition
and so
of "this",
The whole is rather
once again the Possessive Pronoun paradigm is faulty.
io
intended
by
the
be, namely "Helps in the
authors
was
Study of the Hanjako Language".
There axe nevertheless
helpful
things
11
Except for the restatements
of Koelle's
work, as mentioned above.
13

less

than it

(1)

found in the 100 pages, most of which are filled


nearly
with vocabularies:
and in the Appendix there is a
all Noun Classes have been identified
"Vocabulary CII which is a Portuguese-Ilanjako
vocabulary
of plants
the popular

distinguishing
Reference

and the botanical

names in Portuguese.

to it,

and to the rest of this work,


phonemes have not been identified,

for

several
/i/.
and

must be made with


/tr/
/g/
namely

caution,
/j/
/wl

Manjako was compared with other local languages in an article


by
Andr4 Wilson on the languages of Portuguese Guinea entitled
"Uma Volta
da Guind" (Boletim Cultural
da Guing Portuguesa 14 (1959), 569 ff, '
lingulatica
towards the knowledge of Manjako has been made
The greatest contribution
in recent times by Monsieur J. L. Doneux. His works are:
(i)

"Llensemble

Manjaku:

Dialectes

ManiBIm, Pepelq Mankarl", which forms


Les systkes
work entitled
phonologiques

(pages
15 to 27) of a larger
part
des langues de Casamance (Centre de Linguistique
Manjako phonology

is

discussed

Appliqu&de

Dakar; 1967)
apel
the phonology of

and compared with

and Mancanha.
(ii)

"Le Ibmjakup

Paxis
form,

Nominales

et

Questions

L'Alternance

sur

in

La classification
dans
a symposium called
nominale
(Centre
National
de la Recherche Scientifique,
africaines;

Consonantique"
lantrues

Classes

n4gro

262 - 274)1 understand


that this
in
article,
Language Review sometime
should appear in the African

1967v

les

a revised
in

the

near

future.
(iii)

"Essai

Comparative
(iv)

Mxjana

which

in

France.

of

the

and Mancanhal

Trifkovic

to

de la

langue

appear

shortly.

du f'ranais

1971),

workers

The analysis
Papel

is

Linguistics,

"Llapprentissage

(CLA, Paris,
Manjako

de reconstruction

other

deals

les

ouvriers

phonological

two languages

has also

analysed

with

par

*manjaku"

in

this

which

manjakus

readjustment

linguistic

is- a study

enTrance"
of

sub-group,

been done recentlys

the phonology

and morphology

of the Mancanha,

in

language
(IFAN,

in
Dakar,

unpublished
also

a book,
1969).
paper,

translated

4tude

"Le Mancagne,
The Papel
1964)

language

and reduced

phonologique

et morphologique",
(in an
has been analysed

to writing
portions

and published'various

by Lily
of

15

(1)

the

Gaynor,
Bible

in

who has
Papel.

CHAPTER 1.
.
1.2

SECTION 2. The basis

Theoretical

:1

the

of

description.

present

Basis

to linguists,
This analysis
of Manjako draws on concepts long familiar
the limits
but does not attempt to remain rigidly
within
of one particla, -t,
It uses those techniques of description
considered mos-L
school or model.
(1949;
Manjako,
Martinet
description
p. 35)t
af.
of
useful in the
should never forget that it is not for a language to meet
the requirements
method, but for the method to adapt
of a descriptive
inspiration
" The greatest
to the whims of linguistic
itself
reality.
and,
description,
been
found
in
the
however,
has
for
this
present
usefulness
(1964
Halliday
listed
in the
M.
A.
K.
and various articles
work of
"Linguists

and the linguistic

i3ibliography),
"Systemic

Grammar".

The
description
,
possible,
in

order

model which has come to be known as

is

written

familiar

using

to make it

training,

in

material

presented.

simply

terms

useful

linguistics

from

traditional

to-missionaries

who are

to

find

only

with

as
appropriate

grammar where

and others

likely

"jargon"

as little

and with

limited

use for

a practical

the

isp
The
that
Syntax
Morphology,
jr,
analysis
concentrates
grammar
and
on
the more restricted
sense of the word as it has been used throughout the
(1971;
6):
Systemic
Grammar,
by
Hudson
tradition
of
recently
a use upheld
"In systemic terminologyj
grammar is the name of the level of language
which includes syntax and morphology, but it does not include either
the
hand,
lexis
the
the
nor
or
semantics
on
other ....
one
an
phonology
to
be
deep
enough
make contact with the
must
account
grammatical
to
deep
both
enough
make contact with the
and
surface
and
phonology,
lexis.

11 This is

the structure

chapter

examples

of

In keeping with
of each item described.
are made from time to time to semantic categories,

this

of

on Phonology

The description
little

in the description

analysis

and function

aim, references
frequent

this

the aim throughout

lexical
is

are

given,

and a separate

short

included.

necessarily

has previously

groupings

attempts

been written

about

to

cover
it,

the whole

but, the

languaget

Nominal

since

Group has

1(2)

is
This
partly
special attention.
boncord
is
the syptem of
and in particular
languages, and partly
tb-students
of African

been selected
struture
interest

for

to be of

because the

in
the
Clause
to
Group
Nominal
the
enters
seem
which
(Chapter
the
thesis
5.
large
A
field
section of
of study.
of transitivity
given over to the description
Roles (using the term as Halliday
the Participant

ther; for

3) is

in Manjako examining
does (e. g. 1970; 146,147))
Clause.

likely

internal

into

-relationships
be a fruitful
Section

because its

The analysis

Utterances

Nominal Groups in the

of the constituent
is based on grammatically

complete utterances.
(although they may be
incomplete
Lyons (1969;
to only occasionally.

which axe grammatically

complete) are referred


contextually
175) says of such utterances
that they are "not to be described directly
by the grammar but by supplementary rules (if such rules can be
established)
which account for the deletion
of contextually-determined
elements

in

discourse

categories

and system,

the work

of

Syntagmatic

linguists,
andthat

school.

incorporated,

used but

Halliday's

other

Tagmemic school,

with

from

recognized

are

following

sometimes

but

sentences

which

the

of

utterances

connected

axe derived",

The four
class

the

of

The three

by Halliday,
with

(1961).

modifications

own later

unit,.

described

structuret
belowo

and sometimes drawing


on
(1966)
that
Pike
K.
especially
of
and the
(1963) and the
J. T. Bendor-Samuel
scales

ebcponence and delicacy

of

work,

the

implicitly

1961 article

axe also
''

and rank'explicitly,

modifications.

Considerable use has beexi'made of Halliday's


concept of "components",
(e. g. "-1969; 85).
He recognizes especially
the interpersonalq
ideational
major "areas of syntactic
and intra-textual
componentsq providing
choice, '
as transitivity,
mood and
which in the English Clause, he has identified
theme. In this analysis
of Manjakop the term Component is used in an
to refer to a number of areas of syntactic
extended'sense
but*also
such areas of gramm
only Mood or Trans'itivityv
or Tense.,,

choice,

not

as-Polarity

30

Unit
"The unit
(Halliday

is

the stretch

of langdage

that

carries

grammatical

patterns"

196,

25). "For each language we recognize a particular


(3.
in
fixed
the
bid.,
27)ranged
order on
rank scale"

units

The Units

identified

for

this

analysis

set of

of Manjako ares

SENTENCE
(STRING)
CLAUSE
GROUP
(PHRASE)
WORD
(STEM),
MORPHEME
Structure
"The category

is the Category

of structure

that

accounts

for

the

of one un:L.t may be made


ways in which an'occ=exfoe
below
the
it
unit
next
occurrences'of
of
up out
(Halliday
19649 28).

various

Each Unit

(except

the Morpheme) may consist


(lineal)
order.

more-or-less

fixed

In this

description,

units

having

of several

the same Structure

Elements in'

axe grouped into

Types each of which is numbered by a Roman numeral.


is made between Surface Structure
by which is meant the
Structure
by which
status and sequence of the Elements, and Constituent
description
Classes
is meant the more detailed
of choices of manifesting
A distinction

of the Nominal Group


the
into the Major or. Minor Types is on the basis of Surface Structure,
being whether or not the Head Element is present.
The Major
criterion
into sub-types on the basis of
Nominal Group is further
sub-divided
for

the Elements.

For instance,

the first

division

Class e. g. Noun or
on which particular
Pronoun, manifests
the Head Elementl which in turn influences
the
Elements.
Thus Surface
of the optional
possibility
of co-occurrence
Constituent

Structure,

The String,

depending

Phrase and Stem do not have full

status

as Units.

1 '(2)

Structure
relates

to the syntagmatic

relates

to the paradigmatic

axis.

axis

and Constituent

Where there

Structure

is no choice

of different

Constituent
Structure
is not described separately
classes,
manifesting
to express
from Surface Structure.
is retained
The term "constituency"
the traditional
structuralist
sense where necessary, for instancep to

the manifestation
of the various Nominal Groups in cases of
Most of the Units at the Word Rank are described as having a
embedding.
Source Element and a System Element.
These terms follow Bolinger's
(1968;
56), 1
Source
System
into
division
of morphemes
morphemes
morphemes and
describe

Hudson (1971;, 75) has

pointed

out that

since

Systemic

Grammar emphasizerji

to dispense. with the description.


is
"if
the
Elements
for
the
grammar
optional
of
vs.
status
obligatory
,
The distinction
here however, firstly
is retained
fully
explicit".
described
because this short description
of a language not previously
classificationy

it

should

be possible

can

explicit",
aim at being "fully
and secondly because. the concept
to
"optional"
seems to be a very useful one, particularly
with reference
Elements of the Major Nominal Groupt without it, a proliferathe optional
tion of Types would be needed to account forlevery
possible oo-occurrence

hardly

of the Head and the six

optional

Elements.

Class
"A class is any set of items having the same possibilities
(Halliday 1964; 29).
in structure"

of operation

All Units except Sentences function primarily as Units''of a higher Rank.


Units which function in the same way axe grouped together into Classes
each of which is numbered by an Arabic numeral.
The Class-and-Type division

represents a departure from the Systemic


It is used in the "Syntagmatic Model" developed
model of description.
from the techniques used by J. T. Bendor-Samuel, (1963) and applied recentl, )p.)
to a fall gramm tical description of a language. by Elaine Thomas_(1969).
The distinction
is adopted for this analysis because the terms. refleot
the two criteria
Structure and Function, applied to
of classification,
(although
further criteria
Unit
every
may sometimes. be applied, as
described

below).

II
19

1 (2)
Svstem Halliday

describes

a system as "a representation,

of relations

on the

in a given environment"
a set of features contrastive
and goes on to show how systems of features may represent
'
simultaneous choices or may be ordered.

paradigmatic
(1965; 60),

a.-Js,

Halliday

envisages

together

giving

a systemic

a full

description

grammatical

and a structural

description

of each item.

description
However,

in this

the concept of'system has not been used throughout,


analysis,
(1965;
61):
Halliday
"It may be useful
the notion
to
cf.
consider
...
of a 'systemic descriptiont
as one form of reptesentation
of a linguistic
item, the assumption being that it complements but does not replace its
description".

structural

A systemic

description

has been found

Hudson
useful in the case of simultaneous sub-divisions,
particularly
(1971; 56) sees this as a special
contribution
of Systemic Grammar:
'Whenever vie set up a grammatical class we do so by sub-dividing
some
larger class with respect to some Idimensiontof
classification
.....
This means that each class is contrasted with at least one other class
from the same sub-division
resulting
and it is this relation
of contrast
between the classes
which'we
allow

refer

to one dimension of classification


(ibid.
55) "a grammar ... must
and
The. distinction
used in this analysis
(dimension'
Structure)
Classes
of
and
of

corresponding
to as alsystem"',

cross-classification".

between Types(ldimension'
Function)-has

has not everywhere


meant that furtber
cross-classification
However, where cross-cutting
been necessary.
sub-divisions
along other
"dimensions of classification"
have been considered desixableg a

has been given, for instance in Chapter 5, where the


systemic-description
Clause has been described in terms of three "dimensions of classification",
(Section 3), and Function
Mood and Theme (Section 2), Transitivity
(Section

4)-'

In practice

useful to describe-stractural
Components mentioned above.
Units
Units

has generally
proved mostl
realizations
of features of the various
Different
systems have been described for

a systemicAescription

Ranks, and a Component is said to be projected


in
at different
Thus
the
features
Component
are
realized.
whereits
of Transitivity

is projected
Projection

in the Clause and, correspondingly,


Plane for the Component of Transitivity.

the Clause serves

as a

1 (2)

has been made in this

An attempt

analysis

in the gramm

Mood, Tense, Polarity,

Transitivityv

Numberv Person and Aspect.

as shown.in the following

the Surface

together

of the Components.

in
identification
Grammar
the
Deep
and
The Components identified

to bring

are the following:

Semantic Class,

They are projected

Theme,

Lexical

in Units

Class,

at various

Ranks,

diagram:

Theme-
Transitivity
Tense

Ifood
Polarity
Semantic Class

Class

Lexical
Number
Person
Aspect

following
The systems are diagrammed with bracketting
Only the following
need be mentionedi
practice.
a or b

selection

of either

a
b

selection

of both a and b

a0
b

prior selection
of either
the selection
on c

a0
b
Note:

prior selection
of a
selection
letters

may represent

the established

a or b is a condition

of both a and b is a condition


eithe=

a single

feature

for
for

the

or a system

of

features

there may be a correspondence betweenare describedl


feature and Type I and the Type is given the same name as the feature
Thus the feature +peripheral
in it.
is realized
in the Peripheral
realized
Clause (Clause Type Mab).
Systems of features
are not described where no
Where features

further

cross-cutting

sub-divisions

are required

in addition

to the

1 (2)
Function
-

Structure

but diagrams

classifications,

in the form of

are often included to illustrate


structural
because these
provide a conveni*ent means of graphic
networks

possibilitiest
representation...,

Rank
Halliday

rank as a taxonomic scale, with ordering


in the rank immediately above: With
of units such that each functions
increasing
importance
emphasis on systems, rank no l6nger hasthe'same
in the systemic model, being "mapped" onto the syntagmatic and paradigmat
(Hudson
1971; 69).
This analysis
relations
adopts the tagmemic concept
originally

envisaged

of rank which is somewhat similar


The Ranks are arranged
dated it.

to Halliday's

earlier

in a hierarchy,

model,

and ante-

each named after

the

Rank, but with the possibility


of "level-of the respective
if this results
in economy of description.
Thus, following
skipping"
(1960; 33) a'word which is
introduced'in
Pickett
the. principle
to
two or more words is considered a Group
expandable
potentially

Unit

(cf.

Pickett:

"Phrase")p

for

example,

the Pronoun,

which may occur as

but a word
the Head of a Nominal Group with other Elements manifested;
which is not expandable in this way is not a Group and functions
in the Clause, for example the Adverb, or in the Sentence,
directly
examplep the Introducer,
Rank
Clause
the
also.
case

for

recent

developments

"skipping"

the Group Rank and in the latter

This is not out of line with the more


in Systemic. Grammar, cf. Hudson (1971; 69) who

acknowledges that 11... clauses


tend to consist of words".

tend to consist

of phrases and phrases

Longacre (*) Iikens thelierarchy


to , "a'river
meandering fx-om its source
(discourse
level)
to the sea (morpheme level where no further
internal
Often, - the course of the river
are posited).
grammatical distinctions
is smooth (descending hierarchy);
there may be, however, a cataract
here
(level-skipping)
there
and
(back-looping)
or lakes

or eddies of various degrees of .turbulence


" To keep the te='-Inology
(recursions).
in, line

is used here for


with the systemic model, the terrA rakshifting
.
"level skipping"
th6 =ankshifting
being Specified
and llback-looiigll,
is intended.
The term embedding is
as upward where "level-skipping"
used*for
'N

hypotactic

(1970;

186)

recursion.

Embedding an rankshifting

are described

1 (2)
in the body of the thesis
in providing

The concept
to simplify

areas of abstraction

convenient

of the Surface

where relevant.

of Rank is useful
the description

Structure,
the
and as regards Deep Grammar facilitates
I
to' a
of that part of a Component which is relevant

identification
Unit.

particular

The Ranks in the hierarchy

analysis

are,

like

the Units,,

Groupp...Wordg and Morpheme. In addition


the
be added as a Rank above the Sentencel, but no formal
is given for the Sentence in the Utterance.
of function

Sentence,

therefores

used in this

Utterance-could
differentiation
There are also

Clausel

three

Sub-ranks

recognized,

to the Ranks:

intermediate

these axe the String Sub-rank between the Clause and the Sentence, the
Phrase Sub-rank between the Word and the Group, and the Stem Sub-rank
between the Morpheme and the Word.

They are limited

to only

part

of the

only in the Nominal Group and not


grammar, e. g. the Phrases function
it
has
Groups,
to accord them the
not been considered desirable
so
other
status of a Rank.
Exponence,

An Element in a Unit

is manifested by an exponent which'may be either


There may thus be reference
to
a grammatical class or a formal item.
but there need not be, until
the data at any point in the description,
Morpheme Rank is reached, since each constituent
of the Unit may have its
Elements mani ested by yet
Delicacv

further

grammatical

classes,

may be realized,

not in speech items, -but in


"classes of items recognized at a more detailed
stage of the analysis
(Halliday
(more delicate
1964; 30).
The least differentiated
classes)"
(most abstracted)
Types and Classes are thus at primary delicacy.
Units

The featu=es

are first

selected

described

at primary

Structure

delicacy

in terms of their Surface


Elements, listed.
They-axe then described

and with all optional


in terms of their Constituent
Structure
at secondary delicacy
and with
restrictions
on co-occurrence
of Elements, with a similar
progression
in detail

for

the Classes.
"I,

1 (2)
The Texto

1.2 :2
The

is based on texts

description

1967 in Portuguese

the yeaxs 1963 to

during

collected

Guinea and in The Gambia during

1967 and 1968.

to me by about a dozen informants, cover a'variety


of
Fables, Legends, Epics and Fairy-many of them are Folktales,

The Texts, given


topics:
tales.

Others

contain

childhood

reminiscences,

of recent
happeningsp descriptions
to marriage and divorce,
of customs Ielating
funerals
and funeral
axd
ceremonies, property rights
and inheritancep
the political
organization
of the tribe.
to in this
The Texts most fcequenQy referred
informants:
recorded by the following

accounts

description

have been

Louron2o Correia,

literate,
a young man in his early twentiesl
Cabienque, about three miles from Teixeira
(Texts A, B, C, Dp Ej F, G)

San Gomes

a middle-aged man, literate,


(Texts Ha, Hb, Hc, Hd, He)

Pinto.

of Teixeira
.

a teenage boy, semi-literate,


of Chulame, about
6 miles from Teixeira Pinto
(Texts: CM, CF, My CRI-CS, SGp UH2 TO)

Oue2a Mendy

All

of
Pinto..

these informants

(also

spoke the Baboque dialect

called
costa de Baixo). The vocabulary which they used gave the impression
that their speech was representative
of the Manjako spoken by the
(which
free
from
by
the
archaisms used
elders
younger generation,
may often
foreign
A

vary

from village

admixtures.
text
the
of
portion

in order to highlight
cases the reference

but also

to village),
referred

to

is

free

sometimes

from too many

abridged

the point

of grammar under consideration.


appears in brackets..

In such

it
At times an example appears without a reference following
This is so in the case of utterances
recorded in the course of
or in the case of a point of grammar being illustrated
a conversationj
text
in
found
be
every
many times, so that a reference to
may
which
text may be misleading
rather than
place in a certain
one particular
enlightening.
Notes on the texts

iaost frequently

used for

24

illustration

follow:

1 (2)
and a Boy
An unfair
chief is mocked by a little

A. A Chief

boy who refuses

to share his

lemon

ly.

B. Hyena and

Hyena loses hislife


at the claw of a lion
his meal with a fly.

because of refusing

to share

C. Iyena and Hare


Hyena appropriates.
that it
but finds
1,losquito

provokes

Hare

and Vulture;

to

Mosquito

to

take;

an unfair,

contest,

but

loses

his

finds

that

his

life.

and Bush-fowl

Hare is
able to deceive
is no match
cleverness
F.

Hime-wanted.

and Grass-fly

Graso-fly
E. Hare

to himself
the name whioh
brings
him poverty.

the. Vulture
for Bush-fowl.

easily,

but

Demon and Ilan


into
A man enters
a covenant
and endangers his life.
profit

G. Childhood

with

a Demon which

does not

bring

him'-apy

reminiscences

from LourenpIs
A sad recollection
childhood when his mother is sent
house, while he, a child of about 4 or 5, has
away from his father's
to stay.
Ha. An Epic about Mporta Kninki
A miracle child Mporta Kninki becomes a hero and a chief because he
human and non-human alike from the tyranny of Ble Kabgmb.
delivers
Hb. Hare

and Bush"fowl

In a series
very cause

the deceitful
of episodes,
of his own downfall.

Hc. Hyenals wrestling


lWenals
iguana.

superior

Hd. The Head which

Hare

finds

his

deceit

to be'the

match
strength
vias not

is not sufficient

to give him victory

over an

dead

There may be some unusual


in store
for
and frightening
experiences
that the head which he has found in the forest
the ran who thinks
may be safely
eaten.

25

.1

He. Hare and Vulture


The prudent Vultureknovis

Chl.

avarice

nearlycosts

Customs

relating

him his
to

Ouega, although

when to leave

fishing,

off

but Hare's

life.

marria_pe

and

divorce

only a teenager,,

is well acquainted with the


customs of his tribe since he is the son of a lesser chief
(nam8an). In an imaginary encounter,
a deserted husband

to forgive
asks his in-laws
and to lot his wifo ret =

Death is never a natural

and funeral

CR. Childhood
Sickly,

but must have

diet

for

a rice-harvest

can be counted

the Manjakos.

reminiscences
abnormal,

among the
little

ceremonies

sought at the hand of a diviner.

PR. How to grow rice


Uany thigs must be done before
a staple

to his wi. Ce

cruelty

event among the Manjakos,

which is

on to provide

his

to him again.

to funerals

CF. Customs relatinrr

an explanation

him for

or

Manjakos.

even unusual
This

b4bies

was neariy

the

are
fate

thrown
which

away
Ouejals

befell

sister.

CS. How to catch

squirrels
Squirrel
boys' lives.
catching is one of the excitements in little
Many things must be rerambered to bring the siege to a desired end.

-SG.

Story

about

No matter
count

a Goblin

what

beyond

the

Goblin

may be able

to

do,

he certainly

cannot

four.

HH. Hyena and Hare


Hare outwits the much stronger

Hyena and sells

26

him off

into

slavery.

1 (2)

and a free

A literal

English

r
translation

axe given

below

each

and each example. Where necessary to make the meaning


English
in
free
inserted
the
translation
are
which
words
clear,
are only implied in the Manjako. Hyphens occur in the literal

line

of text

where two or more English words are used to render the


Grammatical
Manjako
word.
glosses are kept to a,
one
meaning of
brevity
the
for
but
of
or where no adequate English
sake
minimum,
tranalation'of
a morpheme was available,
a grammatical gloss is
translation

used and abbreviations

of these are as followst

(OP)

completive

(ot)

continuous

(dem)

demonstrative
derived

Marker

QU(r/p)

question

(SP)
The romaining
e. g.

imp.

from

real/Positive
supervening
abbreviations

"imperative'll

subj.

("came to"
("eventually"
used

are

"came about that")


"afterwards")

self-explanatory

"subjunctive",

in

context,,

etc.

27

1
r

The Manjako

2- :3

Story

Stories include
is rich in stories and myths.
Manjako oral literature
The
Myths
are
genealogical.
mainly
leGands, fables,
anecdotes.
epics and
told
While
is
myths
only
are
story-telling.
usual means of entertainment
funerals,
drummers
storyat
e.
g.
by specialists
occasions,
on
and
special
but
story-tellers,
is not the prerogative
of semi-professional
telling
to
tell
be
However,
a
tell
able
will
not.
everyone
a story.
anyone may
story

This is because the form of the story

well.

mus.t follow

a definite

have
an
must
pattern.
11
is
"This
the
by
story
or
a
about
Introduction,
words
usually
.....
the
to
thing
important
the
However,
about
remember
words.
similar
first.
by
him
the
identify
it
is
that
naming
anti-hero,
Introduction
must
Firstlyit

Secondly,

it

Conclunion,
Didactic

must have a
usually by the words "It

is

finished"

in the form of a silmmaryl a proverb

or by a
or a quiz. Finally,

may have an
Asidej by which the narrator
aims at a closer contact with the audience
by securing their mental assent to an undisputed truth,
e. g. "Fly, you
(Text
be
there"
B), or: "At the
fly
the
know, wherever you may cat,
will
it

is,
how
it
know
nobody will
well, you
(Text
Ha).
head"
pot on your

ever help you to lift

your waterI

the story, wherever the chaxacters are successively


referred
by the same means as in. the
is identified
to by a pronoun, the anti-hero
to first.
that is, he is the one referred
Introduction,
Throughout

is the fable.
The Idanjako fable
the most popular of all stories
tribes
in the choice of
from the fables of many West African
differs
frequently
The
appearing axe Hyena, Hare,
most
characters
characters.
The characters
by
of these axe fixed extra-contextually:
and Bush-foril.
By far

their

frequent

appearance

Hare of a selfish

cheat,

they acquire
and Bush-fowl

a "tag",

Hyena of a brainless
of a gentlemanly trickster.

bully,

"to scale. ".


They
There is no attempt to present the animal characters
eat, talk, behave like human beings, have the same shortcomings and
problems.

Of the three

Hyena is always the anti-hero


main chanacters,
and
the hero.
Hare is ambivalent,
having the character
of hero or
(Perhaps Claude L4vi-Strauss
depending on his paxtner.
would

Bush-fowl
anti-hero,

him a I'modiator"of

consider

The vice

the opposition)

shoym up in nearly

is

This
in
fact
is
-fables
(and
the
trait
the
by
Manjakos,
worst
of character
considered
apparently
by other African peoples Ls.well .accor#ng
to P. Bohannan (1969'; 336)). By
social

used here,
himself

selfishness.

does not seem to


as such, by the fable characters,
For this reason, the term "anti-hero"
is
condemnation.

cheating

comparison,
entail

all

rather

often

than the more usual

a trickster,

term "trickster".

The hero is

but he is never selfish.

Thematil
first
a
c role
of naming the anti-hero
-has
in the "given".
the Utterance in that the "new" is anticipated
The device

Of course, as someone whimsically


remarked, the detective
hardly find a place in Manjako oral literature.

story

in

could

-a

CHAPTER 2.

PHONOLOGYAND ORTHOGRAPHY

onten
A Phonological

2.1

Outline

Consonants
2

Vowels

CVC Patterning
Irregular

3.1

Root Patterns

Prenasalization

Morpho-phonemics

5-1

Assimilation

5.2

Vocalic

5-3

Mutation

5-4

Elision

5-5

Dissimilation

Fusion

Orthography

2.2

I
/

(1)

CHAPTER 2.
2.1

:1

SECTION 1. A Phonological

Outline

Consonants

Manjako has the following

consonant

/t/v

/b/I

/p/t

/t/I

All /sh /'/;


All

/ntj/,

/mp/9 /nt/I
t 1.1

/d/p

/d

/w/9/j/.
/Ok/;

/9/;
31P

/m/, ' /n/I

ATI,

may occur prenasalizeds


/mb/,

/ntr/;

/nd/,

/nd3/,

19gl.

Deacription

The description
1.
2.
3.
4.
5-

/tr/;

and affricates

plosives

2.1

/k/;

phonemes:

of the phonemes will

representation
phonological
sub-members of the phoneme
by three-term
labels
description
representation
orthographic
in orthography
examples written

comprise:

with

the

relevant

phoneme underlined

/p/

[p]

viless

bilabial

plosive

/t/

Et]

viless

alveolar

plosive

5
p6n
u2i
t ay
tan
Kato
MJ

/tS/ Etr,
-]

vIless

alveolo-palatal

affricate

Irl-I

fricative
alveolo-palatal
viless
[tr-]
in free fluctuation
with
in all positions
except
following
nasals

/k/

Ek]

viless

velar

/tr/

Et4I

viless

post-alveolar

plosive

affricate

ch

"bind"
"house"
"feel
better"

man-chi

"I am"

"bell
chi
ra-chet'"harvest"
faTc h "white's
k

ka "have"
zCo "animal's
,a
"lay hand"

X8P
axa.
paZ

31

11goout"
"goat"
"hit"

11goll
"younger
sibling"
"separate"

(1)

/b/

/d/

'2
Cb3

voiced

"come"

EP3

fricative
voiced bilabial
3
in free fluctuation
with
inter-vocalically
and wor
3 finally

kabol
laTb-

"sacrifice"
"rescue "

Cd3

voiced

Ti

"in"

C-C]

Cr3

/9/

15
bi

initially

/d3/

4'

3
'b:l abiaL-plosive

alveolar

plosive

and-following

voiced
alveolar
inter-vocalically
finally

nasals_

irig

tap

tor
with

C-C]

voiced

CZJ

fricative
voiced
alveolo-palatal
CdZ.
]
in free fluctuation
with
in all
except followpositions
ing nasals

193

voiced

affricate

plosive

EY3

fricative
voiced
velar
Cg],.
in free fluctuation
with
inter-vocalically
and wordfinally

/M/

voiced

/n/

[n]

alveolar
voiced
nasal
initially
and inter-vocalically
homorganic
nasal
before
plosives
and affricates
nasalization
of the preceding
vowel elsewhere

[m, njj1jq]

Eul

bilabial

voiced

palatal

voiced

velar

nasal

nasal

nasal

32,

eat".

(rare)

Cd;.]

alveolo-palatal

"I

"ricefields"
'"fill"

and word-

I
voic ed alveolar
roll
in free fluctuation
word-finally

velar

ian-re

"I

man-ja
ja
kaji
laj

llsa: 11,
"wound"
A'suck"

gar

"scatter"

say"

1Ok "chicken"
11cryll
ruz

"know"
me
"rabbit"
umaal
11swimil
lam
,
"be rotten"
n8k
Kan8 "autumn"
maZ-bi, "I came"
banhaan

nh

nhaan
;; IJU
raanh

ng

njEAl
imi
=aang

"people"
"pray"
"bait
"stop
raining"
"like"
"clothes
"poke"

11

2 (1)

2
A/

If]

viless

labio-dental

/s/

[a]

viless

alveolar

fricative

voiced

alveolar

lateral

fricative

fet
11de-husk"
*fab "cinders 11
c7haaf "spear
fish"

"pound"
Ro
sn
kasa "cloud"
$'drum"
las

/W/

Ewl

voiced

labio-velar

/j/

CJ]

voiced

palatal

Prenagalized

Consonantst

semi-vowel

positions

counterpart

las

11drum"

tJ

"sheet"'
11spillil

wet
iwel
gal

"sweep"
"hair"
"chase"

ya
kaya
kay

"go',
"song"
11CITY11

Kalenj

semi-vowel',

in initial

the non-prenasalized

occurs.

4'

/Mp/

CMP]

pren.

vIlees

bilabial

plosive

MP

nal-081i.
leM

figirlif
"work"

/nt/

Cntj

pren.

viless

alveolar

plosive

nt

naatpy
rant

"man"
"click
tongue"

/nt/

Cptq]

pren.

vIleas

alv. -pal.

nch

Kanchung8
Pinto"
"Teixeira
pnk8nch "middle"

/9k/

[9k]

pron.

viless

velar

nk

"dusk"
kankuel
"cut hair"
p6nk

/ntr/

CutJ]

pren.

vIless

post-alv.

nx

kan:, cian "spindle"


"tell"
le

/mb/

Cmbj

pren.

voiced

bilabial

mb

kambach

affricate

ploaive
affricate
plosive

bamb

11circumcision"
"carry
on
back"

(1) '

/nd/

End]

pren.

voiced

alveolar

plosive

nd

kand6nd "crowd"
'
'
"be
half
gEd:
fullil

/nd3/

[p d:p]

pren.

voiced

alv. -pal.

plosive

nj

tnj&k "field
.
rat"
umbaaj "knife"

ngg

nanLff-Euran llshamexP
I'same"
ganga

[ug]

2.1

voiced

velar

plosive

Vowels

:2

lianjako

pren.

vowel

phonemes may be a=anged


/u/

A/

Al

as followss

/o/

IAI

/0/

/a/
These have the approximate

values indicated

on the following

Cardinal

Vowel diagram:
I

The following

vowels

may occur

longs

/u: /
/a:
/A/
9/
Note -Idl vowels except'/,
and
(see
2.1 : 5).
boundaries
morpheme

34

may be lengthened

by fusion

across

There axe four

diphthongs,

Aa/

/UV/

IiAl

/UA/

all

rl: sing and opening-centring:

Description

2.1

[i]

'close front

[L]

half-olose

[C]

half-open

[a]
[0]

open central
unrounded
half-open
back rounded

/o/

[V]

half-close

/U/

Eu]
Ea3

U
a

yuk Iffitil

lal
/A/

CV]

close back rounded


half-close
central unrounded
half-open
central unrounded

:al "'deceive"

/u: /

CUU]

close

back rounded long

uu

/a: /

Caa]

open central

aa

ymih "fear"
naam "seem"

ie

liet

"arrange

is,

li

"spread

ue

suel

"pick

us,

sual

"incite"

/e/

/a/

/iq/ DO?
IiAl

Eie]

/UD/

[ua]*

/UA/

Eue],

Note:

unrounded
front
front

unrounded
unrounded

back rounded

unrounded long

close front
half-close

unrounded to
centml u=unded
close front unrounded to
half-open central unrounded
close back rounded to
Iralf-close central unrounded
close back rounded to
open central unrounded

some fluctuation
some fluctuation

with

Cee]

with

Coo]

p1ch "sing

pich

e
B.

P.!t "peel"

0
8

pak "deny"

fal

praises"

"write"

"out"

b8k "give

birth"

b9k "bury"

wood"
cloth"

up fruit"

2 (1)

CVC Patterning
-_
_. _3
21anjako roots have a predominan
2.1

including

't

CVC pattern

(where C-

any consonant

plosives
and affricates,
and V- any vowel).
V, VC, and CV also occur, but in the absence
the patterns

prenasalized

Roots with

margin, the boundaaies of the root


of a consonant at the syllable
[7]
Cj]
[h]
r,
be
by
juncture
marked
---"
may
phenomena, e. g.
LWJ
syllable
f
9
,
/m/ in
(N representing
have a predominant CV, V, or N pattern
Prefixes
t
/m/
'elsewhere)
following
homorganic
pausel
and
or
nasal
positions
and suffixes

have a predominant
pref

suff
An

naj6kan

"teacher"

pntingu

"your

nA

jok

Cv CvC v

nteg

N CvC VC
I

E. g. z

root

Cv OvC VC
v CvC v

When lal

V or VC pattern.

bok

d-b8ka

tAW

C.
Md/

mtawind

fetish"

"he was born"


"Your
,

milk"

in prefixes
it exhibits
harmony with the
a limited
(almost
[a]
E6])
it
the
is
fronted
before
root:
of
realized
as
a
vowel
the front vowel in the root (Example 1); as [a] before a central vow el
,
Eal (almost M)
before a
in the root (Example 2); and as a retracted
occurs

back vowel in the root


/1/,
/c9/
+
+
affricate

(Example 3). In any sequence of plosive or


/w/
/d/,
/,
/j/
the
9/ may not be realized
or
,

(Example 4).
Note:

containing
prefixes
(see Orthography
2.2)

/a/

are

written

with

the

Examples:
1.

/Pati/ Ep9til

ptl

"rainy

2. /pgb@k/ [pabgk]
3. /PDgod/ CP290-01

pb8k

"gravel'

paor

"heart"

4- /P-IdBk/

pr5k

"river"

[PrOkI

season"

1-1

consonant

letter

only

(1)

2.1

Root Patterns,

Irregular

t 3.1

Roots which do not have the- CV paiterns


counted, only 20 had apparently
entries

des'cribed

are few;

of' 4bbut 1400


Some
pattern.

a different

of those are:
Stems,

Fossilized
stituent
although
lost

parts

of

two Roots

either

one or both

their

may be hypothetically

which

of

these

mobility

positional

or

of a Root

and cannot

con-

and a Suffix,

#'morphemes"

smaller

into

analyzed

have

be assigned

largely
any

is
"scorpion"
Such
the
themselves.
by
case
of,
utifar
e.
g.
meaning
(10.2
Root
tif,
benefactive
a
:-2.2-3)
and
suffix
a
of
consisting
-ar
"sniff
lost.
Similarly
has
been
smelling"
nhilef
meaning of whicb
derived.
from
is
Root
nhal
nhil
which
a
of
consists
isuncertain.
the
meaning
of
which
suffix,
a
and
-ef
(see

Onomatopoeia

Ideophones

(see

for

out odour"

8-4 :
8-4.: 5)

Loan Words at various


CV patterns

"give

reasons

degrees
stated

uDaata "duck"

(fm.

of assimilation
in

10-4

Port.

: 1.2.2.

pato)

do not
E. g.:

have

the

usual

the

(1)

2.1

Prenanall-.

:4

in

As mentioned

2.1

following

positions
having

: 1,

all

plosives

pause

(viz.

consonants

pronaaalized

in Manjako

and affricates

Prenasalization

pronasalized.

occur

rl

ation.

is

never

"breath-group"
initially

in

however

realized
initial).
their

following
thovIo"Laaalizod
countorpartwhen
pause,
"'Pr
/g0bos no 90pe/
gb8n ni gDi "dogs and goats"
/gape
but;
no qgaboa/
jMi ni gb82 "goats and dogs"

Possibly

with

phenomenon is

this

radicals

being

free

the fact

have

in vorb-forms
do not normally
(the most notable restriction

occuring
initially
verbal

linked

in

Thus prefixes-

basic

with

may

formsj

occur

e. g.:

that

prenasalized

on distribution

forms which may occur following

radicals
consonants
of phonemes),
pause. However,

initial
in verb-forms
of radical
plosives
and affricates
prenasalization
/m/
(phonologically)
in a'prefx
initial
manifesting
after an
occurs
I) -, or Class *4 (Ibc. 2)(10-4 : 1.2)
Concord with a Noun of Class 50 '(Example
.
Mumplen:
l. a mam - p8ni
& iC=C-out
(and it (o. g. water)
2. a man - chax
died
& they
(and they (c. g. troes)
Note:

(*)

tion

e. g mlik

"water"

came out)
11

It

1111mko "trees"

died)

For morphological
prenasalization
lot person singular
Bee 6.2 t'l

For explan

with

agreeing

of orthography

throughout
.

see 2.2

38

the Verbal

Group in

(1)

Morpho-phonemics.

2.1 :5

2.1 : 5.0 Introduction.


have been discussed
changes due to prenasalization
Those having relevance to only one particular
section.
will be most conveniently
mentioned under the relevant

The morpho-phonemic
in the previous

of gra=ar
heading. The remaining
point

Assimilation

2.2 : 5.1
The vowelsof
quality
/-Atr/

ares

to the
These are s /-Ad/

suffixes
are progressively
/e/
/C/
/o/
lol.
of a preceding
Or
,
I
/-An/ and /-Dl/.
For example:
,
certain

/dj e/ + /A d/
/Atr/
/te/
+
lAnl
/do/
+
/do/
Furthermore,
/tE/

/d3 ee,d/
/teetr/

/doon/

/An/

/cb, 2n/

/e/

is assimilated

/e/

/tEc/

djr

assimilated

"laugh

at"

teex

"he does not heart,


(imp.
)"
"call
r8on
(imp.
)"
"do
roon
to a preceding
nan-tei

/6/,

e. g. x

"who-hears"

Vocalic Fusion

2.1 : 5.2

final IAI followed'


Vocalic Pusion occurs only in respect of a syllable
IAI
/,
/u/
/e/
(lengthened)
9/
the
is
by
where
or
resulting
vowel
,
,
from either. E. g.:
different
7d3cE/
1d3A1 + /e/
jai "who says"
/U/
/d3DO/
/d3A/
Jau "says to you,,
+
/,
/d3A/
/d3aalOd/
9/
+
"say to each other"
jaaler
/d3^/ + /^/ - /d3aa/
Jaa "called"
Mutation

2.1 : 5.3
The Suffixes
if

/-Atr/,

/-An/
and
change into
E. g. s
Suffix.

/-td/

preceded by another

/-atr/,

/-ad/

I-anl
and
I

3OD-t-/

j6nRax

"he does not cook"

30A d-3tl'r-/

*8ngaxexl

"he does not cook for"


r

(1)

/ja dAd/

2.1

yerar

"to

fall

for"

yerler

"to

fall

for

/jadAn/

yeran

"to

all

in. "

/jadlan/

yerlen

"to

agree"

each other"

: 5. A- Elision

by suffixes
is followed
ending in any nasal
occurs when a syllable
/end3A/
/a9k/.
/-end
The vowel of the suffix
and one of the nasals
or
e/ ,
E.
this
is
being
first-nasal,
the
this
g.:
except
where
are elided,
/-Cnd3e/
/-md3e/
"my
katiria.
ii
+
name"
/-nd3e/
/q/ + /-ondje/
baxongji
"my guests"
/-nd3A/
/n/ + /-endjA/
"our mother"
aninja
=
/n/ +.
/-DJC/
8nk "thus"
Elision

Diosinilation,

2.1
Dissimilation

A root-final
/l/

occurs
/I/
/-19d/.

where:
is

followed
/(119 d/

by a*suffix-initial
s6rler

40

/1/,

e. g. -.

I'vieed for each other"


(fm. s&I "weed")

2 (2)

CHAPTER 2.
The texts

and examples

n Manjako

however

letters

in

linguistic

Orthography
are

this

indicated

is
in

the

the

orthography

practical

basically

a phonemic

preceding

a few minor

orthography

and practical

in

written

This

publications.

the

using

SECTION 2.

orthography
(2.1).
There

section

based

adjustments
These relate

considerations.

used

axe

on socio-

tos

/a/.
1. The -phoneme
Prefixes

/a/

containing

are-written

(because of the fluctuation


(2.1
: 3)). The only
phoneme

the consonant

with

in the phonetic
exception

realization

to this

is

letter

only
lal
of the
ng- "3rd

the prefix

ideal"
to avoid confusion with the syllabic
secondary,
singular,
person
161
Thuss/b8lEk/
blek.
1'ricefield".
the
In suffixest
homorganic nasal.
161
byt
is
diacritic,
the
represented
without a
never
phoneme
phoneme
occuring

in suffixes

morpheme boundaries
2.

Prenasalized

Prefixes
without
of

having

fusion

except as a result
of vocalic
(see 3, below). Thust /bafelan/

across
bofelen "mix together"

consonants.

a prenasalized
of

representation

the

following

prenasalization

/ndA/

/nda/

consonant
at their
(because
nasality
of

pause).

/ndo/

the

These prefixes

A gal

g-

/nd3A/

ia- "we(inel. )"

3. Vocalic

non-realization

are:

da- 2 L- 9 d8"we(incl.

are written

onset

)"

"you (pl) 11
or

"Concord

Pref.

2ndCl'

fusion.

in cases of'fusion.
not phonemically.
/djA/

IAI

/u/,
+-/e/ or
-pf
words are written
(See 2.1 8 5.2). For examples

/en/
.

/jo-en/

JR3:.
n "tells

morpemically,

me"

A. H.VDhen'.
In the orthography a hyphen is inserted
in verb
before the radical
forms other than infinitive
for the native
as a reading aid, in context,
speaker,

e. g. na-lemp

"let

him work",

41

but:

nalemp "workman".

2 (2)

5. Acute Accent
is used in the orthography
(10-4
by
marked
stress
t 2.1).

An acute accent
difference

to indicate

a tense

Example, t

ma I

fing
killed

md I-shall

fing
kill

Circumflex

Accents

When a vowel written


accent is morphophonemioaliy
with a circumflex
the accent is written
lengthened,
e. gs
vowel letter,
only on the first
/oo/ s 8o; and /ii/
i li.

OHAPTER3.

3.1

THE NOMINAL GROUP

Contents-

page:

Structure

45

The Elements of Structure


The Determiner

46
47

1.2

The Head

47

1.3

The Relator

47

1.4

The Qualifier

49

1.5

The Quantifier

49

1.6

The Demonstrative

49

1.7

The Modifier

50

2
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2

Types of Nominal Group


1. Minor Nominal Group
11. Major Nominal Group
IIa, Noun Head NG

50
51
51
52
53

2.2.3

IIb Pronoun Head NG


IIc Possessor Head NG

2.2.4

IId Gerund Head NG

54

2.2.5

IIe Infinitive

54

2.2.6

IIf

2.2.7

IIg Demonstrative Word Head NG

55

2.2.8

Iih

56

Head NG

Concord Prefix

Head NG

Adverb Head NG

'I'anction

3.2

53

55

57
57

NG Class 0
Class
NG
1

NG Class 2

58

NG Class 3.

58

3.3

Nominal Concord

59

3.4

Nominal Group Complex

62

I. Appositional

58

NG Complex

63

3 (1)

3.4

1.1
1.2
1.3
2
2.1
2.2

NG Complex

Is, Attributive
Ib Evocative

NG Complex
NG Complex

Ic Distributive
11 Additive
IIa
IIb

NG Complex

Enumerative
Deprecatory

63
64
64
64

NG Complex

64

NG:Complex

65

3 (1)
CHAPTER 3.

THE NOMINAL GROUP

CHAPTER 3.

SECTION L

The Structure

Structure

of the Nominal Group in its

maximum expanded form

is the following:

NOMINAL GROUP

1
1
1
1
1
1
Det Head Rel Qual Quant Dem Mod

Elementst

Manifesting

Determiner

Article

Head

Noun (8.2 : 2.2)


Pronoun (8.2 : 2.9)
Possessor (8.2 : 2.8)
Gerund (8-3 : 1.2.2)
(8-3 3 1.2.1)
Infinitive
Concord Prefix Set la (10-4 : 1.2)
Demonstrative Word (8
.22.6)
'
71
Advert . (8-3 : 2.2-7)
,%
Sentence Class 3a (4.2
2.3
Clause Class 4a (5-4 : 2-3-1
Nominal Group Class 2 (3.2 S 3)(10-3)
Pronoun Suffix

Relator

For the

Classest

(8.2

s 2.1)

(8.2

Qualifier

Adjective

Quantifier

Numeral Phrase (7-1)

Demonstrative

Demonstrative

Modifier

Sentence Class 3b (4.2 8 3)


Clause Class 4b (5- s 2-3.2)

status

: 2-4)

Phrase (7-4)

of Elem ents see diagram on P. '50.

45

3 (1)
According

to the differences

in its

the Nominal Group may be divided


-Minor

Surface and Constituent

into

the following

Structure,

types:

Noun Head
Pronoun Head
Possessor Head
Gerund
Head
Infinitive
Head
Concord
Prefix
Head
Demonstrative Word-Head
Adverb Head

Tajor
-I.

CITATION PlaOIGM
(Nominal

Minor

GrouD

Tvpe I)

Malor UIG T.YT)e II)


(a) Noun Head

a-chi

nalon

"it

was another"

a-chi

ninx

"it

was a man"

lyi

"it

was you"

uminh

"it

was mine"

(b)

Pronoun Head

(c)

Possessor Head

(d)

Gerund Head

a-chi

EXongga unS

"it
(it

(e)

Infinitive

a-chi

pxis

"it

(f)

Concord I)xefix

a-chi

naTam

"it

(g)

Demonstrative

a-chi

bki

(h)

Adverb Head

3.1

:1

a-chi
a-chi

Head
Head
Head

As may be seen from


of

the

of
the

Nominal

However,

a Nominal-Group

is

Pone occurs

rare.

to a large

depends
and is
is

indicated

based

possibilities

Jon

in

Structure
diagram
Group

the

on Nominal

the

on P- 45Y the maximum expended


may consist
more than

with

data.

diagram

Groups

co-occitrence

of

Type pf

7 Elements.

3 Elements

The Status

on the

extent
in

of

Tam"
of
man
a
was
"they were the people
of John"

a- chi !5nk ri da- ja ron


"it was so as you say so
(that was what you said)"

The Elements

Structure

sun"
was rising
was at sunrise)"
was to return"

of

occuring

of Elements

the Elements

the Nominal

on page 50.11rhile

actually

manifested

in
were

Group

the
the

description

texts,

tested

in

further
elicited

examples.

46

: 1.1

3.1

The Doterminer

The Determiner

is

having

Class

Example:

only

manifested

by the Article
the Article

one member,

which is a closed
(see 8.2- : 2.1)
Word (na)-lon
Classi

nalon ninx
one
man
. (a
certain man)

3.1 : 1.2

The Head

The Head is manifested in every Major Nominal Group. It may be manifested


by: Noun (8.2 : 2.2); Pronoun (8.2 t. 2.9); Poss.essor (8.2 : 2.8); Gerund
(8.3 : 1.2.1);
(8-3 : 1.2.2);
Infinitive
Concord Prefix (10.4 :
2.6); or by an Adverb Class 7 (8-3 : 2.2-7). '
Demonstrative Word (8.2.:
According

to the difference

in the Class manifesting


be divided into Sub-Types (see

the Head, the Major Nominal Group will


3.1 : 2) and examples will be given in their
examples of the various
The Relator

3.1
The Relator
Clause
Pronoun
the

For the
place.
Types of Nominal Group. cee 3.1 : 2.2.
proper

Class

(10.3).
notional

by:

manifested
2'3-1);

4a*(5-4-:

Suffix

following

is

Element

The Relator
relations.

Group Class

Nominal

Element
In

the

of the relationship

a free inzerpretation
is given in brackets

may indicate,
examples

Objecto

(Ex. 6)

physical
Temporal (Ex. 10)

(a.

8) or notional

47

on the

: 3);

or

among others,
following

page

between the Head and Relator

along with the gloss.


Possession, active (Ex. ) or passive (By- 2)
Substance (Rx- 3 and 4)
Location (a5Y
Characteristic
Cause (Ex- 7)

2 (3.2

(Ex. 9)

3
ExaMDles*(taken
1.

from

namp6li
girl

3-

uyamax

unkambe,

meat

P3.g

4-

=aaj
maize

kanchupa
porridge

5.

kato
house

Dxonpg
visiting

6.

kanggOngg
cheating

pig

porridge

(is

visiting

(takes

hare

umaal
hare

(consists

to)

a house

of)

meat
maize

made of)

(practises)

cheating

cleverness
things

the

cause

pchar
string

Sombasombo
Sombasombo

Sombasombo (is

tied

to)

examples
texts

are

by iqo means exhaustive,

other

usages

of

but

the Relator

only

nalon ninx
a certain
man

a certain
story

ukam
viar

baneki
last year

last

(ras the

H
gko
things

embeddings

Rel

Rel

blipal
cleverness

cleverness

the Relator

Dem
gon
those

(that

in

Ellis
Ivu

of his)

48

a string

be quoted:

could
(is
man

may be successive

the

of)

representative.

kat6tan
story

year

a house

in)

place

gko
things

There

ii.

girl

(is

From other

10.

(belongs

a bag

blipal
cleverness

These

9.

(owns)

bushfowl

use
house

8.

Hb'Text)

kamaanh xj&ku
bushfowl
bag

2.

7-

the

the

hero

time

Element:

of)

of)

the

a
war

3 (1)
3.1 : 1. A

The Qualifier

Element is manifested by the Adjective


Class (8.2 : 2-4)(Example 1). In Manjako there is on. the
A Complex occurs very rarely
between the predicative
no difference
and the attributive
surface
The Qualifier

(Ex.
the
Adjective,
2) which
that
be
there
use of
so
an ambiguity
will
to semantic or contextual
may be sometimes resolved by having
recourse
(Ex3 and 4)
considerations
Examples:

nhaan na%Art nax6kal


person good
righteous
(A good and a righteous
man)
kato
kaj6nx
2. a na-ruk
& he left house clean
the clean house
And he left
the house clean
And he left
ibex
tamb
3- auikay
& he deposited droppings dry
(and he deposited dry droppings)

Hb 82

4- auruk ben bjgnx


& he left head clean
(and he left
the head clean)
3.1 : 1.5

Rb 105

The Quantifier

Element is manifested
A Complex consisting
of two identical
The Quantifier

by the Numeral Phrase (7-1)


members has a distributive

(EX-1)
role

(Ex. 2)

ExamDles:
kchar kt8b
1. ai - la
&-(sp) twisted =opes two
(and then he twisted tvio =opes)
bkul bat8b bat6b
2. a na-yel
& he sent them two
two
(and he sent them two by two)
3.1 : 1.6

Hb 89

The Demonstrative

Tho-Demonstrative
Element is manifested
(7. VA Complex does
not occur. E. g. t
uyamaxinji
vran
that
meat-my
(that
meat of mine)

by the Demonstrative

Phrase Class

Hb 132

3 (1)
3.1 : 1.7

The Modifier

(4.2
3
Element
Class
Modifier
Sentence
is manifested by
The
: 3)
(see diagram on p. 84)) or by a Clause Class 4b (5.2 : 24) (Example 1).
(Example 2).
A complex with two Clauses as its members may'occur.
The role

of the Modifier

one important

with

is non-restrictive
the Modifier
describes

Element is similar

to that

of the Qualifierg

the exponent of the Qualifier

distinction:

while
(viz. the Adjective,

the expondnt

8.2 : 2.4),

of

merely
which is to say, the Adjective
characteribtic,
while the Clause Class 4b makes.

is restrictive,

a certain

between the referent

'that

characteristic
a point of'difference
possessing it and others not possessing

3)-

it(Example

Examples:
Hb 81

1. nhnon nan-rein
r.=aaj
-i --parson who eat-me who maize
(the one who ate my maize)
2. XkO xi
n_x xi
u
unchaam wina xi
xi
he stood where
seen where
placewhere
where money
(the place where he stood, where the money was found)
3- ninx nan-xaf i
of.
ninx naxafal
man who old who
man old
(the old man, i. e. there
(an old man)
were others who viere not old)
Types of 11ominal Group
.y
diagram illustrates
The following

CF 9

3.1 :_2

Types of_11ominal Groups:.


Det Head Rel
TYPE

IIa

x+

Quant

X.

x.

IIC

IM

it

IIe

x+

IIg

Ilh

Dem Mod

Qual

IIb

lif

of Elements in the various

the Status

x
X-

50

Key:
+ obligatoz7
x optional
unacceptable

3 (1)

3.1

Nominal

Minor

- 2.1

(Nominal

Group consists

Nominal

The Minor

Group

the Ifead Element

or

of

the Relator

Group Ty-ne

one or more Elements,

other

than

Element.

ExaMD10G:
(o-uali: cicr
Ait

)
only:
Ilb 92

chi usemnatel.
was stoolW-built.

)
oal=.
AurWca ivrazuix
left
three
& it
(and there were three
(Quantifier

Ra 68
)

left.

)
only:
i'
jej
ng
n6l
na take
who likes who he-will
(let him who likes take (it/some))
(Modifier

)
only,:
nalon a- baand
he arrived
one
(a certain-man
arrived)
(Determiner

2.2

Vajor
Nominal

The Major
manifeated.
further

Group of more than

No Minor Nominal
in the texts.

Note:

Nominal

Group is

According

divided

Group

into

to
the

(Nominal

a Nominal

the

different

following

one Element

occurs

Group Tyme II)

Group which
manifesting
Sub-types:

has its

Head Element

Classes,

it

may be

3(1)

3.1

Noun Head Nominal

t 2.2.1

The Noun Head Nominal


(8.2

Noun Class
Nominal

of

more than

with
for

exampleg

Group has the Head Element

: 2.2).

Gioup

All

although,

three

the

Group (NG Type IIa

optional

Elements

as was mentioned

Elements

following

manifested

Nominal

may occur
above,

would

by the

manifested
in

Group

a Nominal

be rare.

Groups of more than

In

Type

this

the

Hb Text,

one Element

were

found:

References

Det.

Read Relator

Number of
ocourenoes:

Qual. Quant. Dem. Mod.

1xx

56

2xx

12

3xxx4
4xx3
5xx3
6xx2
7xxx1

Exampless
(Numbers of Examples correspond
1. bfexar

to Reference

Numbers in the above Diagram. )


3; and el, sewhqre

gul

their
friendship
(their
friendship)
43;

2. Baxong bki
r ests these
Guests)
blipal,
3. gko
wul
his
things
cleverness
(his underhandedness)

and elsewhere

4; also

g8n
that

4- ben bjenx
head clean
(skull)

105;

5. pre
upi
re
pi
food which he ate which
(food which he had eaten)

83;

52

also

also

12,95,80

82,90

81,115-116

6.

kchar kteb
ropes two
( two ropes)

7-

ifetar mmaaj ii
m- me iOnk
husks maize which you know which
(the maize husks which as you know... )

3.1 1 2.2.2

89; also 119


.

71

Pronoun Head Nominal Group (NG T-vpeIIb)

The Pronoun Head Nominal Group has the Head manifested by the
Pronoun Class (8.2 : 2.9). All optional Elements except the Determiner,
the
Qualifter and the Relator Element may occur in this Type of Nominal Group.
Formula:

NG
IIb

it;

(Quant)

(Dem)

(Mod)

ExamDlest
Head
Inji
I
(You

Modifier
m- laang on uyamax.
ni
who you deny who meat
)
to
me
meat.
give
refused

A 17

Head Quant-Demonstrative
bl: 6n
batdb bam&nx
bicul
those
the-said
those two
(those
two said people)

3.1 s 2.2.3

Posoessor Ilead Nominal Group (NG Type IIc)-

The Possessor Head Nominal Group has the Head manifested by, the
Possessor Class (8.2 : 2.8). All optional Elements may occur in this
Type of Rominal Group, except the Determiner.
The Relator is obligatory.
Formula:

NG
lie

mH

Rel

(Qual)

(Quant)

(Dem) (Mod)

D-xamDles:

a ujeku
& Bush-fowl
(Bush-fovil

Lle ad
Rel.
ja
kuma, k1ch
Babi. '
Hb 5
ivul ka - jas,
said that belonging
him. will
be-called
You-viho-came
said that his name would be You-viho-caine. )

53

3(1)

Rel

Qual

wul pyampal
pich
him long
belonging
(that
long (e. g. stick)

Rel

Dem
p8n.
that
of his)

Mod

Jon gan - chi gi


xi kato
gich
belonging John which are which in house
(John's (e. g. dogs) which axe in thd house)
2.2.4

Gerund Head Nominal

Group (NG Type Ild)

The Gerund Head Nominal Group has the Head manifested by the Gerund Class
(8-3: 1.2.2)The only other Element in this Type of Nominal Group is the
optional

Relator

Formulas

NG
IM

Element.

'

H (Rel)

ExamDle:
Rel
H
un8
ukhtai
sun
rising
(at sunrise)
3.1

: 2.2.5

11b 35

Infinitive

Head Nominal

Group (NG Type IIe)

Head Nominal Group has the Head manifested by the Infinitive


The Infinitive
The only other Elements which may occur in
Class' (8-3 : 1.2.1).
the Demonstrative and the
this Type of Nominal Group are the Relator,
Modifier

Elements

Formula:

NG
IIe

ExamDle:
Rel
Dem
H
bkul
p8n
pxon
their
that
visiting
(the place which they
Note:

(Rel)

(Dem)

(Mod)

Eb 12
were visiting)

Potentially,
Clause may function
an Infinitive
as Head of
the Nominal Group, but no example of thia
occurs in the text.
Head
A Nominal Group occurs in Ha 63 where-the
Infinitive
has a Complement Pronoun'Suffix
examples having
and parallel
the Complement ranif9sted
by a Nominal Group have been elicited:
Head
lodi ier
FHEgin
fier
or:
pfing
pOn
pi
n-ro
-napax...
killing-me
killing
child..
which I did which need
(I ought to have been killed)

3 (1)
3.1

: 2.2.6

Concord

Prefix

Group

Head Nominal

(NG Type lIf)

The Concord Prefix

Head Nominal Group has the Head manifested by the


Concord Prefix Sets la and 2a, (see the table at 10.4 : 1.2)
These are:
(pl.
(pl.
"the
The
ba-),
language
"the
naman of"
S-).
and uof"
(Proper
Relator
is
Noun)
the
Noun
by
Type
I
obligatory
manifested
(8.2

: 2.2.1.1).
(Det)

NG
iif

Formula:

H Rel

(Qual)

(Quant)

(Dem)

(Mod)

ExamDles:
Det
Talon
some
(certain

H Rel
6
Teople-of-cai6
four

Quant
babaakex
four
of Cai6)

people

Qual
H Rel
Dem
nayampal n8n
naTam
The
that
man of Tam tall
(that
tall
man of Tam)
H Rel

Modifier
kan-jipana
wi
wi
ri kaY8mex
(ct)
of Cai6
which
spoken which in Caiomet
of Cai6 which is spoken in Caiomet)

UY8
he dialect
(the dialect
3.1

Demonstrative

: 2.2.7

Word Read Nominal

Group

(NG Type IIg)

The Demonstrative

Word Head Nominal Group has the Head Element manifested


by the Demonstrative Word Class (8.2 : 2.6).
Apart from the Head and
the Elements are all optional.
the Relator,
Formula:

RG
iig

mH

Rel

(Qual)

(Quant)

(Dem) (Mod)

ExamT)les:
H

Rel

xmaal achi xi blay


,zi
7hose hare they
were in yard
(Hare and his friend were (outside)
Rel Mod
H,
ion' ban-chi bki
bi
xi
those John who axe who here
(John

and his

Rel

friends

Quant

who are here)

Dem

Jon bat6b bk8n


bki
those John two
those
(Those two friends
of John's)

55

4b 90
in the yard)

3 (1)

3.1 : 2.2.8

Adverb Head Nominal Group (ITG Type IIh)

The Adverb Head Nominal Group consists of trio Elementst The Head,
(8.3
the
Modifier.
Adverb
Class
by
7
2.2-7)
an
:
and
manifested
NG
IIh

Formulat

2H

Ito d

Examples:

H Mod
ja
ron
mri
onk
so as you said as
(This is what you said)
Mod

An
baand
fan
no ri
to-morrow when he'll
come when
(ItIB
to-morrow he'll
come)

56

CHAPTER3. SECTION 2.
0

3.2

Function

Introduction

The Function

of the Nominal Group may be represented

by the following

diagram:

SENTENCE
Intri Inv

ISetI

Nuel P=p

CLAUSE
0(
All

S1 P1A21C1A31A4FA5
-Ile
lb

ILlid
ADVERBIAL GROUP
1
Preposit. Specifi

OMIN

2(
I

1.2

-1

Nominal

The Nominal

Headl Rel

Groun Class

Group Class

AL
IQI

GROUP
I

Qxit Dem Mod

0 manifests

the

Invocator

Element

of

the

Sentence.
ExamT)le:
NampOli nauyak,
inji
Girl
big
I
(33ig girl,
am I the

8n
k
ji
ni
-a?
laugh the-one(Qn)
who you'll
)
laughing
one whom you are
at?

57

D 18

3(2)

Nominal Group Class 1


3.2 :2
.
The Nominal Group Class 1 manifests the Clause Elements. It may be
divided into Sub-classes according to which of the Clause
further
Elements

it

manifests,

that

is

(Example 1),

to say, NGla manifesting


the Subject. (Example 2),

NG manifesting
lb
the Complement (Example 3),. NG manifesting
Id
the Adjunct 5 (Example 5).
NG manifesting
le

the Adjunct

NG manifesting
Ic
theAdjunat
3 (Example 4),

ExamT)les:

kawet
niaj
ukhtai unS, namp6li ro
uniew
(cp)-enter
to-sweep house
sun girl
rising
(at sunrise,
the girl
came into sweep the house)
6n
2. nul ka - niajhe will
enter the-one
(he will be the one to enter)
itim
3. wundka - faar
divide names
we-shall
(we shall each take a name)

Hb 35

Hb 51-'

Hb 43

6nk
kri m- me ron
chag
you'. 11 fencethus as you know as
(youIll
make' a dam the way you know)
5. a
brem
for
and slept night
and spent the night)

4.

Nominal Group Class 2


3.2 :3
.
The Nominal Group Class 2 is embedded: it
of the Nominal Group.

Hb, 34

manifests

the Relator

Element

Exam-ole:
bkul
kato
-oxong
pon
house visiting
their
that
(the house which they were visiting)
3.2

Nominal

:4

The Nominal
Group

GrouD Class

Group Class

Hb 12

3 manifests

the

Specific

Element

of

the

Adverbial

(6.2).

Ey-anDle:

a nai
x-i uxaand
- xenk ujgku
& she(SP) found Bush-fowl in outside
(and she found Bush-fowl-outside)
58

Hb 23

and

3 (3)
CLASS AND TYPE CORRELATION.
Type

Class

IIdjh
I, IIa, b, c, d, e, flg
11 11

la,
lb
lo

I,

IIa
I, IIa, d
I, lIa, b, c, d, e, f, g

ld
le
2

1, IIa, b, c, e, f

CHAPTER3. SECTION 3.
Nominals

Most

to

potential
the

Component
the

Within
rules

and the

their

function,

the

agreement

Thus the

are

Nominal Concord

Concord

agree

with

Nominal

each other

Group this

exponents
the
ofv

of

of

the

Concord

lexical
features

may-be

Elements

have,

ic

the

Class.

by a set

governed

of. agreeing

have

two Components:

is

Elements
the

by virtue
with

or of

must agree

Head Element

or semantic

into

Qualifier,

of'

of
enforcing

Quantifier,
the

with

will

and internal

be called

specified
three

lexical

as overt

systems

or

of

exponents

Nominal Group Elements will

may be further
arranged

of

say they

agreement

Determiner,

Therefore

may be lexical

respect

to

of Lexical/Semant.

either

Governing Element and the other


Elements.
the Satellite
Concord

is

Nominals,

and Modifier

the Head Element.

in

that

Component

certain

property

other

(*),

Carriers

of Number and the

exponents

Demonstrative

b, f

IIa,

external

or covert.

the

be cal-led
The
,.
These

as followas

overt
covert

semantic

i nternal
external
The exception to this are the Proper Nouns (8.2 : 2.2.1.1),
Simple Pronouns (8.2 : 2.9.1.1)
and the Numerals paaj "six",
(8.2
"five"
kwas
"eight"
and
: 2-5-1)-

the
kanhen

3 (3)
. Lexical

the agreement of a Nominal manifesting


a Satellite
Class and Number of the Nominal manifesting
the Lexical

Concord is

Element with
the Governing
If

overt.
is

be called the Governing Nominal.


the agreement is
have the same (*) prefixes,

Element,

which will

the Concord Carriers


If

the prefixes,

although

agreeing,

the
the
agreement
not
same,
-are

covert.
the Governing Nominal belongs

only if

Semantic Concord exists

to.

being.
is a volitional
when the referent
Element
the Satellite
It is the agreement of the NomiLl manifesting
Governing
Nominal.
Class
the
Number
Semantic
the'
of
and
actual
with
the
Concord is the agreement of the Nominals manifesting
Internal
Semantic Class 1, that

(other

Elements

Satellite

is,

than the Relator)

with

the Governing

Nominal

Group.
Nominal
the
same
of
External

is

Concord

the

Group.

different

Nominal

a Nominal

manifesting

the

of a Nominal

agreement
Concord
Relator

is

always

a Nominal

with

external

in

the

case

of a
of

Element.

Exam-ples,:
L6xical

/overt

Lexical

/covert

Lexical

/overt

Lexical

/covert

Internal:

banhaan, bawaanx
three
people
(three
people)

Internal:

rlon
one

External:

Externals

mex
house

banhaan
people
(people,

bkulb
fing
upi
theykilled,
goat their
killed
their
goat)

(ion aruk-ands, mex) a kachong. Rul ruka bualesa.


(sp)uncoverec
John inherited
its
house &roof
(Its
roof became
)
uncovered.

Semantic - Internal:

Jon ni
Tant han, - chi bki xi
John and Tant who
are who here
(John and Tant who are here)

Semantic - External:

bkul.
Tant bfin g
Jon ni
upi
Their
John and Tant they killed
goat
(John and Tant killed
their goat .)

"same" includes

10.4 : 1.2

alternative

forms of Concord Prefixes

60

listed

in

3 (3)
Nominal

Concord may define

the constituencies

of the Nominal

Groups in cases of embedding.


F,xaml)les,:
.

Head Relator
ubos najan
dog hunter
(hunter's
dog)

Head Qual.
ubos ujan
dog hunter
(hunting dog)

of.

ABCab
16n.
7rul
xmaal ni kachbxan mtum
Hare and speeding mouth his that
(Hare with that quick mouth of his)
The capital
case letters
Concord of

Note:

the Governing
letters
indicate
Elements
the words in agreement with them.
is
-A
Semantic Class (SO lb).

in this

The Concord described


Concord because it

it

Number,

6.1

Group at
6.1
occur

there

the

A series

the

of

may be termed

Verbal

Concord

(see

prefixes

of verbal

the

Person

and

along

with

the

Class

Table

of

Number at
Class

at

grammar

Classes of Verbal
certain
(see Lexical/Semantic
Class,

Clauses

are

10-4

Concord,

relates

to

the

described

in

detail

Concord
10.4

such Verbal

containing
(see Nominal

of Number as it

and Semantic

in

appears

Sub-rank

String

Class

and Semantic

in

points

certain

realized:

This

choice

howeverg

Concord,

: 2.2).
at

is referred
to as Nominal
the nexus between two or more Nominals

: 2.1).

The features

are

and Number.

determines

Nominal

Section

Group or Numeral Phrase (7-3).


is Concord between the Subject and Predicate in

to Person

because

and the lower


a case of

establishes
Elements of the Nominal

manifesting
Clause-Rank
relation

Hb 76

Prefixes

: 1.1,

in

Lexical

: 1-3.

61

Groups may

4.3

Nominalsp
in

: 2).
Lexical

Chapter

which

those

Class

at

10

features

10-4

: 1.2p

At

3 (4)
4. Nominal
-3.4

Group Complex

Introduction

:0

Two or more Nominal

Groups

Group

Complex.

in

a Nominal

may be diagrammed

may

occur

The Types

in
of

paratactic
Nominal

recursion
Group Complex

as follows:
Atributive

Appositional

Evocative
Distributive
Enumerative

Additive
Deprecatory

CITATION PARADIGM:
1.

Appositional
(a)

Attributive,

ninx Jon
man John
(a man called John)
Jon
wi
you, John

Evocative
(c) Distributive

II.
,

nhaan
person
(three

3.waanx
three
for
each

person)

Additive
(a)

Dn=erative

Jon
wi ni
you and John

(b) Deprecatoxy

An
Jon ni ubosul
John and dog-his that
(,John and that dogof his)

62

3 (4)

3.4

Appositional

:I

liominal

Nominal

The Appositional

Group Complex consists

Nominal Groups in paratactic


NG Complex

Fornulat
: 1.1

3.4

Role

Nominal

a Qualifier

of

of two Major

recursion.

Complex

Nominal
Complex

to

the

(111GComplex

consists
the

of which

recursion,

paratactic

Type 1. )

IIG ITGII
ii

Attributive

The Attributive

(NG Complex

Group Corimle

first

of

Type Ia)

two Nominal

one has the

second

Groups

in

Participant

one.

In I-Tanjako, the quention whether the recursion


of the Nominal Group
'is par-atactic
(as in the Nominal Group Complex) or hypotactic
(as
the Relator of another
in the case of a Nominal Group manifesting
Group) can be decided

Vominal
contextual

in paratactic

if

chief",

while

if

of semantic

cannot be ruled

and ambiguity

considerational
ninx
man

on the basis

only

out.

or
Thus:

nasien
chief

recursion
viould be translated
the recursion
were hypotactic,

"the man who was a


it would be "the

The ambiguity is due to the fct that neither


man of the chief".
the Relator nor the second member of the Complex are governed by
the Head (or by the first
member of the Complex, as the*case may
*
be) so that the immediate constituencies
which ax6 usually clqarly
defined by agrepment are not in this case apparent.
the first
one Element,
it continuous
If

Nominal Group of the Complex consists


then the preference
thus:
ab8k
offspring
(daughter)

appears to be iii

of more than
favour of keeping

ngaax
woman

nan-ch: L
ab6kul
offspring-his
who-being
(youngest
daughter)

naties
who little

ngaax
woman

3" (4)
Examples
katetan nalon, ninx napien
story
one
man chief
(A story about a certain-man

Group ComDlek (NG Complex

Group,

Head Nominal

Pronoun

wha-was. a chief)

Group Compl ex has the

Nominal

The Evocative
the

Nominal

Evocative

: 1.2

3.4
.

gG
IIb

NG ComPlexIb

Formula:

as the

Nominal

first

its

of

Type Ib)

Group Type IIb,


members*

NG
IIa

Examplet
8ku
xj
m, - w&raax
Li
,
you good-not
you Bush-fowl
(You bad Buch-fowl)
3.4

Hominal

The Distributive

Group with

a Vominal
tion

is

Nominal

Distributive

: 1.3

marked with

its

Croup

Group Complex

as its

in

the

Type ic)

second member
(This restric-

Element

Quantifier

manifested.
formula. )

I?G*

NG

Ic

(1,TG Complex

Complex must have

an asterisk

NG Complex

Formula:

E 77

Examples
a- chi nhaan iwaam-,
it
is
person tiLree
(there are three (i. e. lettuce
Additive

3. '4 :2

linked

by the

specified
3.4

t 2.1

Group Complex

Nominal

as Enumerative
Enwerative

The Enumerative
These need not

each person)

Nominal Grou-n Complex__(NGComplex Iypq

Nominal

The Additive

for

leaves)

Nominal

consists

Conjunction

"and".

-ni
and Deprecatory.
Nominal

Group Complex

of Nominal
It

Groups

may be further

(NG COMDlex Tne

Group Complex may have more than

be contiguous.

64

to

Ila)
members.

3 (4)

Fo=ula:

'

NG (NL.. NG)x....

NG CompleX
IIa

(NL, -NG)x

where x may be any number, but at least one of


them must be greater than 0 for the Complex to
be realized.
ExamDles:

1. xmaal ni
u.i6ku
Hare and Bush-fowl
(Hare and Bush-fowl

fexar
athey were-fiends
were friends)

Hb 1

2. Ungil a ui
p8nar
pxong
ni umaal
Hyena & he(sp)
went-out travelling
and Hare
(Hyena and Hare went out to make a journey. )
3.4

: 2.2

ComDlex (Nominal

Deprecato

c1

Group Complex Type lIb)

Nominal Group Complex is a Complex whose members are


by structurally
and semantically
narrowly defined classes.

The Deprecatory

represented
It has a deprecatory

overtone

expression

"You and your...

Formula:

NG ComplexlIb

and finds

11as for

its

inst.

counterpart
in

in the English

"You and your cigarettes.

"

NG4 NL NGi*
where NG*

NG**

is usually represented
by Head
alone with the further
restriction
that the Class manifesting
it must
belong to Semantic Class 1
(voliVional
beings).
.
consists either of Head, Relator
(Example 1); or
and Demonstrative
(Ex. 2).
Head, (Relator)and
Qualifier

ExamT)les:
ikaanul
i8n
1. napax ni
that
child and crying-his
(that child with his crying)
2. inji
ni ben bchau
I
and head roasted
(me with my miserable =oasted head)

65

Hb 112

.4
THE SE11TENCE

4-1

Contents

page:

Structure

68

The Elements

of

Introduction

The

68

Structure

70

Element

1.2

Invocation

70

1-3

SettIng

71

1.4

Nucl6us

72
72

Tenses

74

The

1-4.2

Sequence

1.4-3

Chronology

74

1-4-4

Conditionality

75'

of

77

Purpose

1.5
2

Clause

Complex

1-4-1

The

Types

of

Minor

78

Sentence

2.1

1.

2.2

11.

2.2.1

IIa

Simple

2.2.2

IIb

Compound

78

Sentence

79

Sentences

Major

79

Sentence

80

Sentence

80

Function

4.2

Sentence

Class

Sentence

Class

2 (Reported

Sentence

Class-3

82
83
85

'Structure

85

Elements

1.1.2

Sequential

1.1.3

Closing
Nominal

66

86
86

Focal

Speech)

String

The

4.3

81

Concord

.86
86
86

4
CHAPTER4.

THE SENTENCE

Introduction
The Manjako Sentence is a grammatical Unit which is distinguishable
from
contour alone
every other grammatical Unit either by its intonation
(Example
(Example 1) or by its Structure
2) or by Structure
and
alone
intonation

contour

(Example 3)-

ExamDles:
1.

Hb, 56

Ybon.
Well.

Given
intonation
by the fullstoP.
A falling
contour is indicated
the same Unit Would be a Particle,
intonation
contour,
a different
functioning
as Sentence Introduction,
e. g:
namely an Introducer,
"Well, I am going".
Mbon, mgn-xgp
2.

8n
kji
D 18
NampOli nauyak, inji
a?
ni
(Qu)
I
laugh
big
Girl
who
who you
)
(Big girl,
laughing
at me?
are you
The above Sentence consists
of two Elements: the Invocation
and the
The intonation
Nucleus.
as
contour of each exponent functioning
these Elements is falling,
alone
so that, on thebasis of intonation
it would not be possible to decide if the Sentence is a single one
of two parts, or if there are two Sentences standing side
consisting
However, the fact that these two exponents occur side by
by side.
in the first
related
place to'each other,
side, syntactically
them each as a non-sentence and both of them together as
identifies
a Sentence.
A 18

A2 k- mobnin
we?
Hm you: ll catch-with
me what?
(Hm, how will you catch me?)

The above Sentence-consists


and Nucleus a'nd-,
of Introduction
intonation
the level-falling
contour joins them together into one Unit.
the Elements, we conclude that the Unit is
Having then identified
a Sentence.

67

4 (1)
CHAPTER4" SECTION 1Structure
The Structure

ilanjako
of the

Sentence in its

maximurq expaiided form is

the following:

SENTENCE
I
Invocation

Introduction

Setting

Classes:
(8-4 : 1)

Elements:

Manifesting

Introduction

Introducer

Invocation

Nominal Group Class 0 (3.2


Clause Class 2a (5-4 : 2.1.1)
Clause Class 1 (5-4 : 1)
String (4-3)
Clause Class 2b (5-4 : 2.1.2)

Setting
Nucleus
Purpose
4.1

:1

The Elements

of

Purpose

Nucleus

Structure

the maximum expanded Structure


of the Sentence
these
Elements
to
Elements.
The
be
five
of
appears
sequence
of
consists
(In
there
instances
displacement.
few
of
are a
although
quite rigid,
Elements
Ex.
3,
1-3)
All
4.1
may occur together in
of
:
see
particular,
to the diagram,

According

form
by
the
Sentences
in
this
Sentence,
were
accepted
and
elicited
one
However no Sentence in this form occurs in the
informant as grammatical.
if not
is that there axe stylistic,
the inference
data and therefore
grammatical,

on the co-occurrence

restrictions

of the-Blements.

In the first
There may be several reasons for this:
place, the Manjako
'
Sentence is on the average rather short (a computer count of seventeen
In the second place,
of the texts used gave the average as 9- 10 words).
Roles of some of the Elements axe duplicated
the Participant
at other
Ranks.
the

So, for

Sentence

Adjunct

1;

instance,

Rank,
and at

by the
the

the

Participant

Setting

Role

Element;

Group Rank by the

68

at

Auxiliary

of Time when is
the

Clause

Rank,

Element

in

shared,
by

the

Verbal

at

4(1)
Group.
Tire

Xanjako makes a difference


(11,,
'ilion

when.

may be expressed

the
at

sun set"

either

the

between Sideric

and Volitional

vs I'VIhen vie came").


Clause

or the

Time when must be expressed


at the Clause
(ca-me)", for example, msy be translated:

Sentence

Rank.

Time when

Volitional
Rank,

The Clause

but

Sideric

"when He comes

At Sentence Rank: Settin


bi
br8m k- j8k
na-baand bi
a
when he cammo when and night was darkening
(VIhon he came, night was falling)
2.

3-

A-. Claune Rank: Adjunct 1


brem ka - j8k
ubaandiul
Tihon-he-comes nicht will darken
(Whon ho comos, nicht will be falling)
t
At Groun Pank: Auxiliary
a-ja n8-baand br6m Iza- jOk
Ython he comoo niGht wi3l darken
(wbon he comoo, nicht will be falling)

In tho camo v.,ayg the Participant


Role of Purpose is shared, at the
Sentence Rank by the Purpose Element; at the Clause Rank by the Complement, *
Element. E. g.:
and at tho Group Rank by the Auxiliary
1.

Sentence

Rank:

Purnone

rza - ng&l pa
na - bi; or:
I
Como
viant that he
(I want him to come)
2.

Clause

Rank:

=a - neU na - bi
I
want he
come

Comnlement

bi
=a - naU nul pI
viant him to
come
(I viant him to come)
3.

Verbal

Group Rank:

Auxiliarv

Ma - ngLI na - ron
I
by-and-by
want he
(I want him to
come)

n8-bi
he come

69

4 (1)

of Elements

Co-occUrrence
In the Hb Text,

in Text Hb
Sentences of more than one Element are
to the Example numbers below):

the following

found (numbers corresponding


Setting

Invoc

Intro

Nucleus

No. of occurences:

17
3
5
3
3

x
2

3.
4
5

Purp

x
x
x

Examples;
Hb 10 and others

ka-x8p
n1ran
uj6ku
a
to go
consented
and bush-fowl
Bush-fowl
agreed to go)

1.

Mon,
I'lell
(Well,

2.

Hb
97
bi
tot
Bi
unievi
xmaal
ruka
ri
win
gal
90
-a
(sp)
(56,73
(ct)
&
from
house
hare
them
When they
savi
pulled
when
...
)
(Wheni they were pulling
them from the house.. Hare came to realize..
(38
Rb
26
39,41
kaax
Bsent,
A,
a?
nako
mtum
...
Qxi
752 132)
has-not
Hm Vincent
person
mouth
..
(Hm, Vincent
hasn't
he got any mouth? )
...

3.

4.

ba - niaj
uniew
a napax r0- p8ni ........
(cp)
house
they
enter
come-out
and child
....
(and child came out
in)
they
that
go
might
.....

5.

Baxong, da - x6pan uniew


house
Guests you go
(Guests, go inside the house)

4.1

: 1.1

Mcam-ple:
4.1

: 1.2

is

Introduction

See No. 1,

Hb 20 (132 26-27)

Element

The Introduction

The Sentence

Hb 15-16 (102,134)

manifested

by the

Introducer

Class

(8-4

above

Invocation

The Invocation
or by a Nominal

Element

is

manifested
Group Complex (Type

70

by Nominal
lb, Evocative,

Group Class
3.4

: 1.2)

0 (3.2

1)

4 (i)
Rx-ainDles:
8n
kji
namn5li na!yak, inji
a?
ni
(Qu.
)
I
laugh
the-one
bi&
111
gixl
who you.
(Bigo girl,
)
laughing
I
the
am
at?
one you are
ComDlex:

9ku
m- wbxaax
xj
vii
you, Bush-fowl, you good-not
(You bad Bush-fowl)

4.1 : 1.3

Settin
Element

of the Sentence is manifested


Clause (5-4 : 2.1.1) which may be in its

The Setting
Temporal

Role of the Setting

The Participant

Role

Time,

function

in

simple

formt

to describe

or expanded.

the

of time or of causality,
of the event described
Since the Adjunct 1 of the Clause also has the Participant

the Nucleus.
of

Element is

by Clause Class 2a, the

whether

circumstances,
in

E 77

there

does not

Setting,

the

appear

and in

fact

to be any need for


no Complex

is

a Complex

found

in

the

to
data. -

EbcamDles:

Particiy)ant
1.

Role

of

Time.

Expanded

Form

Expansion
Nucleus
Setting
kawet
Bi
uniew bfa
a na- wini
napax k-baand bi
.. a na-tuk..
When child
arxived
when sweeping house morning & she saw ... & she ran..
(In the morning when the child
was coming to sweep the house, and she
Hb 73
she ran ....
saw ......

Exceptionally,
-,
3.

ExT)anded Foxm

Nucleus
Expansion
SettinR
'
bi uman-A
m-baand. -Hb56
chi bi ank wan,
s6ma nako
chix,
I
I come...
is
like
as thus that
shall
as it
person is-not
....
(If
that is the case, I mean, now that he is not here
... as) soon
as I get there
...

Participant
2.

Role of Causality.

the

Setting

may follow

the

Sentence

Nucleus:

Nucleus
-Setting
bi
ba gal
bi
byaas
ulof
a- re
ga - p6nar
thirst
it hurt (past) them when they went-out
when journey
(thixst
has been plaguing
them ever since they started
their

E6journey)

4 (1)
4.1 : 1.4

Nucleus

The Nucleus
Clause

the

of

Sentence

may be manifested

1 (Nuclear

Class

(see

The String

Clause,

-following:

see 5.4

4-3)

Role of the Nucleus is the description

The Participant

of the main event(s)


If more than one Clause functions
in the
between the events may also be communicated

communicated by the Sentence.


Nucleus, then the relationships
the Nucleus,

within

by the

in the juxtaposition

of Clauses and lineal


Participant
Roles.

the Nucleus further

of tenses' giving

sequence

The Clrnuse Complex

4.1 : 1.4.1

The Clause Complex may have an Initial


Clause (5.2 : 15) in the (lineally)
The other Clauses of the Complex may be any Clause of Class !a
first
place.
(Coordinate)
(Principal)
lb
Class
drawing on any other of the Nuclear
or
in section

Types listed

Sub-rank

String

5.2.

and their

(The String).

(Coordinate)

Clauses of Class lb
is described

ocqurronce

into

enter

the

in section 4-3
+primary in the

separately

The Initial

Clause has the specification


in the selection
Verbal Group, realized
Prefix from one of
of an Identifier
(+ideal).
Set
2
The other
the Primary Tense Sets, Set 1 (+actual),
or

Clauses of the Complex, if they have the'choice


+prim! 2ZZ or +secondary in thE
Verbal Group, have the specification
+secondary ahd. draiv on one of the
(+ideal).
Secondary Tense Sots, Set 2 (+actual),,
Set
4
or
The basic

they

the

events

the

Participant

(5.2

in

or

Role

the

existence

Participant

of a previous

: 1.4.2,
the 11anjako of all

and the

thus

described

are

The Manjako

spoken

Participant

Roles

Participant

from

of

have.. the

Roles-

greater

below

detail

regulax

us-age in

by the younger
for

the

Portuguese2
Roles

Group)

contingericy

may also

to be the

appear

particles

in

has

Clause
Verbal

its

some sort

The Nucleus

of Tenses),

additional

in

that

thus

a Non-initial

These two Participant


which

foreign

however,

is

The Nucleus

time.

indicates

condition.

has further

by introducing M

The Particles,

it

place,

generations.

in

the Nucleus

in

of +secondary

Conditionality.

Sequence

however,

generation,

If,

6pecification

first

Clases

of

each other

Chronology.

has the

of

sequence

and Conditionality,

4-1

achieved

the

succeed

of

lineally

Role

Chronology
(see

describe

(which

: 16)

occurs

in

assumption

'which

Nucleus

Element,

Creole

or Fxench.

they'introduce

4(1)
into

the Nucleus Element,

(a)

Mar,

(b)

te,

(c)

ma, man

par

parnk,

me the following:

ujara,

par

ub8ru

ate

The Ilzmjako spoken by the old people

introducing

Cause

introducing

Duration

introducing

Contrast

would. express

these Participbmt

Roles as follows:
Example (a)

by juxtaposition

of Sentences;
(5
X)
Cause
Sequential
by a
with optional
-42.,
lengthening
linguistic
of the vowel of the Verbal
Clause (5-4 : 1.2-1)
by a Sequential

Rx9mple (b)
Example (c)

paraConjunction.

Mcam-ples:
1.

Time-seauence
A
ga. - x6p,
a
ga - baand pxong,
a
ga - nx
xi blay
arid they stood in yard
and they went and they came visiting
(and they went, and they came to the place where they were
and they stood in the yard)
going to pay a visit,

2.

HbIJ,

Condition
ba
katimu,
kba - r8ox
c1ii ni
ubon
be with hunger
they call-not(past)
name-your youIll
(if they do. not call your name, you'll
be hungry)

3(a) Cause (introduced

by foreirrn

particle)_

katimul
kaay.
-par
pxefi,
roaax
had-not seat
since name-his called-not
-(He had no seat, because his name was not called)
3(b) Cause (not

Hb 9

Hb 14

introduced

Inji
Ila
da- xisan
xi
mexinji.
nagebelen
ngdlax
mak
like-not
But you go-home from house-my I
much
-trouble-maker
(Ileverthelessi.
eet out of my house and go home, because I dontt
like. trouble
makers much)

4(a) Duration

(introduced

by foreim

--particle)
A
go - baand ......
ga - pen to
they came
and they vent till
....
)
(And they vient on and came
....

4(b) Duration

(not

introduced)

likar
au-a
and she filled(till)
(She filled
it till

Hb 87

Hb 106

D 11 - 13
likar,
pa-baand
pnchuaf ...
auyt-,,
apa-c
It
ful"L.
filled
it
and
and it ciarrive middle
she
and
...
it was half-fall
filled
it
she
with water to
...
the brim)
73

4 (1)
(a)

Contrast'(introduced

by foreign

particle)

da. -perdiaari
mam - bi I&chul
ma
.....
(sp)blamed-her
I
but you forgive
...
(I put blame on her, but forgive
me)
5 (b)

Contrast

(not

CM 17

introduced)

Eb 53
a
na-chi xi p-ji,
a m-pinx kangander bkaab
bed
and he is in laughing and I lie
cry-wet
(He keeps laughing at me, and I lie making. my bed wet with tears)
4.1

: 1.4.2

Sequence

of

Tenses

in the Clause Complex-may express Chronology' br


Conditionality,
which may be regarded as two simultaneous'Teinie
systems.
described below (4-1 : 1-4-3 & 4). In
Each has the choice of two features,
The sequences of tenses

two Clauses of the Complex, the choice


(6.1 : 2.2) gives four possible
tense sequences,
diagram.
Of these, Sequences I and II
following
the first

Chronology

and Sequences III

Tenses
Clause 1

+ideal

in the
to

Clause 2
+ideal

II

+actual

+actual

III

+actual

+ideal

IV

or +ideal

as illustrated

are relevant
and IV to Conditionality.

Sequence

4.1 : 1.4.

of ectual

+ideal

+actual

Chronology

Conclitionality

Chronology

A system of two Tense features is relevant


features +successive or +contempo=aneous:
E

to Chronology. -These are the

successive
contemporaneous

The feature

+successive

indicates

that

74

the events

of the Clauses follow

4 (1)
each other

The realization
in the above diagram.

in time.

successively

Sequences Nos. I and II.


favourite
Sequence of didactic

of this

feature

is in

Sequence No. 1. is

the

Whole passages of the Data, e. g.


(Text CS), or How to plant, rice (Text PR), employ
How to catch squirrels
this Sequence. Sequence No. II occurs in every kind of narrative
prose,
e. g. Fables,

prose.

Epic.

ExwnT)les:
1 (01.1

Seauence
1.

2.

k8

ba,
kfinish
you will
you'll
finished
the harvest,
)
time.
for
some

Ki
chet,
You will
break
(When you have
Then you wait

(Cl. 1 : +primary;

Seauence II

C1.2

+ideal.

: +primary;

The feature

p8nan
get out
you take

that

the events
is'realized

This feature

Clauses occur simultaneously.


the Clause Class lbc, (Clause

Xutul.
glean. You'll
the g1panings

kiyay-ko-PR

+actual)
A1

in the two

described

in the presence
The is unmarked as regards Tense).

class

wait
-thing
away.

a
na-fing
ixyet .....
and he killed
cow ...
)
a cow .....

indicates

+contemporaneous

+ideal)

C1.2 : +secondary,;

+actual.

Ninx namgnx
nan a- ro pfesta
that he did feast
Ilan the-said
(The said man gave a feast,
killed

: +secondary;

of

Exam-ole:
Ulion aLion
it
(The lion

mob
caught
caught

fing.
vrul a
it
and killed
it.
and killed

18)
)

Conditionality

A. 1 : 1.4.4

features

two Tense

A system

of

features,

+-orecedent

is

to Conditionality.

relevant

These are

21

the

or +subsequent:

precedent
subsequent
If

the

two Clauses

do not
then

+actual

vs +ideal,

ship

Conditionality.

of

Sequences
Sequence

are
III

No.

III

both

this

select

is

the

same feature

from

that

are

an indication

As may be seen from


and No. IV.

and +subseguent

in

The feature
Sequence

IV.

the

they
diagram

+precedent
In-Sequence

the
in

system
a relation-

on P-742
is
III,

thepossible

realized
both

in
Clauses
I

'(1)
.4
one being a Non-initial

always have Secondary Tense, the first


(5.2 : 16) as mentioned above.

Clause

Exam-oles:
Condition

Subsequent:

(Sequence:

tuk. a
ka, m- pok
lie-vrill
run and you forbid
(He viould have run and you

C1.1 +primary,

forbade

+ideal;

CI. 2: Fsecondary,
+actual )

him)

mVrut
Jain
ri aninji,
ME - xis
-am(it)
leave
that-I
to
I-shall
mother-my and you said-to-me
return
(I would have returned to my mother, and you told me that I should not)
d8

ubaabu ,a
- x6p
foreign-country
go
you'll
(You would have gone abroad,
Condition

Precedent:

na - chax
died
and he
had he not died)

(Sequence:

C1.1;

+Secondary,

bakaalam
aninji,
uchi ya n_= x9p ni
if
evil-spirits
go with mother-my,
go I
(if
I go with my mother,
evil
spirits
will

+actual;

Cl.

kai - rein
will
eat-me
eat me)

kba - r6ox
ba katimu,
chi ni
ubon
(cp) name-your
hunger
be, with
they call-not
you-viill
(If
be hungry)
they do not call
your name, you will
m
ro
ri
X0
in
you had put
(If you had put

ka bixe
ubol-a,
will
unexpectedly-not
pocket
it would not
it in your pocket,

2: +secondj_=
+ideal)
G 18

11b

ro
niam
had lost
happen to be lost)

8k
ka
ri
up,
uro chi
xi,
chi
n- ro
- niam
lost
lien
it
here
being
I
had be
not will
(If I had been here, the hen would not have got lost)
da - roox
ktotin
xi kanhan,
-ka
(ot)pull-me
I will
had-not
by hand
you
(If you had not kept
me by my hand,
pulling

76

f6r
sleep
I would

uxand
outside
have slept

Hb 51
outside)

4(1)
: 1.5

4.1

Purpose
Element

The Purpose
(Purpose

Clause

5.4

of

the

Sentence

),
: 2.1.

which

is

manifested

may be in

its

by Clause
simple

Class

form;

2b

or

expand.ed.
Role of the Purpose Element is

The Participant

the statement of the


in the Nucleus is done. This in

purpose for which the action described


itself
of the choice of Semantic Class,
already presents a restriction
(volitional
belonging
to
Semantic
Class
1
beings)
since only an entity
(10.4

: 1-3),
the Nucleus.

may have a purpose in mind for

the activity

described

in

Examples:
Pumosive
1.

ExDanded Form

Purpose
Expansion
bi
kalon re
naam re
uvamax, auubSk wul
chax*
(sp)
his
lest
one
seem eat meat
and he died
son
his
that
think
he'll
son
not
away,
so
would
of
run
straight
....
eating'the
meat, so that he would not die)

Nucleus
ka-mint
he'll-run

Subjunctive
2.

Clause:

Clause

kawetar
bkul unievi
ba - niaj
uniew
.to-sweep-for
them house
they enter house
(to sweep the house Vor them, that they mient

Infinitive

Hb 16
go in)

Clause : Complex

ka-p6ni
ri
PAM
pya
to-go
will
come-out from shelter
(comes out of the kitchen-shelter

77

Hb 22
ptaaban bkul br6a
them fire
to-light
the fire
to light
to
go
...
for them)

Hbl38

4 (1)
4.1

: 2,

The Types
to

According

into

divided

Sentence

of

the

differences

the

following

in

their

Structure,

the

Sentences

may be

Types:

linor
Simple
Major
Compound
CITATION -PARADIGM:
Minor

Type I.

Mbon.
Well.
Major

Type II.

4.1

(a)

Simple

Jon
ax6p.
John he
vient.
(John
)
went.

(b)

Compound

Jon,
m- me,
ax8p.
John, you know, he went.
(John, you know, went. )

Minor-Sentence

: 2.1

The Minor

Sentence

Formula:

Co-occu. rrence
In

the

data

does not
(Intr)

+(

(Sentence
have

T-Ype I)
Nucleus

the

Element

(Setting)

(Invoc)

manifested.

('Pu:pp)

of Elements
there

is

no example

of a Minor

Sentence

consisting

one Element.
ExamDles:
Introduction
1.

Invocation

only:.

2.

Mbon.

Well.
(That's

alright.

)
+(
signifies:
at least
,
-must be manifested

one of

78

the

Mporta
Mporta
(name)

only:
Kninki
Kninki

optional

Elements

of more than

4 (1)
Setting
3.

only:

Bimng'tl bi.
as
as you like
(A s you* like.

Purpose
4.

only

Nul xnhaakan.
He not talk.
(Let him not talk.

Major

Sentences

Major

: 2.2

4.1

33

(Sentences

Type II)

Sentences have the Nucleus Element manifested.

They are further

as : Simple and Compound.

specified

Simple Sentence (Sentence

A. 1 : 2.2.1

Type IIa)

The co-occm=ence of Elements in the Major Sentence has been discussed above
(see 4-1 : l)It remains to be mentioned that, depending on the Type of
the Nucleus,
Clause manifesting
follows:
differ
as
may

the preferred

structure

of the Sentences

Sentences whose Nucleus is manifested by a Clause Type IIaab


Element.
Clause) usually lack the Invocation

(Deciarative.,

(Anticipatory)
Clause
is
by
Type
IIaaa
Nucleus
Sentences whose
a
manifested
Introduction
their
Elements manifested,
Invocation
found
and
with
are, often
This is because, as
but less often with the Setting and Purpose Elements.
haS already
Participant
Formula:

been mentioned, Manjako prefers short Sentences, and the


Roles of Setting and Purpose can be handled at other Ranks.

SIIa

*'

(Intr)

(Invoc)

(Setting)

Nuc (Purp)

Examples:

1.

2.

Invocation
UJ&ku,
Bush-'fowl,
(Bush-fowl,

Nucleus
:Inial
a?
ri
-_
'm
_kQu
enter
you not will
)
in?
won't you go

Settina
Bi
baand
mwhen you arrived
(When you arrived

Nucleus
bi
amrich
pl9man
when and you shut door
you shut the door so the

79

Hb 24

Purpose
pa ub8s rix
for dog will-not
dog''could
not run

tuk.
run
)
away.

4 (2)
Compound S6ntence (Sentence

2.2.2

A Compound Sentence
Folktales,

consisting
is

of which
NazTative,
to

is

type

a special
of

the

other

Utterance

Sentence,

of

two Sentences

a member of a different

Ilb)

a direct

in

occurring
interposed,

parenthetically

Utterance,

being

often

one Utterance
addr&ss

of

each

being

the

the

the

Narrator.

the Hearers.

Pormula:

S
IIb

S
IIa***

in the data only the V6rb m-me, "you Imow",


occurs in the
Nucleus of the Sentence in parenthesis
(%m-te, "you understand"
may also occur).
Exam-olo:
A
ifetar
and husks
(The maize
Athey
till

buar
fill
they

mmaaj, ii
maize
which
husks which,
ni
with
fill

CHApTER 4.

The Function

i8nk,
ka - k1ret
m- me
uko
you know which animal will
gnaw
as you know, the animal gnavis

kao wul ri mtum,


him in mouth
will(cp)
his mouth, kept falling

SECTIOIT 2.

yer
xi blay
.on floor
fall
on the floor

ifetar
husks

11b 71
uniew.
house
of the house. )

Function

of the Sentence may be represented

by the followirw,,

diagram:

UTTERANCB
CLASS 1'

BNTD

11 CE

CLAUSB
CLASS 31

All

S*IPIA21C

CLASS 2
lAdi

3-4

lAdj5

NOMINAL GROUP
Rel

80

Qual 0,-=lt

ID

73

4 (2)
Sentence Class

4.2 :1

Class 1 function

Sentences
viz.

in the Utterance.

Their function
is univariate;
(see
below),
diagram
the
and
to
sequence
as

not Governed by restrictions

describes
causal

A simple

is always paratactic.
events in chronological

recursion

connection

juxtaposition

sequence;

or,

of Sentences

depending

on context,

in

(see 4.1 : 1-4)-

UTTERANCE

FSENTENCE

I.

- Chronological

Causal

Rb 104 - 105
A
Au
ben
bjenx.
u- fing
a
chau.
-ruk
head clean
and he killed
and roasted
and he left
him.
He killed
it and roasted
the. hdad.
it and left
)
clean.

sequence:

A
wul.
U- lip
him
and he waited
(And he waited
for
2.

SENTENCE SENTENC

connection:

Uko
Par enxax
Djaill: ... .....
to'say-him
Animal
For dare-not
(For he did_not
dare to say to him
4.2

:2

Sentence

2 (Reported

Class

kawa
was-ashamed
)
He
was ashamed.
.....

Hb 18,19

Speech)(*)

Sentence Class 2 functions


reported
Indirect

at the Clause Rank as Complement. It is


Statement, or a Direct or
speech, either a Direct or Indirect
The Sentence Class 2 follows the Verb ja (to say) or
Question..

The Direct and Indirect


Statements and the Direct
some such Verb.
(from Creole) (8-4
by a Marker kuma "that"
Questions may be introduced
: 2)
Indirect
Questions axe always introduced
by a Marker ne "whether" f=equently
(8"thus"
3: 2.2 - 4)The following
the
Adverbank
diagram
occuring with
illustrates

the function

functioning

as Reported

of the Ma,kers together

with

the Sentence

Speech:

(*)For discussion
Clauses which axe similar
of Objectival
Class, see 5.4 : 2.2.1.
Example of Objectival
Clause:
"n8
bi
bi
ro
meex
do how
he-did-not-knovi
how he
(he did not know what to do)

in function

to this

4 (2)

SENTENCE

CLAUSE COMEMENT
Direct

Statement

F-Indirect

Statement

r PARTIG

III
_PARTICLE
(ardc)
ne. ..

kum

Key:
Square. junction
Round junction
It

ought to be further

.....
.....

Marker
add Obligatory
add Optional Maxker

mentioned,

that

occurs often vrith Indirect'Statements,


and Direct Questions.
it

B=,

Statement

(without

Direct

Statements

11arker)

(with

Statement'(without

Hb 104

Marker),

ba - ja
k-uma : Baxong, da - moban ixefi.
a
take
and they said that
: Guests, you
seats.
(and they said:
Sit dorm, guests. )

Indirect

3.

and seldom with

TAS- -,
A
fin
xmaal ja
vrul:
I-shall
kill.
said him
and hare
(Hare said : I111 kill
)
mine.

Direct'Statement
2.

the Marker kuma is-optional,

Dles:

Direct
1.

although

Hb 12 - 13

Marker)

A
ja
ka - fing. Ka - xij
xjgku
pok
a
ri
ub8s wul. Hb 102
He'll
103
lead dog
and Bush-fowl denied and said not will kill
-his
(But the Bush-fowl said he would not kill
his.
He would take his dog. )

4 (2)
Indi; rect
4:

(Without

Question

kM
ri
xef- a?
You not will
0
sit
,u
Won't you sit dovm? )

ujeku:
and she said Bush-fowl
(She said to Bush-fovil:
QAestion-(with

Babi.
Eb 5
You-viho-came

Marker

ja

Au-

Direct
6.

Marker)

A
ja
k=a k1ch
vul ka-jaa
ujgku
and Bush-fowl said that the-onb his will be-called
)
(Bush-fowl said his name would-be You-who
-came..

Direct
5.

(with

Statement

Hb 17

Marker)-

Hb 76,77
E,
1A
bki?
Ja
Babi
kuma:
ja
yen?
rix
u,
rina
Hm,
You
he
that
who?
not say You-vil-io-came
said
straight-away
-theso
)
(he said straight
Why
don't
You-who-came?
this
you say
away: Hm, who?

Question
Indirect
a- wAxa ank
7- iaten
uyamax ne uko
if animal it
to-see meat
good if
(to look at the meat, to see if it was good)

4.2

-:--3

Hb 129

Sentence Class 3-

in the Nominal Group as Modifier.


Sentence Class 3 functions
the
in the Modifier,
When-a Sentence is rankshifted
-to function
Clause. This Clause is
in its first
Markers function
Adjectival
transformed

into

an

Adjectival

Sentence it

the underlying

Clause,

although

was a Nuclear

in the structure

thus
of

Clause.

Examr)le:
bi
11bon, bga bi
uvilxna
ufox u-jaait
turn-by
he
he
back
Well
say
vjhij
which
way
(Well,
the way by which he might turn back to say:
kaxe
chi.
was
no-longer
it-was
no longer

IFO 115 - 116


)
to
him'.
open

This Sentence is a good example of multiple


the following

fing
i
inj
on
chi
the-one
killed
was I
I was the one who killed

analysis:

downranking,

as will

be shown in

4 (2)

Hb 115 - 116
Ybon, bga bi
u- w1--xma
Well
way which he turn-by
(Well,
by
he
way
which
-the
it,
open to
was no longer

bi
which
might
him. )

fing
ufex u -ja
a- chi inji
On kaxe chi.
back he say it was I
kill
was.
who not
turn back to say: I was the one who killed

TAbon, bma

kaxe

chi

SENTENCE
Nucleus

Intr

CLAUSE
Subj ect
NOMINAL
12i

'bi

u- VIINMR

Nucleus
I
trker

la
1Predicat(
E GROUP
tx
I Ledx

GROUPlb

uf'p-x ii -.! a
SENTENCE I

inji

a. - chi

finp. - on

Purpose

-I
Fllied.

CLAUSE 4bb
I Mark
I Predicate

CLAUSE 2b
COMDlement
SENTENCE 2
Fu-cleus
inji

a-chi

ICLAUSE la
Lred.
1 C.

V. GR.
[Ul IL

fing-on
CL. la
M-

red

MG1 r. GR. 11,11


FV.
-G-.

fl-G-2
FN-G7lc
2C
beajd Le x
Idl LeAI

DN

__j

nt

Nm

I. V[D.
N. I ?,,

MBM.

JCD

C,
3

:j
Ci.

000
z

t-,

00

co

zp
0
*
j

tj

CD

0-

Ct.
"n
--n
& C+ ce
0

VB
jCfD+0

cn

(D
0

CD

VB

VB
-M

En

C/I

000000

CD

C*o

cn

mn
F

I NOUNIJ

CD
C+

t=j

1=1

CD
l

CD
11

0
0

(D

CD

0
0
H

C+
1-1
ra
f-

%_n C+ l 0w

cil

F-J

aN

I-j

-"-

C)

CD 0
ci.

41.

t:. 4

t-4

P,

CD

P,

(D

CD
-4

I'd

;n

--j

0
C+
I-J

F-j

I-j

1-i

cf-

ci-

0
0
Cf-

1\3

Na

N)

(rrn
C,:) 0
o ::s

(D ::I ca
0 ciF1

1--j %-,

;o

;Q

84

CD

CD

CD
x
Fj.
-j

P.

CD
0
0

11-1
-j
0

CD

F-i

NY

P& C+
P.

C+

(D
CD

-"w
1--i

.0

d
0

o
ci-

00

Ci.

4h-

..

In

t-I

-j

rQ

rn

t-4

CO
co

VB 7D,RE

CD I

rn
CD

rJ2
U2
(D

(D

0
0

ca
CD

CD

-4

cn

i
-7-1
rr

%.
A

N)

\-Q

I'D

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ci-

4 (3)
SECTION 3,

CHAPTER4.

The Strin

e Complex of Nuclear Clauses (see 5-4 : 1) and as such it


belongs to 4.1 : 1.4.
However, since it is a very elaborate
logically
Complex, having a definite
Structure,
it is convenient to make it into a
Unit of a Rank. On the other hand, it is limited
in its functional
The String

is

it functions
Its
only in the Nucleus of the Sentence.
possibilities:
Rank is thereford, not a Rank in the sense in which e. g. the Clause Rank
to call it
and the Group Rank are Ranks. It will be convenient therefore
a Sub-rank.
in the String are all Coordinate Clauses
The Clauses which function
(Type Ilaabb) having the feature +secondary in the Verbal Group. The
Role of Chronology

Participant
in the String
(i)

in the Sentence Nucleus is

expressed

in that:

the feature

is realized
in the usual sequence of tenses
(Sequence
II of the diagram on
+actual

+successive

in the String:

+actual;

page 74),*
(ii).

the feature
Class lbo,

is realized

+contemporaneous

the Closing

manifesting

in the presence
Element of the String

of Clause
(see

4.3 : 1.2.3).
Nominal Concord in the Stringis

4.3

:1

discussed

at 4.3 : 2.

Structure

The Structure

of the String

in its

maximum expanded foxm is

STRING
Focal

Sequential

Elements:

ManifestinR

Focal

Clause Class lba

(5-4

: R-1)

Sequen#al

Clause Class lbb

(5-4

: 1-22)

Closing

Clause Class lbc

(5-4

: lZ5)

Classes:

89

Closing

the following:

4 (3)
Elements

4.3 : 1.1
All
is

Elements are optional,


but the essential
that it must have at least two Coordinate

Clauses.

Element is manifested,
they occur in the lineal
the diagram on the previous page.

4.3 : 1.1.1

of the String

characteristic
If

more than one


in
sequence indicated

Pocal

The Pocal Element is manifested by the Pocal Clause (Clause Class lba,
The Pocal, Element is always manifested by a single member,
5.4 : 1.2.1).
and never a Complex.
Rxampl

A
ulion
and lion

YhLnk na
took from

(And the lion

4.3

took the gazelle

auand he

B 17

re.
ate

from his hand and he ate it.

Sequential

1.1.2

viul ub?Lcha,
him gazelle

Element is manifested by the Sequential


Clause (Clause
It may be manifested by a single exponent of
Class lbb, 5.4 : 1.2.2).
that Class, or by a Complex.

The Sequential

Example:

A
ptibi
a
nasien p8nandi
na-vrul unel
a
na-ja
"Tul C7s8
brought-out
matchet
and he gave hyena and he said him
and chief
(The chief brought out a matchet and gave it to the hyena and said to him, )
Closin

A. 3 :
The Closing
5.4

: 1.2-3)-

seldom

Element
It

is
is

manifested

usually

by the

manifested

Closing

Clause

by a single

(clause

exponent,

class
andonly

by a Complex.

xwn-ol e:

finfr
mob
un,-Il a
auand he caught Hyena and killed.
(He caught Hyena and killed
it. )
A. 3 :2
Nominal

Nominal

B 18
.

Concord

Coneord. describod

at

3.3

may be manifested
(36

wherever

'ibc,

4 (3)
Clause with

the featuresecondary

in the Verbal

Group may function,


Clauses (5.2 : 19) and some

e. g. in the Sentence Nucleus in Sequential


Clauses (5.2 : 16); or peripherall
Non-initial
in Subrogated Clause
(5.2 : 23). It is moreover particularly
displayed in the Sequential
Element of the String

where a number of Sequential

Concord with several


manifesting
The'exponents
Example 2 below).

Clauses may occurj


(see
governing entities

different

of Identifier
manifest Concord of Class and Number realized
1.2). Nominal Concord provides a grammatical
and

other

entities,

Nominals or Verbs,

with

1 in the Verbal

Group

in the Concord Prefixes


between the Verbal

link

which it

(10-4
Group

is logically

connected.
Exam-oles:
aB2dba
A
ba - kob ub8s nasien
chief
and they hit dog
(And they hit
the chief's
tuk
ran

ni
Zko
with stick
dog with

a
j2a-cheta,
and it broke
a stick
and it

a
uand it
broke,

ba chax, a
died
and they
and it died

c
na-riabax.
a
Teangry.
and

)
he
they
was angry.
ran avray and
and
(elicited)
Example
illustrates
four separate agreements, marked
The above
by the letters
a, b, c, and d; the upper case marks the Governing Element.
ABabC
21

Ti
jej
likar,
A
2liki
ivul, a
Rpit
he
took
her
filled
And grass-fly
pot
and
(Sand-fly
took her water-pot
it,
and filled

baand
a
-onchuaf,
pa
and it
arrive
njiddle
and when it, was half-full

aaDa
!
jej
likar,
aua
pkaanda,
11 - y6nx
a
he put-on-head
and she took calabash
and she filled-with-water
and
head and then she took a calabash
and filled
she put it onto her
b
pa-chum.

it flail
'with

water

a
and
it
D 11

to

the

brim.

I.,

13
-

5
CHAPTER5.

THE CLAUSE
Contents

5
5.1 :
1
1.1
1.1.1

page:

The Clause - Introduction


The Clause and the Nominal Group

93

Structure

95

Elements. of Structure
Elements of the Adjunct
Adjunct 1

92

96
Stratum

96
96

1.1.2

Adjunct

97

1.1-3

Adjunct

97

1-1-4

Adjunct

98

1.1.5

Adjunct

99

1.2

Elements

of the Mood Stratum

99

1.2.1

Marker

99

1.2.2

Link

99

1.2.3

Focus

1.2.4
1.3

100

11,
redicate
Elements of the Transitivity

100
Stratum

100-

1.3.1

Subject

100

1-3.2

Predicate

102

1.3.3

Complement

103

Mood and Theme


I. Minor Clause

106

5.2 :
2
3
4
5
6
7

112',

II. Major Clauses

112

Finite-Clauses

IIa
Ilaa

Nuclear

112

Clauses

IIaaa, Anticipatory
IIaaaa

Hortative

Clauses

IIaa-aa, Imperative

10
11
12
12.1

IIaaab

Interrogative

Non-polar

113
113.

Clause

113

Clause

113

Clauses

IIaaaba Po Clause
(Emphatic and Non-emphatic
IIaaabb

112

Clauses

IIaaa7o Subjunctive
9

112

Clause
Non-emphatic
88

113
Clauses)

114
114
114

5
114

Emphatic

12.2
IIaab

13

115
115

Clause

1Iaabaa Initial

15

Clauses

Non-coordinate

IIaaba

14

115

Clauses

Declarative

15.1

Non-emphatic

115

15.2

Emphatic

116

IIaabab

16

Clause

Non-initial

116

16.1

Non-emphatic

116

16.2

Emphatic

116

Coordinate

lIaabb

17

Clauses

116

Non-emphatic

117

Emphatic

117

11aabba Focal

18
18.1
18.2
19
20

Ilaabbb

Sequential

IIaabbc

Closing

Peripheral

IIab

21

IIaba

22

24.2
IIabbb

25

Clauses"
Clause.

118
Clauses

lis

Emphatic

118

Adjectival

26.1
26.2

Clauses
Clause

119
119

Non-emphatic

120

Emphatic-

120

,Non-integrated

IIabbbb

27

118

Non-emphatic

Mabbba Integrated

26

118

Clauses

Modificational.

24.1

117
117

Clause

Subrogated

IIabba

24

Clause

117

Purposive

lIabb

23

116

Clauses

Clause

121

27-1

Non-emphatic

121

27.2

Emphatic

121

Clause

122

28

Infinitive

IIb

123

Transitivity

5.3 :
1
2
3
4

Clause

A. Non-agentive
B. Agentive
BI

128

Clauses

Intensive

Clauses

BIa,

P=ocessive

BIb

Stative

Ble

Resultative

127

Clause

Clause
Clause

128

129
129
130

BII

BIIa.

Qualitative

BIIb

Kinetic

10

BIIba'

11

BIIbb

12

B11o' Effective

131

Kinetio/Non-directed

Clause

'Kinetic/Directed

BIloaa

14

131

Clause,

Clauses

133
134

Clauses

134

Clauses

Operative

15

BIIcaaa

Directive

16

BIIcaab

Instrumental

17

IIcaac

Benefactive

18

BIIcaad

Respective

132
132

Clause

Clauses

B11ca Simplex

13

130

Extensive Clauses

135

Clause
Clause
Clause

135
.
136
1*37

Clause

138

19

BlIcab

Middle

Clause

20

BIleac

Receptive

Clauses

139

Passive

Clauses

139

21

BlIcaca.

22

33IIcacaa Passive/Recipient

23

BIIcacab

Passive/Goal

24

BIIcacb

Ergative

BIIcb

25

Clause

Clause

139
139
140

Clause

142

Complex Clauses
Clause

143

26

BIIcba

Middle-transitive

27

BIIabaa

Middle-transitive/Benefactive

143

28

BIIabab

Middle-transitive/Directive

144

29

BIIcbb

Inner-transitive

144

30

B11obc

Double-transitive

3IId

31

Descriptive

Clause

1
1.2

Clause

145
146
147

Function

5.4 :

Clause

Nuclear

Clauses

la

Principal Clauses

lb

Coordinate

Clauses

1.2.1

lba

Focal

Clause

1.2.2

lbb

Sequential

1.2.3

Ibc

Closing

Clause

Clause

149

149
149
149
149
150

5-4 :22,3v
2.1

4
2

2.1.2
2.2

functioning

2a

2.1.1

Clauses

150

in the Sentence Periphery

150

The Peripheral

150

Temporal Clause

150

Purpose
Clause
2b
3 Embedded Clauses

151

2.2.1

3a

Objectival.

Clause

151

2.2.2

3b

Locational

Clause

151

Clauses

152

2.3

Rankshifted

2.3.1

4a

Relational

Clause

152

2.3.2

4b

Adjectival

Clause

152

2.3.2.1

4ba

Integrated

2.3.2.2

4bb

Non-integrated

2-3.3

4c

Lexical

Clause
Clause

Clause

152
152
153

91

CHAPTER 5.

THE CI:AUSE

Introduction
This

chapter

is

the

Clause.

The Elements

of

in

described
intervening
three

section
sections

Components.

into

divided

of

-four
Structure

1 and the

Function

deal

the

with
is

Account

for

sections

taken

of
in

Clause
of

the

the

the

description

Clause

The two

4.

section

axe

Structure

in

fact

some of

that

terms

of
the

to form more cohesive entities


than
is the Subject - Predicate
Complement
others. One such entity
Component
of the Transitivity
sequence, within which the features

Elements combine together

are realized.
Halliday

states:,

"The English

of three main areas of syntactic


(1967a; 199).
Ile describes
these
components,

and this

concept

is

clause

...

choice:
as three
adopted

can be regarded
transitivity,

as the

domain

mood and theme!,

structures,
-simultaneous
for the discussion
of the

or

mood and theme in Manjako.

Components'transitivityj

Since the Transitivity

Component finds

its

Projection

within
and Complement, - it

of the Clause, Subject, Predicate


convenient to consider them as a Sub-unit of the Clause, and call their
Clause
in
the
the Transitivity
Stratum.
In other words: -The
occurrence
Subject, Predicate,
and Complement Elements manifest the Component of
the three

Elements

Plane wholly

in the Clause.

In a similar
Link,
way, the Elements, I&rker,
(as
instances
in
the
Predicate
Sets
Focus,
and
many
regards the Affix
and
selected in the Verbal Group)v manifest the Component of Mood in the
Clause, so that it is convenient to consider them as forming a Stratum,

Transitivity

has not been found necessary to set up a separate


Theme.
Component
Theme will be discussed together with'
for
the
of
stratum
(Section
Transitivity
be
treated
3)Mood (Section'2),
and
will
separately
The presence or absence of the. remaining Clause Elements makes no
the Mood Stratum.

difference
Adjuncts
that

It

either to Mood, Theme or Transitivity.


and their Stratum the. Adjunct Stratum.

-hvo Elements,

the Pocus and the Subject

92

They will
It

will

Elements,

be called
also be noticed

have the same

5
manifesting

Class,

the Nominal GrouLi lb.

one relevant
with two facets,
Mood. The Predicate
is also
Transitivity

They are a single Element


to Transitivity,
the other relevant
to
in-different

relevant,

respects,

to both

and Mood.
(1.2

in the Introduction

As was mentioned

of free

form or combination

: 1),

since

forms may occur in solation,

almost

any free

grammatically

are not considered here for tha purpose of the


utterances
However, since it is a characteristic
of Manjaco responses
analysis.
that they normally include a Predicate,
a special note is made of
"Response Clauses" at (5.2 : 15)
..
incomplete

The Clause

and the Nominal

Grou-D

in the Clause manifesting


and the Complement. It may also

The Nominal Group functions

31 and 5, the Subject


.
'Clause indirectly,
manifesting

and the

Relator

In addition
also

may in

instances

the presence

turn

Modifier

to this

1,3,

the Adjuncts

Group, which manifests


The Clause

the Specific

function

in

the

12

the Adjuncts
function

in the

Element of the Adverbial


and 4-

Nominal

Group,

the

manifestine

Elements.

straightforward

relationship

of function,

there

are

in which certain
in
Transitivity
features may be r4alized
This happens in every
of the Nominal Group in the Clause.

Complement,. e. g. Descriptive
vihere the Clause has an obligatory
The presence of the Nominal Group may also mutate one type ofClause.
Clause into another e. g. Middle (Clause Type BIIcab) into Benefactive
(Example 1).
Olause Type BIIcaac)
instance

is placed on the Semantic Class of the Nominal


a restriction
in the Clause.. Thus only a Nomirial Group
Group by virtue
of its function
drawing on Semantic Class lb or 2 may manifest the Complement of a Passive/
Goal Clause, not a Nominal Group drawing on Semantic Class la (human beings)
Conversely,

(see 5.3 : '23). (Example 2). In a similar


way a Nominal Group drawing on
locator
Semantic Class la cannot manifest the C
Clause
of a Kinetic
(Example 3).
the presence of Nominal Group in the Clause (manifesting
enforce the feature +secOnda3:y(Example 4).

Pinally,
will

Adj 1),

5
Examnle 1
ahe

fingax
killed-himself

Jon unkambe
a- fingar
he killed-for
John pig
(he killed
a pig for John)
D-xamDle 2
a- finga
he killed-was
(he was killed

ungl^l
hyena
by a hyena)

but not:
*a, - finga
he killed-was

Jon
John

Exa.mDle
a- baand mex
he came house
(he came home)
but not:
*a
he

however:
baand Jon
came John

ahe

baand ri Jon
came to John

ExamDle
uno ka
- x&p
sun I-shall
go
go at daybreak)

mdn - xep fan


I-shall
go to-morrow
(I shall go to-morrow)

umay
bursting
(I shall

man - xep taakal.


I
went yesterday
(I went yesterday)
,

umay
uno a n-xep
bursting
sun &I went
(I went at daybreak)

94

5 (1)
CHAPTER 5. SECTION 1.
The Structure

of

the

Structure
in

Clause

its

maximum expanded

foxm, is

the

following:

LAUSB

C'
Al

14

FIS

IPM

A2

Marker

Word (8-4

Link

Verbal

Conjunction

Focus/Subject

Nominal

11-rodicate

Verbal

Group Class

Adverb

Class

Adjunct

Adjunct

: 2)
(8-4

A4

A5

Group Class

lb

: 3.2)
(3.2
2)
.

(6.1)

2 (8-3

Group Class

: 2.2.2)
lc (3.2

Adverbial
Group(6.2
Adverb Class
314.7

: 2)
5 (8-3

Nominal

Complement
Adjunct

A3

Nominal Group Class la (3.2 : 2)


Adverbial
Group (6.2
2)
Adverb Class 1 (8-3
2.2.1)

11--xker

Adjunct

ICI

Manifesting-Classes:

Elements:
Adjunct

1LI

2)
2.2-3ff)

Nominal Group Class Id (3.2


2)
Clause Class 3b 5.4 : 2.2.2)
Adverbial
6.2 : 2)
Group
6 (8.3 : 2.2.6)
Adverb Class
Nominal Group Class le (3.2 : 2)
Adverb Class
1 (8-3 : 2.2.4)
DIAGRAM OF CLAUSE STRATA

Adjunct

Stratum

Mood Stratum
Tran3itivity

Al

A2

15 L
Stratum

F
S

95

A3

A4

P 11
P

cl

A51

5 (1)
of Struoture

Elements

5.1 :1

The Elements of Structure

of the Clause are described

for

each Stratum.

Elements

of the Adjunct Stratum


The Adjuncts are Elements whose Presence in the Clause does not usually
(But
Mood,
Transitivity,
Theme,
Function.
its
influence
or
see 5: 0.1)
1,06e`The"Clause and the Nominal GroT11'1
9.1 : 1.1

5.1 : 1.1.1

2f
93i,
P.
:

Adjunct 1

(Example
by
Nominal
Group
1);
is
Class
la,
1
Adjunct
manifested
(Example 3).
Its
Group (Example 2); or by Adverb Class I
Adverbial
Role in the Clause is that of "Time when".
It may be
'Participant
manifested

by a single

exponent

or by a Complex.

Pxamples:
Nominal
1.
.

Grou-p-la

Adverbial

2.

Mon un^ a
plik
9ca-i
- ya
One day and they (sp) went'spring
(One day they went to the spring)
Grcup

M
man-ro
uchaay mak
xi ppaxinji
in youth-my I
used-to fear demon much
(in my youth I used to fear the demon much)

Adverb Class 1

(*-X-)

bi
ka
fan
tomorrow I-shall
come
(I shall come tomorrow)
The I.Tahjakos use this

construction

for

telling

the time of the day:

6
Umay pchaal (bursting
sky-redness)
about
a. m.
=
Umay un8 bursting
sun = about 7 a. m.
Ucon uno cooling
pounding sun) = about noon
Itfux un8
sun) = about 3 P. M.
Tjyongga un8 (slanting)sun)
= about 4 P. M.
UyOr un8 (falling
sun = about 5 P. m.
Uy&r pchaal (falling
sky-redness)
about 7 P. m.
(-Y-*) Adverb
meaning;

Class
see 5.1

may also

function

: 1.1-5.

96

in

Adjunct

5, with

different

5(1)

5.1 : 1.1.2

Adjunct

2 is manife'sted, by Adverb Class 2, whose members are blien


bux, "also".
It never occurs in a Complex.

Adjunct
and
Its

Participant

Role is

that

of Inclusion,

"all"

inclusion

either

of a
(as
Participant
in
the
Subject
to
Complement
in Example 1),
referred
or
(as
described
in
the
Predicate
in Examples 2
or extension of an activity
and 3).
ExamDles

1.

2.

bux im6lul
ab6k naamand a- yOnxi
son vioman he put-on-head also'kindling-his
(The son of the woman also put his kindling

TO
onto his head)

bux wul
ro -j ai
nay6
a
(cp)
tapper-of-wine
and
said-hither
also him
(And then the tapper of wine said to him (from
bux umetade mexwund
xis
amhouse-our
and you returned also middle
(And besides, you returned to our midst)

5: 1 : l. l.. j

Hb 114
the palm tree))
CM

Adjunct 3

3 is manifested by the following


Classes: Nominal Group Class ld;
(Example 1), Adverb Classes 3 (Example 2); 4
Group
Adverbial
(Example 3); 5 (Example 3).
If more than one exponent manifests this
(as
Element, they are from different
in Example 3) and occur in
classes
However, mak"much" may be repeated for added emphasis,
the order listed.
Adjunct

e. g:
ait
(It

vrAxa
is-good
is very

The Paxticipant

mak, mak, mak


much .....
vex7 good)
Role

of Adjunct

3 is

that

of Manner.

EbcamDles:
Adverbial

1.

Group

k- chi
ni
ubon
you will-be
with hunger
(You will be hungry)

Hb

5(1)

Adverb Class
2.

i1
(I

Eb 87

nag6belen
mak
ngNlax
like-not
trouble-maker
much
don't like trouble makers very much)

Adverb Classe4

and

5 (Complex)

korul
ink
chapan
xmaal k(ct) boil-make thus alone
hare
(Hare chatters
away to himself)

1.1.4

Eb 40

Adjunct 4

(Examples
1 and 5);
by
Clause
Class
3b
is
Adjunct 4
manifested
Group (Examples 2 and 4); or by Adverb
Adverbial
(Example
6
3), either by a single exponent or by a Complex
Class
(Examples 2 and 4).
The Participant
Role of Adjunct 4 in the Clause is
that

of Place.

ExamDles:

Clause Class 3b
nai
a
- x6nk ujgku
(sp)
found bush-fowl
he
and
(And he found the bush-fowl

Hb 23
u -n&x
xi
xi
where he stood where
in the place where he was standing)

Group(Complex)

Adverbial

Adverbial
GrouD
2.

gaika
a
(sp)(ct
they
and
(And (afterwards)
chief's

Adverb
3-

Class

baand
ri rlon mex
in one house
arrived
they were approaching

Adverbial
Grou-o
nasien
ri kato
-' in compound chief
house in the
a certain

C2

compound)
6
E 47

ker
ka
xi
I-shall
smear here
(I shall
smear here)

98

5 (1)
Complex: Adverbial

Group and'Clause

Class 3b
Adverbial
Grou-o

Clause Class 3b

Ank
a
nai
ujeku
xi uxaand
xi
u- nA_-C xi Hb 23
found Bush-fovil
in outside
and'she(sp)
where he stood where
(and she found Bush-fowl outside where he was standing. )
5.1 : 1.1.5 Adjunct 5

4.

5 is manifested by one or more exponents of Nominal Group Class le,


,
Its Participant
Role is. that of Time or Place.
or Adverb Class 1.

Adjunct

ExamDles:

Nominal Groy2 Class le


1.

br6m
a- f6r
he slept night
(he spent the night)

Adverb
2.

Class

1,
bi
fan
come tomo=ovr

ka
he-will
1.2

Hb 34

Elements

of

the

Mood Stratum

axe the Elements

The following

of the Clause in *hibh

the features

o
of the

Component of Mood are realized:


Marker

5.1 : 1.2.1
The Marker

Elements

are

by a single

by a Marker

manifested

that

Class

Word (8.4,:

They are

by a Complex.
(Ex. 1) (and. in
the
In the Marker Element,
feature
is realized
.
_7peripheral
Marker Element,
the Thematic
the Closing
feature
Ex. 2)
+emphatic;

manifested

exponent

Exam-Dle 1:
Bi
bi
xisand
=aal
7hen
Hare
When
took-home
(When Haretook
it home)
5.1

: 1.2.2

and never

Example 2:
Umaal yil
'won,
plam
Hare
to-swim
able the-one
(Hare was the one who
could

Hb 11

E 38
swim)

Link

The Link Element is manifested


whose only member is a "and".
Link Element,

of

the

+coordinate

by the Verbal
It

Conjunction

Class (8.4

never occurs in a Complex.


feature is realized.

99

In the

: 3.2)

5 (1)
ExamDle:
a

u-

ba

and he finished

Focus

5.1 : 1.2.3

The Focus Element is manifested by the Nominal Group Class lb (3.2 : 2).
It may be manifested'by
a Complex. In the Focus Element, the +focal
is realized.

feature
Ebcample:
A

nalon
and a-certain
(and a certain
5.1

ka
untaang
mmax, bixe
have time
woman happened-not
woman happened not to have time),
Predicate

: 1.2.4

by a
Element is manifested by the Verbal Group Class (6.1),
single exponent of that Class and never by a Complex. The Predicate
(except
(5.2
1)).
Clause
for
Minor
Clauses,
in
is
Element
:
every
present

The Predicate

to Mood primarily
is relevant
in the Verbal Group.

The Predicate
selected
5.1

: 1.3

Elements

The following

are

of

are

5.1 : 1.

Subject

3-4).

of

the

the prefix

sets

Stratum
Clause

in

which

certain

features

of

realized.

2),
by Nominal Group Class lb (3.2
by a single exponent of that Class or by a Complex (for Complex see
In the presence of the Subject Element, the +aPentive feature of

The Subject
either

Transitivity

the Elements

Transitivity

_3.1

the

as regards

Element is manifested

the Clause is realized.


Element may have the folloyring
of other features
of the realization

The Subject
part

Referent
Attribuant
Actor
Recipient
Agent
Goal
Non-Actor
Non-Participant
Aotor-Recipient
Actor-Goal
100

Participant

Roles, each Role beine

of the Transitivity

Component:

5(1)
Since the whole Transitivity

Component may be displayed within


the
the Subject Element may also be manifested by a verbal prefix
Predicate,
(10.4
Identifier
Prefix
2.2) Class, which may potentially
the
of
represent

a Nominal Group.

Examples:
Referent
1.

ufux a- fux
wind it winds
(wind blows)

Referent:
IM kaxe
chi
was
no-longer
Yiay
.(there
was no longer

2.

(Hb 115)
a way)

Attribuant:
3.

ubaarum
mos quito

(Mosquito

D4

a -nhikex
it thin

is

thin)

Actor:

4.

wul
a
umaal ja
and hare said him
(and Hare said

C14

to him)

Recipient:
5.

Jon a- fingars,
John he killed-for
(a pig was killed

unkambe
pig
for John)

(E 52)

Agent:
6.

Jon a- j6xelen
John he' grind -each-other-causes-to.
(John grinds his teeth)

ir6maj
teeth

Goal:
a
unm,^l pea
and hyena overcome
(and Hyena was overcome)

C16

101

5 (1)
Non-Actor

8.

nl. iki
water-pot
(the

ait

chinn mlik
full' water
was full

water-pot

of water)

Actor-Recipient

ion
a- wambar
John he shook-from himself
(John chased the blow-flies

Xinta a

10, Jon ni

(E 15)

gtievi
blow-flies
away from himself)

ba - chi

xi kastrler

John and Kinta and they were in vieeding-for-each-other-to-themselves


(John and Kinta viere helping each other to
weed)

Actor-Goal

fingar

Jon a-

ToUn he killed-himself
(John killed
himself)

5.1 : 1.3.2
The Predicate

Predicate

Group Class.

Verbal

(as stated at 5.1 : 1.2-4) is


manifested by the
Except in very few instances which will be. mentioned
defines the Transitivity
between the
relationship

Element

places, it
two Elements,

in their

the Subject

and the Complement, and no Transitivity


the Predicate Element being manifested.
exist
can
without
relationship
.
is relevant
to Transitivity
The Predicate
primarily
as regards the suffix
other

seto nelected

in the Verbal

Group, and the Root Classes

on which it

draws,

Exam-ole:
xmaal
hare
(Hare

uj6ku
ni
and bush-fowl
and bush-fowl

The whole
that
(10.2

the

Transitivity
Identifier

: 1-3)

manifesting
relationship

in
the

the

fexar
back-themselves
friends)

athey
were

Component may be displayed


the Predicate,
within
(10.4 : . 2. )
Prefixes
and the Pronoun suff ixes
Verbal

Subject

Group may potentially


Complement
Elements,
and

may be implied

in

the

typical

represent
The whole

Response

Clause

Nominal

Groups

Transitivity
(5.2

in

: 15),

5(1)
which may consist

1.3.3

only

of a Predicate.

Complement

(4.2
Element
is
by
Sentence
Class
2
Complement
The
: 2); or by
manifested
(3.2.:
lc
2), either by a single exponent of that
Class
Group
Nominal
Class or by a Complex. Depending on the*nature
of the
the Complement may be either C1, that is
Relationship,
(or
Nominal
Group
Complex)
in a
by
a
single
manifested
Role or Roles; or 02. that is a Complement
Participant
potentially
Participant

Transitivity
a Complement
certain
manifested,

or

by two Nominal Groups (or Complexes) in different

manifested,
Roles*) Since'the

whole Transitivity

Component may be

the Complement Element may also be


the Predicate,
within
(10.2 : 1-3).
Suffix
Pronoun
Class
the
by
manifested
displayed

The Complement Element may have the following


C

Attribute
Goal
Locator
Recipient
Respect
Instrument
Subjective
Actor
Actor-Goal

C2

Recipient
Goal
Goal - Respect
Instrument
Goal
Goal 1/Actor
Goal 2
Goal - Locator

Examples:

Participant

Roles:

Attribute

1.

2.

A -chi ub6s xi6ku.


it vias dog bush-fovil
(i t was the bush-fovil's
ba,
na-chi
a
the
he
was cp)
and
(and

ninx
man
child)

For tho rossibility-of

Hb. 113dog)
Ha 2
was a male)

C3 see 5.3 : ll, liote

103

(1)

.5
Goal
uchi ubaarum jej
-pliki
If
take
mosquito
water-pot
(if Mosquito takes the water-pot)

3.

D 11

Locator
Mon un8 a
gai
ya
plik...
Ono day and they(sp)
went spring
(laid on a certain
day they went to the spring...

4-

D5

Recipient
5.

a
na-wul
unm^l
and he gave hyena
(and he gave (it)
to the hyena)

C7

Respect
6.

ubaarum a- nhikex
Dxim
is-thin
leg
mosquito it
(the mosquito has thin legs)

D2

Instrument
kanh6n
ma. nak-o Ica - wambnas,
jmecha
but person will wakened-by-be mortar-shots
five
(but he will be woken up by five mortar-shots)

7.

Subjecti
a- ka, ninx
has man
it
(there was a man)
.
Actor
9.

undaali a- mobs,
it
caught
cat
(the cat was caught

Un111L
-hyena
by a hyena)

Actor-Goal
10.

Jon a- g6belen
John he throw-each-other-causes-to
(John makes trouble between people)

banhaan
people

Ha 56

Reci-pipnt
11.

Goal
-

bkul uvamax ri imaanh


ba -A
a
in bags
and they put them meat
(and they put meat-in their bags for

B 62
them)

Goal - Resnect
12.

Ivul 1111A
xma,-,.1 a- pe
hare it
surpassed him running
(Ilare was better than lie at rimning)

Hb 108

Inst-_,ument - Goal (-X-)


13.

bren
mam - paabna undink
I
forest
machette
clear
(I clear the forest with a maohette)

Goal l/Actor
14.

Goal
2
-

kamisaanji
upax
ma - winand
I
savi-causing-move children
shirt-my
(I cavi the children
taking away my shirt)

Goal - Locator
15.

kanem
a- x6pand upi
Foat marliet
he took
(he took the goat to market)

Goal - Instrumont

is also

105

acceptable

(5-3

: 16)

5 (2)
SECTION 2.

CHAPTER

I.Tood and Theme

Introduction

5.2 :0

because the
Mood and Theme are discussed together in this section,
to them are inter-dependent,
Clause options relating
whereas Transitivity
is independent of them both.
usage refers to the organization
of the participants
in speech situations
and the various options of speaker--rojej
whereas
Theme refers to the informatiowstructure
and the organization
of the
Moodt in Halliday's

(Halliday
These
two
1967a,
199).
described
areas
are
of
meaning
message
together for Manjako, in one system of features which may individually
to one or both. For instance the choice of +emphatic
be relevant
to the
essentially
a Thematic choice related
but
is
it
to
structure,
mapped
new
on
other options which
civen instance
for
the
interrogative
Hoda12
options.
essentially
are
or +non-emDhatic

is

has commented that, even after many years of study by many


the thematic organization
linguists,
of the English Clause remains a
(1967b,
1)
area
neglected
of
so it is not surprising
study
relatively
into the grammar of Manjako
that at this early stage of investigation
it is possible to make only a few general observations
about its
Halliday

thematic

organization.

The sequence of Elements in the Manjako Clause ip fairly


There

little

is

Complement
is

possible

but

posoibility

for

the

the

gazelle

have a form

a Nominal

sake of

to frontshift

...
but such a sequence
however

of

Transform,

organization
the

lie let
would-be

run

m- laangin
you refuse-me

the

message.

as in

e. g.

for
Text

this
A line

purpose
17:

uyamax
meat

from an underlying
uyamax
meat

106

"the

in Manjako.

ungrammatical

instance

Subject

order

to identify

away)

8n
laang
Inji
ni
mthe-one
I
who you refuse
(You are refusing
me meat)

which may be derived

of

Complement,

of frontshifting
for

the

changing

Clause:

rigid.
PredicateIn Engglish it

"The goat
goat"
Manjako
in

the

he killed"

as theme,
does
u.9e of

5 (2)

a frequent

is

This

for

construction

a non-polar

question,

illustrating

how Mood and Theme axe inter-related.

may fall

information

Theme. Its

device

the

of naming

the

role

is

Neither
part

of

the

the

the

Clause.

from

the

a Nominal

Clause

to be new in

the Focus
given.

the

nor

Text

of view

The Focus

1.2

a Clause

B line

of

of

the

of Yood and.
it

has a

further

for

in

instance

where

the Focus

is

normally

18 illustrates

this:

is

the
toot

The Complement

3).

Complement

focus

identifies

generally

discourse,

(see

first

anti-hero

Group)

the

of

the

The Subject

point

as given.

organizatign

likely

is

manifestedp

it

of

in

manifested.
if

rest

in

Focus

(by

manifestation

the
and
now
as
thematic

the

be rearranged,

may not

ax*, ivhere

has been termed

Clause

if

Elements

Clause

the

Since

not

manifested

a fing.
unel
mob
au& he caught hyena & killed
(and he caught Hyena and killed
it. )
in Manjako by means of repetition,
The Theme may be identified
instance in the occurrence of an Emphatic Marker in the Closing

for
Marker

in realization
of the feature +em-phatics the Marker echoes
the Focus of the Clause, manifesting
agreement with its exponentg e. g:
38
E
Umaal yil
plam
w8n
Hare able the-one to-swim
(Hare was thp one who could swim. )
This kind of emphasis, which may be called Focal Emphasis since it'is
Element,

it
Focus
the
which
always
involving
formally,
as it

is

reinforces,

the only

one here described

does the straightfbrward


or
manifestation
in
It
is
frequently
Clause
Rank
Element.
used
a
of
non-manifestation
clause:
manjako where English might use predication
or an identifying
the
killed
killed
the
"The
John
goat was
goat",
or
one
who
who
was
John'll but the Manjalko equivalent
would be:
811
Jon fing
Upi
(marker) goat
John killed
here, because as
Other kinds of repetition
are not described formally
"It

far

as Surface

Structure

they may be accounted for


they may have the thematic role

is concerned,

e. g. Minor Clauses. Nevertheless


texts
from
the
An
example
emphasis.

is

107

the following

as
of

which occurs at Hb 26:

"(2)
5
naxong ni,
this
guest
(about this
This

with

"Britain,

it's

pronominal
all

for

substitution,

roads".

Halliday

Hb

instance

in his
"...

says of reference:

theme
the
isolating
the
from
remainder
of
a
means
as
is
then not required as a participant
theme
the
since
structureq
241).

thematic

and thus to emphasize-its

262 27

has termed "reference"

what Halliday

resembles

construction

English,

kaax
nako
mtum-a?
person has-not mouth(Qu)
)
he
hasn1t
got any mouth?
guest,

example
it

serves

of the clause,
in the clause
(Halliday
1967b,

status"

In. the Manjako example, nako may be regarded

for

as functioning

despite having the structure


to a pronoun in English:
of
it is more like a pronoun, the root ko merely
a noun, lexically
"human
the
defining
the
"entity"
as
and
prefix
nareferent
meaning
similarly

entity".
Emphasis of the Predicate is achieved
in a Verbal Group Complex, as described
The features

in this

described

section

of the Verb

by repetition
at 6.1 : 2.7.
together

with

those described

the
the
for
Transitivity
range
of
options
cover
structural
under
in
Clause. It will be noticed that there is no mention of polarity
This is because,

the Clause.
simple

as possible,

+negative

a rule

or +T)ositiVe

the Clauses because,

to keep the Clause system network. as

of relevance

are not relevant


at least

at this

was applied,

The features

to the classification
level

of delicacy,

of

they have

Clauses
Injilanjako,
Structure
the
Clause.
the
with
of
on
effect
no
the feature +negative in the Verbal Group are in other ways the same
described
feature
Polarity
is
therefore
the
having
Clauses
+Positive.
as
only at lower ranks.
The types of Clauses in which features of Mood and theme are realized
network diagram. In the description
may be arranged as in the following
are given of'the
of Clauses which follows,
some indications
Clause
types
the
these
bet%7een
recognized
of
and
classes
correlation
For
further
details
this
Function.
basis
the
correlation
see
of
of
on

of the'typea

the diagram on page 148-

108

MOOD AITM TIOM

Ilinor

SYSTEM NETWORK.

(1)

Hortative

' mperative

(6)

(7)
(8)

Subjunctive
(5)

Anticipatory

(9)

Interrogative

olar

(10)
(12)

Non-polar

Nuclear (4)
Non-coordinate

(14)

(15)

Initial

(16)

Non-initial
L Declarative

(13)
Focal
Co-ordinate

Finite

(17)

(18)

Sequential.
L Closing

Major

(2)

Peripheral

(21

Purposive

(19)

(26)
Emphatic

(22)
(24)

Modificational

Integrated

Subrog-ating (33)
Adjectival

(26)

(25)
Non-integrated

Infinitive

' on-emphatiO

(27) '

(28)

Note: Numbers refer

log

to the relevant

Sub-secttons-

:
Paradirm

Citation
Type I

Minor

Major
Type II
(a) Finite
(aa)

1,
luoicar

(aaa)

AnticipatoLZ

(aaaa)

Hortative

(aaaaa)

Imperative

(aaaab)

Subjunctive

(aaab)

Polar

(aaabb/i)

(aaabb/ii)

(aaba)

na
x6p
let-him
go
(that
he might

go)

Interrogative

(aaaba)

(aab)

x6pan
(imp)
go
(Go)

Ilon-polar/r.

,a- x9p - a?
he go
QU
(Did he go? )

oii-emphatic

ITon-polar/Emphatic

ax6p x8m?
he go where
(where did he

go)

Ap
8n?
yen
who go the-one
(who was it
)
who vient?

Declarative
Non-coordinate

(aabaa/i)

(aaba/ii)

(a.Lbab/i)

(aabab/ii)

Initial/1,11on-emphatic

Initial/tiaphatic

Non-initial/Non-emphatio'

1,
Ton-initial/Emphatic

a
x9p
he
910
(He vient)
ion x9p on
John vient thb-one
(John vias the one who went)
na - xep

lie
go
(he Tient)
ion x6p 8n
John went the-one
(John was the one who went)

(2)

5 (2)
(aabb)

Coordinate

-'
Focalfiloi-emphatic

(aabba/i)

(aabba/ii)

Focal/Emphatic

(aabbb)

Sequential

(aabbc)

Closing

(ab)

Jon x8p
a
and John went
(and John
went)
Jon x6p
a
on
and John went the-one
(and it 'was John who
went).
a
na - xep
and he
went
(and he went)
a
x6p
and went
(and went)

Peripheral

(aba)

(abb)

Purposive

re
lest
(lest

Jon xep
John go
John should

go)

Subrogated

(abba/i)

Modificational/lIon-emphatic

(abba/ii)

Modificational/Emphatic

na - x5p xi
xi
he
Mere
go where
(where he went)
An
Ap
A
na -

Mere he
go where-there
(there where he went)

(abbb)

Adjectival

(abbba/i)

(abbta/ii)

(abbbb/i)

Integrated/lion-emphatic

Integrated/Buiphatic

Ilon-integrated/lTon-emphatic

(abbbb/: *L'i) 1,
Ton-integrated/Emphatic
,

(b)

AD il
Jon nan
John who
go who
(John viho went)
Jon, . nan -_x8p 8nk
John who
went-the-one-thus
(John the one who, as ive know,
went)
Jon- x5p wi
uno ivi
day which John go which
(the day John went)
Jon x5p w8nk
- un6 wi
day when John go the-one-thus
(that day on which*John,
as vie
know, went)
Jon pxep
John to-go
(John to go)

Infinitive

ill

5 (2)

5.2

The Minor

:1

The feature

is

+minor

Clause

(Clause

realized

in

Trpe I)

the

absence

of

the

Predicate

Examples:
and Adjunct

Subject

E 61

iini
Inji
here
1
(I am here)
ComDlement

Subject

kada nhaan
each person
(Each one will

untanken
barrel
have a barrel)

Ha 56

Complement

A 37

pleleinji
lemon-my
(It is my lemon)
(Clauses

The Major Clauses

5.2

5.2

in the presence of the Predicate


and Infinitive.
specified
as: Finite

+major is realized

The feature
Element.

They are further

Type II)

Finite

Clauses (Clauses TZpe IIa)

+finite is realized in: the presence of a Verbal Group


other than Verbal Group 3 manifesting the Predicate. Finite Clauses
are further specified as : Nuclear and Periphdral.
The feature

5.2 :

Nuclear

Clauses

(Clauses

__4
Nuclear Clauses correlate

Type IIaa)

Clause Class

with
in the Sentence Nucleus.

(see section

5-4)

The feature +nuclear is realized


(the
Mement
Initial
Closing Marker Element
the
in: the absence of
-Markpr
being manifested only if the Clause is 1mphatic).
functioning

9.2

:5

Anticipatory

Anticipatory
of
the

Clauses

expect

or answer.

compliance

of

selection

Anticipatory

Clauses

the

Clauses

and Interrogative..

the

+anticipatoZZ

+hortative

accordingly

Type IIaaa)
from

a response

The feature

features
are

(Clauses

is

in

the

realized

form
in:

or interropative.

further
112

hearer,

specified

as: Hortative

5 (2)
Hortative

5.2 :6
.

Hortative

Clauses

and therefore

correspond

or commanding.

The feature

ImDerative

is

+imperative
(10.1

3 or 5-11

in
-+imperative
(10-4
Suffix

the

(Clause

: 2.1),

Verbal

3-1)

in

the

the

in

speaker
is

form

role

of
in:.

realized

specified

of

the

as:

TyDe IIaaaaa)
Predicate

with the

Group or

the

+hortative
'
are further

in:

realized

the hearer

vdth

Clauses

Clause

_7

The feature
Class

from

a response

bsence of Focus. Hortative


,
Imperative
and Subjunctive.
5.2

Type IIaaaa)

expect

compliance,
requesting

(Clauses

Clauses

selection

the

presence

on Root

drawing
of

the

feature

of an Imperative

Verb.

Example:
x6pan
o-(imp)
Clause_(Clause

Subjunctive

5.2
The feature

of

selection

is

+subjunctive
the

feature

realized

+subjunctive

Type IIaaaab)
in;
in

Predicate
the Verbal

with

the

Group.

ExaMD10:

jau
Ax6p
he
i3ay-you go
(He told you you should go)
Interrogaive
Clauses
5.2

(Clauses

Type IIaaab)

Clauses expect a response from the hearer to the


therefore
the
and
question,
with
correspond
speaker-role
speakers
The feature +interropzative
or confirmation.
of seeking information

Interrogative

Clitic
in either the optional
is realized
or
presence of the Interrogative
Pronoun, Adj6ctive,
'or Adverb. The
the presence of an Interrogative
Clauses
Non-polar,
further
Polar
are
accordihely
as
and
specified
-Interrogative
(Clause
Polar
10
Clause
Tyne IIaaaba)
5.2 :
The Polar

Clause is an Interrogative

answer, yes or no. The feature


Clitic
presence of the Interrogative
polax
Clitic

is lineally

characteristic
unit

ordered

of paralanguage,

would be treated,

Structure

to follow

following

i. e. it

Adjunct

it

Clause which postulates


a
in - the optional
+-polar is realized
(8-4 : 7). The Interrogative
-a
Adjmct 5, but since it is a
is not'treated

is not manifesting

5-

113

as a grammatical
an Element of

5 (2)
Example:

kxef - a?
m- ri
sit
you not will
-Qu
(Won't you sit doym?)
5.2

Ihphatic

: 11

The choice
at

this

point.

Marker

Element.

speech

item

: Examples

+emDhatic

or +non-emphatic

The feature

+emphatic

is

given

for

The feature

of

the

Paired

Clauses

those

is realized

+non-polar

the

realized*in.,

to which

in

of

presence

an

Closing

the

is

this

the

same

-8-4 : 2.2-5)-

Markers;

Clause (Clause Zae

Non-Polar

: 12

a Pubrogated

second

becomes relevant

: 2.2. $) manifesting
Clause (5.2 : 23)

30-4

(N. B.. In

as the

are

Clauses.

features

Harker-(IlarkerClass

Emphatic

5.2

and Non-empliatic

the

of

Hb 17

this

applies.

choice

Haaabb)
: the presence

of an Int.

Adjective

Adverb manifesting
IIxonoun in Focus or Complement', or an Interrogative
,
Non-polar Clauses may be either Non-emphatic or Emphatic.
A:dj-. 4 or
_5.
Clause is realized
the Non-polar/Non-emphatic
The feature +non-polarof
its

Complement, or Adjunct
same feature

has that

the-Emphatic

the Non-polar/Emphatic

4 or 5% while

in the Focus and repeated


Element.
Marker in the Closing'Marker
realized

Clause

by means of the

Examnlos:
lion-13olar/lion-em-phatic

.1

(Type

.2

Non-pblar/ gmT)hatic
e IIaaabb/ii)

lIaaabb/i)
Com-olement
yen?
who

achi
Is
it
(Vfho is
2.

yen chi

on?
17110, is
the-one-who
(Who is it? )

it? )
Complement
ka
we ?
ahas what (. X.)
it
)
(What is there...

Note:

The remaining

Clauses(see
5.2
This

: 25).

non-polar
5-3)

section
They are

constructiori

ka
we
what has
(Vlhy?)

is

emphatic

w6n?.
the-one-which

questions,

expressed

by a Nominal

included

below

the

similar

to-the

are

114

for

sake of

F-r-e-n-c-h a-t-il?
yy

formed

from

Lgentive

Transform(see
comparison.

or

in

5 (2)
Comlement
8m?
Ha
88
ro
m
how
do
you
(How did you get on? )

8m bi m- ro b8n?
how (m) you did (M)
(How was it that you got on? )

Adjunct 4
67
E
x6m?
a- chi
achinxu
he is where
friend-your
(Where is your friend? )
Adjunct
lam?
Ka - baand
he'll
when
come
(When will he come?)
: 13

5.2

They therefore

correspond

The feature

-f-declarative
the Anticipatory
system.

the

from'one

Rrefix

from

Clauses are further

as

specified

(Clauses
realized

T=e

IIaaba)

: the

in

absence

or Emphatic.

of

The

Link.

They are

further

is

realized

Verbal
the

of

Group

Printu7

Type IIaabaa)
in -: the
(realized
Tlense Sets

selection
in

the

(10.4

of

the

choice'of

feature

+Dri-mal-, r

an Identifier

: 2.2)).

Examples:
.1

Clause

InitialZNon-emphatic

man
I shall
(I Ill sit
Note:

and Non-initial.

+initial

S)
in
2.
:

(6.1

is

Clause*(Clause

Initial

The feature

information.

of. imparting

: the absence of any feature

may be Non-emphatic

Clauses

as : Initial

: 15

Declarative

+non-coordinate

Non-coordinate

5.2

in

is realized

from the speaker.

a response

to the speaker role

Clauses

Non-coordinate

The feature

expect

and Coordinate.

Non-coordinate

specified

Type IIaab)-

Clauses do not necessarily

Declarative

5.2

l6m, ri
ka - baand xOn?
(m)
(m)
he'll
when
come
(When is it he is coming? )

Clauses (Clauses

Declarative

: 14

Xom
achirmu
xi
chi x-On?
(m)
(m)
is
friend-your
where
(Where is it that your friend
is? )

(Clause

Type Iiaabaa/i)
Hb '18

xef
sit.
dovm)
given in answer to a question
: 9) Polar or Non-Polar) are usually

Response Clauses,
Clause (5.2

structure.

115

(Interrogative
of this'

5 (2)
e. g:
Jon 6. - chi - a?
QU
is
Jon he
(Is John there ?)

Achi.
he
is
(Yes)

ka
Mwe?
you have what
(What have you got? )

Man - ka
have
I
(An orange)
Clause (Clause

Initial/Emphatic

.2
-

plele.
orange
N

Type IIaabaa/ii)

An
Umaal yi. 1
plam
_
to-swim
the-one
Hare was-able
(Hare was the one who could swim)

5.2 : 16

Non-initial

Clause (Clause

E 38

TtTpe IIaabab)

is realized
in: the selection
+non-initial
of the feature
(realized
(6.1
the
Verbal
Group
2.3)
in
in the choice of an
:
+secondary
Prefix from one of the Secondary Tense Sets (10-4 : 2.2)).
Identifier
The feature

Non-initial/Non-emphatic

.1

(Clause

Clause

A 28

a na-xgnl-. liasien xef


sat
and he found chief
(mid he found the chief sitting
Clause

Non-initial/Emphatic

.2

katimul
ba - x8ox
they call-not
name-his
(If
his
they don1t call
: 17

5.2

Coordinate

Clauses

do,.,
m)

(Clause

Type IIaabab/ii)
8n
ni
ubon
(dem) with hunger
be the one to go hungry)

Jon
ka
chi
John (asp) be
name, John will

(Claus&s

Type IIaababA)

Type IIaabb)

Clause Class lb

(5-4

The
: 1.2).
with
in: the presence of Link and, if there
feature
Prefix in the Verbal Group, the selection
is an Identifier
of the
The Coordinate Clauses are further
feature 4secondary(6.1
: 2.3).
as:. Focal, Sequential and Closing.
specified
Clauses correlate
is realized
+coordinate

The-Coordinate

s 18

5.2

Focal

Clauses

The featuros+coordinate
and of Focus,
Focal

and the

Clauses

This

(Clauses
and +focal.

absence

ait
(it
.

may occur

are

realized

of an Identifier

may be Non-emphatic

Clause

T:Ype IIaabba)

without

in:
Prefix

the
in

or Emphatic.
Focus

in

the

construction

chi umaal yil


plam
won
the-one
was hare
to-swim
was-able
was the hare who could swim)
116

presence
the

of Link

Verbal

Group.

5 (2)
Exam-oles:

Focal/Non-emphatic

.1

Focal/Emphatic

Clause-(Clause

Jon a- fing
John he kill
(John killed
5.2

: 19

Type IIaabba/i)

Amk
,
Kanhaay
ruka
pchar
(sp) took string
Kanhaay
to Bush-fowl
to take the roPe

a
xjgku
and Bush-fowl
(It was left
.2

(Clause

Clause

11b 97
of Kanhaay)

Type IIaabba/ii)

Lcha
Tant finr, - on
ungil
a
ub,
hyena and Tant kill
(dem) gazelle
a hyena and. it was Tant who killed
a gazelle)
Clause (Clause

Sequential

TyDe Ilaabbb)

The features +coordinate

in:

and 4-Sequential, are realized


and absence of Focus.

Link

the presence

of

ExaznT)le:

C 17

u-,, re
a
and he ate
(and he ate it)
5.2 : 20 Closing-Clause

(Clause TypeIIaabbc)

The features

and +closin

+coordinate

and absence of Focus,


in the Verbal

together

in: the presence of Link


axe realized
Prefix
Nvith the absence of an Identifier

Group.

Example:

Ilb 105

a
chau
and roasted(and he roasted
5.2 : 21

Peri-pheral

Peripheral

Clauses

functioning
feature
and,
of

are

in

the

+DeriDheral

if

the

from

it)

there

further

correlate
Sentence
is

Type IIab)

Clause

with

Periphery,

realized

in

Prefix
an Identifier
(realized
in
+secondary

the

Secondary

specified

as:

Tense Sets
Purposive

Classes.

(5-4)
4
or

2,3

Embedded or'Rankshifted.

the

is

feature

one of

(Clauses

Clauses

of

-presence
in the Verbal
the

(10.4

choice
:. 2.2)).

and Subrogated.

117

the

Initial

Group,
of

The
Marker
in

the

an Identifier
The Peripheral

Element

selection
Prefix
Clause's

5(2)

5.2

: 22

The feature

+purDosive.

lb(Purposive

Class

(Clause

Clause

Purposive

is

in

realized

Markers,

Type Haba)
the

selection

of

a IvIarker

from

2. 14)

8*-4

Mcample:
us8bal
re
lest
rain
(So that
the
5.2

: 23

Subrogated

The feature
Class

2(

5.2

wall)
Type Ijabbj

in the selection
+subro, -ated is realized
Paired Markers;
8-4 3 '2.2-5) Subrogated

Yorlificational

: 24

the

Clauses_(Clauses

as : Modificatiopal

specified

F 20

s8bar
plgnk
rain-wet
wall
does not wet
rain

of Idarkers

of

Clauses are further

and Adjectival.

Clause

(Clause

Type IIabba)

is realized
in the selection
+modificational
of Markerd from'
Markers, 8.4 : 2.2.6) which do not manifest
Class 2a (Modificational
Modificational
Clauses may be Non-emphatic or Emphatic.
nominal concord.
The feature

Exam-oles:
.1

Modificational/Ron-emphatic

Clause

(Clause

TyDe Wabba/i

Hb 16
xi
a
u- x6nk
uj4ku
xi u- nhx
and he found bush-fowl in he stood in
(and he saw the bush-fowl in the place where he was standing)
.2I.

Todificational/Emphatic

Clause (Clause Type lIabba/ii)

An
na-x8
pmango xi na-xO
aand he put mango in he put that-in
(and he put the mango in that place

118

-olele
orange
where he had put

the

oragige)

5(2)

5.2 *1 25

Adjectival

(Clauses-Type

Clauses

The feature

is realized
+adjectival
from Class 2b (Adjectival
Markers,
The'Adjectival

If

we write

in the selection

s-p0
Jon.
John"

ahe

tap
hit

of Markers

8-4 : 2.2-7)

Clauses are clearly

a Nominal Transform

IIabbb)

divided

into

two Types.

of:

ub8s
dog.

we may make either the Subject or the Complement the Head of


Nominal Group, thus:
the resulting
1. Jon nan-t&p i
ub8s
John who hit who dog
(John who hit the dog)
2. ub8s vii
Jon tap wi
dog which John hit which
(The dog which John hit)
The Structure
and Modifier.
the Modifier

of both Nominal Groups is

the samein Manjako; Head


Clause which manifests
the Adjectival

However, while
in the first
Example is Subject-oriented,

the second example is Complement-oriented.


termed an Inte",

The first

the one in
type is. accordingly

ated Clause,

the name being chosen to reflect


its
the Head of the Nominal Group stands in the
Subject-orientation:
Clause.
of Subject to the Predicate of the Integrated
relationship
The second type is termed a Non"integrated
Clause, the name b6ing chosen
to reflect
the fact that it is not Subject-oriented:
the Head of the
Nominal Group stands in the relationship
of Adjunct or Complement to
Clause, and-another Subject is
the Predicate
of the Non-integrated
introdi; ced'in the Focus Element.
26

IntegTated

Clause(Claube

Ty-DeIIabbba)

in: the absence of the Focus


is realized
+integrated
,
Element and the presence of the Integrating-Prefix
_a1T_,
(10-4 1 2-4 ).
is conflated vrith the Initial
This prefix
Ialarkers of
UO-4 : 2.3) is intE--posed
the Clause, unless the Verb Prefix ! E- (continuous)
The feature

(N. B. The Integrating

Prefix

has the folloving


119

al3omorphs,

as

'seen

(2)

5
in

the

vowels,
-Nelsewhere.
-allnasal occurring
a homorganic

11 represents
Integrated
occurs

following

examples:

/I Ton- emphati c Clause(Clause

1.

ka
nhaan
(ot)
and person
(and a person is

2.

tuk
anhaan
run
person he
(A -person ran)

4.

tuk
run
running

nhaan
person
(a person

nhaan.
n
person
who
(a run-away
pers on,

tuk
ub8s ka
(ct)
dog
run.
and
(And a dog is running)
"6
a -tuk
ubo
he run
dog
(the dog ran away

the

Emphatic

form

w-1
which

- yer
fall

bl.
which

- yer
fall

bi
which

k
am
ni
(0t)
who
person who is coming

bi
come

i
who

nhaan
n
person
who
(The person who came)

am

bi
come

i
who

n
na,,,C
tapper
who
(The palmxinQ tapper

an

bko
atree it
(The tree

bko
tree
(a fallen

b
which
tree)

7.

knhaan
a
(ct)
and person
(and someone is

bi
come
coming)

bi
anhaan
came
person he
(someone came)
jOt ri bcham
sat on tree
tapper

who

tuk
run

nhaan
person
(The

an

(ct)

away)

running
n

ub8s
11
dog
which
(a run-away
dog)

yer
fall
fell)

'i

wi
which

6.

anay8
[bapper he
(A palm-wine

tuk
run
i-. e. a refugee)
an

tuk
run

ub8s
vii
dog
wnich
_ (a dog which is

bi
which
tree)

9.

but

M'
-aNk
tuIC
i
ni
an
(ct)
who
run
who
who is ranning
away)'

bko
tree
(a falling

8.

and affricates.

TVpe IIabbba/i)

kbko
yer
a
(ct)
fall
tree
and
(a tree is falling),

5-

infrequently.

Examnlr, s:
Inter7rated
.1

3-

stops

or Emphatic,

may be Non-emphatic

Clauses

before

ka
(CU

jO'*t

sit
who perched

ri behaml
who in tree
on a palm-

A27
laangul
10. nasien a
n.
a
uyamax nasien
-laanp: ul j qyp-_m
nax
den-y-him
deny-him
he
chief
who
who meat
meat
chief
(The chief who-denied him meat)
(Chief denied him meat)
Hb8l
i
il. nhaa:n anhaan
n
an
rein
mmaaj
mmaaj
-rein
person
who
eat-me who maize
ate-me maize
peroon he
(The one who ate my maize)
(Somdbody ate my maize)
.2
12.

Intefprated/EmDhatic
jank
aplele
red
orange is
(The orange is red)

Clause(Clause

Ty-oe'IIabbba/A

plele
P_
which
orange
(The orange,
the
120

an
one which

jankred
is red)

-POnk
which-thus
(the-one)

27

_5.2
The feature
Integrating

Non-inter-rated

Clause(Ttype Ilabbb)

in: the absence of the


+non-into-, ratqd, is realized
(10.4 : 2. k)IFW-) and the
tor.
Verb Prefix
presencc,
in the Identifier
Prefix in the
presence represented

potential
Verbal Group),

of the Focus.

The Surface

Structure

of the NonAdjectival
integrated
Clause is therefore
the same as that of a
Modificational
Clause. Its Constituent
Structure
isihowever)
different
in

that

Nominal

its

Markers

are of Class 2b, agreeing with the Head of the


Group in which it functions.
it may be Non-emphatic or Emphatic.

Examnleo:
l

lion-interrated/flon-emphatic

..
(Adjunct
1.

'Ulon)
Ono)

Clause(Clause
MM

1 to Head)
=8 b6ka
day they'll

kab=u

-A

ba -A
katimu
Ma
Un8 vii
vii
(m3 they call
(M)
day
name-your
(The day on which thc-j call'youx
name)

call
name-your.,

(One day theylll

Typc Habbb/i)

call

your name)

to Head)
_(ComDlcmcnt
2. au=0 pro
food
he
ate
and
(and he ate food)
(Adjunct
4 to Head)
3. aUVIIX
returned
and he
(and he vient back
the way)

re
-01
upre ]i
(m
food (m) he
ate
(The fooa which he ate
ri bga
on way
along

Non-interTated/Emphatic

.2
(Complement
to Head)
4. m- laangin
uyamax
meat
you deny-me
(you denied me meat)

k
we ko
eat something
you(ct)
(you are eating something)

Rb83

ufex
wIxna bi
back
return(m)
by
(The way by which he might return)

bga
way

Clause( Clause
inji
I
(I

bi
(m)

Typ e IIabbb/ii)
ni
(m)-

am the

ko
wi
thing(m)
(The thing

121

u
he

uyamax A17
m- - laanfr, on
(m)
deny
you
meat
the-one
one to whom you deny meat)
kyou
which

re
eat

wonk
(m)thus
the-one you are eating)

A32

The agreement of Markers Class 2b with the Head of the Nominal


in both Integrated
Group may be covert,
Clauses,
and Non-integrated
(Pronoun
Group
Nominal
Type
is
IIb
the
Head), where
case with a
as

Note:

the Marker

agrees with

the Semantic Class of the Pronoun,

8n
k
inji
ji
ni
-a?
the-one ?
I
who youlll*laugh
(am I the one whom you are laughing

e. g.
IS

)
at?

Other Clauses which have a covert or notional


agreement with the
Head axe those which enter into Nominal Transforms having Interrogative
Pronouns or Adverbs as Head of the Nominal Group'(Nominal
Type IIb and IIh).

Groups

Exampl
An
8nk
ja
m=i
(m)
(m)
thus
you say
(that's
what you said)
8m bi,
how (m)
(how did

9.2

: 28

myou
you

ro b8n?
do (m)
get

)
on?

Infinitive

The feature +infinitive


Class 3 (6.1 : 3-3).

Clause

(Clause

is realized

Type Ilb)

in

: the presence

of a Verbal

Group of

Exam-ole:
a napax
& child
(a child

pbit
r6 - p9ni
(op) como-out to-come,
came out in order to

kar. etar
bkul uniew
them house
to-sweep
go to sweep the house

122

Hb 15,16
for

them)

5 (3).

5.3

Introduction

:0

Elements

the

between

is

words,

Component

03c.

).

in

partly

obligatory

presence

Structure,

for
to

the

of

the

may be arranged

in

differences
into

feature

the
in

is

Structure,

Surface

Element,

a certain

instance

the Transitivity

has a feature

This

Class

Elements

being

Stratum,

in

other

Component.
the

of

Transitivity
the

realized

in

as for

instance
in

and partly

of root

on which

Transitivity

their

a Transitivity

the

Stratum,
The Transitivity

for,

Clause)

Major

(e. g. +erM. tiv

Clause,

According

Plano

Projection

the

Clause

-the Transitivity

of

Predicate

by the

formulated

relationship

and Complement.

Predicate,

Subject,

the

the special

is

Transitivity

Every

Transitivit

SECTION .

CIULPTER

the

draws.

Predicate

the

(see

in

of

4.
-he Constituent

features,

System Network

Structure

the

Clauses

below).

Stratum will usually result


A change in the Structure
of the Transitivity.
feature
If the Transitivity
feature.
in the change of the Transitivity
Lements
Roles of the
is changed, the Participant
will be changed as well.
The Process whereby the Transitivity
Mutation.
a
called
The
(1)
may
(2)

feature

kinds:
two
be
Clause
the
in
1,,
Tutaton
of
may
effects
change which a
it
is,
that
Relationships,
Transitivity
the
It may vary
number of
Complex
Clause
into
Simplex
one or vice versa; or
a
a
mutate
Complement,
Subject
the
Roles
Participant
the
and
of
it may re-define

mutating,

for

example,

the Directive

Clause into

Passive

and vice

versa.

Mutation:

Rx,am-ples:

2.

of a Clause is changed is

ja
Kinta bJon ni
they said
John and Kinta
(John and Xinta
said)

jaalor
Kinta bJon -ni
John a4d Kinta thoy said-to-each-otlm-r
(John and Kinta said to each other)

11
upi
mob
un 91 ahyena it
caught goat
(Hyena caught a goat)

unel
upi
amoba '*
hyena
caught-was
goat it
(Goat was caught by a hyena)

123

SYSTEITNETTIORK.

TRANSITIVITY

An-ayntive

(1)

Procossive
Intensive (3) -- Stative (5)
Resultative
" Agentive

(2)

Qualitative
Kinetic

(6)

(a)
Kinetic/Non-directed

(9)

(10)

(11)

Kinetic/Directed

Directive
-

(15)

Instrumental
-Operative(14)
Extensive

(16)

Benefactive

(17)

Respective

(18)

-SimPlex(13)-T, Tiddle(l9)
(21)

assive

Passive/Recipient

(22)
e

Passive/Goal

(23)

-Receptive(20)
(24)

Ergative

-Effective(12)-

f
Middle-transitive
-.
-Complex(25)_

Inner-transitive
Double-transitive

Descriptive

(31)

(26)

Tiddle-transitive/Benefactive
.
11iddle- transitive/Directive

(28)

(25)
(30)
N6te:

124

(27)

Numbers refer
Sub-sections

to the relevant

5 (3)
CitAtion

Paradifnn

Type A

lion-agentive

Type 3

Affentive

ka nirri.
ait
has man
(there
is a man)

Intensive

BI
(a)

Processive

ufux
wind
(the

fux
ait
winds
wind blows)

(b) Stative

Jon a- chi
John he is
(John is here)

(c)

pi eman a- anx
it
door,
open
(the door oPens/is

Re'sultative

BII Extensive
(A) Qualitative

(b) Kinetic
(ba)
Kinetic/lTon-directed

(bb)

Kinetic/Dixected

open)

Jon \i- yAmp pxim


John he long leg
(John has long legs)
ion a- xep kan6m
John he go market
(John vient to the market)
Jon a- xepand upi kanem
John he go-make goat market
(John took the goat to market)

(0) Effective
(0a)
siml)lex
(caa)

Operative

(caac)

Directive

(caab)

Instrumental

(caac)

Benefactive

(caad) Respective

Jon a- tap upi


John he hit goat
(John hit the goat)
Jon a- tapna
upi pko
John he hit-with
goat stick
(John hit the goat with a stick)
Jon- a- fingar
Kinta upi
Kinta goat
John he kill-for
(John* killed
a goat for Kinta)
Kinta blipal
Jon a- pe
John he more Kinta cleverness
(John is cleverer
than Kinua)

5 (3)
(cab) Middle

Jon a- fingar
John he kill-himself
(John killed
himself)

(cac)

Receptive
(caca) Passive
(cacaa)

Passive/Recipient

Jbn a- fingara
Jon he kill-for-was
(a goat was killed

(cacab)

Passive/Goal

a- finga,
upi
ungil
kill-was
hyena
oat it
the goat was killed
by a hyena)

(cacb)

E1rgative

pliki
a- chum mlik.
it full
water-pot
water
(the water-pot
is full
of water)

(cb) Complex
(oba) -Lliddle-transitive
(cbaa) middie-transtive/
Benefactive

banhaan. bserler
umaani
they viced-for-eachpeople
rice
other
(the people weed the rice for each
other)

(obab) Middle-transitive/
Directive
(cbb)

Inner-transitive

(cbc)

Double-transitive

(d)

upi
goat
for John)

Jon ni Kinta bmeeler


John and Kinta they know-each-other
(John and Kinta know each other)
irOmaj
jexelen
teeth
grind-each-othercauses-to
(John grinds his teeth)
kamisa.
Jon a- winand
upax
John he see-away children
shirt
(John saw the children
taking away
his shirt)
Jon a- chi nasien
John he is
chief
(John is a chief)
Jon aJohn he

Descriptive

126

5 (3)
The Zynes of Clauses

_(Ctd)
_5..

used in this

Notes on conventions

section

(5: 3)

the lower

s, subject

cdse s- indicates
a Subject Element
.
Prefix
manifested by a member of the Identifier
Clas s (10: 4 : 2.2)(not
potentially
a Nominal Group).

S, Subject

the upper case S- indicates

a Subject

Element

manifested by a Nominal Group, or by a member of


the Identifier
Prefix Class (potentially
a Nominal Group).

representing
Predicate

pi

the Root Class by number (subscript)


from section 10: 2 : 2.1.

r indicates

actor-goal

Complement,

manifested

a member of

the

potentially

representing

Pronoun

The superscripts

5.1

5.1

Participant
-two

recipient
C

- goal

recipient;
S

goal

The asterisk

5.3

:1

at

5.1

Non-wzentive

and the

very

Group.

(Subject)

The hyphen

for

the

Roles
and

indicates

same manifesting

class.

of

either

not both.

indicates
class
the

a restriction
or item.

Transitivity

one Participant

of choice

Component

are

of

realized

: 1.3.
Clause

Clause

The Non-agentive
this,

features

in which

described

: 1.3.1

The semi-colon indicates


that
Role or the other is relevant,

manifesting

are

(10.3),

Participant

the

or by,

Tile hyphen with spaces indicates


two Participant
Roles for two manifesting
classes in a Complex.

S*

The Elements

Roles

Group,

Class

a Nominal.

at
(Complement).

: 1-3-3

Suffix

indicate

listed

are

which

by a Nominal

usually

special

(Clause

Type A)

functions

Participant

127

Utterance
Roles

of

its

initial.
constituents,

Because
it

'
of
has as

5 (3)
much relevance
for

to Theme as to Transitivity.

convenience

sake, and its


the difference

It

classification
be-hween it

merely
is chosen to underline
find their place in the Transitivity

with here
(Clause
A)
Type
code
and the Clauses which
be dealt

will

System Network as fully-fledged

members.
in:
+non-ar.entive is realized
.
.
non-participant
Participant
the
Role
Norf-P
in
arti cipant
of
subject
s
(which characterizes
the "Impersonal Clause" in
terminology);
traditional

The feature

drawing

on Root Class 1;

Predicate

subjective
C,

and Complement in the Participant


Subjective.

Role of

Examnles:

a- ka ninx
has man
it
(There was a man)
a- baand* pxis
to-go-home
it
arrived
(IT"ime has come to go home)
ait
(It

naam chix
seems is-not
seems that he is not(here))

5-1 :2A!

-,entive

The feature

+agentive

is realized

Type B)
in

Subject
in a Participant
Non-Participant.

S
Clauses

Agentive

5.3_ -.

(Clauses

Clauses

Intensive

The feature
referent
S

Intensive

are

further

specified

as:

Role

other

than

and Extensive.

Intensive

Clauses (Clauses Type BI)

+intensive

is

realized

Subject

in

in:
the

Participant

Role

and absence of Complement.


Clauses axe A=ther
as: Processive,
specified

Resultative.

128

of Referent;

Stative

and

5 (3)
5.3

:4

Processive

(Clause

Clause

Clause describes

The Processive

Type BIa)

natural

While most
outside the speaker

phenomena.

the reality
characterize
into Nouns and Verbs, and Nouns are pictured
as detached from the process
that surrounds them, the Manjako language has a homogeneous sequence in
have
the
lexical
item.
Thus,
Predicate
the
Subject
the
same
anu
which
"the
Manjako
"the
blows",
English
a-fux,
ufux
wind
says
wind
says
while
"thing"
"process".
identity
the
inner
the
indicating
and
of
winds",
Indo-European

The feature

languages

+processive

is

in:

realized

referent
S*

Role of Referent;
in the Participant
Subject
that the Subject
*with
the restriction
draws on the same*Root Class as the Predicate

P-r2

Predicate

on Roots Class 2;
and absence of Complement.

The following

Mutation

is possible:

Clause (BIIcaaa)

Directive

drawing

by affixation
of the benefactive
(10.2 : 2.2-3) to the Verb.
-2Z

ExanDles:

Mutations

Uf ux a-f
tm
Wind it
wind
(The wind blew)

bko
Ufux a- fuxar
Wind it
wind-on tree
(The wind blew on the tree)

s6b
us6bal bi
a
(sp)
rain
and rain
(The rain fell)

plenk
sobar
a
us6bal bi
(sp)
rain-on wall
and rain
(The rain wet the wall)

5.3 :5

Stative

The feature

+stative

is realized

in:

Subject

P:

Predicate

The folloiing
Benefactive

P 26

Clause (Clause Ty-peBIb)

referent
S

r3

suffix

in the Paxticipant

Role of Referent;

drawing on Root Class 3;


and absence of Complement.

Mutation is possible:
Clause (BIIcaac)

by affixation
of the benefactive
(10.2 : 2.2-3) to the Verb.
-gj
129

suffix

5 (3)
Examples:

1.

Hb 115

Bga kaxe
chi
is
Way no-longer
(There was no lonver

a way)
Mutation

2.

da -chiir
you are(to
(You listen

da - chi
you axe
Clause (Claqse

Resultative

5.3 :6

was used to bring

it

T-Ype BIO

on the result,

Clauses focus

Resultative

)
you
well)

kabax
ear

rather

than on the agency which

So when one speaks of the "open door",

about.

there

as to how it

came to be open. It may have been opened by


person or perhaps the wind, or it may have swung open by

is no allusion
an agent, a
itself.

The feature

is realized

+resultative

in:

referent
S

Subject in
Referent;

P:

Predicate

r4
The. following

Passive

Mutation

drawing

on Root Class 4

is possible:

Clause (BI! caca):

by affixation
of the passive
(10.2 : 2.2-4) to the Verb.

suffix

--a

Ilutation:

Examl)l. e:
anx
open
was open/The

pigman a
it
door
(The door
5.3

Role of

the Participant

Extensive

The feature

door
opened)
Clauses. (Clauses

+extensive

is

roalized

anxa
pigman ait
door
open-vias
(The door was opened

someone))

Type BII)--in:

Subje6t

(by

in

a Participant

Role

other

than

-Referent;

presence or optional
Complement.

CAC)
Rxtensive

Clauses

are

further

specified

and Descriptive.

-130

as:

Qualitative,

presence
Kinetic,

of
Effective

5 (3)
8

Oualitative

The feature

Clause

(Clause

is

realizod

+qualitative

Tjpe BIIa)
in:

attribuant
S

Subject
in
Attribuant;

P:

llxedcate

r5

Orespect

Mutation

Participant

d=awing

and Complement
of Respect.

The following
Respective

the

in

on Root
the

Role

of

Class

5;

ParticipantRole

is possible:

Clause (BIIcaad)

by affixqtion
(10.2
-jjn

of the causative
2.2-5)

suffix

Exwnplcs:

pxim
a- nhikox
ubaarm
leg
mosquito he is-thin
(Mosquito is thin in the logs)

D2

- Mutation:
inhan,
plandcr8 a- Y&np
it is-long
jersey
sleeves
(The jersey has long sleeves)
Kinetic
The feature

+kinetic

Clauses

ion a-ympan
.plander6
inhan
Jon he is-long-cause-to
jersey
sleeves
(Jon stretched
the sleeves
of the jersey)

(Clauses

is realized

Type BIIb)

in:

actor
S

Subject
Actor;

P:

Predicate

r6

locator
(C*)

in the Participant
drawing

and optional

Participant

Role of

on Root Class 6;

Complement in the
Role

of

Locator

* with the restriction


that a Nominal
Group drawing on Semantic Class la, huma
beings, (10-4 : 1-3) may not manifest
clocator.
NOTE: An exception to this is
in the Verb tuk "to run"
a- tuk Jon
he ran John
(he ran from John)

5 (3)
Kinetic

Clauses have the further

They are accordingly

+non-directed.
KinetiC/liOn-directed
9.3

: 10

Clause

is realized

+non-directed

(C)locator
Mutation

(BIIbb)

as:

(Clause

Type BIIbaj

in:
lZole of

: by affixation
of the factitive
(10.2
2.2.2)
to
the
Verb.
suffix
:
-and

Mcam-oles.-

Mutations:

kato
axis
he go-home house
(he vient home)

a- xisand
uyamax kato
he go-home-with meat
house,
(he took the meat home)

2.

a- Ap kangm
he go market
(he ivent, to market)

9.3

: 11

a -xepand
upi kangm
he go-vrith goat market
(he took the goat to market)
I
(Clause

Kinetic/Pi-rected

Clause

locator
goal
(C)

The following

Type BIIbb)

is realized

The-featu=edirected

Benefactive

in:

'

Co?lement in the Participant


optional
of Goal and/or Locator.

Mutation

is possible:

Clause (BlIcaac)

: by affixation
of the benefactive
(10.2 : 2.2-3) to the Verb.
-ar

Exam-ole:

Kinta
Kinta

or

is possible:

Clause

Kinetic/Directed

specified

Complement in the Participaxit

optional
Locator.

The following

further

+directed

and Kinetic/Directed.

Kinetic/Non-directed

The feature

of the features

choice

Mutation:
Angan.
ashe take

(Kinta
took the
the ricefield)

Angander
Kinta
apre
food
Kinta
she took-for
(she took the food for Kinta)

blek
pre
food ricefield
dinner
to

132

suffix

Roles

5 (3)
to elicit
is possible
a Clause hav3mg a
recipient
Complement with three Participant
Roles: 0

Note

It

a- r8ngander Kinta pre blek


Kinta food ricefield
she took-for
(She took the food to the ricefield
However, no 03 has so far
Effective

5.3 : 12

The featu=e

P:

is =ealized

Predicate

r 7-9

(Clauses

, e. g.

Kinta)

been encountered

Clauses

+effective

for

goal - locator

in

unelicited

data.

T-ne BIIc)

ins

drarring on Root Classes 7-9.

Clauses are further specified as Simplex and Complex. Simplex


Clauses describe only a single Transitivity
Relationship,
while Complex
Relationship.
Clauses describe a multiple Transitivity
The Verb
functioning in the Predicate of a Complex Clause is always affixed.
The
Effective

Verb functioning

in the Predicate

of a Simplex Clause may or may not be

affixed.
Clause "Bill
and John fought" is ambiguous in that it may be
("Bill
("Bill
John
fought
the
Germans)v
and
either
simplex
or complex
and
John fought each other").
This may be diagrammed as follows:
The English

sC

simplex

(Goal)

Actor
Bill
s

complex

I.Tanlako':

(the

and John

Actor

Goal

Bill

John

Sim-olex Clause
bkam
they fight
(they fight
Comnlex

(someone))

Clause.

b-

kamler
fight
Whey
-each-other
(they fight
each other)

133

Germans)-'

5 (3)
Similarly,

"John married

Terry

and Sheila"

could refer

to a bigamous

duty by John if complex


if simplex, or exercise of clerical
situation
(an ambiguity which exists here only because Terry may be either a male
This may be diagrammed as follows:
or a female name).
SC

simplex

Actor

Goal

John

Te=7

complex

and Sheila

C.
Goal

Actoi:

Agent
John (clergyman)

Sheila-

Te=7

Manj ako ,
Kinta
Kinta
Kinta

Aram
ni
and A-ram
and Aram)

SimDlex:

Tant a -nim
Tant he ma=7
(Tant married

ComDlex:

Tant a- nimlen
Tant he marry-each-other-oause-to
(Tant married
John and Kinta
Simplex

Clauses

Simplex Clauses describe

(Clauses

Jon ni
Kinta
John and Kinta
each other))

(to

Type BIIca)

Transitivity

a single

Relationship.

They are

Middle and Receptive and the


as: -Operative,
specified
described in -these may be diagramped as follows:
Relationships
Transitivity
further

Operative

Middle

Receptive
5.3

14

ODerative

In the Operative
the Predicate
Operative
Directive,

is

Clauses-(Clauses

Clauses,
initiated

the Transitivity
in the Subject

Clauses axe further


Instrumental,

Type BIlcaa)',

specified

Benefactive

Relationship
and operates
as:

and Respective.,

134

formulated

by

on the Complement.

5 (3)
15

9.3

Directive

The feature

+directive

actor
S

Subject

p:

Predicate

r7

(C)goal

int

in the Participant

Role of Actor;
on Root Class 7;

dravring

Mutations

Passive Clause
(Example 2)

Type BIlcaaa)

is realized

Complement in'the

and optional

The following

(Clause

Clause

Participant

Role of Goal.

axe possible:

(BIIcaca)

by affixation
of the passive
(10.2 : 2.2-4) to the Verb.

Clause (BIIcaac)
Benefactive
(Example 3)
(BlIca)
Clause
Middle
or
(Example 4)

suffix

-a

by affixation
of the benefactive
(10:
2
2.2-3)
to the
suffix
:
-ar
Ve.rb-.

ExamT)les:

(1)

a- ji
ubaarum
Upit
it laughed mosquito
sand-fly
(The sand-fly
laughed at the mosquito)
Mutations:
2.

undl
aub8s
mob
hyena it
caught dog
(The hyena caught the

ub0s a- moba
ungli
dog it
caught was hyena
(The dog was caught by the hyena)

dog)

mex
m&n- ruk
leave house
-I'll
(I shall leave the house(behind))

mex
m9n - rukaru
I'll
leave-for-you
house
(I leave the house Yrith you)
t

p- wamb gtiew
to shoo blowflies
(to shoo away the blowflies)
5.3 : 16
The feature

Instrumental
+instrumental

Clause
is

pto
(to

(Clause

wambar
shoo-from-himself
shoo blowflies

!ay-pe BII

E15
gtiew
blowflies
away from himself)

caab)

in:

realized

actor
S

Subject

P:

Predicate
drawing on Root Class'7,
with the
selection
suffix
of the instrumen+al
-na
(10.2 : 2.2.6)
in the Verb;

r7

minstrument

goal

in

the

P18

Participant

Role

of Actor;

Complement in the Paxticipant


Roles
and optional
(N
Goal.
B This order may be
Instrument
of
an4/or
*Example
instrilmen;,
(C)goal
2).
reversed:

135

5 (3)
Mutation

The follovring
Passive

Clause

is possible:

(BIIcaca):

by affixation)of-the
(10.2
to
: 2.2-4

passive
the Verb

suffix

-a

Exam)les:
kataam pre
Jon a- rena
John he eats-viith
spoon food
(John eats food with a spoon)
2.

Jon a- xena pre kataam


John he eats food spoon
(John eats food with a spoon)
Mutation:

Jon a- tapna
ub8s pko
John he hit-with
dog stick
(John hit the dog with a stick)

The feature

(Clause

Clause

Benefactive

5.3 : 17

is realized

+benefactive

actor
S

Subject

P:

Predicate

r8

(, )recipient,

The following
Passive

r goal

Ilutation

UbSs atapnaa
dog he hit-with-was
(The dog was hit
with

pko
stick
a stick)

Type 1311 caac)


in:
Role of Actor;
on Root Class 8;

in the Participant
drawing

Roles of

Complement in the Participant


and optional
Recipient
and/or Goal.
is possible:

Clause (BIlcaca)
1 .:

by affixation)of
(10.2 : 2.2-4

the passive
to the Verb.

suffix

-a

Exam-oles:
1.

a- vnil Jon ub8s


he gave John dog
(He gave John a dog)
Mutation

2.

ka - fingar
he'll
1-dll-for
(he will hill

Note:
ambiguous,

A passive
unless

fingara
E24
unkambe
,g
they'll
killed-for-were
pig
(they would have a pig killed
for
them)

gul unkambe
them pig
a pig for them)
Ifutation

ambiguity

of the' Benefactive

can be resolved

136

Clause may be
by recourse to semantic

or

5 (3)
because it is often impossible
considerations,
Role of the Complement is being transformed,

contextual
Participant

ahe
he

1
2

translation
translation
The first

to say which
e. g:

wula
was-given
or:
was-given-away
is based on:

translation

Goal
dog,
ub6s)

Ivul
gave

ahe

i. e. to somebody)

The second on:


Recipient
ub8s)

vrul

he
If

dog,

i. e.

gave

but

Recipient,

The feature,

actor
S.

translation

if

is

+resnective

--,

Subject

has the

2 applies,

Clause

Respective

18

the

1 applies,

translation

fClause

to

something

of

Participant

in:

realized

and Complement in the Participant


and/or Respect.

(13IIcaca)

is

drawing

Role of Actor;
on Root Class 9;

respect
goal
C

Clause

2.

xmaal
hare
(Hare

Roles of Goal

possible:
: by affixation
(10.2
: 2.2-4)

Examples:
1.

of

Type BIIcaad)

Predicate

Passive

Role

Goal.

P: x9

Mutation

dog)

in the Participant

Subject

The following

the

of the passive
to the Verb.

suffix

-a

Mutations:
Irb 108
ape
vrul ptuk
he more him'run
than he)
could run. faster

aympan
he stretched
(He stretched

inhan
plandeA
jersey
sleeves
the sleeves
of
the jersey)

xjeku
bush-fowl
(Bush-fowl

apea
ptuk
he more-was run
in
was surpassed

aplander6
it
jersey
(The jersey

137

running)

inhan
yAmpana,
stretched
was sleeves
sleeves were stretched)

5 (3)
5.3

: 19

is

Ty-pe BIIcab)

Clause the Transitivity

In the Middle
Predicate

(Clause

Claus6

Middle

initiated

on the Complement, if present


in:
The feature +middle is realized

P:

formulated

by the

(and
the
Subject
and operates on
in the Participant
Role of Goal).

in the Subject

also

actor-recipient;
actor-goal
S

Relationship

Subject in the Participant


Roles of Actor
Recipient
or Actor and Goal;

and

Predicate
drawing on Root Class 10, or other Root
Classes (mainly 7) with the selection
of the
(10.2
the
Verb;
benefactive
2.2-3)
in
suffix
:
-ar

rio

(C)goal

Role of
Complement in the Participant
and optional
Role
Goal. (Note: When the Subject has the Participant
there is the possibility
of Actor-Goal,
of presence of
Role of
a Complement having the Participant
Instrument
or Respect).

McamT)les:
.I

Actor-Reci-Dient

Goal
(E 15)

Jon
a --riambar
gtiew
blow-flies
John he shoo-from-himself
(John shooed away the blow-flies)
A 4-^"-Pnn

2.

Jon a- fingar
John he kill-himself
(John killed
himself)

Actor-Goal

Res-Dect

Jon
aniam
John he confused
(John was confused
In

Note
Ergative
into

the

as to

case of Uiddle
(BIIcacb)
Clause

a Passive

Clause

bga
way
the way)
Clauses

there

(BIIcaca)

is

which
the

of

the Mutation

of-further

possibility

by affixation

138

from

result

the

passive

of an
Mutation

suffix

-a

5 (3)
(10.2

to the Verb,

: 2.2-4)

pliki
viater-pot
the water-pot)

a- chumar
mlik
fill-itself
viater it
(The water filled
ReceDtive

5.3 : 20

In the Receptive

Clauses,

5.3 : 21

Passive

specified

The Passive
Passive/Coal,
: 22

The feature,

(Clauses

Clauses

is realized

according

in:
of the passive

realized

recipient
s

Subject

Predicate with
(10.2 : 2.2.3)

(C)goal

and optional

the

-a

and

Role of the Subject.

(Clause
in

suffix

Passive/Recipient

as:

specified
to the Participant

Passive/Recipient-Clause
is

and Ergative.

Type BIIcaca)

Clauses are further

+passive

on in a Transitivity

Passive

as:

Predicate vrith the selection


(10.2 : 2.2-4) in the Verb;

5.3

is operated

elsewhere.

Clauses are further

+Dassive

ohumara
mlik
filled-was
water
filled
up with water)

Types BIIcac)

the Subject

Receptive

The feature,

pliki
ait
water-pot
(The water-pot

(Clause

Clauses

initiated

Relationship

e. g:

Type BIlcacaa

Passive/Recipient

in the Participant

Clauses

in:

Role of Recipient;

the selection
in the Verb;

of the benefactive

Complement in the Paxticipant

suffix

Role of Goal.

Exam-oles:
1.

2.

Jon ka - tenara
napax
John will viatch-for-be
child
(John vrill have the c1iild looked

after

fingara
g
unkambe
they'll
killed-for-were
pig
(They would have a pig killed
for

5.3 : 23
The feature
Sgoal

for

him)
E 24

them)

Passive/ Goal Clause (Clause Trpe BIIcacab)


jpassive

is

Subject

realized
in

the

in

the

Participant

139

Passive/Goal
Role

of

clauses
Goal

-ar

in:

5 (3)
(C*)actor;

instr=ent;

xes-pect

The Hominal. Group manifesting

volitional

a PassivP/Goal

Clausg

Class lb (animals)

(nonSemantic
Cldss
2
or
but not Semantic Class la (human beings).

entities),

is possible

So it

Complement"in

optional

to Semantic

must correspond

Complement in the Participant


optional
Role of Actor or Instrument
or Respect,
-with the following
restriction:

to say:
Zomplement

Actor
ungil
ub6s a
moba
hyena
dog it
was-cauent
(The dog was caught by the hyena)
Instrument
tapnaa
pkq
ub6s adog it
was-hit-by
stick
(The dog was hit with a stick)

and

but

not
finga
*ub8s adog it
'was-killed
(The dog was killed

Jon
John
by John)

Examples:
1.

2.

3.

5.3

F 29

choka
mexul
house-his
was-damaged
(Ilis house was damaged)
Instrument
kanhon
ka gpecha
wambnaa
nako
five
mortar-shots
person he-vffil be-woken-by
(The person will
be woken by five morta-shots)
Respect
mlik
water
with water)

a-chumana
pliki
it
full-cause-to-vus
atcipot
,;
(The waterpot
was fiiled
- 24

The feature

Ergrativ6

Clause

+erf-rative

eon-actor

Subject

P:

Predicate

'11

(C)respect

Ergative

is
in

and optiorial

Clauses describe

Ha 56

(Clause
realized
the

Ty-pe BII
in:

Participant

drawing

cacb)

Role

on Ro ot

Complement

Class

in-the

of Non-actor;
11;
Participant

Role

of Respect.,

or condition
of ti he No.p -actor Subject
which must have I?een brought about by an outside Agent, and thp.Tefore a
140
astate

5 (3)
a Respective

Clause is possible.

If

one speaks of a "full


is
that
there
the
implication
must have been somebody who filled
viater-pot"
it in the first
place. The Mrgative Clauses are somewhat like the
into

Mutation

Clauses in their

Qualitative

from them in their


one in which it
kanekan ait
cup

without

Mutation

is possible

in

the

change

in

meaning.

The following
Respective
(Pxample

Mutations
Clause
1)

to say,

classes

but nevertheless

The Ergative

Clause is

differ
the only

e. g:
kanekan
cup

umaani a- g6nd
it
half-fall
rice
fall
of rice)

functioning

in

the

I
Predicate

and without

are possible:

(BIIcaad)

(BIIcab)
Clause
Middle
(Mcample 2)

Structure,

potential.

umaani
g8nd
half-full
rice
(The cup was half

a change

radical
.a

Surface

by affixation
(10.2
: 2.2-5)

of the causative
to the Verb.

by affixation
(10.2
: 2.2-3)

of the benefactive
to the Verb.

suffix

suffix-ar

Respective or Middle Clause can then be further


The resultant
mutated
(BIIcaca)
by affixation
Clause
Passive
of the passive suffix, -a
a
(10.2 : 2.2-4) to the Verb. (Examples 3 and 4)-

into

Mutations:

ExamDles:

2.

--an

(a)

auniert
it
building
(The building

(b)

umaani a- ming uniew


it
full
building
rice
(The building
is full
of rice)

(a)

a- chum mlik
pliki
wate=-pot it full water
(The water-pot
was full
of
water)

(b)

mlik
achum pliki
full
water it
water-pot
(The waterpot
was full
of
water)

ming umaani
full
rice
is full
of
rice)

ion
uniew - umaani
a- mingan
John he full-cause-to-building
rice
(John filled
the building
with rice)

mlik
a- chumar
water it fills-itself
(The water filled

141

pliki
water-pot
up the wate=po t

5 (3)
Mutations:

pliki
a -. chumana
mlik
water-pot it full-cause-to-was water
The water-pot was filled with water
by someone))
4.

pliki
ait
water-pot
e.
The water-pot
g. if left

chumara
full-itself-was
filled
up with
in the rain)).

mlik
water
water,

but not:
*unievi ahouse it

mingara umani
filled
rice
becauset as the informant
explained,
a
house will not fill
with rice by itself,
but somebody has to do it.

Complex Clauses
As mentioned
Transitivity

(Clause

ZUe BIIcb)

(5-3
above

: 12) the Complex Clauses describe a multiple


Relationship.
They are always a result
The
of Mutations.

Complex Clauses may be divided

into

three

Types, of which the first


The types are:
Middle-

yet again be divided into two sub-types.


(Benefactive
transitive
Inner-transitive
or Directive),
They are illustrated

transitive.

1.1
iddle-t

in the f6llovrLng

and Doublediagram:

Inner-transitive

Double-transitive

EYinetic

Direc tive

enefactive

benefactive
(10.2

Souare Junction:
Round Junction

-ar
: 2.2-3)

selection

may

1(10.2
recizrocal
-el
- 2.2.1)

of benefactiveq

: conflation
of suffixes;
the joining-line
suffix.
142

factitive
(10.2

reciprocal
or factitive
the through-line
suffix

-and
: 2.2.2)

suffixes.
precedes

5 (3)
26

(Clause

Clause

Middle-transitive

BIIeba)

Clauses result

from the Mutation


Clause (BIIcaaa)
or the Directive

The Ifiddle-transitive
(BIIcaac)
Benefactive

the
of either
by the selection
in the conflated

and benefactive
suffixes
of the reciprocal
realized
(10.2
2.2)
in
the
Verb.
:
suffix
-eler
Clauses, the Subject is manifested by a Nominal
In the Kiddle-transitive
Prefix)
Group (or Identifier
having the feature- +plural,,
Or bY an Additive
Rominal Group Complex-0-4
: 2).
Clauses axe further

7he Middle-transitive

specified
as:
and Middle-transitive/Directive.

LUddle -trans itive/Benefactive


9.3

The feature

+benefactive

isrealizod

actor-recipient
S

Subject

P:

Predicate

r8

(C)goal

in the Middle-transitive

drawing

Role of Actor-Recipient;
on Root Class 8;

Complement in the Participant

(Each example is analysed,

banhaan b --jaaler
;
eople they s aid-tobanhaan bja

the numbers referring

Role of Goal.

to the diagram)

something)
ko)

M 817.

each- other
People said something
(2)
to
one
another

el
er
2.

Clauses in:

in the Participant

and optional

Dxan,Dles:
1.

Clause (Clause BIIcbaa)

Viddle-transitive/Benefactive

: 27

within

the group (3)

Jon ni Kinta
John and Kinta
Jon

ni

bs6rler
they weed-for-each-other
Kints, bs6l

(1)

John and Kinta


for

el

they axe weeding for themselveb


(and not for an outsider)
(3)

er
The Transitivity

Relationships

each other

in the above examples may be diagrammed as

follows:

3
Cactor;
Subject

=-,

are weeding
(2)

(1)

recipient

143

goDal
t
ComplemenC4

(3)

z5
5.3

Clause

Middle-transitive/Directive

: 28

The feature

is realized

+directive

in the Middle
I

actor-goal
S

Subject

P-r7

Predicate

instrument;
(C)

respect

(Clause

Transitive

in the Participant
drawing

and optional
of Instrument

BIIcbab)
Clause in:

Role of Actor-Goal;

on Root Class 7;

Complement in the Participant


or Respect.

Role

Exam-ole:
jaka
- meeler
via-shall-knovi-each-other
jaka

we shall

me
el

each other
we shall

er
5.3 : 29

know (1)

Inner-transitive

know ourselves

(Clause BIIcbb

Clause

Clause results

The Inner-transitive

(2)

from the Mutation

of the Directive

of the reciprocal
realized
and factitive
suffixes
(10.2
4
the
Middle2.2):
the
Verb.
In
in
in the conflated
suffix
:
-elen
Transitivity
Relatid)nship
Clause, the reciprocal
transitive
was the actor
Group
between
Nominal
actor
relationship
entities
a
goal
of
goal Clause by th selection

Complex or a Nominal Group having


Subject with a double Participant

the feature
Role.

+-plural,

the

manifesting

Clause

In the Inner-transitive.

Role.
the Complement whichhas a double Participant
be manifested by a Nominal
Therefore it is the Complement$ too, which will
The Subject
Group Complex or by a Nominal Group having the feature +plural.

it

is

is

obligatory,

Transitivity
The feature
S*agent

P:

r7

(C.;)actor-goal

Role of Agent generating


and has the Participant
Relationship
actor - goal - goal - actor.
+inner-transitive

is

realized

Subject
in the Participant
* in examples encountered
Nominal Group corresponding
(10-4 : 1-3);
beings

Predicate

the

in:
Role of Agent,
so far, always manifested
to Semantic Class la,

by a
human

drayring on Root Class 7;

Complement in the Participant


Role of Actorand optional
Goal,
*manifested
by a Nominal Group Complex or a Nominal Group
having
the feature
+-Dlural.
144

5 (3)
ExamDles:

1.

Tant a- g6belen
Jon ni
Kinta
Tant he throws-together
John and Kinta
(Tant causes John and Kinta to quarrel)
Tant a-

g8b

(Jon

jexelen
gnash

bka
they-vill
bka

ex

-j

Kinta)

ni

ir6maj
teeth,
(1)
They will
to
cause
grind
(teeth (grind))
(2)
each other

en

(ix8maj)

el

Relationships

The Transitivity

Tant causes to throw (1)


(John and Kinta) at each
(2).
other

en
al

2.

(Ilb 87)

generated

in this

type of Clause may be

diagrammed as follows:
c
CAcctor

agont

6ubject
,

5.3 : 30

t,,,.,o Clauses

oving
Clause

a Kinetic

Clause (BIIcbo_)_

Double-transitive
Clause

The Double-transitive
to

the

2
<=: iGoal

is

Mutation

of

be mutated,

would

result

of

the

a Directive

which

grammatical
Clause
the

suggests

in

conflation,
a manner-in
of

existence

of
which

a'latent

Clause.

Kinetic

The feature

+double-transitive

actor
S

Subject

P:

Predicate

r7

Cgoal

the

I actor

- goal

is

realized

in

the

in:

Participant

drayting

Role

on Root

Class

of Actor;
7;

Roles of Goal l/
and Complement in the Participant
(i. e. Goal of the first
Actor
Clause,
of the conflated
(i.
Actor
2
the
Goal
and
of
e. Goal of the
second) and
Clauses).
second of the conflated

Exam-oles:

1.

kamisaanji
ma-viinand
u-nax
I see-aviay-vrith children
shirt-my
(I saw children
taking away my shirt)
ma-win

upax

and

kamisaanji
145

see children

(carry)

(1)

away my shirt

(2)

5 (3)
2.

tkyet ubpy
n,a-winand
I
cow calf
sco-away-with
(I smi a cow leading
away her

calf)

uyet

ma-yrin

ubay

and

Relationships

The Transitivity

see a cow
(leading)
away her calf
(2)*
in

generated

this

dia&rrammed as follows:

Six7t)ject

The feature

Clause

+descrintive

attribuant
S

Subject

P:

Predicate

r 12 '
Cattribute

of

Clause, may be

Complement.

actor

DescriDtive

tjpe

'Goal

(Clause

l/Actor

2>

Goal

BIld

is realized

in:

in the Participant
draiving

and Complement

in

Role of Attribuant;
on Root Class 12;
the

Partioipant

Role

of Attribute.

Rvu*oles:
1.

ka Yatimji
jaaka
Ptibi
(ct)
ITamo-my
be-called
Matchet
(gy name is c alled Matchet)

2.

Katim
name
(That

ait
(it

C4

kan. a - chi katim nauyak


that it
is -name big-man
namb is a name of an important

chi ub8s xj&ku


was dog bush-fowl
was the bush-fowlts

05
person)
Hb 113

dog)

146

5. (4)
_
CHAPTER 5.

SECTION 4.

The Clause

functions

as may be seen in
the

basis

of

niinction
Sentence

the

at

diagram.

following

the

Nucleus,
.
(Embedded
Rank
Clause
Clasa. 3 at the
Clause).
Rank (Rankohifted
Sentence

Intr

Invoc

Classes

are

1 functions

set

up on

the

in

(Setting

and Class

TB
I

Rank and Group Rank

Periphery

Clause)

EN

Class

the. Sentence

2 in

Class

Clause

Clause

Clause

as follows:

Function

Rank,

or Purpose),

4 at

the

Group

NcE
I

Setting

lfioleusj

Purp

2b

2a
la

llbjb,

STRING

CLAUSE
Al
A:
,v

IT

ILI

F/S

IP

IIA I

A2

IcI

A3

A41 A5

at

4
N0
Dot

Claune

Head
--aI

Rel*
-IIII

Qual

of
the

Structure
Marker

most relevant
Element

with

(in

Sentence

Peripheryt

generally

function

Markers

Dem Mod

Auxil

Clauses
the

Quant

GROUP
Lexical
c

and Function

Structure

The Element

TEMAL

14 1 IT ALGR0UP

manifested

to Clause
always

Embedded or Rankshifted),
in

the

Sentence

147

Nucleus.

Function
function
but

is

the Marker.

Peripherally
Clauses

The only

without

Clause

withoul

5 (4)
Dlarkers regularlyfunctioning
Subjunctive

peripherally

Clause may also

function

Purpose Element of the Sentence;

the Infinitive

is

peripherally,

Clause.

manifesting

and the Non-initial

The

the

Clause may manifest


Element of the Verbal

the Complement Element of the Clause or the Lexical


Group.

types of
broadly with the structural
correlate
Clause described in section 5.2, Mood and Theme. The presence of the
Elements, Marker, Link and Focus in Clauses of the various classes is
The Classes of-Clauses

diagram:

the following

illustrated-in

Clause Class:

Elements:
MLP

Class la

--

(5-4

Class lba

(5-4

Class lbb,

lbo

Class 2,3p

The correlation
section

5.2

of
is

: 1-1)

Clause

Classes

: 1.2.1)
(5-4
1.2.2

4 (5-4

the

with

and 5.4 t 1.2-3)

2)

Clause

Types

as follows:

CLASS

TYPE
IIaa

Ilab
IIb

described

(Nuclear)
(Anticipatory)
IIaaa
(Non-coordinate)
IIaaba
(Coordinate)
IIaabb

)-

lb

(Peripheral
(Infinitive
IIaba (Purposive)
lIabba (Modificational)

IIabbb
IIb

Note Haaaab
IIaabab

2,3,4

also in
also in
148

(Principal)
(Coordinate)

(Peripheral)
2b
2a
3a
3b
4a
4b
2b,

(Adjectival
(Infi

Non-initial
Subjunctive

1 (Nuclear)
la

lAdjectivall
Purpose)
Temporal)
Objectival
Locational
Relational
3a

2b
3a, 4c

in

5 (4)

Nuclear

Clauses

Complex

(4-1

in

which

are

Clauses (Clause

Nuclear

5.4 :1

: 1-4).

Clauses

divided

accordingly

Sentence

The String

Coordinate

only

5. A : 1.1

the

manifest

Principal

into

Clauses

Class 1)
Nucleus.

(4-3)

is

(5.2

(Clause

a particular

: 17)

two classes

They may occur

may occur.

: Principal

Class

kind

in

of

Complex

Nuclear

Clauses

and Coordinate.

la)

The Principal

Clauses manifest the Sentence Nucleus directly,


not entering
into the String.
The lineal
in a
sequences of such Clauses when occurring
Complex are described at 4.1 : 1.4.2.
Examle:
Umaal a- penar
pxong
ni
ujuchich
Hare he went-out visiting
with Vulture
(Hare and Vulture went out visiting)
9.4

Coordinate

: 1.2

Coordinate

Clauses

the String

Sub-rank

they

axe divided

Class

lb)

the Sentence Nucleus.


manifest
(4-3)
and on the basis of their.
into

three

Focal

5.4 : 1.2.1
'Phe Focal

Clauses--(Clauses

E2

Focal,

classes:

Clause (Clause

Clause manifests

They may function


function

Sequential

in

the

in
String

and Closing.

Class lba)

the Pocal. Element of the String

(4-3

acamle:

a
uar vral ja
vrul
and wife his said him
(His wife told him)
5. A : 1.2.2.

Seauential

Ilb 124

Clause (Clause

Class lbb)

The Sequential
Clause manifests the Sequential
(4! 3.: 1.1.2), or the Expansion of any Peripheral

149

Element of the String


Clause.

5 (4)
ExamT)le:

Auruk ben bjgnx


and he left head clean
(and left
the head clean)
5.4 : 1.2.3

Clause (Clause

Closing

The Closing

Hb 105

Clause manifests

Class lbc)

the Closing

Element of the String.

Example:

B 18

a
suaxax
and satisfied-not
(and was not satisfied)
The Peripheral

5.4 :2

(Clause

Clauses

Class 2,3,4)

Clauses are Clauses which manifest one of the Peripheral


Elements of the Sentence (Clause Class 2), or Clauses which are embedded
(Clause Class 3), or Clauses which are =ankshif ted (Clauses Class 4)
The Peripheral

These

are

further

5.4

: 2.1.1

Me
T

Temp6ral

never

functioning

Clauses

: 2.1

5.4

occurs

Temporal

in

Sentence

the

as : Temporal

specified

Clause

in

(Clause

Clause
the

manifests

Setting

Periphery

(Clauses

Class

Sentence.

It

2)

and Purpose.
2a)

Class

Element

of

the

a Complex.

Exam-ole:
bi
tot
Bi
go
ri
unievi
gul
dragged when them from house
When they(op)
(Ylhen they were pulling
them from the house)
5.4

: 2.1.2

The Purpose
It

may occur

Parloose
Clause
in

Clause

manifests

the

(Clause
Purpose

Class

Hb 97 - 98

2b)

Element

of

the

Sentence

(4-1

a Complex.

ExamDles:

1.

PurT)osive
Clause
kbual,
re
ub8bal
s6bar
lest
you'll
cover
rain
rain-wet
(cover
it,
does
the rain
so that

PlOnk
wall
not wet

150

P 20
the

wall)

t 1-5)

5 (4)
Clause
Infinitive
byAnkarul
na- yeliin
a
and she sent-here-me to-take-for-her
(and she sent me here to collect
it)

A 11

Subjunctive
Clause
ka - wetar bkul uniew ba - niaj
uniew
them house they enter house
sweeping
(to sweep the house for them, that they might
Embedded Clauses

9. A : 2.2.

(Clauses

Hb 16
go in)

Class 3)

Embedded Clauses are Clauses manifesting


a Clause Element.
further
as: Objectival
specified
and Locational.

Clause Class manifests

The Objectival
occurs

Clause (Clause

Objectival

5.4 : 2.2.1

They axe

Class 3a)
the Clause Complement.

It

never

a Complex.

in

Exam-oles:
Clause

I-Jodificational

1.

bi
kaax
no ro bi
had-not what he(op) do what
(he could not do anything)

2.

3.

5.4

Modificational
uchaay kaxe
Demon no-more
(The demon had

Clause
ka xi
u- kungg-ma xi
hadwhere he hide- in where
no place to hide)

Infinitive
Clause
j6nd
bb - ka
joyaarul
begin
they will
to-fetch-him
(People will
start preparing
: 2.2.2.

The Locational
may occur

in

A 41

Locational
Clause

Clause
manifests

CP 1

kabol
sacrifice
a sacrifical
(Clause
the

ceremony for

Class

Adjunct

F 27

him)

3b)

5 Element

of

the

Clause.

a Complex.

D-xam-Dles:

a
nai x6nk uj&ku
xi
xi
u. - nx
and she(sp) found Bush-fowl where he stood where
(And she found the Bush-fowl where he was standing)

11b 23

It

5 (4)
2.11

kri
maatir
xi
n- r8
n- rena
xi
wul
YouIll-not
be-present where I
shall I
eat-in where it
(YouIll
not be present where Itm going to eat it)

B4-

Com-olex:
ba - x6nk ni
a
nul xi
na - xef x3, xi
unchaam winai
xi
and they found with him where he
sat in where money
was - found where
(and they found him where he sat,
where the money was found)
Rankshifted

5.

_4_-.
_2.3
These are further
5.

divided

Relational

: 2.3.1

The Relational

(Clauses

Clauses
into:

Class 4)

Relational,

Clause_(Clause

Clause manifests

Adjectival

and Lexical.

Class 4a)

the Relator

(3-1
the
Nominal
Group
of

1-3)

Exarn-ole:
koulon
bi
bi
n-ro
ma - les
n- chi nanax
1
remember something when. I(past)
when I
was child
(I remember something from the time when I was a child)

5.4 : 2.3.2

Adjectival

The Adjectival

Clauses

They may be f6ither

G1

Clauses (Clauses Class 4b)


the

manifest

specified

Intearated

as:

Clause

The Integrated

Modifier

Integrated
(Clause

Clause

Element

the

Nominal

Group.

or Non-integrated.

Class

does not

of

4ba)
in

function

a. Complex.

ExamDle:

i
nasien na - laanmil
n-vamax
chief
who refuse him who meat
(The chief who refused him
meat)
.2

Non-integrated

Clause

The Non-integrated

(Clause

Class

A 27

4bb)

Clause may function

in a Complex.

ExamDle:

AIt
(It

chi pjenj
na - xendin
lai
m- j6nR
pi,
pi
is
egg
which she gave-me which which you cooked
is the egg she gave me, the one you cooked)

152

p8n
which

5 (4)
Clause may occur as the first
clause of a Sentence
it
be
in
Element,
Modifier
the
regarded
may
case
which
,
manifesting
Nuclear
Clause.
transformation
underlying
an
of
as a
The Adjectival

5.4 : 2.3.3

Lexical

Clause (Clause Class 4c)

Clause manifests the Lexical


The Lexical
(6.1).
It never occurs in a Complex.

Element of the Verbal

Group

ExamDle:

E 17,

Ot
A umaal ia
wul...
uu
& Hare when fly sat him
(When a fly sat on Hare...

153

6
CHAPTER 6.

THE VMAL

GROUP AND THE ADVMIAL

GROUP

Contents
Verbal

6.1

Page

Group

Structure
2

The Verbal

Group Components

2-.2

Person and Number


Lexical and Semantic Class

2.3

Mood, Tense and Polarity

2.4

Aspect and Polarity


(Integrating
Verb Prefix)

2.1

2.5

(The Lexical Eliment)


(Verba: Group Complex)

2.6
2.7
3
3.1

i74

Punction
.

1. Hortative

Verbal

3.1-1

la'

Imperative

3-1.2

lb

Subjunctive

3.2

2. Indicativ.

3.2.1

2a

Primary

3.2.2

2b

Secondary Verbal

3.3

3. Infinitive

6.2

Adverbial

Group

Structure
2

155.
155
157
158
160
162
168
173
173
174

Punction

154

Groups

Verbal

Group

Verbal

Group

e Verbal Group
Verbal Group
Verbal

Group
Group

174
175
..
175
175
175
175
176
177
177
177

6 (1)

CHAPTER 6.

6.1 tI

SECTION 1.

Verbal-Group

Structure

The Structure

of the Verbal

Group in its

maximum.expanded form is

tho following:
VERBAL

Identifier

1 Auxiliary

Formula:

VG

Although

(Id

GROUP

Identifier

2TPerfective Identifier

1)(Aux)(Id

of the Elements

2)(Perf)(Id

3)

3 Lexical

Lex

the Jexical Element are optional,


Element may only oocur immediately preceding the Auxiliary
each Identifier
Elements
Perfective,
or Lexical Element. The numbering of the Identifier
all

lineal

to their

refers

Elements:

Auxiliary

Identifier

in

realized
see 5.2
the

the

: 15).

Verbal

1 is

presence

Identifier
The other

Verb

Identifier

of
1,

3.2.1)

(10

Class

(8.1

.42.2)

3.2.2)

Sets

(10-4

4,10-12

: 2.2)

1)
Verb Class (8.1 :3
Clause (37.4 ; 2.3-33

relevant

to

the, feature

definesthe
Elements

(8.1

2.2)

Set 2,4,9-12

Prefixes

Lexical
Lexical

Identifier

Class

Prefixes

Aspective

Lexical

e. g.

Verb

Identifier

Perfective
Identifier

Clauses:

Identifier
Prefixes
Sets 1-8 (10-4
(10.4 : 1.2)
Concord Prefixes
(10.4
Aspective
Prefixes
2-3)

Auxiliary

The Element

such that

Manifesting

Identifier

Group,

in, any Verbal Group the first


is numbered Identifier
1, and so on.

sequence,

Element manifested

Identifier

except

are

the

Function

+primary
Clause
relevant

in

of

Verbal

the Verbal

to

Groupt

(Initial

Clause,

the Structure

of

Type IIaabaa
only

the

Group.

The Constituent

Structure

of the Verbal

Group is described

in terms of
in Structure.
The

seven Components and the realization


of their features
Surface Structure
of the Verbal Group may be described in terms of two
simultaneous systems of two choices each: +simple +compound; -and +basic

+com,
posed, as shovrn in the diagram below.
155

6 (1)
The feature
Element

and the

features

the

of

in

the

+composed

is

realized

Types

the

of Verbal

from

Auxiliary

Composed if

is

realized

selected

the

Compound if
it

feature

Element.

Perfective

is

+compound

Perfective

of

in

the

Group are

those

Element

presence

presence

described

is

manifested

the

of

on the

basis

Group :Ls

and Simple

manifested

Element

Auxiliary

The Verbal

systems.
is

the

if

it

is

not;

and Basic

if

it

is not.
simple

coapound

basic

composed

ParadiEM

Citation

Verbal

Group Tyme1

Group Type Il

Verbal

Verbal

GrOUD Type III

Verbal

Grou-o Type IV

In

describing

the

other

differently
Groups

Compound Verbal
diagram

illustrates

as regards

as described

the

because

Simple

the Closing

X&P
a- ro
he (cp) went
(he set out to go)
A

kaxe
xep
he-no-more went
(he -dicin't go any more)
ka
kaxe
x9p
he-no-more (ct) went
(he wasn't going any more)

Compound/Composed

Group it

Groups

is

to reconsider
necessary
Chapter 5 (The Clause)
in

in

the Closing

follows
it

the

follows

the

the relationship
position

of

the

Groups.

Lexical

of

Closing

156

the

With

Element,

Auxiliary

lineal

relation

Simple

whereas

Element..

Clause

A1arker.

the

behaves

Marker

and Compound Verbal

Marker

x6p
vient
A

COMDound/Basic

Elements,
with

ahe

Simple/Composed

the Verbal

of Markers

sequence
to

Simple/ 3asic,

Verbal

with

The following

and the Verbal

Group

6 (1)

Predicate

use
I

V. G.

imple

1.1

ompound V. G.

Simple

ExamDles:

1 Perf

Verbal

Perf

Id,

Id3
.1

erf

FLex

L6x M

Id

bi
as
bi
as

x8p bi ,
(as
he went)
go as
x8p bi
na -A
(cp) go as (as he set out to go)
he
na he

Grou p (Basic

Compound Verbal
Id

I!,

.
and Compose d)

(Basic

Group

Id

-xI[I
Au

Idl

1 Aux

14 Perf

and Composed)

Lex

bi na - kaka bi
xep
(as
he
he vient again)
again as
so
as
,
bi na - kaka bi ra - x8p
as he

6.1

(cp)
again as

(as
he set
go

The Verbal

Group Components

:2

Group is

The Verbal

These Components

(*)

and their

Person

+lst

Nuber

+singular,

Lex/Sem

a Projection

Cl. +lexical

1,11ood

+subjunctive,

Tonse

+actual,

Aspect

+comDletive,

Polarity

+positive,,

For

the

Thematic

Plane

'features
+2nd

person,

out

seven

Components

etc.

etc.

+imperative,
+ideal,

for

etc.

1,

clans

go again)

are:

Derson,

+T)lural,

to

etc.

+Drimary,

+static,

+secondary,

etc.

+negative

Role

of

the Verbal

157

Group Complex

see 6.1

: 2. j

6 (1)

Not all

Verbal

Group Elements have the same relevance to'all


these
The following
Components.
diagram shows the Elements in which the
features
of the vaxious Components axe realized:

Id 1
lst,

Id 2 Perf

2nd sg.

PI-P 3rd sg.

person:

number
lexical/semantic

The features

Aux

Id 3

Lex

cl.

mood

tense

aspect

pbl&riiy

x
x

X
x

of the various

Components are arranged into systems and


described in order according to the lineal
Sequence of the Verbal Group
Elements in which they are realized.
With the various possibilities
of
within
each system, the total number of resulting
realizations
choices would
As the description
go into many hundreds.
of the Verbal Group provides
only the background to the main theme of this thesisq no attempt at an
exhaustive presentation
of all the possibilities
of combinations has been
made and only
6.1
It

: 2.1
is

because

Person

convenient
their

appropriate
tlements.

those most commonly found in the data will


and Number
to

disauss

features
Identifier

This

be discuased.
I

choice-is

are
Prefix

the

Components

jointly
(10-4

determined

realized

of Person
in

the

and Number together

selection

: 2.2)

manifesting

by the

Concord, which

the

of

the

Idehtifier

exists-between

6 (1)

the Subject
Verbal

(expressed

or implied)

and Predicate,

Concord. Number in the Verbal

which is termed
Group has been treated separately

from Number as realiz. ed in Nominals because it


and is realized

choices
Concord,

features

in different

involves

different

morphemes. As regards

of Number are realized

Nominal

with features
(10.4 : 1.2)
the Concord Prefixes
jointly

of

but
or Semantic Class'in
jointly
of Number are realized
as regards Verbal Concord, features
of Person, as described above. Number in most Verbal
with features
Lexical

Groups
+-olural.
Verbal
features
+definite

consists

of a system

However,
Groupsp

because

Number is

of

two choices,

only

Nominal
extended

Concord
in

those

to Nominals,
of Number relating
(6.1':
2.2)
Dlural

The simultaneous

by the following

of Person

choices

reaches
Verbal

+singular
into

certain

Groups

to include

e. g. +collective,

and Number may be represented

diagram:

singular
plural
inclusive
exclusive
lpt

and

person

2nd person
3rd person

159

6(1)
These features

ins

are realized
Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

.......

Sets 1-8

.......

Sets 2,49

9-

3 .......

Sets 4,10

12
-

12

The choice of Set is further


determined by the selection
(see
Tense,
Aspect
Polarity
Moodl
below).
and
of
If

the

features

Identifier

+singular

prefix

axe prenasalized,
ka-

Prefixes

Lexical

in

the

are

realized

consonant,

subsequent
Aspective

Verbal
Verb

then

in
the

an
initial

Group Elements
ka and Aspeative

and k-.

Lexical/Semantic

: 2.2

all

of

except

person

a nasal

containing

and affricates

plosives

6.1

and +lst

of features

Class is relovant

specification

Class
only

+seconda3:7 +actual

to Verbal

Groups having

the Tense

and the Person specification


is a manifestation
of Nominal

+3rd Derson, in which case there


Concord. In such Verbal Groups the. 1dentifier
Elements may have
(of
Concord
Prefixes
Concord
exponents containing
manifesting
Class and Number) with the gover4ing Nominalp
Subject. Nominal Concord in
and logically
contextually

Lexical/Semantic

which is
the Verbal Group is the same as described for the Nominal Group
(except
that it is, necessarily,
3.3
and
at
always external)
Semantic Class 1, if present,
the Lexical Class.. There
overrides
Concord of Semantic Class realized
in the
additionally
partial
b- in Verbal Groups with the specification
+primary
prefix
+3rd person +-Dlural, where the governing Nominal is of Semantic
Class la (human).
is

Concord in relation

to Verbal

Group Components may be diagrammed

as follows:

160

6 (i)

FEATURES OF THE
GOVERNING ELEIAENT:

FEATURES OP THE
VERBAL GROUP:

COMP:

COMP:

ITATURES:

L
E
xC

-'2

N
us [P
[def
I'll
[uspec
B
ind
13
R
nspec

S
EC
1.1L
AA
IT sF
TS
I

(Same as the
Governing
--------o Element,
subject to the
restrictions
stated at
10-4 t 1-3)

TENSE: +s e c, , +ac

-Pull

5
6

AS
S
L

Vol

REALIZATION
OF FEATURE:

FEATURES:

3
4

IL
CA

NOTAINAL
CONCORL

PERSOX: +3rd

[hii=,

TENSE: +-orim. +act.

Lrtial-3

non-h.
LITon-volit.

ITOTE: A line
within
inside

the selection
to a frame indicates
of any feature
connecting
that fz-ame. A line crossing
one of the features
a frame selects
the frame. -Concord is not realized
in features
not selected.

ExamT)les:
'Pull

Nom. Con. (TEITSE: +sec. +act.;

balon banhaan bbaand,


they came
some people
(Some people came
and sat

PERS. +3rd; LEX. CL: 1; NUIMM:

+Plural)

ba - xef,
ba - riala.
a
a
and they sat
and they ate
doym to eat. )

NOTE: For further


examples of Pull
Nominal Concord in the String

Nominal Concord
is discussed.

161

see 4.3

: 2, where

6 (1)
Nom. Concord

Partial

SEM. CLASS., +human; TENSE: +prim. +act,.;

PERSON: +3rd;

NUMBER:+plural

Tant bJon ni
chax
John and Tant hey died
(John and Tant died)
No Nom. Concord
S. C: +non-hum; TENSE: +prim. +act.;
ub6s aundaali ni
chax
and dog they died
cat
(The cat and dog died)

PERSON:+3rd;

NUMER: +plural

S. C: +non-vol;

PERSON: +3rd;

NUMBER: +plural

TENSE: +prim. +act.;

bben
ni
achax
hey
died
and run-palm
tree and the run-palm. tree

bcham
oil-palm-tree
(The oil-palm
6.1 : 2.3

died)

Mood, Tense and Polarity

of Mood and Tense, andt to some extent, Polarity,


axe also
in the Identifier
jointly
1 Element, in the selection
realized
of a
(10-4
Prefix from the appropriate
Features
set
: 2.2 and 10.4 : 1.2).
of the Mood Component may be arranged in three systems of two features
Component in one system of two foaturcs
each, and features
of the Polarity
Features

If

as shoym overleaf.
feature

+Dositive

The realization
is

neutral

+ideal
1'refix

or +actual,

The feature
feature

the

the

The features
Identifier

Tense;

is

because

one of

feature

+primarv
(Set
same

+net-rative

+actual

by means of

the

of

is

the

the further

+negative

that

is

to

the

shown in

the

diagram

concept

negative

of

Auxiliary

may be arranged

162

whether

are

5) if

km- ri
xef
you not will
sit
(you will
not sit down)
of the Components of Llood,
1 Element

say,

or +secondaxy

the

within

'
feature

the

and the Polarity

+indicative

cho ice from the two


each of the Tense Component.

of two features

as regards

Set is

there

axe chosen,

systems,

simultaneous

the Mood feature

chosen,

Identifier
the

as indicating

a future
Verbs

Tense features

the

+negative

1 Element

Identifier

is

is
negative
(6.1 : 2-4),

specified.
thb

Tense

expressed
e. g.:
(Hb 17)

Tense and Polarity


as in

the

following

as realized
Network

in
Diagrant

6 (1)
M00D

Set 7; cP Set x
Sets 6,7
(limited)
I
Sets 6,2

infinitive
imperative
hortative
finite
-

subjunctive
indicative

TENSE

POLARITY

priMary

Sets 1

secondary

Sets 2, 4

ideal

Sets 3, 4

actual

Sets 1, 2
Set 5

positive
negative

Examples are given


Types of Verbal
(i)

of these features

of the realizations

in various

Group.

Features
Mood and Polarity
Type I Simple/Basic
+positive
x8p
go

+infinitive

p
to

+imDerative

da-xgpan
(imp)
go
(Go)

+subjunctive

m-xep
I go
(that I should go)

+negr,
ative
+infinitive

x6p
x
to-not go
(not to go)

+imnerative

ind xx6p
90
you not
(Do not go (pi))

163

6 (i)
in - x8pax
I-not go-not
(that I should not go)

+subjunctive

T,y-_DeIl

Compound/Basic

+Dositive
+infinitive

p
aana X&P
to - still
go
(still
to go)

+imT)erative

da- kakaan
you again(imp)
(go again)

+subjunctive

Ap
go

m-kaka
m-xgp
I again I go
(I should go again)

+negative
+infinitive

p
rix x5p
to not go
(not to go)
ind x- kaxe
x6p
you not no-longer go,(donit go any more)

+imT)erative

in - kaxe
n-xgp
I
no-longer I go
(I should no longer go)

+subjunctive

Tense and Polarity


T,)Te

1.

features

SimDle/Basic

+Dositive
+Drimary

+actual

man
I

+primary

+ideal

man
.I
shall

x8p
went
x8p
90
A

+secondary

+actual

+secondary

+ideal

+nog,ative

164

n
and I
ka
and-I-shall

xep
vient
A
xep
-go

in
I

x8pax
did-not-go

6 (1)
T.v-oe II.

Simple/Composed

+positive

+T)rimaa

mn

+actual

did

I
(I

+secondax_v

TyDe III.

nand
(I

+actual

and

went

go

came ack)
xep
90
gone)

n- x8p
I 'go
just
and I've
only
,
returned)

ro
had

went

n-An&I 111 did


(& I shall

+ideal

+seconda37

m4n - ro
nI'll
1
did
(I shall
have

+ideal

+primary

n -xep

ro

xep
1
90
have gone)

Compound/Basic

-Fr)ositive
+-orimary +actual
+ideal

+-primary

m&n
illi

kaka
again
kaka
again

m- x8p
I go(I'll

kaka
again

n- x6p
I go(&I went again)

man
X.

n- x6p
1 90 (1 went again)

+secondary

+actual

n
and I

+secondary

+ideal

kaka
ka
x8p
& I'll
go
-again
(and I shall go again)

go again)

+nermtive
+-orimary

Note:

+secondary
TYPE IV.

+actual

has the

same realization

kaxe
in
nx8p
I
I not
go
again
(I no longer went)
as +primary

Com-Dound/Com-posed

+-oositive
+-pri=7

+actual

kaka,
n- ro
man I
I
did
again
(I finished
going again)

+nrimary

+ideal

min
1111
(I shall

165

kaka
n
Z8
I
finish
again
have gone again)

n- Xop
I go
n- x8p
I go

6 (1)
+sccondax7

+actual

haka n -ro
n
n- x6lp
I go
and-I.
aaain I did
(and I have finished
going again,
i. e. I have come back the second
time)

+secondary

+ideal

Ap
ka, kaka
nish
90
and I'll
nf.
aa.

(and (vihen I have come b ack the


second time, then....

+ncf,rative
.

Note:

in - kaxe ,n
n -x8p
-A
I not no-more I finish
I go
(I no longer finished
going)

+T)rimaKX +actual,

has the

+secondary

The feature
Infinitive

+infinitive
Clauses (5.2

Vezbal Group occurring

same realizati,

n as +primaxy

in
characierizes
a Verbal Group occurring
The fedture +imperativt
: 28).
characterizes
in Imperative
Clauses (5.2 : 7), corresponding

a
to

the speaker-roie
of commanding. The feature +subjunctive
characterizes
(5.2
in
Clauses
Subjunctive
Group
Verbal
occurring
: 8)t which usually
a
"to order"
follow a Clause with a Verb "to command" "to want to"
or
e. g.

similax,

xis
a- ne,. l mhe wants that-I
go-home
(he wants me to go home)
The features

+primazy

A Verbal

Tenses

respectively.
15),
Clauses (5.2st
in

the

Sentence

Non-initial
Peripheral
Clauses

which

Nucleus.
(5-2ot

Clauses

(5-7-:

Clauses
carrying

Tense may also

and +secondary

the
carry

main
the

Group with
function

usually

the

characterize
Primary
in

the

Tense occurs in
(lineally)
first

A Verbal

Group with Secondary


Clauses (5-3
16), * C6ordinate

21).

The Primary
load.

information
information

loadwhen

166

and Secondary

Primary

Tense occurs

Initial
place

Tense occurs
: 17)

in

and

generally

in

The Secondary
it

occurs

in

Coordinate

6 (1)
it

Clauses:
Chronology

the String Sub-rank in realization


is used throughout
in the feature
The Secondary
+successive.

of

describes setting
Tense characteristically
or background,
Clauses, or indicates
that the Clause
when it occurs in Peripheral
contingent
upon the existence
of a certain
state
event
(English
"if")
when it occurs in Non-initial
or condition
is

(English

"when")

Clauses

(see 4-1 3 1-4).


This contingency may be expressed in a preceding
Clause (Example 1, below) or in the manifestation
of the Adjunct 1 Element
Adjunct 1 may be manifested by a Nominal Group with an
in the Clause.
in it-(Example
2) but an Adverb manifesting
Embedded Clause functioning
1 has the same effect,
(Examples
3- 5).
+secondg: y

Adjunct

and the Verbal

Group is specified

Exam-oles:
k- totin
Hb 51
Da r roox
xi kanhanq ka - f9r
ux.nd
by hand
I'll
You had not(et)
pull-me
sleep outside
me by ny hand, I would have
-(If you had not kept on pulling
spent the night outside)
G4
8nk
ka
baand
2. ma untsang wi n8
ptenin....
wi
- ruka3ri ufexul
(cp)
I'll
time
but
stay in back-her
as she
came as thus to-see-me
(But when she did come to see me, I would keep following
her

1.

Pr-4Ma=,r
Predicate
a- xis
he returned

(a)

xis

MSM I shall

ka* -'
he Yrill

5-(a)

(b)

taakal
'yaS-torday

fan

return

to-morrow

(b)

xis
return

fan
to-morrow

(b)

Secondary
Adj. 1
taakal
naa
yesterday and he

-- xis
returned

fan

ka
I shall

xis
return

fan
to-morrow

ng
-he will

xis
return

Ideal
Tenses
the
Actual
and
+ideal
and
characterize
did
in
fact
The
Tense
describes
Actual
event
which
an
respectively.
happenj or which is bound to happen in the immediate futuref
e. g.
The features

Ilan

+actual

x8D

went

or

am-going

or

am-about-to-go

means:

167

6 (1)

The Ideal

Tense

man I-shall

describes

an event

Tense may imply

Ideal

Man-ja
n-re
uyamax a suax,
& fall
1
when I eat meat
(Having
with
satisfied
myself
to gnaw at the maize? )

Prefix

Features

of

Perfective
the

that

the

in

Aspect

the

future,

e. g.

Component

most exponents

to

in the other

2 and Identifier

mmaaj. Hb 77-78
maize.
then get up

Identifier

Component

(and

e. g.:

naxa ka - kliet
rise will
gnavi
the full,
shall-I

and Polarity

Elements

Polarity

kai
will(sp)
meat to

Identifier

Sets manifesting
Aspect

deprecation,

Tense may be realized

distinctionsof

6.1 : 2.4

to happen

is

x8p
go

The Secondary

Further

which

are

I
realized

some extent,

axe also

havo a polar

in

realizedin

(+Dositive

in

the

Auxiliary
1).

Identifier
the

Auxiliary

or +negative)

and
Features

Element,

manifd

of
in'

tation.

The following

diagram shows the features


of the Aspeot and
in the Auxiliary
Element.
Polca-ity Components as they axe realized
(10.3
in
the
Auxiliary
Verb Class
These features
are realized
S l)-

neutral
static
dynamic

te=inating
real

supervening

descriptive

unreal

negative
positive

168

expected
intended

6 (1)
The features

andtheir

realizations

are the followi2ig. -

+neutral

aba

"when"

+descri-otive
+static

+negative

Ti/rix

"not"

ama

"still"

kaka

"again"

(ron
+terminating

+negative

kaxe,

"from time to time")


"no longer"

+terminating

+Positive

ro

"did"

+real

+negative

roox

"used

+real

+positive

ruka

"come to"

nekaxe
bixe
r8xe

"not yet"
"after
all not"
"meant to but no
more"
"before"

+unreal +neaative
+ey.pected
+intended
+unreal

+positive

rora

not

to"

in the Auxiliary
Verb ja or ya (in free
(*)If we were to consider it together
Its meaning is 11when11.
fluctuation).
1 Element, we could still
of the Identifier
with the realization
assign it
features +general or +specific,
the further
the meaning of the first
The feature

+neutral

is realized

"when I or anybody" the meaning of the second "when I,


Identifier
ls
according to the prefix. set manifesting
being

you, he, eto. )

general
specific
The feature

in selection
+general is realized
Prefix
of an Identifier
from Set 8 (10.4 : 2.2) and +specific
in a Prefix from Sets 1- 4-

ExamT)les:
ka- ja
; -ne when (you'll)
(When one passes,

par,
chax
wambar
do not shoo-h? om-you=self
pass
one must not shoo'them away)

E 45

to
ba - ja
m- va,
Myou when you- hear they say
(v7hen you hear them
say)

(*). 2,/Lva may occur in a Complex with another


169

E 21

Auxiliary

Verb.

6 (1)
ja
u- chi
was
when it
was mornirig)

Auand it
(And it

Another

Note

Auxiliary

fan
morning

Hb 35

verb with

meaning is

somewhat similar

irv

Prequently
"when
future".
in
a
more
expressed by a
concept
meaning
Nominal Groupq e. gs ma-ir m-baandq ka-fing
unkambe - when I come, I
a pig.
shall kill
The feature

has the further

of the

selection

features:

following

+static

+descril)tive

+negative:

Subjunctive

realized

or between

Verbs rix (Infinitive


(elsewhere).
Theix meanin

in the Auxiliaxy
ers)

or ri

or
is

"not".

ExamDles:
tenanul
watch-him
(See to it

te
ya rul
gn8 untaaja
u- rix
till
days ten
he not
go there
that he does not go there for ten days)

A- pokin
riala
Prix
He forbade-.! me. to-not eat
(He forbade me to eat today)

xzxi
today
.

Rb 17

km. - ri
xef -a?
(QU)?
sit
will
you not
(Won't you sit dovm? )

Verbs ama 11still"l


"later"
"by and by").

or

bi
A
na - ron
n8
ptenin
na- ja
(cp)
from-time-to-time
she
come to-see-me
she
and she said
(And she said that fvom time to time she would come to see me)

G3-

+positive:
realized
kaka "again" (o= ron "from

in the Auxiliary

+static

time to time".

Examples:

m- ama
you still
(You still

+terminating

m- ka
ub8s am
you have dog
still
have the dog)

+ negative.

realized

in the Auxiliary

Verb kaxe "no longer"(*)

distinguish
from rSxe "no longer" which merely denotes a change of
mind, whereas kaxe denotes a change of actual state.

170

6 (1)
ka
Uchaay kaxe
xko
xi
u- kunggna
Devil
no longer had place where he hide-in
(Then the demon had no place to shelter)
+terminating

+positive

realized

P 27

xi
where
.,

in the A:uciliary

Verb ro 'Tiad"

'n-ro
bi
bi
n-chi napax
Tpast)
I
I
when
was child
when
(When I was a child)
+real

+ne;zative

realized

G1

in the Auxiliaxy

Verb roox

"had

not"
.
G 10

In-roox'
me ne pchax a -chi
I had-not know if death it is
(I had not kbovm whether there was death)

in the Auxiliaxy
Verb ruka "come to"
realized
win
Sombasomb8
98
Kanhaay
chi w8n
nika
xmaal
a
,
Hb
Sombasombo
the
see
was
one Kanhaay
came-to
and hare
(And the hare realized
that Burly was the one which (he'thought)
was sickly)
+.real

+unreal

+i)ositive

+neRative

baand
nexe
a=ive
not-yet
(He has not a=ived
+unreal

realized

in

the

Auxiliary

Verb

nekaxe,

"not

(or

yet"

nexje

yet)

+nep7ative +expected

in the Auxiliary

realized

Verb bixe

"after

all

not"
A6

ka untaang
A
nalon ngaax bixe
had
time
after-all-not
vioman,
one
and
(And one womsmdid not happen to have time)
+unreal

+nert_ative + intended

realized

in the Auxiliary

Verb r8xe

"meant to

but no more"
kan
in - Axe
- x8p
I
shall
meant-to-but-no-more
go
(I meant to go, but I won't go now)
+unreal
kyou'll
(Give

+positive

realized

in

the

kTiulul
mjenj kLora
before
you'll
give-her
eggs you'll
her the eggs before you give her the

Yralul.
give-her
ried)

in the Auxiliary
realized
of the event described by the Verbal

The Aspect features


quality

Verb

Auxiliary

171

rora

"before"
pre
rice

Element tend to define the


G=oup from the'Point
of view

6 (1)
("when")
time.
The
feature
the
+neutral
passage of
merely indicates
of
between time and the event, while the
that there is a relationship
that this is of a particular
indicates
to
feature
+descriptive
nature,
("still")
features.
The feature +static
indicates
be defindd by additional
but the continuation
the event described is not isolated,
of a
The feature +dynamic indicates
that the event is
previous state.
by
to
time,
the
be
defined
the
additional
change
passage
of
with
changing
("used
indicates
to" or "no longer")
The
feature.
features.
+terminating
that

The feature +supervening,


change is from event -to non-event.
to
that
the
is
from
handq
the
event,
non-event
change
shovis
other
on
(the exact nature of the change again to be dete=ined
by additional
("used
that
feature
The
+real,
features).
not to" and "come to") indicates
(supervening
has become a reality,
while
the event
after the non-event)
that

this

the feature

+unreal

("not

yet"

and "before")

indicates

the event

that

which, of course,
explanation,
has not beco=6 a reality
without any further
The event
the eventual realization
implies
of the event in the future.
the
by
further
be
the
of,
however,
selection
cancelled altogether
may,
feature

+expected

all

not")

or of the feature

to become =eall
explaining

("after

explaining
+intended

that it had been expected


("meant to, but no more")

in somebody's mind,
the event has had the nature of reality
no longer exists,
owing to a change of mind.
reality

that

but even that

diagram shows the features


of the Component of
Element and the Identifier
in the Perfective
Aspect, as they axe realized
the
in
Element
Perfective
the
in
These features
Elements.
are realized
,
in the Aspective Prefixes.
Elemnts
Aspective Verba and in the Identifier
The folloydng

1 because
They have not been included vrith the other systems for Identifier
the Aspective Prefixg
in the choice of a sepaxate prefixg
they are realized
features
These
Identifier
Prefix
in
follow
the
and
a
complex.
may
which
their

realizations

axe:

continuous

Aspective
Verbs
ka

Aspective
Prefixes
ka-,
A

completive
supervening,

bi.
172

6(3. )
1.

ka x8p
a- kaka
he again (et) go
(he was going to go again)

2.

a --kaka
X&P
he again (cp) go
(he finished
going again

he
i.
e.
went again and came back)
-

3-

bi
a- kaka
X&P
he again (sp)
go
(he ended up going again)

4-

Jon
k- baand
a
(ot)
John
and
a=ive
(and John was a=iving)

baand
a
n8 (op)
he
a=ive
and
(and he a=ived)

X&P
a nai (sp)
he
goand
(and then he went)
ka
xfip
a nai
(sp)
(ot)
he
go
and
(and then he was going)
8.

kai
u- mtj
raan
(sp) (op) drink
he dive will
(he dived and would then set about, drinking)

6.1

: 2.5

Inter 4rating
Verb

The Integrating
Element

following

possible

prefix
is

+integrated
the

Integrated

6.1 : 2.6

(Example
Auxiliary
Lexical

Verb Prefix

the

Aspective

co-occuring
(5.2

Clause

Verbda
Clause

it.

The Clause

presence,

and its

the

Identifier

which

is

1
the

only

Rank- Mood feature


function

is

described

witj

: 26).

normally
when the

"say",
(Example

may occur in
k- (continuous),

Element

is

However,

its

2-4)
Prefix

with

in

realized

Element
1).

(10.4

Prefix

The Lexical

The Lexical

E8

2).

Auxiliary

Lexical

the

by a Lexical

manifested

Element

Element

is

Verb

3-1)

manifested

by the

may be manifested

by the

E. g.:

1. a- ja
jak - lam E42..
one when we(ct) swim
(when we, or anyone, swim)

A umaal ja
E 17
UU j0t wul
& Hare when fly sat him
(When'fly sat on Har*ep'.he...

6 (i)
6.1

Verbal

: 2.7

Group Complex

The Verbal

Group may occur in a Complexv adding emphasis to the


It thus has a Thematic function
Lexical Verb.
The
of Verbal Emphasis.
Verbal Group Complex has a definite
Structure:
the (lineally)
first'Verbal
Group of the Complex may have any Structure,
but the second may consist
1 Element manifested by the Aspective Prefix konly of the Identifier
(continuous)
Both Lexical Elements are
and the Lexical Element.
Affixes
in the Lexical
manifested by the same item, and any Inflexional
occur

only with

the Lexical

Verb of the first

Verbal

Group,

Exami3les: *
k- finga
a- finga
killed-was
he killed-vias(et)
(he vras killed
outright)
ktenan
look(imp)(ot)
(Just look)

6.1 :3

ten
look

He

Function
Group manifests

The Verbal

the Predicate

Classes
Element of the Clause.
to the function
of the Verbal Group

of Verbal Group are set up according


in Types of Clauses as described in 5.2.

Each Class is

by
chaxacterized
feature or combination of features from the
the choice of a particular
Mood and Tense systems (6.1 : 2-3) which give, th6 Verbal Groilps their-names.
is not projected
Since the Component of Polarity
at Clause Rank, and does
not

enter

necessary

into

any of the Clause Ptank systems, 'it has not been found
to set up separate Classes of Verbal Group having a Polarity
Verbal

specification.
classes
6.1

of

: 3.1

the

corresponding

Hortative

The Hortative
may be further

Groups

Verbal
divided

+negative

specified

Verbal

+Dositive

Verbal

Groups

(Class

Groups

function

in

into

Imperative

174

are

assigned

to

the

Groups.

1)
Hortative'Clauses

and Subjunctive.

(5.2.:

6). - They

6 (1)
6.1 : 3.1.1

Verbal Group (Class la)

Imperative

Verbal Group fanctions

The Imperative

in the Imperative

Clauses (5.2

Example:

ixefi

da - moban.

Rb 13

you tla-k7eimp)seats
(Sit down)
6.1

Subjunctive

- 3.1.2

Verbal

The Subjunotive

W3bal

Group

Class

Group funotions

lb

in the Subjunotive

Clauses

(5.2

s 8).

Examplel:
E 35

ya p-xong
g-,
let-us
go visiting
(Let us go on a visit)

6.1

The Indicative
Clauses.
6.1

Verbal

Groups function

They are further

: 3.2.1

Groups (Class

Verbal

Indicative

: 3.2

Pri

divided

Verbal

Group

2)

in the Interrogative

into

Primary

(Class

and Declarative

and Secondary.

-.

2a)

in Interrogative
Clauses
The 'Primary Verbal Group functions
0.2--:
(Example
(Example 1)v and Initial
Clauses
2).
'l5)-

(5.2

1 9)

Exa. mDles:

Achinxu.
Companion-your

E 58

a- chi x8m?
he is wnere?

(111hereis your companion?)


2.

Upit
Sand-fly
(Sand-fly

achi xi pji
...
she was in laughing
was laughing
.....

6.1

: 3.2.2

Secondary

Verbal

E 20

Grou.
_p-(Class

The Secondary Verbal Group functions


(Example 1), Coordinate Clauses (5.2
Clause (5.2 : 21) (Example 3).

2b)

in Non-initial
Clauses (5.2 : 16)
(Example
17)
2). and Peripheral
:

175

6 (]. )
Exam-oles:
1.

2.

3.

ka f8r
uxand
I-will
sleep outside
(I would have slept
anin
a
na-ja
and he say mother
(and he said to his

Hb 51
outside)
A 22
mother)

Eb 23

xi
xi u- nax
in he stood in
(where he was standing)

6.1 : 3.3

Infinitive

Verbal GroBp(Class 3)

Verbal Group funotions'in

The Infinitive

the Infinitive

Clauses (5.2 s 28).

Example
bkul. br8a
them fire
the fire

ptaaban
pya
to-light
to-go
(to go to light
The function
described

of
in

the

section

Hb 22

Classes
5.2

Verbal

them)

for

is

of Verbal

Group in

illustrated

Grou-D

in

the

the

Types

following

la

Imperative

C12U22 TEMS
,
IIaaaaa
Imperative

lb.

Subjunctive-

11aaaab

Subjunctive

Primary

IIaaab
IIaabaa

Interrogative
Initial

2b

Secondaxy

IIaabab
IIaabb
IIab

Non-Initial
Coordinate
Peripheral

Infinitive

IIb

Infinitive

2a

176

of

Clauses

diagram*

as

6 (2)

CHAPTER 6.

6.2 :1

SECTION 2.

THE ADVERBIAL GROUP

Structt=e

The Structure

of the Adverbial

Group is

the following:

ADVERBIAL GROUP
PrepositionallSpecific
Elements:

Manifesting

Prepositional

Proposition
Class
Nominal Link (8-4

Specific

Both Elements
Formula:
6.2

:2

Classess

(8-4 : 4)
: 3-1)
Nominal Group Class 3 (3.2 3 4)
Infinitive
Clause (5.2 : 28)

are obligatory.

Adv. Gr.

Prep.

Specif.

Punction

The Adverbial

Group functions

as Adjunct

1,3

or 4 in the Clause.

lbr.am-oles:

Adj. 4
Adj .3
k
ubon
ri pxong
chi ni
be with hunger in visiting
you-will
(you will be hungry while you are visiting)
Adj. 1
Xi ppaxinji
man-ro M
uchaay mak.
did fear demon much
in childhood-my I
(In my childhood I used to fear the demon very much. )
Ad.j. 3
uyamax
a- chi xi katukand
he was in running-with
meat
(he was running away with the meat)

177

11b 7

B 20

7
CHAPTER7.

THE PHRASES

Contents

page:

The Numeral Phrase

7.1 :

179

Structure

180

Funotion

180

The Digit

7.2 :

Phrase

181

Structure
Simple DP

I.

1.1.3
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
.

181

Ia.

Decimal DP

182

Ib.

Single

Number DP

182

Ic.

Single

Number Complex, DP

183

II. Composed DP

-.

IIa. Decimal DP

183
183

11b. Single

Number DP

184

Number Complex DP

184

Single

1.2.3

IIc.

1.2.4

IM. Compound DP

182

184

Function

184

2.1

DP Class 1

184

2.2

DP Class 2

184

7.3
7.4

Concord

185

The Demonstrative

188,

Phrase

Structure

188

Function

188

178

7 (1)

CHAPTER 7.
The Phrase
*of

this

THE PHIZASES

Sub-rank

Sub-rank

are

CHJUITIR7. SECTION 1.
7.1

It

relevant

the

only

Numeral

THE IMIERAL

to

Phrase

the

Nominal

and the

Group.

Demonstrative

The Units
Phrase.

PHRASE

Introduction

:0

is

is

likely

that

the number six.

the original
Koelle (1854;

Manjako numeral system was based on


10) informs us: 11twice twelve they call
gbaak r would actually
mean not tvice twelve,

n-cepSds n-kebSkr. "

-GT)aai
but four times six, but Paaj no longer occurs
with a concord prefix,
since it is not used as a basic unit of the numerical system.
The number six also finds its echo in the Manjako culture:
there are
(fan,
in
the
Manjako
days
six
week
xankoxe, bas, buenus, kinataakall

six market town in which the "weekly" fair is held in rotation,


(whose
Chulame. nomcnclaturo: bant8mbi,
names axe, - following
six clans
usually
(pmb8landon,
bandapa, baboiaxi,
babosin, banx8x, bafiay)
and six age grades
kinanxe),

pgak, pnjaanjaan,
pniewruax, pxaasa kor, pntoy).
But at present,
the Manjako numerical system is a decimal system, whose
(100)
(1000)
have been adopted from Creolet and
and mil
units sent
(10)
is probably of foreign
untaaja
origin
as well since it was unknown
to Koelle.
The Numeral Phrase is: identical

YrLth a Digit Phraset if the number


is a one-digit
Complex of Digit Phrases, if the
number; or an additive
number has more than one digit.
For example, the number 2,345 will be a Numeral Phrase consisting
Digit Phrases linked by a Nominal Link ni "and" (8-4 : 3-1) thus:
(a)

thouszu'ids

two

and

(b)

hundreds

three

and

(C)

tens

four

and

(d)
The Digit
in that

of four
.

five

Phrase Complex differs

from an ordinary Additive


Complex (3-4 : 2)
the membership of the Digit Phrase Complex is governed by
special

rules.

179

7 (1)

While

Group Complex is
not be correct

the sequence of the members of an Additive'Nominal


immaterial
and Tant ni Jon equals Jon ni Tant, it would

to describe
Y. Ph.

because on the basis

the above number thus:


N. Ph.

of that

N. Ph.

formula

N. Ph.

the same number could be generated

as follows:

5+

300

40

2000

in Manjalco, would

be understood to represent
three figures*. 5, 3401
.
Constituent
Structure
The
21000I.
of the several Digit Phrases will
and
depending or,' the place which they have
be governed by many restrictions
which,

in the Complex, for


ent Structure
one in which
The internal
the Internal

7.1 : I.

instance

of having
"hundred"

that

a restriction

"ten"

its

manifesting

manifests

a Phrase with the ConstituHead must not precede

the Head.

Digit-Phrase
the
unity of
Concord (see 7-4 : 1)

is

Rirther'underlined

-Structure
of the Numeral Phrase may be best represented
Pormula:

The Structure
following

any number, depending

where

x=

0. IK

x-1....

two Digit

x-2....

three

Elemente:

Manifesting

Digit

Digit

Link

Nominal

Phrae__Class
Link

ni

1 (7.2

"and"

paaj
six

onl.

180

(8-4

on the number of Digits,

number

Digit

number,

Classes:

Examples:
Element

by the

D. -f(L D)x

Numeral Phrase

Di; rit

by

2)1)
3-1)

eta.

7 (2)

Nurn. Phr.

x-1:

-D+L+D

untaaja ni paaj
ten
and six
(sixteen)
Num. Phr.

x-2;

untaaja
ten

ni
and

usent
hundred
(hundred

=DLDLD
ni paaj
and six

sixteen)

Note:
is no limit

on the size

of the number expressed. In practice


however the Manjakos manage with very few numbers., This. may be seen even.
(usent
(umil)
the
for
100
fact
that
he
1000
from -',
numbers
and
are
-,
there

In theoryo

of Creole

word for

10 (untaaJa)

origin
and perhapseventhe
probably
the last century,
because Koelle
have been adopted or coined within
)
(Tnhron
"hands".
in
fact
inyan.
that number as
means

.1:

Punction

The Numeral

CIUPTER 7.
7.2

Phrase

functions

SECTION 2.

: 1- Structu:

The Structure

as Quantifier

Mr.. DIGIT

in

the

Nominal

Group.

PHRASE

re

of the Di&dt Phrase in its

maximum expanded form is

the following:
DIGIT

PBRASE

I Factor
Head

Elements:

Manifesting

Classes:

Head

Numeral Noun Class 1 (8.2

-2,3)
-.

Factor

Numeral Noun Class 2 (8.2

3)

Numeral Class (8.2


Digit

: '2.5.2)Phrase Class 2 (7.2 : 2)


181

may
gives

7 (2)
Of the Uto Elements,

the Factor

only

is

obligatory,

The name Head has been given


optional.
it governs a Concord.
when it is manifested,
being

(II)

DP

Po=nula:

to its

the Head Element


nevertheless,

because

Fac

Phrases are. Type It. Simple, and Type II, *Composed, according to
Struct
Structure,
and Sub-types a, b, o, or d according to Constituent

The Digit
Surface

T)me: Head:

Factor:

Citation

Paradi=:

la

Decimal

lb

Single Number

untaaja "ten"
paaj "six"

IC

Single Number Complex

naaj ni ulon "seven"


gmil untaaja "ten thousand"

Ila

Decimal

Decimal

IIb

De'cimal

Single Number

Ilc

Decimal

Single Number Complex

IId

Decimal

Decimal - Single Number gmil gntaaja -paaj "seventy ths. 11

gmil Paaj "six thousand"


gmil paaj ni ulon "seven thous. 11

Fig.
7.2

The Simple

Digit

Formula:

DP
I

7.2

: 1.1.1

Phrase

has only

the

Phrase

Type I. )

Factor

Element

as Decimal,

Single

Simple Decimal DP (Digit

Phrase Type la has the Factor


Class 2 (8.2 : 2-3)
DP
Ia

the Simple Digit

Structure,

Constituent

The Digit

Fornula:

manifested.

Fac

of its
'
specified

On the basis
be further

Phrase(Digit

SimploDixit

- 1.1-

Number, and Single

Phrase may
Number Complex.

Phrase Typela)
Element manifested

by Numeral. Noun

Fac : Num.Noun

Eyamnle:
banhaan untaaja:
people
(ten people)
7.2

: 1.1.2

The Dipit
Class

(8.2

gb8s untaaja
dogs ten
(ten dogs)

Sim-ole Single
Phrase
: 2.5).

kko
untaaja
ten
sticks
(ten sticks)

Number DP (Dipit

Type Ib has the

Factor
182

Phrase

Element

Type Ib)

manifested

by the

Numeral

7 (2)
Fac : Rum

Dp
Ib

Forniula:
Examlc:

bardirtan
cople

(two dogs) (two sticks)

two people)

Simple

: 1.1.3

7.2

LC
t-ILbtwo

kko
sticks

E;bor,
dous t-10

bf'-21;
two

Number Complex

Sinrle

DP (Dirj, -it

Phrase

Type Ic)

Phrase Type Ic is an Additive

the nimbors
Complex representing
It consists
",seven" and "nine".
of Numerals 6 or 8, a Nominal Link. ni "and"
(Example
"one"
1),
that
the
lilumcr4l
tile
exception
with
and
-lon/-lole
(human
then
the
Semantic
beings),
by
Class
la
is
Concord
if the
governed
I
(Example
2);
the last member of the. Complex is*nha, -m "person"
-,

The Digit

: Numba IM

Fac

DP
Ic

Formula:

Ifum

I-Ixamplen:
k1to
sticks
(seven

1.

gb0s paaj ni
ulon;
__
does six
and one
(noven dogs)

2,

banhaan paaj ni
-nhaan
and person
six
people
(seven people)

-.7.2

Composed Digit

: 1.2

On the

basis

be further

the

Element

its

specified

Compound.
while

of

of

has both

as Decimal,

The Head Element

of

Factor

Element

is

the

corresponding

manifested.

Simple

Composed Digit

the

Single

Number,

Composed DP is

DP, that
Element
by

DP (Din-t

of

another
Phrase

say,

the

may

Complex,

and

by hlum. 17oun Ci. 11


as the
Factor

Factor
Ilemcnt

DP
Factor
the
etc.;
and
la ,
Digit
Phrase.
For Example:
Ty3)e IIa)

untaaJa;
gb6s mil
ten
dogs thousands
(ten thousand dogs)

183

manifested

to

Phrase

Nu ber
Im

same Classes

by the

manifested

Composed Decimal

banhaan gmil
untaaJa;
thousands
ten
people
(ten thousand people)

Single

the

DP
is the same as the Factor
IIa
is manifestqd
Element of the DP
IM
: 1.2.1

Elements

Structure,

Constituent

of

7.2

Type IIJ

11 Fac

DP
11

Formula:

(Digit-Phrase

Phrase

Phrase

The Composed Digit

plon
paaj ni
and one
six
sticks)

kko
un taaa
pmjil
ten
thousands
sticks
(ten thousand sticks)

7 (2)
7.2

banhaan gntaal *a gt9b;


tlo
tens
people
(twenty people)
7.2

Number DP (Digit

Composed Single

: 1.2.2

Number Complex DP (Digit

banhaan gntaaja Paaj ni


ulon;
tens
and, one
six
people
(seventy people)
7.2

pt6b
two

Phrase Type IIc)

gbOs pntaaia -r)aai ni ulon


dogs tens
six
and one
(seventy dogs)

ComRosed Compound DP (Digit

: 1.2.4

banhaan pmil
gntaaja
thousands tens
people
(twenty thousand people)
7.2

kko
gntaaia
sticks tens
(twenty sticks)

gb8s gntaaja gtgbdogs tens


(tvienty dogs)

Composed Single

: 1.2.3

Phrase Ty7)e IIb)

Phrase Ttype IId

gbOs gmil
gntaaja gteb
dogs thousands tens
two
(tvienty thousand dogs)

frtgb;
two

Punction

:2

Phrase may be diagrammed as follows:

of the Digit

The Function

NUMERAL

Ej

PHRAS.

DigitjLinIcjDigitjLinkjDigitj
1

DIGIT

PHRASE
Tactor

Head

7.2

: 2.1

Digit
Phrase

The Digit

Phrase

Numeral

of more thw
an Additive
7.2

: 2.2

The Digit
Class

Phrase
Class

consists
one digit

Class

identical

1 is
of

a single

then

the

with
digit.

Digit

the
If

Phrase

Numeral
the

Phrase

Numeral

functions

if

Phrase

the
consists

as a member of

Complex.
Digit

Phrase

Phrase

Class

Class

2 manifests

the Factor

1.

184

Element

of

the

Digit

Phrase

7 (3)
CLASS AND TYPE CORRELATION.

CLASS

TYPE

1-

12 11

CHAPTER7.

ECTION 3.

IIb,

lIc

CONCORD

As has been mentioned above (see 3-3), the Nominals have a potential
,
to agree in two Components: the Component of Number and the Component
Concord, and the features
of Lexical
of these two Components combine
in a single Concord Prefix.
Within the Numeral Phrase, however, there are certain restrictions
io
the
extent
which the agreement will be carried out. The
on
axe of two kinds: Source restrictions
restrictions
which have their
in their

realization

in the ldxis,

and System restrictions


which have their root in
the grammar. Both of these restrictions
operate on both Components,
limiting
the agreement in Nurber and Class, or just one of them. (*)
root

An example of Source restriction


the selection
specifying
of the
from the Component of Number is the Numeral
feature +singular
-lole
"one". An example of restriction
of choice from the Component of
Lexical
Concord would be the Numeral Noun -taaja
"ton" (as well-as
the
other Numeral liouns: -sent "hundred"
which may have either ofthe features
(*)

The rest=ictions

maybe

and -mil
+singular

tabulated

Source
Number

"thousand";

8.2 : 3)
but the

or +plural,

as follows:
System
Head

-lole

of

DP:

+Plural

kanhen
kwas
Class

second
member
of
DP
Cl.
+Lex.
;
Ic, IIc

-taaja

185

7 (3)

Source restriction
Lexical Class 2

limits

the choice of the Concord Prefix to the


Finally,
the restriction
may extend to features

(u-/

from both Components, Number as well


the

case

Numerals ka-nhS'ln "five"

of-the
they

although
"fossilized"

Concord

formally

are

as wo have

feature

from

+1exical

clann

Lex.

as

kanhen

Component;

each

3, and kwas,

the

is,

their

plural

Concord
is

choice

has the

4-definite

This is

so in

and k-was "eight"i

Carriers,

that

seen,

Concord.

P:efixos
to

restricted

one

+dingular

specification
+lexical

are

class

of a certain
is the specification
estriction
of the selection
in a certain
for a Concord Carrier
foaturo
on account of its functioning
have the specification'
+plttial
place. So the Numeral Noun will
when it manifesto the Head of the Digit Phrase and +singular
The System

Factor.
the
it
manifests
when
As was mentioned above (see 5-3), the Nominal Concord"may define
of several Nominal Groups-in cases of'embedding.
constituencies
In spite

the limitations

of all

just

Nominal Concord i's

mentioned,
the Numeral Phrase to define

gntaaja__paaj
tens
SIX

is

am1biguous.

It

may also

is

due to

n.

ni

the

fact

that

Group as j2Lojs which

pntaala

which

the

Heads,

ambiguity

but
in

is

the
it

the

is

Head of
not

following

is

certain

Digit
which

examples:

186

as follows:

diagram

ill-oil
ulon

the Head of

the

immediate*

its

ul-on

Lexical

and then
'

we draw the

if

one dogs,

mean sixty-

ambiCLUty

this:
ni

Cm tqa

This

like

taa

rbAS

It

look

would

ulon
one

dogs,

may mean seventy

diagram

constituent

ni
and

of the

the boundary

very useful within


Digit Phrase. For example:
gbos
dogs

the

"one"
the

belongs

Nominal

Phrase.

Elon

one.

However,

to

the

Group,

agrees
there

same

and as

Iri th one qf
is

no

7 (3)

In

Head (NG)

Head (DP)

Pac (DP

iko
objects

gntaaja
tens

kalon
paaj ni
and one
six

61 objects)

iko
objects

gntaaia
tens

ulon
paaj ni
six
and one

70 objects)

kko
sticks

gntaaja
tens

paaj ni
plon
and one
six

61 sticks)

kko
sticks

gntaaJa
tens

paaj ni
ulon
six
and one

70 sticks)

these

other

of

examples,
the

the

(cp)-lon

Head Elements,

agrees

underlined

with
in

either
the

one or

the

Examples.

the
that
due
feature
to
Source Restriction,
in
only,
one
agrees
but this
Semantic)Class,
being a certain Lexical(or
feature
of the Numeral Phrase as one or two
agreement defines the constituency

It

Concord and
we now extend the termsInternal
Concord (3-3) to the Numeral Phrase, then we may define
External
Concord as the agreement between Nominals manifesting
the Internal
Digit

Phrases. If

of the Digit Phrase respectively,


Concord as the agreement between Nominals manifesting

the Head and Pactor


External

Elements

and
the

Head of the Nominal Group and the Factor Element of the Digit
Within the Digit Phrase, the concord is Internal
Phrase respectively.
whenever the Head of the Digit
Internal

Concord:

Head (NG)

Head (DP)

Factor

banhaan
people

gntaaja
tens

piaanx
three

imaanh
bags

gsent
hundreds

paaj
six

External

Phrase is manifested.

(DP)

30 people)
ni ulon
and one (-

700 bags)

Concord:

banhaan
people

bawaanx
Ke`e(-

imaanh
bags

paaj
six

3 people)

kalon
ni
(= 7 bags)
and one

187

7 (4)
CHAPTER7. SECTION 4.

Structure.

7.4 :1

Phrase,

of the Demonstrative

The Structure
is

PHRASE.
THE DEMONSTRATIVE

in its

maximum expanded form,

the following:
PHRASEI
DEMONSTRATIVE
I Demonstr I
Specifier
Classes:

Elements:

Manifestinm

Specifier:

Specifier

Demonstrative:

Demonstrative

Formula:

Word (8.2

Word (8.2

(Spec)
+(

Dem.Phr.

: 2-7)
t 2.6)

(Demonstr. )

i. e. the Demonstrative Phrase consistsof


one or both Elements in the lineal
sequence as stated in the Formula.
7.4

Function

:2

The Demonstrative
Nominal

Phrase functions

as the Demonstrative

Element of the

Grou,P

acam-oles:
Ma-fing.
1 killed.
(I killed

Dem.
bi.
Benul
Head-his this.
him. This is his head. )

S-Pec.
Uwalu umenx, banhaan ka - mira
Time that
suffer
people (ct)
(At that(future)time
people will

Ila 77

Mt 24: 29
suffer)

S-oec. Dem.
ka -M
inji
nada
ri
untempu umenx w8n
-Td-em)
(ct)
fear
I
that
time
nothing
not
(At that (past) time I used o be afraid of nothing.

188

G9
)

CHAPTER 8.

THE WORDS

Contents

pagre:

192

The Verbs

8.1
1

192

Structure

192

1.1

1. Lexical

1.2

II. Ancillary

Verb,

1.2.1

IIa. Basic

Ancillary

1.2.2

lIb. Structured

Ordering

3.

Function

Verb

193
Verb
Verb

Ancillary

of Verbal

194
.
194
195

Suffixes

195

3-1

1. Lexical

3.2

2. Ancillary

196

Verbs

196

Verbs

3.2.1

2a. Auxiliary

Verb

196

3.2.2

2b. Aspective

Verb

196
197

The Nominals

8.2

Structure

197

Function

197

2.1

Article

197

2.2

Noun

198

2.2.1
2.2.1.1
2.2.1.2
2.2.2

198

Structure
Proper Noun

1.

11. Structured
Function

-198
198

Noun

198
199

2-3

Numeral Noun

2.4

Adjective

200

2-5

Numeral

201

2.5-1

201

Structure

201

Basic Numeral

2.5-1-1

1.

2.5-1.2

11. Non-basic

2.5.1.2.1

IIa.

Concording

2-5.1.2.2

IIb.

Non-concording

2.5.2

Function
189

201

Numeral
Numeral
Numeral

201
201
202

8
8.2

202

2.6

Demonstrative

2.7

Specifier

2.8.

Possessor

203

2.9

Pronoun

203

2.9.1

Word

203

Structure

2.9.1.1

1.

2.9.1.2

11. Structured

2.9.2

203

Word

204

Simple Pronoun
Pronoun

205

Function

2o6

The Quasi-Nominals

8.3
1

The Verbal

204

2o6

Noun

1.1

Structure

2o6

1.2

Function

2o6

1.2.1

Infinitive

2o6

1.2.2

Gerund

2o6

The Adverb

207

Structure

207

2
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.1.1
2.1.1.2
2.1.2
2.1.2.1
2.1.2.2

1.

Simple Adverbs
Ia.
lb.

Free Adverbs

207

Associative

207

Adverbs

207

11. Compound Adverbs


Ila.
IM

2.1.2.2.1
2.1.2.2.2
2.2

207

Suffixative
Prefixative

Adverbs

207

Adverbs

208

Type lIba

208

Type IIbb

208
208

Function

2.2.1

Class 1

209

2.2.2

Class 2

209

2.2.3

209
209

2.2.5

Class 3
.
Cl ass 4
Class 5

2.2.6

Class 6

210

2.2.7

Class 7

210

2.2.4

210

190

page i
211

The Particles

8.4
1

The Introducer

211

The Markers

211

2.1

211

Structure

2.1.1

1.

Monomorphemic Marker

211

2.1.2

11.

Polymorphemic

Marker

212

2.1.3

Ha.

Initial

Marker

212

2.1.4

IIb.

Closing

Marker

213

2.2

213

Function

2.2.1
2.2.2

1. Single

2.2.3

la

Report Marker

2.2-4

lb

Purposive

2.2.5

2. Paired

2.2.6

2a

Modificational

2.2.7

2b

Adjectival

2.2.8

214

Markers

Peripheralizing

214
214

Markers
Marker

_214

214

Markers
Marker
Marker

3. Emphatic Marker

214
215
215

The Connectors

216

3.1

Nominal Link

216

3.2

Verbal

217

Conjunction

217

The Preposition

4-1

Structure

217

4.2

Function

217

Ideophones

217

Onomatopoeia

218

Paralinguistic
Particles

218

Clitics

of foreign

191

origin

219

8(1)

CILLPTER 8.
8.1

:0

SECTION 1.

Introduction

The Verb manifests

the Auxiliaryo

Group (6.1).

the Verbal
Chapter

THE VERBS

6 as manifesting

Perfective

The Verbal

Prefixes

and Lexical

Elements

have been described

in

in

Verbal

Group Elements because of their


(see
6.1 : 1). The Verbs may
the
Verbal
Group
mobility
within
positional
do so, without prefixes(e.
occur, and frequently
g. see Focal Clause 5.2 : 18)
8.1

-. 1

Structure

The Structure

of-the

Verb in its

maximum expanded form is

the following:

VERB
I
Source System
Of the -h-to Elements, the Source is obligatory
so the Formula may be stated as follows:
Verb
According
into
8.1

to differences

two Types, Lexical


: 1.1

The Constituent

Lexical

Sce (Sstm)

in Structure,

the Verbs may be divided

and Ancillary.

Verb_ (Verb

Structure

and the System optional,

Type 1)

of Verb Type I is

the following:

Elements:

Manifesting

Source

Lexical Verb Root Class (10 1


Neutral Root Class (10.1 :
Verb Stem Class (9 1: 2 )
.
Inflexional,
Suffix Class (10-4
Pronotin Suffix Class

11
System

Classes:
1-3)

3)

The Verb Type I is a Projection


Plane for the Components of Mood
They axe simultaneous,
and Polaxity.
each having one system of two
features,
and the features may be combined as shown in the following
diagram:

192

(1)

hortative
indicative

positive
negative
Fig.
Those features
+hortative

in

+Dositive
(10.4 : 3.. l)

(10-4

: 3.2)

the

as follows:
presence
the

manifesting

+nej7,ative

+indicative

+indicative

are realized

in

of

the

Imperative

Suffix

-an/j
2 and 5)-

(Examp-les

System Element

the

Suffix
presence
of the Negative
-ax
the
(Examples
System
Element
3 and 6).
manifesting

in the absence
+positive
(Examples I and 4).
Suffixes

of

the

either

or Negative

Imperative

Examples:
Source

manifested

1. a-

finpul

by Lex. Vb. Root:

Source

manifested

4.

a-

j24LnMrul

he

cooked-for-him

he kill-him
(he killed
him)

axul
,
_finr
he-kill-not-him
(he did not kill

8.1 : 1.2

Ancillary

According

to

Verbs

further

are

their

Stem:

j6ni7ariul
cook-for(imp)-him
cook for him)
6. jarexul
cook-for-not-him
did
for
not
cook
--(he

2. fin
1:1 anul
71.112fimp)-him
(Kill
him)
3.

by Verb

him)

him)

Verb (Verb Type II)


Surface
divided-into

Structure
Basic

193

differences,
and Structured.

the

Ancillary

8.1

: 1.2.1

Basic

r'IThe Basic

Ancillary

manifested

by the

Auxiliary
.

Formula:

Verb

Verb

Type lIa)

one Element,
Root

1 (10.1

Class

(Verb

Verb

has only

Aspective

Verb Root

Vb
IIa

Ancillary

(1)

Class

the

(10.1

: 1.1.1)(Example

Source
: 1.2)

Element,.
(L'C=ple

Z),

or

1).

See

r3
Element:

21anifestinm

Source

Aspective Verb Root Class


Auxiliary Verb Root Class 1

Olas-g-es:

Exam-oles:
1. kaxe
xep kak
no-longer went again
(lie did not go any more)
2. ka: - kaka kg. xep
_
*
(ct)
he'll
again
go
(he will be going again)
8.1

: 1.2.2

Structured

The Structured

Ancillary

the System Element,


by the Imperative
Pormula:

Suffix

Verb

(Verb

Verb has both Elements,

manifested

Vb
lIb

The Structured

Ancillary

-an/=i
See

by the Auxiliary

Type IIb)

the Source Element and


Verb Root Class 2 and

=espectively.

Sstm

Elements:

Manifesting

Source

Auxiliary

System

Imperative

Classes:

Verb Root Class 2 (10.1. sLl.

2)

Suffix (10.4 : 3-1)

Ancillary

Verb is a Projection
Plane for the Component
of Mood which here has one System with two features,
+hortative
and

+indicative:
hortative
indicative

194

the

(1)

in the presence of the Imperative


(Ex.
2)fthefeature
Element
the
System
+indicative
Suffix manifesting
(Example
System
Element.
1)
the
the
in
is realized
absence of

The feature

is realized

+hortative,

(For the manifestation

of Polarity

in Ancillary

Verbs,

see 10.1

: 1.1)

E=Dles:

J. a- kaka xel"p
he again vient
(he vientu again)
2. kakaan
again(imp
(Go again)
8.1

xep
go

Ordering

:2

of Verbal

Suffixes

of the Verb are mentioned in various Chapters


because of their systemic relevance to other Ranks. However, in order
of the Structure
of the Verb, the following
to give an overall
picture
the ordering of the Verbal Suffixes:
diagram is given, to illustrate
Constituents

The several

ORDER
CLASS

4-

123
Der 2a

Der 2b

Der. -1 Der 2b

567
-'3)6r 2b

Infl-ex.

'Der 1

Proh.

--in
es

ROOT

aml

and

_U
-wund

a
an

--inja
-ind.

................

the
diagram.
by
indicated
the
in
above
sequence
ITote: Verb Suffixes
occur
Only one Suffix from each frame may be chosen, except for Suffixes
bracketed inside a frame, which may occur together.
to a frame give an option of selection
Lines joining
of
frame
Lines
frame.
the
Suffix
a
select a certain
crossing
within
any
to
five
1rames'may
Suffixes
of
up
Suffix to the exclusion
others.
of
frames
two
in
from
Suffixes
but
together
vertical
never
occur
arrangement.
8.1

Function

According

to differences

two Classes,

Lexical

in their

FunctiOni

and Ancillary.

195

the Verbs may be divided

into

(1)

8.1

Lexical

: 3.1

The Lexical

Verbs (Verbs Class 1

Verbs manifest

Element of the Verbal

the Lexical

Group.

Exam,ole:
ka
A nalon ngaax bixe
untaang
have time
& one
woman after-all-not
(And a certain w9man happened not to have time)
8.1

: 3.2

and are further


8.1 : 3.2.1
The Auxiliary

Verbs (Verbs Clasb 2

Ancillary

The Ancillary'Verbs

A6

manifest
divided into

the Ancillary

Elements

the Auxiliary

Verb,

of Verbal Group
and the Aspective Verb.

Verb (Verb Class 2a

Auxiliary

Verb manifests

the Auxiliary

Element of the Verbal

Group.

Example:
yilan
a kaxe
& no-more be-able
(he was no longer
8.1

: 3.2.2

The Aspective

pul
it
lift

priangg
to-lift
able to

Verb

Aspective
Verbs

3) 15
it)
(Verb
the

nanifest

Class

Perfective

2b
Element

of

the Verbal

Group.

ExanDle:
tievi
ro
=e Ylul
a S),
T-op)
blowflies
&eat him
(and the blowflies
sta=ted

E 16
to bite

him)

CLASS AND TYPE CORRELATION.

_Class
1
2a
2b

Type
1
IIa,
IIa

196

IIb

8 (2)
SECTION 2.

CHAPTER 8.

The Nominals

The Nominals are words manifesting


the Elements of the Nominal Group
(Numeral
its
Sub-ranks
Phrase and Demonstrative
Phrase).
or
6tructural
Most Nominals have certain
characteristics
are described in section 8.2 : 1. By their function
divided

into

which are described

classes

howeverv particular

structural

these are described

classesp

in section

characteristics
at greater

delicacy

in common.

These

they are clearly


8.2 s 2. Where,

apply

only

to certain

under the class

headings.
Structure

8.2 :I

The Nominals may consist of two Elements, the System Element and the
Both Elements are obligaiory
Source Element.
in all Nominals except
(8.2
Simple
Pronouns
Proper Nouns (8.2 - 2.2.1.1)
and
which
: 2.9.1.1)
The Structure
have only the Source Element.
of the Nominals is therefore
the following:
Formula:

Classes

Manifesting

Nom

for

(Sstm)

Sce

the Source Element are described

under the

The System Element is manifested by a Concord


(10-4 : 1.2)-1), selected from the basic (unbracketed)
foxv. s in all
Prefix
Pronoun (8.2 : 2.9.1.2)
Nbminals except the Structured
and'the
(8.2
(bracketed)
Word
2.6),
the
Demonstrative
forms
:
where
alternative
relevant

headings.

are selected.
8.2

:2

According

ninction

to their

Function

Nominals are divided


Numeral,
8.2

t 2.1

Demonstrative

into:

in the Nominal Group and its. Sub-ra .nks,


Article,
Noun, Numeral Iloun, 'Adjective',

Word, Specifier

Word, Possessor,

the

and Pronoun.

Article

The Axticle Class manifest6 the Determiner Element of the Nominal Group
(3-1 : 1-1).
It never occurs'in
a Complex. Its Source Element is
(10.1
by
the
Article
Root
manifested
s 4).

197

8 (2)

Element

Manifesting

Source
Ulon
One

Example:

: 2.2

8.2

t 2.2.1

Proper

The Proper

Surface

its

of

D5

the

Noun may be divided

into

Noun (Noun Type I)

Noun has only

Nouns are

Structure

and Structured.
Proper

: 2.2.1.1.

Proper

un8
day

Structure

basis

two types,
8,2

Rooi

Noun

8.2

On the

Article

Class

the

the

Source

names of

Element.
and localities.

personalities

ExaMDles:
personalities

Jon, Tant, Fara, Xinta

localities:

Tam, Chulam, Chur

8.2

: 2.2.1.2

The Structured
is

Noun has the

manifested
Noun Stem (9.2

by : Neutral

Root

Nominal
(10.1

t 2);

I
Manifesting
Classes
Root
Neutral
Noun Root
Noun SteM

Nouns are divided into


their Concord Prefixes
- 2.2.2,

usual

Structure.
Noun Root

Element

The Source
(10.1

t 3);

or

: 1.1).

Element
Source

8.2

Noun (Noun Type II)

Structured

ExamT)les:
Ilivell"
plik
kamaanh
"bag"
katetan
"story"

Classes 1 to 6 with
(see 10.4 : 1.2)

Sub-classes

Head of

Group Type Ila

acoordlzig

to

Function

The Noun manifests

the

the Nominal

198

(3-1

: 1.2)

8 (2)
(Mcamples 1 and 2). It may also manifest
(9.1 : 2.2).
Type
Ilb
Stem
of

the Grammatical

Element

ExamDles:
1.

Ninx namOnx
nan
that
Man the-said
(The said man
....

A2

2.

kat8tan nalon
ninx nasien
a- certain man chief
story
(A story of a certain man who was a chief)

Al

uri. P.A
desiring-rains
(Senegal Coucal)

8.2

: 2.3

Numeral

Noun

the Head or the Factor of the


as either
The Numeral Noun functions
(7.2
Yu=eral Nouns are divided into Classes 1 and 2
Phrase
Digit
: 1).
is
Element
differences
Function.
The
System
these
to
of
according
manifested

by a plural

Concord Prefix

in Numeral Noun

Class 1, and

Concord Prefix in Class 2. The Source Element is


by a singular
(10.1
Noun
Root
Numeral
4).
by
:
a
manifested

Elements
System
Source

Manifesting
Concord Prefix

: Class 1, plural
Class 2, singular
Numeral Noun Root

Exam-ole:
Class
1.

1
kwas

ppent
hundreds
(800)
Class

eight

2.9mil
thousands
(10,000)

Classes

untaaja
ten

199

8 (2)
2.4

8.2_:

Adjective

The Adjective
It

mayl*but

Element of the Nominal GroUP.


the Qualifier
Class manifests
seldom does, form a Complext due no doubt to the fact that

which they usually have in other


(5.2
by
the
Integrated
taken
Clause
in
Manjako
is
languages
over
: 26).
is manifested by : Adjective
Root
The Source Element of the Adjective
are few and the function

Adjectives

(10.1

6);
:
: 3);

(10.1
(10.1

Adjective
Lexical

Stem (9.2

(10.1
1);
Neutral
Root
: 2);
:
Verb Root (10.1 : 1-3), or Interrogative

Noun Root
Root

32191.
V-1
Element

Manifesting

Source

Class

Adjective
Root
Adjective
Stem
Neutral Root
Noun Root
Verb Root
Inte=ogatLve Root

Examles:

root:

adjective

stem:
adjective
(nominalizinal
stem:

adjective
(mixed)

neutral

ub8s upyak;
dog big
(a big dog) .

nhean naxgkal
person righteous
(a righteous
person)

ub8s ujinal
dog black
(a black dog)

bko bviAlu
tree young
(a young tree)
bko byampal
tree tall
(a tall
tree)

nhaan nat8banxen
person second
(the second person)

ub8s uwaaJenxen
dog third
(the third
dog)

bko bbaakenden
tree Tourth
(the fourth tree)

nhaan nafex
person behind
(the person at 'the
back)

root:

ubos uchinx
dog companion
(an accompanying
dog)

nhnan naties
person small
(a small person)

noun root:

verb

nh.qnn naw.r
person good
(a good person)

bfex
back
back

bko
tree
(the

bnkonch
middle
tree)
middle

tree)

Uix
uko
animal-fly
(bird)

root:

interromative

bko
tree
(the

rt:

ubos uoin
dog which,
(which dog.? )

nhaan naom
person which
(which person? )
200

bom
bko
tree which
(which tree?

8 (2)

8.2

: 2.9

8.2

: 2.9.1

Nim,oral
Structure

Porniula:

Sce : Num.R.

Sstm

Num

The System Element


5,

6.
Thus,
and

is

to differences

Element,

regarding
following

Types:

by a Concord

manifested

according

this

by a Numeral Root (10.1

Source Element manifested

The Numeral has its

Numeral

the

in

Prefix

the

Sets

la,

2b,

3) 4)

Structure-

Constituant.

may be luxther'divided

the

into

"asic
Concording
Von-basic

Basic

2.5.1.1

8.2

-:
The Basic

Numeral

-II

(Numeral

Numeral

has the

Non-concording.
Type 1. )

SYstem Element

of

the

Class 2 Concoid Prefix:

is

the

following:

L-

by the

manifested
(sg. ) and g- (pl

forra

alternative

"."..e Basic

.111fumeral

Raaj "six"
8.2

Non-basic

: 2.2.1.2

("Numeral

Nuncral
_

TyDe 11. )

The Non-basic

Numerals have the System Element manifested


forms of the Concord Prefix. They may be further
specified
Concording or Non-concording.

8.2

Concordinr

: 2. . 1.2.1

Numerals

The Concording

Sets

prefixes

of

They are

the

la

have
2c,

(Numeral

Numeral
the

6
follow
or

/(na)lole
.
(baltLebJ(ba)t8bar

: 2.5.1.2.2

The-Non-concording
Concord

Prefixes

plu=al

by'one

manifested
inG the

rules

of

of

the

Concord.

following:
(na)loii

8.2

to be either

Zype Ila)

System Element

3, '4,5,

by the basic

i. p Orson)

llonell(e.
"two"

(ba)waanx

"thxeel''*(e*g.

(ba)baaker

11fourl,

Non-concording
Nume=als

have

Numeral
the

(Numeral

System Element

however,
do not
which,
no longer
used; see 7-1 :0

follow

the

peopl'e)

Type lIb)
manifested
rules

of

by
Concord.

They

8 (2)

are

These

"fossilized".

are

the

following

ones:

kanhen "five"
kwas "eight"
8.2

: 2.5.2

Function

Numerals manifest the Factor Element of the Digit Phrase. There are,
however, limitations
Complex.
on their functioning
as members of an Additive
(Digit
Phrase Type Io or Mc).
Considering
these limitations,
vie.; aay assign
All

some of them to two Sub-classes:


Sub-class

a manifesting

the final

member of the Complex:

(h.a L__
lon/(ka)lole

Sub-class

Note:

b manifesting

Trio identical
Complex (3-4

8.2 : 2.6

the initial

"one"
_(e.

g. 4ouse)'

member of the Complex:

-paaj

"six"

lwas

"eight'.

'

Numerals may stand side by side ins


: 1-3)

Demonstrative

Distributive

Word

the Head Element of Nominal Group Type


The Demonstrative Word manifests
Element of the Demonstrative
119 (3-1 : 2.2-7),
or the Demonstrative
Phrase (7-4 : 1).
(10.4 : 1.2),
by a Concord Prefix
(with
forms
the
that
alternative
selecting
where applicable
restriction
-the
in Class 1 the /- allomorph may be selected only if the Specifier
Element

The System Element is manifested

is manifested.
The Source Element is manifested
Class (10.1 : 8).
Blements

Manifesting

System

Concord Prefix

Source

Demonstrative

202

by the Demonstrative

Classes

(alternative
Root

forms)

Root

8 (2)
Example,:
Gi
xmaal achi
xi blay
They hare they were in yard
(Haxe' and his companion were in the yard)
8.2

: 2.7

Specifier

The Specifier
Demonstrative

: 2.8

(10.1

(3-1

the Specifier

Class

: 2.2-3).

: 10)

Its
(10.1

said"

by the

: 9).

Element

Manifesting

Source

Specifier

-1ch

the

manifests
Its

Source

"belonging

to"

Element

Class
Root

A2

ufesta
feast

Head Element

Element

Example:

8.2

: 2.2

8.2

: 2.9.1

On the basis

Blko b8n
T=ee that
(The t=eo

chix
is-not
is not

is

or -minh

of

manifested

the

Noinlna3

Group Type

by A Possessor

"mine".

Manifesting

Source

Types,
two
v

Element of the
Source Element is manifested

Possessor

The Possessor
Ile

Word Set manifests


Phrase (7-4 : 1).

Ninx nam8nx
nan
aro
Man the-said
that he did
(The said man gave a feast)

Example:

8.2

Word

Root -mgnx "the

Specifier

Rb 90

Possessor

Class
Root

b1chu ayou=s it
it
you=s,

chi bminh
is
e
is mine. )

Structure

the Pronoun may be divided

Pronoun
Structure

of its
Simple

Surface

and Structured.

203

into

Root

8 (2)
8.2

The Simple
the

Simple Pronoun (Pronoun Type I)

: 2.9.1.1

Pronoun

Proximal

The Proximal

has only

and Interrogative
Pronouns

Element.

This

Type

includes

Pronouns.
the

are

Source

list

and 2nd person

Pronouns,

both

They aret

and plural.

singular

the

singular

plural

person

inji

wund excl.

2-nd person

wi

Ist

inja

incl. )

ind

Pronouns are:

The Inte=ogative
yen

I1who?II

we

"what? It

Exam-Dles:

Vli,

xjgku,

m-

E 77

wbxaax

You, Bush-fowl,
you good-axe-not
(You bad Bush-fov7l)
An
We
pxo xi?
m- bi
do here?
I'lhat you came what to
(What have you come to do here? )
8.2

: 2.9.1.2

The Structured
manifested.
(10-4 : 1.2)

Structi=ed

Pronoun

-B

(Pronoun

13

T-y-pe III

(Distal)

Pronoun has both the System and Source Elements


The System Element is manifested by a Concord Prefix

(*
the
fo=s
selecting
alternative
where applicable
with
the restriction
that in Class 1 the n- allomorph is selected).
The
Source Element is manifested. by the Distal
Pronoun Root -ul (10.1 s 11).
Elements

Manifesting

System

Concord

Source

Distal,

Prefix
Pronoun

204

Classes

(alternative
Root

fo=s*)

8 (2)

Exami)les:

8.2

-. 2.9.2

Nul chi 8n
the-one
He is

Bkul chi bk8n


They are the-oneis

Ait

KLA
they,

chi wul,
it
is

Function

The Pronoun manifests


(3-1 : 2.2.2).
ExamDle:

(e. g. dog, dogs)

the Head Element

of Nomina3 Group Type Ilb

8n
laang
InLi ni
uyamax
mI
whom you deny whom meat
(You refused to give me meat)

205

A17

8 (3)
CHAPTER 8.

8.3
This

SECTION 3.
__

The-Quasi-Nominals

Introduction

:0

includes

section

the Verbal

Noun (8-3

: 1) and the Adverb (8.3

The name Quasi-Nominal reflects


the fact that both these classes
function
in the Nominal Group and both may have Nominal Prefixes.
8.3

The Verbal

:1

may

Noun

The Verbal

Nouns are the Infinitive

8.3 : 1.1

Structure

The Stracture

: 2).

of, the Verbal

and the Gerund.

Noun is

the followings

VERBAL NOUN
SystemlSource
Both

Elements

axe obligatory.

Their

manifesting

Elements:

Manifesting

Classes:

System

Infinitive:
Gerund:

Concord
Concord

Source

Lexical
Verb Root Class (10 1
j)
Neutral
Root Class (10.1
:
Verb Stem Class (9.2,. - 1-3)

8.3

: 1.2

8.3

: 1.2.1

Prefix
Prefix

Classes

Set x (10-4
Set w (10-4

are

as followst

: 1.2)
: 1.2)

1-3)

Function
Infinitive

The Infinitive
manifests the Head Element of Nominal Group Type IIe
(3-1 : 2.2-5).
The Infinitive
also has considerable
verbal force:
(Verbal
6.1
2-4
Group) and 5.2
28 (Infinitive
Clause)
see
:
.:
ExamT)le:
bkul
kato
pxong
pon
house visiting
their that
(house at the place which they were visiting)
Gerund
: 1.2.2
The Gerund manifests

Hb 12

8.3

the Head Element of the Nominal Group Type IId;

Trbp-lnd brem, a ubon u-frontaar


umaal
Coming night & hunger afflicted
Hare
(When night came, hunger
)
Hare.
worried
206

e. g:
Hb 67 - 68

a (3)
8.3

:2

0.3

1 2.1

THE ADVERB

According

Structure
to differences

into

divided

in their

Structure,

the Adverbs may be

Types diagrammed as followa-..


Free

Simple

Associative
Suffixative
Compound
Prefixative
Simple

2.1.1
Adverbs

Simple

are

(Adverbs

Adverbs

Type, I)
They may be divided

mono-morphemic.

into

Free

and

Associative.

8.3 : 2.1.1.1

(Adverbs

Free Adverbs

Zy e la)

Pree Adverbs are Adverbs which never occurs'with


Examplon: bux "also";
6.3

: 2.1.1.2

Mak "much";

affixcq.

fan "to-morrow",

Adverbs (Adver'h3Type

Associative

1b)

Adverbs are Adverbs which may have the Pronoun Suffix


lVollowing..
Pronoun
Disjunctive
a

Associative

8.3

T)l C!0:

kor bkul "they alone"


"he alone"
korul

: 2.1.2

Compound Adverbs

The Compound Adverb


or a Prefix.
Suffixative
8.3

The Suffixative

gives

Type II)

of a Root

consists

Compound Adverbs

will,

and an Affix,

accordingly

either

be divided

a Suffix
into

and Prefixative.

t 2.1.2.1

consists

(AdveAs

or

Suffixative
Adverb

could

of a demonstrative
the word its

(Adverb

Adverb

adverbial

be called
root

a I'deictic

i/6n/An

in
in
in

this
that
that,
207

Adverb"

and a suffix

The Suffixative

value.

ink "thus
onk, "thus
ank "thus

Type Ila)

way"
way
(unseen)

-enk
Adverbs

way-,

because
"as

if"

ax:et

it
which

()

Exam-ple:
juabaxer ink we?
amthus what
& you are-sad
(why are you sad in this way? )
8.3

: 2.1.2.2

Prefixative

in the Constituent

Adverbs may be further


8.3

(Adverbs_Type

Adverbs

to differences

According

Hb 39

divided

IIb)

Structure,

the Prefixative

into:

Adverbs Type Ilba

: 2.1.2.2.1

(10.1
Set
consist of one of the Prefixes
of
y
s 1.2)
(10.1
Element
the
System
the
Root
Demonstrative
and either
manifesting
(10.1
Root
Pronoun
the
Interrogative
Root
Distal
11)
the
or
:
or
(10.1 : 12) manifesting
the Source Element.
ExamDle:
Adverbs Type Ilba

ka - k6r
xi
Itll
smear here
(I shall smear oil
8.3

Vll
ka - ker x8m?)
)
smear where?
(Where shall I smear oil? )

here)

8)

E 18

Adverbs Type IIbb

: 2.1.2.2.2

(10-4
the
Prefixes
Set
consist of one of
1 1.2)
of
7r
Element
the
System
Noun
Root or a Verb Root manifesting
and
of
a
manifesting
the Source Element.
Adverbs Type Ilbb

ExamDle:
da - tukari
rim(imp)
you
Run fastl

8.3 : 2.
According
into

the

uch&r
fast

Function
to

differences

following

in

their

fLmction,

the

Adverbs

may be divided

Classes:

CLAUSE
AlISIPIA21C

JA3

NOMINALGROUPIIh
D IH IR IQ jQn

1 N'll, 21-13
ADVERB

208

__
2.2.1

Adverb

Class

The Adverb Glass 1 manifests

the Adjunct

1 or the Adjunct

Exam-oles I
Ad*. 1
H

of the Clausc

Adj. 5

baand
-auan
On the mor--ow& he came

(a
baand
(he came in the

fan)
morning)

F 25

kak
taakal
a na-bi
kak
taakal
a- bi
yesterday & he came again
he came
aaain
yesterday
(For the diff erence i n th e Tenses see 6
2.31
.1
8.3 : 2.2.2 Adverb Class
The Adverbs Class 2 manifest the Adjunct 2 Element of the Clause.
"all" .
They are: bux "also" and "blien
Examnle:
bux wul
A nay6
r6 - jai
(cp)
& wine-tapper
said also him
(And the wine-tapper also said to him)
Note:

This Class

T.Ibon, inji
Viell, I

often

2 Element of a Minor Clause

Jib 29.
to injury,

Adverb
: 2.2.
_3
The Adverbs Class 3
8.3

"Echo

the Adjunct

bux
too

bux
A =aal
too
&. haro
(To add insult

the

manifests

Hb 214

Adverb

Hare

Class

on the

bed)

manifest

11 of

fell

the

Auxiliary

the

They include
3 of the Clause.
(marked with * belo-. ), e, g.:

Adjunct

E, 68

Uyamxc a- ay
mak
Ileat
it
sour
much
(Meat is very sour. )
Umaal kaka jot
pfal
Vall
to-cheat him
Hare again began
(Hare started
to deceive him again)
8.3

: 2.2.4

The AdveAs
jipan
ahe spoke
(he spoke

Adverb

Class
6nk
like-that
in that

Class

4 manifest

manner)

kak*
more

the Adjunct

209

3 of the Clause. E. g. s

E 70

16

: 2.2.5

Adverb Class 5,
- ,
The Adverbs Class 5 manifest the Adjunct
8.3

3 of the Clause.

Example:
au& he

uj8l-. u
Bush-fowl

ruk
left

(and left

1cor wul ri uniew.


alone him in house.

11b'37-38

Bush-fowl alone in the house. )

Votes Exponents from Classes 3,4,

and 5 may function together as a Complex


In
Adjunct
3.
such case, their lineal sequence corresponds to
manifesting
(See
5.1 : 1-1.3, Ex-3).
Class
their
numbering.
8. j : 2.2.

Adverb Class 6

The Adverb Class 6 manifests

the Adjunct 4 of the Clause.

Exam
ahe

baand xi
xari
ie-re today
came

8.3

: 2.2-. 7

The Adverb

Adverb
Class

Class

71

7 manifests

the

Head Element

of Nominal

Group Tpe Uh.

Examle:
ja
da
ron
ri
onk
say as
so as you
(this
is the way you say)

P 33

CLASS IND TYPE CORRELATIOIT.


,,
CLASS

TYPE

la
Ia

la,

4
5
6
7

Ilb

lIa
Ib
Ia
11 11
210

8 (4)
CHAPTER 8.
8.4

SECTION 4.

The Particles

Introduction

:0

The Particles

are Units

Propositions,

Ideophones,

of the Word Rank which, by definition,


do not
belong to either
the Verbs or the Nominals or the Quasi-Nominals.
They
are a heterogeneous group consisting
Markers, Conjunctions,
of Introducers,
of foreign

Particles
8.4

Onomatopoeia,

Paralinguistic

Clitics

and

(4-1

t 1).

origin.

The Introducer

:1

The Introducer

Class

Sentence

the

manifests

Introduction

Exam-ole.Yoo,
Yes
8.4

a
xjgku
and bush-fowl

nAx
stood

Rb 15

The Markers

:-

The IL-xkers manifest


Role is

Participant

the 11axker Elements

in the Clause.

Their

usual

the definition

Clause and
of the Clause as a Peripheral
they are thus a part of the Projection
Plane for the Component of Mood
at Clause Rank. Markers may peripheralize
a whole Sentence, but occur
Clause of that Sentence (see 4.2 :2 and 3). The Markers may
Role of Emphasis, the features of the Theme
also have the Participant
Component being realized
in the exponents of the Closing Marker Element.
in the first

8. A : 2.1

Structure

On the basis

the Markers may be divided into Monomorphemic


of Structure,
being further
divided into Initial
and Polymorphemio the latter
and
Closing, as illustrated
in the following
Differences
diagram.
in

Constituent

Structure

are further

described

in 8.4 : 2.2,

Function.
I

onomorphemic
Polymorphemic

: nitial
Closing

8.4

: 2.1.1

The Marker

I-Tonomorphemic Marker
Type I has only

the

(Maxker

9ype 1)

Source Element.
211

along with

8 (4)
Exam-ole:
: 2.1.2

8.4

"in

pa

Polymorphemic

The Polymorphemic

to"

order

(Markers

Markers

Type II)

consist of two Elements, the System Element,


(10-4
(selecting
by
Concord
Prefix
1.2)
the alternative
a
manifested
:
forms in brackets,
in 8.4
2.1-3) and the Source
except where indicated
Element,

Markers

manifested

of the Polymorphemic

The Structure

Root (10.1

by a Demonstrative

8).

Maxkers may therefore

be stated

as
b

follows:

"Ii

Fo=ula:

J= Sstm

See

Elements

The I

System

Concord

Source

Demonstrative

the

ers manifesting
have

Clause

one minor

variations

optional

basis

11amifesting

obligatory
limited

of these differences,

to

(alternative

Prefix

Initial

Classes
forms)-

Root

er Elements

and Closing
difference

either

in

Initial

they are further

Structure
or Closing

specified

of

the

and certain
On the

position.

as Initial

or

Closing.
8.4

: 2.1.3

Initial

Marker

(Marker

The Source Element of the Initial


Root

Ty-oe IIa)

Marker is manifested

-i.

by the Demonstrative

ExamT)le:

Hb 16

u- n.x
xi
xi
17- he stand in
in
(where he was standing)

Clause (5.2 : 26) except where the Aspective Prefix kIn the Integrated
(continuous)
(10-4 : 2-3) is interposed,
the Initial
Marker is conflated
(10.4
Integrating
the
Prefix
: 2-4). In this case the basic
with
forms of the Concord Prefix

are selected

instead

of the alternative

ones,

Root does not occur


and the Demonstrative
,
this conflation
see 5.2 : 26.
8.4

: 2.1.4

Closinq

Marker

(Marker

For detailed

Type IIb)

In the System Element of the Closing Markerl the I(II-)


form
alternative
of the Class 1 Concord Prefix
Source Element,

the derivational

examples of

affix

"thus",
-enk

of the
In the
selected.

allomorph
is

with the meaning


the Demonstrative

one we both know of" may occurt conflated


with
Root according. to the morphophonemic, rule stated at 2.1 t 5-4"the

The Marker in Closing

(8-4
be
Emphatic
Marker
may
an
: 2.2-7)
Root manifesting
the Source Element of the Closing
(if non-emphatic)(Example
(if
1).
or -8n
-i
Position

Demonstrative
the
so
Mar or may be either
(Example
2).
emphatic)
Exam-oles:
1.

upre pi
food which he

Rb 83

re pi
ate which

(the food which he had eaten)

2.

k- re w6nk
zendin ko
wi
give-me thing which you eat which-the-one-thus
(Give me that thing you are eating)

8.4

: 2.2

A 32

Function

The Markers may be divided into two Classes, Peripheralizing


and Emphatic,
their two different
Participant
Roles.
Differences
reflecting
of Function
by certain
Structure
may be signalled
characteristics
of Constituent
as
described

below.

The Peripheralizing

Classes as illust-xated

Markers

in the following

are farther
diagram:

Report
Single
Peripheralizing

Purposive

'odificational
L Paired
Adjectival

Emphatic
213

divided

into

5 (4)
8.4

Perhipheralizing

: 2.2.1

The Peripheralizing
They axe further
8.4

: 2.2.2

Markers
specified

Single

(Markers

Markers

define

1 and 2)

(Clause Type Uab

a Clause as Peripheral
and Paired.

as'Single
(Markers

Markers

Classes

Class

1)

Maxkers manifest the Initial


Maxker Element of the Clause.
They are further
specified
as Report and Purposive.
The Single

8.4

: 2.2.3

Marker

*ReDort

The Report Markers

(Marker

introduce

Reported

Clause of Sentence Class 2 (4.2


kuma

"that"

ne*

Ilif it

The Adverb ank (8.3


Adjunct

manifesting

Class

la)

Speech, functioning

: 2).

in the first

They ares

: 2.2-4) frequently
3 of the Clause.

occurs with

ne.

For examples see 4.2 ; 2.


8.4

: 2.2.4

(Marker

Purposive

Marker

Yaxkers

function

The Purposive

Olass

lb)

in the Purposive

Clause (5.2

: 22).

They

are:
,pa, bi

"in

order
"lest"

to"

ro I ri
(the forms axe in free fluctuation,
-with pa (which is of
Portuguese Creole origin)
being more frequent than bi)
Exam-oles:
bjelan
pa na-yazzul
to he fetch-for-her
portion
(to fetch her portion for her)
8.4-:

2.2.9

PaiTed

Markers

A8

(Markers

Class

2)_

The Paired Markers manifest both Marker Elements in the Subrogated


23).
Clauses (5.2
They are divided into Modificational
and Adjectival.
8. A : 2.2.6

Modificational

Marker

The Yodificational

Mnaxkers function

The Concord

manifesting

Prefix

the

(ITarker Class 2a)


in

the Modificational,

System Element

does not

Clause

(5.2

carry

any

24).

8 (4)
It

agrooment.

is

from

The Modificational

bi

.....

Set y.

Markers

bi

are:

indicating

tima

or

or Manner

xi

indicating

ri

ri

indicating

-place
place

pi

pi

indicating

manner

xi

.....

.....

--

sality,

or manner

L'%-amDle:

bi
koulon - bi
n-ro
n-chi napax
something when I(past)
when I was child
(something from the time when I was a child)
8.4

: 2.2.7

The Adjectival

Adjectival

Markers

Marker

(Marker

function

in'the

Class

2b)

Adjectival

Clauses

(5.2

'25)-

The Concord Prefix

the System Element carries


manifesting
agreement with
the Head of the Nominal Group in which it occurs. The Adjectival
Markers
a Sentence, in which case they occur in its first
may peripheralize

Clause (Sentence Class 3,4.2

: 3).

EXDXAT)le:

F 17

m-baandi ML-1
un8 widay whioh I return
which
(on the day when I return)
8.4

: 2.2.8

Emphatic

Marker

(Marker

Class

The Emphatic Marker manifests the Closing Marker Element in any Clause
Type. The Emphatic Markerv when it occurs in Subrogated Clauses
(5.2 : 23), is therefore
the same speech item as the (lineally)
second
the Closing Marker Element.
Its
of the Pai=ed Markers, manifesting
Emphatic Function is signalled
by the choice of the Demonstrative Root
-8n manifesting

the Source Element.

Icamle:
Uchi pfingin
killing-ma
if
(if
(you say)

pi
which
I ought

fier
n-ro
p8n
I did which need
to have been killed)

219

Ila 63

8 (4)
The Connectors

8.4

:3

8.4

: 3.1

Link

Nominal

the Nominal Link Elements of the-Additive


(Example
2)
1) and of the Digit Phrase
:
(7.2
(Example
(7-1
Digit
Phrases-,
Ic
2)
1)
Complex
: 1.1-3)
and
:
(Example 3) and IIc (7.2 : 1.2-3).
It may also manifest the Prepositional
(6.2
Group
The Nominal Link fluctuates
Adverbial
the
Element in
: 1).
The Nominal Link manifests
Nominal Group Complex (3-4

between ni and na, with


and other

for

a preference

ni in Baboque and na in Churo

dialects.

Examples:

1.

ni
uj&ku
=aal
hare
and bush-fowl
(Haxe and Bush-fowl

ni

untaaja

ton
(sixtoon)

ngit.?
3-

Y'ld

paaj

six

hrase Troa Ic

paaj ni ulon
and one
six
(seven)

Adverbial
4.

fexax
a
they were-friends
were'friends)

COMDlex

Phrase

Digit
2.

Group Complex:

Nominal

Additive

11
un 9,3-

Group
a-

pea

ni

ubon

he overcome-was
hyena
with hunger
(Hyena was overcome with hunger)

216

Rb 1

8 (4)
8. A : 3.2

Verbal

Conjunction

The Verbal
1.1.2)
Example:

Conjunction

Amctions

as -the Link, 11ement in the, 01,ause, (5-1:

Aua suaxax,
re,
aumob
unel,
a fing
B 18
& he caught hyena
'& he ate & not-fall
& killed
(And he ate it, but was not satisfied,
and he caught the hyena and killed
8.4
4 The Preposition
8. A
4.1 Structure
has the following
The Preposition

Structur6j

both Elements

being

it),

obligaory:

PREPOSITION

Systeml Source
Elements

Manifesting

System

(10-4
Prefix
Set
)
1.2,
'Concord
y
-*
ioot
(.10.1 - 8)
Demonstrative

Source
8.4

Classes

Punction

: 4.2

The 'Preposition

manifests
Group. (6.2 : 1)

Adverbial

the

obligatory

Prepositional

Element

of

the

"xam-oles:
katim Babi
chix
xi mtum
in mouth
name You-who-came is-not
(nobody calls - the name You-vtho-came)

Hb 45

uiiiew
ku
kor
vail ri'
a u- ruka uj6.
_
]
he
left
bush-fowl
& he
alone
n house
(and he left
the Bush-fowl on his own in the building)
te
xari
Vno Pi
day like today
till
(until
this day)
8.4

:5

38
-Eb

C 17

Ideophones

Ideophones

are Paxticles

which collocate
almost exclusively
with the Verb or
They convey the notion of superlativity.
Nominal which they qualify.
They have no Structure,
and do not display the feature of Concord.
They are,

e. g.:
ufaachal
ujinal

fas/farr

=
=

217

brilliant
charcoal

white
black

8 (4)
deep blue
dark green
crimson red
fall
to-. the brim
midnight

ukolal nhat
b6p
uf8lal
ujankal fuu
ch= lij-.
myengFe-s jolakok
8. A :6

Onomatopoeia

J--LizWParticles

are merely

Some exponents

of this

an imitation

of the sound which they describe.


Manjako is rich in these. The Onomatopoeia Class functions
in a way a
Nominal would function.
It is usually a goal of the Verb da "to say".
Class are:

kapak
kab6l/kabat
kaf6l
liviglivigliu
b8lab8lab&la=
acanDles:

sound
sound
sound
sound
sound

of
of
of
of
of

a 'matchet hitting,
a omething)
the ground)
a stick hitting
a person falling)
through the'air)
a stick flying
death-rattle)

a na, - ja
& he
said

bul
it

ptibi
matchet

kapak
"whack"

Hd 11

(and she hit

it (head) with

yer
au& he fell
(and he fell

ja : Bglabglabgla.
xi uxia ,au& he said
on gTound
....
on the ground with a death-rattle)

8.4

:7

Certain

Paralinguistic

her

-matchet:

"whack". )
-

Rb 130

Clitics

Particles

do not enter into syntactic


relationships
with other
parts of the speech, but are merely phonetic appendages to grammatical
Such are the sound -oo ending the stanzas of Manjako songs,
units.
Clitic
and the Interrogative
accompanying a polar question.
-a-V optionally
nmnle:
'
Uj 61-.
k
u ,mxi
xef
-a?
Bush-fowl you not will
sit-I qu?
(Bush-fowl,
)
a"?
M?
won't you sit

8 (4)
8. A :8

Particles

of Foreign-Origin

of foreign

have been assimilated


to the degree of
These include kuma "that"
being important in the syntc= of Manjako.
and
(8-4
to".,
"in
described
in
the
Maxkers
order
section on
pa
and
: 2.2.2),
listed
the particles
at 4-1 : 1-4-1, which introduce
new Participant
Some particles

origin

Roles to the Sentence Nucleus,

finishes")
action,

(from

ba "past"

The particle

may follow

e. g. ma, mas "but".


Creole

ba, "past"

the Manjako Verbal

and Portuguese

Group to indicate

acaba, "he
completed

e. g:
ba
ba, - x8ox
they call-not(past)
(If
they don1t call

katimu
....
name-your
your name

r'"I
a number of loan-words of "adverb" type, mainly from
There are further
Wolof,, or Mandinka, which function
Creole, Frenchq English,
unstably in
in the Sentence or Adjunct in the Clause, e. g;
the position
of Introducer
apre
rek

(from French)
(from Wolof)
"certainly"
"after"

219

9
CHAP-TER
9.

THE STEMS

Contents

-page:

Stems
Introduction
-The
Structure

9
9.1

Stems (Stems Type I)


Stems (Stems Type Ia)
Categorizing

Affixative

Nominalizing

Stems (Stems Type Iaa)


Stems (Stems Type lab)

1.1.2

Verbalizing

1.2
1.3

Stems (Stems Type lb)


Non-categorizing
Mixed Stems (Stems Type 1c)

Agglutinative

2.1

'Reduplicated

2.1.1

Fully

Stems (Stems Type 11)


Stems (Stems Type Ila)

221
223
24
224
225
226
226
227
229
229

2.1.2

(Stems
Type Iaa)
Stems
reduplicated
(Stems
Ilab)
Type
Stems
Partially
reduplicated

2.2

Serializing

Stems (Stems Type IIb)

Function

9.2 :

230
230

Stems Class 1

230

Stems Class la

230

1.2

Stems Class lb

231

1.3

Stems Class le

231

Stems Class 2

231

220

9 (0)
CHAPTER 9.

9.0

THE STEMS

Introduction

The Stem Sub-rank

does not extend throughout

the language,

but pertains
the Verbs, the Nouns, and the Adjectives.
only to three categroies:
It
has been created to highlight
the optional
intermediate
stage bet7een
the Morpheme Rank and tho Word Rank, at which certain Roots combine
Morphemes, Roots or Affixes,
be changed
and may as a result
The changes taking place at ,the Stem Subwith regard to their function.
to Nouns and Verbs (for Adjectives
rank relevant
see below), may be
diagrammed as follows:
with

other

throughout

this

chapter

sc. Lexical

221

Verb Root

9 (0)

As may be observed, the Noun Roots may function


directly
in the Noun
and the Verb Roots in the Verb, while the Neutral Roots may function
in either the Noun or the Verb.
However, by taking a certain
class of
Affixes,
in the diagram, the Noun
symbolized by a square junction
Roots are equipped
equipped

to function

to function

Class of Affixes,

in the Verb and the Verb Roots are


in the Noun. Moreover, by taking a certain
other
by the round junction
Roots may form a new lexical

Verb Roots or Neutral

the Noun or the Verb,

in either

ROOT
NOUN ROOT:
VERB ROOT:

WORD

bonax

ubon "hunger"
bonax "to be hungry"

xefi

xef
Pxefi

xef

mlik
lik

liki
liki-

T)

AM

VERB ROOT:

"to sit"
"seat"
"water"
"to fetch water"
i "water-pot"

Am
"to bite$'
oromaj "tooth"

romar

nar8mar "nag"
"to nag"
rOmar
,
f ex
"to follow"
"back"
ufex

fexar

bfexar

"friend"

fexar

"to be ixiendly's

ROOT: fex

Sometimes the twoMasses

and function

STEM

r8maj

NMRAL

unit

the

e. g.:

bon

ITEUMs.L ROOT: lik


,
VERB ROOT:

in the diagram,

symbolized

of Affixes

may combine in the following

ni_g
nigesaan

"to
jZ
p..
nigesaan,
kanigesaani

222

manner:

look"
"to

unlock
"key"

9 (1)
CHAPTER 9.

STITA STRUCTURE

1.

SECTI&

as follows;

may be'diagrammed

The Stem Structure

STBM
FL-exTGraM_

Both Elcments

are obligatory.

Elements:

It

will

under

Manifesting

Lexical

Verb Root Class (10.1


1)
Noun Root Class (10 1
3)
Neutral Root Class 10.1 :2
Numeral Root Class 10-1_: 7

Grammatical

Derivational
Suffix C-lass 1 (10.2
Derivational
Suffix Class 2 (10.2
Verb Root Class (10.1 :1
Noun Root Class (10.1 : 3
Neutral Roo Class (10.1 : 2),
Noun Class k8. '2 : 2.2)
Stem Class 2 (9.2 : 2)

to

be convenient
one heading

be Verbalizing

or
the

restrictions':
can be only

in

deal

this

Verb

the-Stem

the

with

Section.

the Verb

Nominalizing

we may diagram
as follows;

Classes:

Noun,

While

the

Verb

or Mixed.
Types

on the

and Adjective

Noun Stems cannot

Stems Nominalizing,

Stems cannot

there

be Serializing,
Having
basis

these
of

are

only

Stems
of

course

-hvo further

and Adjective_Stems
restrictions

their

Constituent

in

mind,
Structure

9 (1)
Nominalizing
Categorizing
Verbalizing

Affixative

Non-categorizing
Mixed
- partially
Reduplicated

Agglutinative

fully

-Serializing

CITATION PARADIGM:
Ty-pe I. Affixative
(a) Categorizing

(b) Non-categorizin

(.fm. raan "to drire-,,,


bonax "be hungry" - (fm. ubon "hunger'$)
(nn. ruk "leave")
irukesar
"left-oversit

(c) Mixed

it
to 11
rukesar "leave some',
(fm. nig "to lock")
kalligesaani
"key"

(aa) NominalizinE

karaani

(ab) Verbalizin

Amlutinative

T7me II.
(a)

(b)

I'mugIf

Reduplicated
(aa)

partially

urenchench

(ab)

fully

kaliklik

Serializin

uko-oxax

"cockroach"

(fm.

uko

pxax

9.1

: 1- Affixative

The featu=c
of

the

9.1

: 1.1

The feature

is

affixative

Darivational

Formula:

Stems (Stems

Lex

Affix

Catelzorizina

Affixes

of the De=ivational
Gra=atical
Element.

Formula:

Lex

Class

Stems (Stems

+c tegorizing,

"aninnnIll

"grass")

Affix

Class

: the

presence

manifesting

the

of

one of

Grammatical

the

Affixes

Element.

2
11ypeIa)

is realized

Gram : Der. aff.

IIdrawuate:

Type I. )

in
realized
Class (10.2)

Gram : De=. aff.

?)

rench

(.fm. lik

"lightning"
"snake"

(Ln.

in

: the presence of one of the


Class 2a (10.2 : 2.1) manifesting
the

2a

ON

9 (1)
9.1

: 1.1.1

Nominalizing

Stems

(Stems

Type Iaa)

rThe Nominalizing

Stems may be either Noun Stems (9.2 : 1.1) (Example 1),


(9.2
(Example
Adjective
)
Stems
1.3)
2.
The feature +nomin lizing
or
:
is realized
in : the presence of one of the Affixes. of the Derivational
Class 2aa (10.2
Affix
2.1.1);
in the case of Adjective
Stems, in the
presence of the Suffix -al, of the said Class.
Formula:

Stem
Iaa

Lex

Gram

Der. Aff.

2aa

Example-1:

pLiki

"water-pot"

mlik "water"
PLI-11-"Viellil

1
lik''Ito

fetch

water!,
-1

Example 21:

225

9 (i)
t 1.1.2

Verbalizing

The feature
.
Affixes
of

+verbalizinp

9.1

the

is

Derivational

in

realized
Affix

Gram : Der. aff.

Lex

Formula:

Stem (Stem Type IN)

Class

: the presence
of
20 (10.2
2.1. *

the.,

one of

2ab

Example:

wara

"to

be good"

nawar, "good man


2.1

The feature
Affixes

Stems

Non-cater-orizing

- 1.2

is, realized

+non-categorizingr

of

the

2b (10.2

: 2.2)

Affixes,

the

member being

Affix

Derivational

first

(Example

(Stems

2); it

Class

of

in

of
; the presence
(Example
(10.2
2ac
: 2.1.21)

an exponent of
Class 2b. (Example

226

1), or C2ar

a. Comple. of

may be realized_ln.

member being

an exponent

Type Ib

Class
3)-

1, and the

second-

9 (1)
Lex

Fo=ula:
Example

Gram : 1)er. aff. 2*ac/Der. aff. 2b/Der. af. 1/`)er. aff. 1 Der. aff. 2b',

1-.

nimx "to be in a wife-toin a


wife relationship
polygamous household"

animx "wife-to-yrife
in a
relationship
polygamous household"

bnim "ma=iagell

nim "to marry"

Exam-ole 2:

btexax

ufex

I fexar

"friend"

"to be, ZrienUy

fex

"back"

with"I

"follovil'

3:
ace-m-ole
12Mhe-sar
irul-. esar

$,leftovers"

ruk
9.1

: 1.3

Mlixed Stems (Stems

The feature
of

+mixed
the Derivational

(10.2
Class
2ac
.---A

leave

11-coleave

food"

lochindl:

Type Ic)

in : the
realized
Class 1 (10.2
Affix

is

"to

presence of one of the Affixes


: 1) and Class 2b (10.2 : 2.2)

9 (1)
Formula:

Lox

Grwm t Der. aff. 1-Der. aff. 2b-Der. aff. 2ac

Rxamnlo:
I

"key"

kanigesaani

EZesaan "to unlock

naEes-'Ito

Vote:
"to

nires.

It

Type of Mixed

has the Lexical

and the
Affix

Nigesaan

synonyms.

lock"
literally

means

to be unlocked".

cause

A opecial

and nip., csaan are

-P-,
LaI
"to

unlock"

Element

Grammatical

Class

Stems is

Element

2b (10.2

: 2.

the

manifested
fts

Structure

Root
228

Numeral

by Numeral

by Derivational

Adjective

Numeral

Ordinal

Affix

Root

Adjective
Class

Class

Stem.
3 (10.1

7)

2ac and Derivationa.

may be dia&Tammed as follows:

9. (')
Examples,:

(*)

"the

natebanxen

second person"
Concord Prefix Class 1 (human being)
na ........
teb.....
Numeral Root Class B
fitwoll
"to be two"
anx.. Der. Aff. Class 2ac
"causing to be tivol,
an Der. Aff. Class 2b
9.1

:2

The feature

is

+apglutinative

i. tem manifesting

the
(10.1)

a Root

either

Stems (Stems

Agglutinative

Type II)
in

rQalized

Grammatical

Element.

or a whole

word,

of a lexical

presence

The lexical

item

may be
(8.2
1)
Noun
or
;

(8.1

a Verb

Stems may be consequently

Agglutinative

: the

as Reduplicated

specified

2.2)

and

Serializing.
9.1

Reduplicated

: 2.3.

The feature

to whether

is

+reduplicated

item

lexical

Stems--(Stems

in

the

the

Reduplicated

9.1

- 2.1.1

both
lexical

the

T_ype IIa)
in

realized

Gra=atical

item

is

and the

reduplicated

Stems may be further

Fully

reduplicated

: the

Lexical
fully

specified

(Stems

presence

of

the

Elements.

samie
kccording

or partially,
as;

Type lIaa)

Ibcample:
lichlichan
uliaf
gbody
one shal: e-shake-cause-to
(we'make our bodies shake and shake)
(Notes lich
"shake")
2.1.2

Partially

redunlicated

E 50

(Stems

Type lIab)

Example

urenchpnch
cockroach

Other

Ordinal
Numeral s are: -chak "first";
jenxen
"third""
Laa.
-%wa
'Tourth";
11-Pifth";
"sixth";
-baakenden
-_Daqjenxen
-nhesnaxen
"eight"
-ivasenxen

229

9(2)

_9.1

-. 2.2

The feature
or Verb

Stems (Stems

Serializing

is

+serializing

Class

in

realized

the

manifesting

Tjpe_IIb)
-. the-preaence

Grammatical

of

the

Noun Class

Element.

Example:
ukomaal
animal-walk
(hippopotamus)

uko2Lax
animal-grass
(snake)

urI
desiring-rain
(Senegal Coucal)

ST2M MICTIOTI

MUTTER 9. SECTION 2.

According

ukoi)ula
-animal-cravil
(snake)

in their

to differences

function,

the St6ms may be classihed

as follows:
9.2 :
_1
.

Stems Class 1

Stems Class
They are
2.2
.

Stems Class
(8.2

1 manifest

divided

accordingly

: 1.1

the

Stem Class
la

manifest

Element

Source

Stem Classes

into

pjiki

la,

Adjectives
lb-and

or Verbs.

1c.

la
the

Source

Element

: 2.2.1.2).

Mcamp2,e:

of Nouns,

"waterpot"

230

of

the

Structured

Nouns

9(2)

9.2

lb

Stem Class

1.2

the Source Element of the'Adjective

Stems Class lb manifest


Examples
9.2 t 1.

ufaachal
_3

(8.2

"white"

Stem Class le

Stems Class lo manifest

the Source Element of the Lexical

Verb (8.1

Example:
Ul
j8kE;
a
he learn-cause-him
(he teaches him)
9.2 :2

Stem Clans 2

Stems Class 2 manifest


Exampl : kani LEesaani

Element of Stems Type IIaa.

the Lexical
"key"

CLASS AND TYPE CORRELATION

Type

Class
.

la

Iaa, Ib, ICII

lb

Iaa

Ic

le

Iab,

Ic,

12.

ICIIa

Ilaa
_]

231

10

CHAPTER 10.

THE MORPMES

Contents

z
236

The Roots

10.1

Verb Roots

236
236

Verb Roots

Auxiliary

1.1
1.1.1

Auxiliary

Verb Roots Class 1

236

1.1.2

Auxiliary

Verb Roots Class 2

237

1.2

Aspective

1.3

Lexical

Verb Root

237

Verb Root

237

Neutral

2.1

Roots
(Classification

Noun Root

Numeral Noun Roo,t

240

Article

240

Adjoctive

7'

Numeral Noun Root

241

Demonstrati-, e Root

242

Specifier

Root

242

10

Possessor Root

243

11

Distal

243

12

Interrogative

1.

2.

2
2.1
2.1.1
.
2. 1.2

2a
2aa
2ab

2.1.3

2ac

2.2

2b

)238
Lex.
V.
P.
R.
llcut..
of
and
240

Root
Root

240

Pronoun Root

The Derivational

10.2

238

Root

243
244

Affixes

Class maintaining

244

Affixes

246

Class changing Affixes


Affixes
Categorizing
Affixes
(1st
Affix

Nominalizing
Verbalizing
Neutral

246

Affix

Transitivizing

2.2.1

T4e reciprocal

2.2.2

The factitive

2.2.3

The benefactive

order

(ist

suffix)

order suffix)
(2nd, 4th,
Affixes
suffix
suffix

232

246

suffix

246
.

246

5th order)

-el

248

-and

248

-ar

249

:L

10.2

2.2.4

The passive

2.2.5

The causative

2.2.6

The instrumental

suffix

250

-a

suffix

250

-an

suffix

251

-iia

10.3

The Pronoun Suffixes

252

10.4

The Inflexional

253

Affixes
(Concord Prefixes)

Nominal Prefixes

253
254

Number
1.2

Lexical

1.2.2

The Membership of the Lexical


Foreign Nouns

1.2.3

The lexical

1.2.1

256

Classes
Classes

load of the Concord Prefixes

259j
261
261

1.2-3.1

Diminution

262

1.2-3.2

Magnification

263

1.2-3.3

Typification

263

1.3
2

Semantic Classes

263

Prefixes

265

Verbal

2.1

Infinitive

Prefixes

265

2.2

Identifier

Prefixes

266

2.3

Aspective

2.4

Integrating

Verbal

Prefixes

268

Prefix

268
268

Suffixes

3-1

Imperative

3.2

Negative

Suffix
Suffix

233

269
269

10

CHAPTER 10.

THE MORPHEMES

Following

Bolingers

as Source

morphemes

(1968,56),

usage

the

morphemes are

Where words

or System morphemes.

classified

have been

for
instance
System
Elements,
and
structurally
(Source
(System
Source
the
the
Verb
System),
Source)
Noun
the
and
+
(i.
the
Roots
the
Source
Elements
those
e.
which manifest
morphemes are
in both Noun and Verb) an& the System morphemes are those which manithe

fest

System Elements

(i. e.

Concord

and Negative

Suffixes

in

Imperative
this

a further

classification
In

and grammatical.
carry

lexical

modify

that

grammatical
in

the

Source

into

divided

chaxt

general

meaning
meaning

and grammatical

of which

are

those

lexical
which

which

may be explained

on

merely

in

as indicated

be classified

below:

Gramnatical

Lexical
Root's

Source

Derivational

Pronoun Suffixes

System
Although

and

those

are

morphemes

morphemes

The morphemes may thus

terms.

Noun,

of morphemes into

lexical

or the meaning

the

the Verb. ) We may superimpose

classification
terms,

in

Prefixes

the headings

Inflexional

axe different

Affixes
Affixes

(Bolinger-cross-classifies

the

the
independence)
to
their
degree
resulting'
of
according
morphemes
Bolinger's
in
to
those
four categories
morphemes
of
correspond
59). The morphemes are described in this chapter
diagram (ibidt
the
diagram,
in
to
the
as
in four sectionst
sections
corresponding
follows:
1. Roots
2. Derivational

Af-fixes

3- IronounSuffixes
4- Inflexional Suffixes
The Aspective

Verb Roots and some of the Auxiliaz7

Verb Roots are

the Source
somewhat anomalous. They are Source morphemes, manifesting
to assign any
Verb, but it is difficult
Element of the Ancillary
independent

lexical

meaning to them. The other

234

Auxiliary

Verb Roots do

10

however
sake,

ca=7
they

are

all

Some morphemes
which

function

Manjako,

lexical

independent
described
axe not

with

included

as monosyllabic

and are

described

meaning,

in

the
in

words,
Chapter

other
this
which

so,

for

Roots
Chapter.
are

convenience'
in

Section

1.

These are, those

relatively

few in

8.

235

10
CHAPTIM 10
10.1

SECTION 1,
Verb

:1

(1)

The Roots

Roots

Verb Roots manifest

the Source Element of the VeA.


According to their
function
in the Types and Classes of Verb, the Verb Roots may be divided
into three Classes, Auxiliary
Verb Roots, Aspective Verb Roots and
Lexical Verb Roots.
10.1 : 1.1

Auxiliary

The Auxiliary

Verb Roots

Verb Roots functiQn

Verb (8.1

in the Auxiliary

- 3.201).

They manifest the Source' Element of Verb Type II (Ancillary).


Some of,
independent roots which may also function
them are lexically
in the Lexical
Verb (e. g. ruka "stay";
Zo "do"), but the lexical
valence of others, apart
from the valence which they have as grammatical items
is uncertain
(e. g. ama which has the meaning of "still"
in the
when functioning
Verbal Group, but which does not mean anything by itself).
They have the
features,

or +negative

.1-positive
identical

its

with

realization

the realization

of which is in one case


(the
the
Word
Rea*
Auxiliary
Verb Root
at

in
roox "used not to" is identical
with roox meaning "(he) did not");
is so-much "fossilized"
other cases the realization
as to make the identi(e.
fication
of morphemes scarcely possible
g. kaxe "no .longer"),
and in
Verb Root,
one case the negative feature is contained within the Auxiliary
no part of which bears any resemblance to the realizationa
of the +ie-atLV_e
feature elsewhere (ri "not").
Some of the Auxiliary

Verb Roots have alternative


forms (shown in brackets)
and several have' an "Echo Adverb" (marked vtith an asterisk)
which manifests
Adjunct 3 in the Clause.
is
to
convenient
subdivide them into two
-It
classes
of

their

10.1

according

to

usage,

see 6.1

: 1.1.1

Mie Auxiliary
Type Ha

(Basic

Auxiliar

their

,y

Verb Roots
Ancillary

function

t 2.4.1

in

(Verbal,

Verb Roots
Class
Verb,

Class

I manifest
8.1

the

Types

For

examples

Group).
1
the

: 1.2.1).

236

of Verb.

Source

Element

They are

the

of Verb
following:

10

+positive:
(ya)
a

"when" (in
"used to"

ro

free

(1)

fluctuation)

+nejMtive:
bixe
kaxe (kakaxe, kaxexe
(nexexe,
nexe
nekaxe
(rix)
ri

*nek

roze

*rOr

10.1

: 1..l.. 2- Auxiliary

"after
all
"no longer"
"not yet"
(rix
"not"
ri
"meant -o,

Verb Rodts-Class

not"
, (in free fluctuation)
(in free fluctuation)
and Subj.,
with Infinitive
elsewhere)
but no riore"

Verb Roots Class 2 manifest the Source Element of Verb


The Auxiliary
Verb, 8.1 : 1.2.2).
They are the
Ancillary
Type IIb (Structured
folloviing,

and are all

+positive:
*am
*I-ak

ama
kaka
ron
rora
ruka

*ror
*ruk,

10.1 : 1.2

Aspective

"still"
"again"
"from time to time" f "by and -by"
"before"
"come to"

Verb Root

in the', Aspective Verb'(8-1


The Aspective Verb Root functions
: 3.2.2).
,
(Basic
Element
Source
Verb,
the
Verb
Type
IIa.
tmcillaxy
It manifests
of
(Verbal
roup).
6.1*:
For
2-4-0
its
1.2.1).
8.1 :
examples of
usage see
The Aspective

10.1

1.3

Verb Roots are the following:


bi

supervening

ka

continuous

ro

completive

'Lexical

Verb Root

in the Lexical Verb (8-1 - 3' 1). ' It


'
(Lexical
Verb
Trpe
I
Verb, 8.1_: ". J)f
Source
Element
the
of
manifests
(8.2
'the
Element
Adjective
Source
the
the
2-4);
of
may
also
and
manifest
Lexical Element of Stems except Stem Vpe Iab) (see 9.1 s 0); or the
The Lexical

Verb Root functions

Grammatical

Element of Stem Type ! Ib (9.1

237

sO)

10

Source
Root

Lex:
Adj. St.

Source

Verb

AM

Lex:
Vb. St.

a-rom

tap

Ix

p.K8maj
tooth

he wao-bitten

a
he

tan
hit

Ix

a
-he

t. nna
Ytas-:hit

ka.a Max
a kick

UIX
fl -yi ng

Hew

he

Lex:
Poun St.

a- x8ma

he bit

Ach

fhch
a
it is white

nig

iliac 0

lzaaigesaard

he locks

he

tuilocks

key

Root manifests

The Neutral
(8.1

1 1.1)

the

Source

Noun (8.2

the

and of

Element

Lexical

kdfachal
white

Roots

lieutral.

10.3. :2

(1)

Stems (except

of

Elements

the

of

Verb

Lexical

: 2.2)

and may also


rlype Iab) (9.1 : 0).

the

manifest

aml es
Source:
Verb

Root
a- lik

lik

10.1

2.1

Roots

Class

lie

married

marria, -,e

co-wife

Class

of Lexical

function
the
following

functioning
ka
naam
baand

Roots

water-pot
nanimx

the
1

v;a--te viell
bnim

(5-3)t
into

pliki

nim

their

Transitivity

pjLik

a-

Classification
to

According

divided

mlik,

Yetched-water
he

rilm

Lex:
11oun Stem

Source:
Noun

functioning
sOb
f ux
no:
nak-

in

the

Lexical

Verb Roots

and Neutral

Roots

Types

of Clauses

as listed

various

Verb Roots

and Neutral

Roots

may be

Classes:
in

the

11on-agentive

Clause,.

therewas,
there is
it seems, it seemed
it has come (i. e. the
in
it

the

Processivo

rains

the
the
it

blows
wind)
sun) shines
is noon

238

Clause

time
(5.3

(5.3

1);

has come)
'- 4);

e. g.

under

lo

Roots Class 3

functioning
chi
yer
xef

'Roots

Class 4

Roots Class 5

Roots Class 9

exist
fall
sit
: 6) e. g.

anx
rich

"be open"
"be shut"
in the Qualitative

Clause (5-3

: 8);

functioning

functioning

functioning

functioning
xend
laang
YAI*
functioning
pe

Roots Class-10

e. g.

functioning

fing
kob
win
Roots Class 8
,

5);

Clause (5-3

ya
xep
baand
Roots Class 7

Clause (5-3

in the Resultative

nhikex
yamp
jank
Roots Class 6

in the Stative

functioning
niam.
sinx

Roots Class 11 functioning


chum
brend
ping
Roots Class *12 functioning
chi
naam.
jaak-a

(11/

e. g.

be thin
be Iong
be re(I
in the I"'inetic

Clause (5.3

9);
-*

e. g.

go
go on
arrive
in the Directive
Clause (5-3 : 15)
(5-3
16); e. g.
Instrumental
the
Clause
and
kill
hit
see
17); e-uin the Beneffactiv6 Clause (5-3
give
deny
take from
in the Respective
surpass
in the Middle

Clause (5.3,:

Clause (5.3

1B);

19);

eg.

e. g.

be confused
tremble
in the brgative

Clause (5-3

24);

e. g.

be full
be half-full
be too full
in the Descriptive
be equal to
seem to be
be called

239

Clause (5.3

: 31);

e. g...

10

10.1

(1) .

Noun Root

:3

The Noun Roots manifest the Source Element of the Noun (8.2 : 2.. 2) or
(8.2 :. 2-4) and the Lexical Element of the Stems (except Type Iaa)
Adjective
0).
Exampless
Sources
Noun

Root:

ubon
hunger

nkonch

pnkonc. h
middle

Lexi
Stem
'Verb
bonax
be-hungry

bon

10.1

Sources
Adjective

bn1conch
the middle

one

Numeral Noun Root

The Numeral Noun Root Class manifests


2-3).
Noun (8.2.:

the Source Element of the Numeral

rThe Numeral Noun Roots are the following:

-mil

"thousand"

-sent

"hundred"

-nIMLa

Root

Article

10.1

_5
The Article*Root
(8.2 : 2.1).

Class manifesto

Root is

The Article

-lon
10.1

AdJective

The Adjective
(8.2 : 2.4).
Example:

-ties

napax paLies
child small
(a small child)

"ten"

the Source Element of the Article

the followingt
"one, a certain"
Root

Root Class manifests

the'Source

"small"

240

Element of the Adjective

(1)

10

10.1

Numeral Root

:7

the Source Element of the Numeral (8.2 : 2-5)


the Lexical Element of Stem Type Ic (9.1 -. 1.3).

The Numeral Roots manifest


and may also manifest
The dietribution
function

their
diagram.

of the allomorphs

of the Numeral Roots according

in these two Elements

Allomorphs

appearing

is illustrated

in figure

A function

to

in the follovring
in the Numeral Word

("cardinal"

in the
numbers) and allomorphs appearing in figure B function
Thus -tgbar/-t8b
"two", are in free fluctuation
Stem ("ordinal"
numbers),
for the cardinal
numberl but only -L8b occurs in the ordinal.

-lon

1,

-lole

-t8bax

112

-t8b

-waanx

I11 -ivaaj

-baaker

-baak
1

-nh&n
paaj

5
6
8

-was
B

Note:

The ordinal

"first"

is

formed

from an adjective

root

"first".
-chak-

Exam7)les:
banhaan batgbar/batgb
tv6:;,
people
(two people)

banhaan bawaanx
three
people
(three people)

banhaan babaaker
people four
(four
people)

nhaan nat8banxen
pexscn second
(the second person)

nhaan nawaajenxen
person third
(the third person)

nhaan nabaakenden
PEram fourth
(the fourth
person)

Note:

The Numeral

"one"

may have an adverbial

a
na - xAp
ulole
and he
went one
(and he went oxice for

all)

241

force

in

the

following:

10 (1)
kati
auprim
and he raised voice
-(and he cried aloud)

Hb 131

plole
one

kamint
kalon
running one
(run very fast)
Demonstrative

10.1

Hb 133

Root

Roots manifest the Source Element of the Demonstrative


(Example 1); and'of the Marker Typje 11 (8-4 : 2.1)
(-i
(8-4
the
Preposition
and
only) of
: 4-1)(Example 3).

The Demonstrative
Word (8.2 1 2.6)
(Example 2);

for

See 8.4 s 2.1-4

the function

of Thematic

in realization

The Demonstrative

of the Demonstrative

Roots -i

and -8n

features.

Roots are:

-i

"this"

-8n

"that"

-an

"that

out. of sight"

Mcampless
Dem

1.

2.

3-

10.1

Hb 26

naxong ni
this
vioitor
Marker
u- re p!
pre Pj
lie ate this
food this
(food which he ate)
Prep
ri pyonggi
17nhammock
(in a hammock)
Specifier

:9

Root

(8.2

The Specifier

-m8nx

A 20

Root

The Specifier
2-7).

Eb 83

manifests

"the

the
Root

Source

Element

is-the

following:

of

the

Specifier

Word

said"

Ebc-qmple:
Mbon,
Well,
(Well,

Kanhaay
Ranhaay
*the

kapAnx
that
mentioned
Sickly)
said

k8n
that

Hb 91

242

10

10.1

1 10

Possessor

Root

The Possessor

Root

(8.2

The Possessor

s 2.8).

(1)

Class

manifests
Roots

-minh

"mine"

-Ich

"belonging

the
are

Source'Element
the

the

of

Possessor

followingt

to"

Exami3le i
ka - chi
uf8ri
be
dinner
will
(the dinner
will
10.1

1 11

Pronoun
Adverb

Pronoun

Distal
Pronoun

The Distai

Rb 58

wtchu xari
yours today
be yours today)

Root

Root

manifests

the

(8.2

- 2.9A. 2), and may also


(8.3 : 2.1.2.2.1).
Type IIba

The Dista

Pronoun

Root

is

-a

"3rd person"

the

Source

Element

of

manifest

the

Source

the

Structured

Element

of

followingt

ExamT)lo t

Upit
Sand-fly
(Band-fly

10.1

t 12

kar6mb
ape
wul
pxim
him(Mosquito)
thickness
log
she surpasses
him in the thickness
surpasses
of her legs)

Root

Interrogative

Adverb Type IIba

Root manifests the Source, Element of the


(8.1 : 2.1.2.2.1).
(8.2
the
Adjective
and of

The Interrogative

Root is

The Interrogative

2-4)

the following:

"question"

. -BM
Example
Achinxu
Companion-your

ahe

chi
is

E 67

x8m?
were

(Whore is your companion? )

243

the

10 (2)
CHAPTIM10

The Dorivational

SECTION 2

The Derivational

Affixes

Affixes

are suffixes
which manifest the Grammatical
Element of Stems Type 1. They are divided into classes according to their'
influence
between other grammatial
on the syntactic
relationships
existing
Affixes

these syntactic
of Class 1 do not affect
relationships,
is in the extension (or on the contraz-j,
Their only contribution
limitation)
They
of the area of meaning carried by the root to which they are affixed.
label:
Class maintaining.
are given the traditional

units.

the syntactic
of Class 2, on the ot4er hand, do affect
relationbetween other grammatical units.
They axe given the
ships existing
label:
Class changing.
"Llhey are further
traditional
divided into subAffixes

to the extent

according

classes

influence

syntactic

the nominal

or verbal

areas of the language.

in

features

that

in their
realized
("Transitivizing"
Affixes.
are

The Derivational

the

of

which extends to the

Transitivity

They are

here

means also

Component

therefore

termed

"passive,.,,

may be diagrammed

a Noun Root with

They axe thus termed

influence

presence.

Affixes

For example,

in the Verb.

of Class 2b have a syntactic

Rank,

Clause

of Class 2a does not extend beyond the Word


the function
in
of Roots, equipping them to function

may function

ono of these affixes


Affixes.
Categorizing
Affixes

The

influence.

syntactic

of affixes

They influence

Rank.

of their

at

Rank

Clause

Transitivizing

"benefactive",.

)
etc.

as follows:

Class maintaining
Class changing
Hote:
10.2
,

For

ordering
ordered.
-

11

Class

of Verb

maintaininir

The Class maintaining

affixes

Categorizing

Transitivizing
see 8.1

suffixes
Affixes

12;

(Deivational

are Verb suffixes

They are the followl ng:


(or duplicating)
2nd order;
"repeating"
-and
"undoing"
3rd order:
-es
"in the manner of (thus)"
"approximating"
Ith order;
244

only
Affix

Verb
Class

suffixes

are

1)

of 2nd, 3rd and 7th order.

10 (2)

More than one member of this

Class may occur,

but not two of the

same order.
Examples t
( Lnd)'

repeating
,

a - x8pand upi
he took
the goat
(he took the goat)
undoing

(physical)

mex
a- bual
he covered house
(he covered the roof
ahe
(he

fej
pchap
' carved fetish
carved a fetish)

ahe

ingi
nij
washed clothes

undoing

a- x8pandand, unkanel
he took-also
sheep
(he also took the
sheep)
(-. ts)

with

thus
ahe

the roof)

a- fej s
pchap
.
he chipped-off
fetish
(he chipped pieces of wood off
ingi
a- nij. 2L,
he washed-off clothes
(he washed the mud off

the f,

the clothes)

(-ts)
-(notional)

amp
a-i
he took-hand
(he took him by the hand)
ahe

straw)

a- buales
mex
he uncov`ered house
(he took the straw off

ajamp. 2.sa
he pardoned
i. e. (he undid the

(111b80)
offence)
'(Hb 113')

pokes
he re: Cu-sed strenuously
i. e. (he undid the. matter
by his

pok
refused

refusal)

(7eLllh)
achaxenker
he died-as-if-to-himself
(he feigned
death)

chax
died

apaoximating

(E TO

(-I)

ap8n
he vient-out
(he left)
a
na - yelin
&
she
sent-me
(and she sent me)

ap8ni
he vienT-out
(he left
and is
a na- yeliin
.& she sent-here-me

coming)

(and she sent


me here)

245

A 11)"

10 (2)
Class

10.2

:2

10.2

t 2.1

(Derivational

Affixes

Class

2)

AM

(Derivational

Affixes

Class

2a)

changing

Categorizin
Affixes

The Categorizing
10.2

Affixes

1 2.1.1

VeAailizing

(Derivational

Affixes

Affixes

the

manifest

Stem (9.1

Nominalizing

Nominalizing,

aret

Nominalizing

The Nominalizing

xes

Affix

Grammatical

They are

: 1.1.1).

and Neutral.
Class_? L

Element

follovingt

the

the

of
.

=a
-al
Examples:
10.2

pliki

: 2.1.2

Affix

The Verbalizing
Stem (9.1

: 1.1.2).

(Derivational

Affix

Verbalizing

is

the

Affix

Grarrmatical

the

manifesto
It

blacksmith;
-

naxakaj

= water-pot;

following:

lst

us8bal
Class

Element
order

Verb

- rain

2ab)(lst

of

the

order

sf*

Verbalizing

suffix:

-a
Examples:

10.2

ahe

: 2.1.3

uyala;Iahe
grows
Neutral

The Neutral Affix


(9.1
Io
: 1.2;
or

Examples:

YAxa,
io-good
(Derivational

Affix

may manifest
9-1 : 1-3)-

Class 2ac)(Ist

the Grammatical
Its

occurs with

-enx
-anx

occur
with
-enx-anx

-end

occurs

only

with

occurs

with

other

roots

having

finall

the following:
/m/

with roots having no nasal consonant


dissimilation
of the vowels as follows:
following
an open vowel in the root;
following
a close vowel in'the
root
Numeral
roots

Root
lof

Noun
ulof
thirst

Verb
a-lofenx
he is thirsty

bon

ubon
hunger

a- bonZ
he is hungry

lim

uliE; i
shade of a
iiving
thing

a- lim
he covers
246

order

suffix:

Blerhent of Stems of Type lb

allomorphs-are

-X

.-ax

Affix

Root

baak

"four"

10 (2)
: 2.2

10.2

Transitivizing

The affixes

changing

Verb suffixes
class

Affixen

(Derivational

the Transitivity

relationships

of 2nd, 4th and 5th order.

may be selected.,,
2nd order

Affixes
within

Class 2b)
the Clause, are

More than one member of this

They are the follo,., ving:

suffixes

reciprocal
-1 occurs
4th order suffix
-el/-1

following

/r/,

/I/
and

instrumental

-na,
5th order

suffix

factitive
benefactive
causative
passive

-and
-ar

Er-amples follow

combinations
of these suffixes:
(For morphophonemic change of /A/ to /a/ in suffixes
see 2.1 : 5-4)
of possible

Examples:
thmbander. - 'Work hard"
thmb
and
ar
2.

x9pancla:

x8p
and
a
neelers
me
el
ar
j8tela. j8t
el
a

be heavy, hard
cause to
for oneself
"be led"

to go.
cause to
(passive)
"know each other"
to "know
mutually
for their own'benefit
"stacked

on tOD of each other"

to place on
mutually
(passive)

(10-4
this suffix
the
may be conflated
with
negative suffix
-E%:
jokanex
in:.
jokaanx
"he
teach,
does
resulting
or:
e.
g.
not
-aanx;
247

10 (2)

I'Mther

bofelen:

to unite
mutually
cause to

bof
el
an

"be rained

s8bara:

on".

to rain
to rain-wet
(passive)

o8b
ar
a
7-

together"

chumana:

"be filled"

chum
-an
a

to fill
cause to
(passive)

These suffixea
10.2

will

The reciprocal

: 2.2.1

The reciprocal
Roots

of

suffix

Classes

conflated

now be discussed

7-

-el
10.
the

either

with

nuffix

in detail.
-el

is

a 2nd order

It

seldom

suffix.
by itself,

stands

benefactive

hffixed
be
may

It

suffix

but
the

-ar,

mostlY

passive

to
is

suffix

Directive
factitive
In
this.
it
the
the
suffix
shape
mutates
or
-an.
(5-3 :- 17) Clauses into Middle-transitive
(5-3 1 15) and Benefactive
Clauses (see 5-3
25)inner-transitive

-a,

or

Examples:
kabuab
bamp.Rl(*)
ahe softened-up
run-palm-branch
(He softened
the run-palm
branch

by repeatedly

it)

hitting

8n
ka
A
niamlen
wi
xmaal,
,
lose-reciproo.
the-one
Hm, Hare
you will
-cause-to
(Hm, Ilare, you are the one (of the two of you) who lopt)
10.2

t2.2.2.

The actitive

The factitive
Roots

of Class

Kinetic/Directed

suffix

suffix

-and

b mutating
Clause

is

a 5th

-and
order

It

may be-affixed'to
Clause (5-3
10)in'60o a

suffix.

the Kinetic/Non-directed
(5-3

: 11)

Hb 85

(Example

1).

It

may also

(*)The meaning of the root bamp seems to have been lost.


The event referred
to in the above example describes
process of rope-manufacture.

248

the

be affixed

10 (2)

to
the

the

root

is

see", which
Clause (where rrin

Directive
(5-3

Clause

"to

win

(Example

: 30)

the

one of

Class

to transform

a Double-transitive

into

may occur)

7 Roots,

2).

Mcam-ple
s
1.

a- chi 7d katukand
undl
hyena it
was in running-with
(Hyena was running away with

2.

ma - winand
I
saw-carrying-away
(I saw a cat carrying

undazli uyaax
cat
rat
away d rat)

The benefactive

10.2 : 2.2.3

B 20

ikyamax
meat
the meat)

suffix

-ar

to
is
5th
It
be
affixed
a
suffix
order
suffix,
may
-ar
(or
(5-3
4)
Classes
2
the
Processive Clause
Roots of
$
or 3, mutating
Clause (5-3 : 15) (EXamP10 1),
Stative Clause (5-3 : 5)) into a Directive
The benefactive

Clause into a Benefactive


and to Roots of Class 7, mutating the Directive
Clause (5-3 : 17)(Example 2) or a Middle Clause (5-3 : 19)(Example 3)Whether the second or third mutation will come into effect will be
by the Structure

decided partly

of the mutated

Clause and partly by


but as a rule there will

based on semantics,
restrictions
collocational
danger of ambiguity,
be little
although both processes
identical,

as they do, by adding the s ame suffix


Clause.
namely the Directive

starting2

Type of Clause,

this,

To. illustrate
this

appear to be

mutate a Directive

we shall

to. the spne

Clause by affixation

of

suffix:
Directive
Jon aJohn he
'Directive
Jon
aJohn he

The lexis

of

the

Examples:

though

Clause

Benefactive

j6ng
cooked

Jon aJohn he

Clause

Middle

fing
killed
Predicae
their

j8nCgx
(something
cooked

fingar
killed-himself,

the

type

of Mutation

Structure

is

249

for

someone)

Clause

Jon
aJohn he
defines

Surface

Clause

the

same,

in
their

the

above

Deep

two

10 (2)

is different.

Structure

but the Subject


Examples

of the first

The Subject

Mutation

is Actor,

of the second is Actor-Goal.

Mutations

2.

10.2

ufux a- fux
blew
wind it
(The wind blew)
.

ufux a- fuxarul
bl4; w--on-him
wind it
(The wind blew on him)

fing
unkambe
wundkai
pig
we - shall kill
(We shall kill
a pig)

E
34
finggind
unkambe
wundkai
pig
we - shall kill-for-you
(We shall kill
a pig for you)

Jon a- wamb gtiew


John he shooed blow-flies
(John shooed the blow-flies
away)

Jon a- wambax
gtie-, v E 15
John he shoo'e--d-fxom-himself blow-flies
(John shooed the blow-flies
wuay from
himself)

The passive

: 2.2.4

The passive suffix

suffix

is
5th
a
order suffix..
-a

It may be affixed

in the Operative

and mutates

the Operative

Clauses

Examplem

.
to Passive/Goal

CM 22 - 23
bupa
be beaten

to Passive/Reciient

Benefactive

Jon ka - fingar
kill-for
John will
(John will
kill

Note: -Passive
: 2.2.5

unkambe;
gul
them pig
a pig for them)

Mutations

which it

fingara
g
they-will
be-killed-for
(A pig will
be killed

are subject

The causative

The causative suffix


of Classes 5,6,10,11
Operative,

and 9)

Mutations

ka - kame
bup bnim
bnim
ka - kaxe
ion
John will
will
no-more
no-more beat marriage;
marriage
(There will
be no more beating
in the marriage)

10.2

to Root-s

(i. e. Roots of Classes 7,8,


Clause into a Passive Clause (5-3 t *-

functioning

Directive

-a

to the restriction

unkambe
pig
for them)

E 24

at 5-3 : '23-

suffix-an

is
5th
It
Roots
be
to
a
order
suffix.
may
affixed
-an
in all Extensive Clauses except
or 12f functioning
transforms into Directive
Clauses (5-3 z 15).

250

10 (2)
Examples

Qualitative

to Directive:
Jon
a --yAmp2a
pchar
John he lengthens
rope
(John lengthened
the rope)

ion a- y&mp
John he long
(John is tall)
to Directive:

Kinetic

Jon
baand
aJohn he arrived
(John arrived)
Middle

Jon a- baandanul
John he arriv7e--cause-to-him
(John took him home)

kato
house

to Directivev.

Jon
n*am
aJohn he lost
(John was lost),

Ermative

Jon a- niaman
Tant
John he lost---cause-to Tant
(John caused Tant to be lost,

confused)

to Directive:

pigman a- anx
it
is-open
door
(the door is open)
to Directive:
Descriptive

Jon
aanxan
pleman
John he opened door
(John opened the door)

Tant
Jon a- naam
Tant
John he is-like
(John is like Tant)

Jon aJohn he

10.2 : 2.2.6

Tant
ki
katoul
ni
naaman
house- with this Tant.
be-]i-kehis
cause
(John makes his house look like Tant's)

The instrumental

The instrumental

suffix

-na

is
be
It
4th
a
affixed
order
suffix.
may
-na
Roots of Class 7 mutating the Directive Clause into an Instrumental
Clause (5-3 1 16).
suffix

ample -Mutation
ahe

re
eats

pre
rice

a. - rena
he
eats-with
(he eats
ride

251

pre
rice
with

kataam
spoon
a spoon)

to

10

CHAPTER10. SECTION 3. -The Pronoun Suffixes


The Pronoun Suffixes

the
are the 8th order Verb Suffixes manifesting
the NominalClause Complementj b=d the Nominal Suffixes manifesting
They are identical
Group Relator.
in all but the Ist pers. sg. -, and will

be divided into two Sets: Set 1 Verb Suffix


accordingly
These Sets are the following:
Nominal Suffix.
Number

zerson

Set 1

lst

-inji
_u

3.r d

plural

Set 2

-in

2nd

singular

ul(*)

lst

excl.

-Ymnd

lst

incl.

-inja

2nd -

-ind

and Set 2

Examplesf

1. (set 1)
2. (Set 2)

a-

ii

a-

jiin

chi ub-8sinji
is
dog-my
is my dog)

he

laughed

he laughed-me
(he laughed at me)

ait
(it

chi ub8s
is
dog
is a dog)

ait
(it

As. a 3rd person singulax

this
suffix,
to the Semantic Class la,

item 'has

the specification

human. It may also function


of bolonging
Pronoun and of the Adverb
as the Source Element of the Structured
Type IIba (see Distal Pronoun Root 10.1 : 11).

252

10

CHAPTER10.

Introduction

10.4 :0

The Inflexional

Affixes

Features

: 1);

Verbal

in three

sub-sections:
(10-4
2); and Verbal

prefixes

Components are realized

of various

section.

be discussed

will

(10.4
Nominal prefixes
(10.4
: 3).
suffixes

this

The Infl. oxicmml Affixes

SECTION 4.

The affixes

Nom-. pref.

diagram':

Ranks
Word

Lexical/Semantic.
Number

in

of the

in the following

Component

Affixes

discussed

to the projection

are relevant

Ranks, as indicated

Components at various

in the affixes

Group

Sentence

Clause

Class

Person
Number

Vb. pref.

Lexical/6"emantic
Number

Class)

Mood
Tense
Polarity
Aspect

Vb. suf..

10.4 11
In

the

3.3,

Class
the

Polarity
Mood

(Concord Prefixes)

-Nominal Prefixes

Concord

Lexical

:3

Prefixes,
or Semantic

exponent

of

features
Class

may be Nominal

viz.,

manifested

in

the

or Verbal.
the

selection.

Components

are realized.

the Head Element

of Number and Lexical/Semantic


which

of

Class

of
in

This
of

253

of Number and-

As described

the Nominal
the

Nominal
the

exponents
Concord

same Concord

in

Sectior.

Group governs

Elements,

of

other

is

generally

Prefixes

Concord

overt'

in*each

-10
Noun Classes axe therefore
described in this section,
concording item.
rather than at 8.2 :2 where the Noun is described2 because the'same
to
Concord
Prefixes
selection
of
applies
other Word Classes which manifest
the Nouns.

Concord with

(8.2
the
System
Element
Nominals
manifest
of
: 1);
(8-30of
(8-4
Verbal
Nouns
Markers
Type
11
of
: 2.1.2);
of Prepositions
(8-4-: 4-1); and of Adverbs Type IIb (8.3 : 2.1.2.2).
They may also

The Concord Prefixes

in the Elements Identifier--l


function
2 in the Verbal
and Identifier
Group (see 6.1 : 2.2 and 6.1 : 2-3),, where they nay be conflated with
(10.4 : 2.2) in some 3rd person forms.
Prefixes
Identifier

the

The Concord Rrefixes


Lexical

are arranged in six Sets, each Set representing


a
Separate Classes according to-Nuinber have not-been set up,
respect the Nouns are more-or-leS3
regular and those

Class.

because in this
forming

their

plural

similarly

also

form their

into

be divided

only a few Sub-classes


Concord Prefixes
therefore

Each Set*of

having
includes

singular
variations

or mally
similarly,
in the singular.

those for

thc; vaxious

to Nominals(*).
Semantic Class is
of Number which relate
to the choice of Concord Prefix,
in that under certain condit -ions
relevant
(see 10-4 1 1.3) the Semantic Class overrides
the Lexical Class.
features

description

A detailed

of features

Numbor at 10-4 : 1.1,


Semantic Class at 10-4 S 1-3.

followsl

realized

in the Concord Prefixes

Lexical

Class at 10.4 : 1.2, and


The full
table of Concord Prefixes

appears

on page 258.
10.4

: 1.1

Number

to Nominals may be arranged in a


of Number which relate
diagram.
The figures'in
brackets indicatq
nystem, as in the following
the L&Ycical Classes to rhich each feature may apply:

The features

(*)

For

features

of Number relating

254

to

the

Verbal

Group,

see 6.1

: 2.1.

10
I

non-coun

lective
col
f
(5d)
mass

-2

5)
-

(6)

neutral
term

(1

singular

(19 29 3)

plural

I-count

(4, -5)

singular
3 term

definite

plural'

indefinit6
From the above diagram it

in cleax

plural

every Manjako Noun must have a


If
in its prefix.
certain feature of the Component of Number realized
this feature is +definite
pluval then this signifies
either that there
is a Quantifier
accompanying the Nominal which is manifested by a

Numeral Phrase other

that

than the Numeral

"onell,

-lon
or generally

or that

the referent'

is a small, readily
known number. For
ascertainable
example in the Sentence "Bring the chairs here", -the-number of chairs
to is known or readily
ascertainable,
referred
plural,
so the definite
is used even in the absence of a Numeral.
Similarly
kuani "fingers"o
kk8s "eyes" etc. definite
plural
with such Nouns as I--,
On the other hand, for such Nouns as mko-11trees'19
is normally used.
kxefi

"chairs",

is always selected unless the


plural
mmangg8 I'mangoes'll +indefinite
Noun is accompanied by a Quanifier
other than "one", or unless'the
is a small, known, or readily'ascertainable
referent
number of objects.
The featur6collective

signifies

that

the referent

is an unquantifiable

in the prefix
such as groundnuts,
number of objects,
and is realized
(indefinite
"groundnuts"
e. g. s MDiex
plural
- rarely used), uDiex
(indefinite.
"groundnu .ts" (collective
ixefi
"sto6lb"
plural),
plural);

u-,

in a rest-shelter".
The feature +mass, signifies
as
in the prefix
a liquid
or similar
substance, and is realized
referent
The feature +neutral
e. g: mkAr "palm oil";
mnir 1animal fat".
applie3
to only a few Houns which are described at 10.4 : 1.2.1.

uxefi-11seats

255

10

10.4

Classes

Lexical

: 1.2

Class is a Croup of Nouns which select

A-Lexical

from the same''

affixes

from only

the majority
of roots. may select affixes
(e.
has
the
Set
no other selection
nossibilit
DOS
root
g.
-b^s
Although

Set.

Set:

one Set,

Zb8s "dog")

pl.

ub8s,

sbme-roots

may select

one

u Ey but the Rfrom more than

affixes

c. a. 7oham:

e
Set:
t
_ __ J

Engli Ph meaning

plural

ringular
definite

*indefinite

ucham.

'gehxa

palm-nut

kacham

icham

procesoed palm-nut,
or palm. kernel

4a,

pcham

kcham

mcham

raw palm-nq'.

4b

beham

Ucham

mcham

palm-1-Irce

cluster

_-A
distinguishes

Halliday

grammatical

and lexical

terms ofpoxadigmatic

oppositions,
of morphemes into

general
that the classification
in
not

easy

,'lexical"
of
of

is

thesis

this

to

"entity"
entity

purportedly

Set:

maintained.

decide

which

the

since
while

root

part

represented

singular

nak-o

2a
2b

uko
ko

3
4a

kako

pko

bko

4c-

Tko

xj-,o

lexical

by the

a grammatical

of

ko merely

the main

la,

4b

In

term,

the

and it

is

lexical

next

appears

only, in those terms

and grammatical,

oxv-mple, for

the. Noun is

ilv is

instance,.

"grammatical"

to have

is

and which

the meaning
4-

load, namely

the

is

by the

supplied

in broad

items, only

definition

prefix

of
which

-,,-h

hind

is

item:

-ol=al
definite
indefinite

English

-0Or oil
ani mal
thing

grCo
Gko
iko
kko
Gko

Object
mko
mko

stick,
urce
little
place

bead
th-ing

10
However, the membership of the Lexical
-orientated,

Classes is not semantically

which means to say, we cannot analyse the meaning of the Nouns


to the Lexical Classes.
It is
at clear divisions
corr9sponding

and arrive
true that most Nouns with

human referents
belong to Lexical Class 1, but
belonging to Class 5a, and bfexar
some do not, e. g: pchen 'Indighbour"
belonging
"friend"
Besides there
in i-)..
to Class 5b (forming plurals
included

are puperhuman and subhuman entities


"God" and e. g. napgr "goblin").

Lexical

in thiS

Class (Nasiembaxi

Class 1 approaches nearest to a


exceptions apart from the cited

grouping , sinde very few other


semantic
.
In the other Classes the exceptions are quite
ones will be found.
numerous: Lexical Class 2 includes all animals, but there is a large

belong
various objects which also grammatically
number of Nouns designating
The remaining Classes are so heterogeneous,
that one has to
to this Class.
group together

Nouns by the common characteristics


on
of their referents
8Wo of all Nouns belonging to Class
a percentage basic: so approximately
About 6MI of Nouns in Class 5a
4b are th. e names of trees (Set ba_P(animal or
denote a separate part of some biologically
living. entity
(Set
but
3s
i-)
"gourd",
"eye"
"leg",
e.
g.
1L,
pxim
vegetable)
pkanda
are some Nouna which would pass this test but belong to, another
Class (e. g. kanhan "hand") and on the other hand there are Nouns in this
Class which even though their referents
may be the same as regards one
("part of a larger whole") are not animal or vegetable
characteristic
(e. g. XLtht "stone").
Other, less significant,
semantic groupings exist
thero

in Lexical.

Class 3 where ka- dqnotes

"plantation

of",

e. g. kapiex

kafinhe "plantation
of groundnuts",
of sorghum", and in Lexical
(b-.
5b
Class
g- i-) where about 5% of Nouns have the meaning "group of"
"plantation

or "bundle of"
bmaani "bundle
for

diminution,

or "pile of", e. g. blingg "bundle of fencing g posts"


'of. rice stalks"
The Concord Prefixes are also used
etc.
(10.4
typification
magnification
and
: 1.2-3).

The features

of the Component of Lexical Class are +-lexical class 1,


*
+lexical
Instead of a
class 2 +lexical
class 3-1 +lexical
class 4a etc.
for.
system diagram, the Lexical Classes and the Sets of Concord Prefixes
table:
each Class are shorm in the following

257

10

Table of Concord Prefixes


Class:

singular:

1a

(n-/O-)
na-

2a
.b

mass:

definite
plural

Col.

-(indef

ba-(bk-/b-)
ba-(bk-)

a(W-)
U-

99(k-)

3
4a

U-

p-

p-

k-

M-

b-

b-

9-

M-

r-

9-

M-

p-

k-

i-

b-

9-

i-

M-

9-

b-

c
5a

M-

Xkce2-

ma-

tions

ba-

CD
(D

Cl)
(D

C+

C+

rn

(D
Ci.

Notes:
forms are alternative
1. The bracketed
described
mhere relevant
-places,

forms which
in'the
text.

occur

in

only

in Class 4 is merely
2. The repetition
of the singular
prefixes
Sets w, x, and y.
convenience of listing
The prefixes

listed

as exceptions

258

occur in very few items.

a fer,

for

10

Thel-Tembership

: 1.2.1

10.4

Lexical

the

of

Classes

Class 1
Its

in ba-.

of human, superSingular
is formed with the prefix
human and sub-human beings.
-na(sub-class
lb).
In Sub-class la the beings are
la) or a- (Sub-class
(Example
(exceptions
1)
Nouns
to
this
in
individuals
are
as
viewed
Example 21 denoting family relationships),
while in Sub-class lb they
Class 1 forms plurals

membership consists

(Example
holders
kinship
3)family
of a certain
or
status
are viewed as
An exception is a Noun of Class la where the collective
prefix
u-, is'
(Example
4)for
plural
used
Exam-oles:
"chief";

1.

nasien

2.

namaaka

3.

ab6k

4.

napax

"first

"child",

Class

Class

2 forms

Nouns with

jjanjn

wife";

daughter";

"son,

plurals

"God";

Nasiembaxi

upax

axa

"girl";

nam-p6li

"second

"younger

nalem

wife";

"third

wife";

Lix

"kinsman";

mixed,

although

sibling";

"children'14

Its

in. -.

animal

referents
(Class
the
uprefix
with
(Class 2b) (Ebcample 6).

belong
2a)

is

membership
to

Class

(Example

2.

Its

5) but

there

"dog";

uko

are

singulars
is

all
formed

one with

Ebcam,
oles:
"house";

5-

uniew

6.

ko "thing".

unkambe

"pig";

ub8s

1=-humanll:

"wilct animal";

Class
(Eample
in
i7).
kain
3
forms
Class
and plural
singular
forms'(Example
Nouns belonging to this Class have no plural
a-amDles:

7.

kamaanh "bag";

8.

kapaab, "forest-clea=ing";

karaani

"drinking
kambach

mu-11;
"circumcision".

Certain
8).

10

Class

The features

+definite

Indefinite

plurals

Sub-classes

three
definite

plural:

(Example

10);

are

plural

or +indefinite

formed

in
to

according
Sub-class

Class

m-.

the

the

of

(Example

9);

(Example

40

to

apply

4 may be divided

formation

4a,

and Sub-class

plural

this

Class.

into

singular

and

Sub-Class

4b

11).

ExamDles:

9.

Plele_

"orange";

10.

blele

"orange-tree";

11.

rx6b

"little

pcham "palm-nut";

"fruit";

pb8k

pjenj

beham "palm-tree".,

"egg";
211A_
"forest";

fish".

(The Noun mex "house" belongs with Class 4c in that


r- in wo=ds concording with it. )
of the prefix

it

the choice

requires

class
The features
Indefinite

pluras
(and if.

singular
into

+definite

Dlural

are

formed

5c (m- g-)

In Sub-class

in

i-.

5b there

Example

plural

According

definite
applicable,
5a (2- h-) Example 12.

Sub-class

and Sub-class

or +indefinite

plural)

apply
the

to

Sub-class

5in

,
may be divided

5b

the

Example. 13;

14-

is a small

semantic

grouping

of human beings in
other human beings

to form emotive relationships


with
Sub-class 5d contains Mass Nouns with

their capacity
(Example 15).

Class

differences
it

prefix

to

forms

no plural

(Example 16).
Examples:

12.

-okes "eye";

13.

bjaam

14.

mtum "mouth";

15.

bfexar

16.

mlik

-Clans

-oxim "leg";

"a bundle

'If-ziend";
"water";

of
mtaa

pkanda

"gourd,

sugar-cane";

bnonx

"upper

in

bnhaasar
mta%7 "milk

story

"enemy";
(cuxdled)II;

calabash";
"game";

a house";
bchuobar
mlus

mrun

"Clay

'IbOY/girl
"milk

(fresh)";

flask";

friend";
'

mkgr

The Nouns in
adding
(Example

Class

a Quantifier

6 have

form.
Plural
is formed
only a singular
(Example 17) or a Demonstrative
Word in plural

18).
260

by

"oil".

10
0

lhcamles:
17.

xk-o "place";

18.

mnak "brother/sister

10.4

: 1.2.2.

"two places"

xko xt8b

(older)";

Foreign

pl.. - xmak bki,

(i. e. brother/sister
1, those)

Nouns

The Manjako language has borrowed a certain


number of Nouns from other
languages (e. g: Prenchp Creole, Wolloft
Portuguese).
The borrowed Nouns
in their

seem to continue

form with only phonological


original
(Example
first
19) but as they are assimilated
into the
at
adaptations
language, they become adapted to the morphological
pattern in one of two
to one of
corresponding
ways: Foreign Nouns beginning with a syllable
the Concord Prefixes

axe adopted into

its

Lexical

Class. (Example 20).

(pl.
the
2nd
Class
with
prefix ujs-)
(Example
(or
into
fitted
Lexical
Class
2
21)
na-, Lexical Class 1,
and
if human). If what the Manjakos believe
is true, namely that they came
Other foreign

Nouns are prefixed

the area which they at present inhabit


"many yeaxs ago", there must
have been a wholesale borrowing of the names of local fauna and flora.
that it is just in this axea of the lexicon
It is therefore
significant,
into

most of the polysyllabic


terms have been adopted into

are found and I suggest that those


the language and. prefixed with the appropriate
(Example
be
bfor
trees
for
22)
which would
animals
and u-

that

Yanjako prefix,

roots

FocamDles:

19.
20.
21
21.

silemen fm. French, "cinema"


karafa (pl. irafa)
fm. Port. garrafa "bottle"
Tratu (def. pl. kratu,
indef. pl. iratu)
fm. Port.
(pl.
umesa
pmesa) fm. Port. mesa "table"
i=baabu

22.

10.4

(pl.

"eagle"
=abankanlc
"green
unchilaank6n
blimb8n
"thistle"
The lexical

: 1.2.3

As was mentioned
with
which

babaabu)

these

the

above,
Concord

fm.

headed

load

Wollof

have a lovr commuhication

"plate"'

man"

sunbird"

of

some roots
Prefixes

"white

prato

the

Concord

have a low

may carry
potential

Prefixes
communication

a heavy
regularly

lexical

potential
load.

have multiple

and

Roots
affixation

10

of various
with Concord Prefixes
possibilities
was that of ko "something" which by, affixation
Source Element of at least
high

Such roots

Concord Prefix

Sets.

The example given


function
as the

could

Nouns.

and the lexical

potential

communication
is small.
Prefixes

various

seven different

Sets.

Other roots

load carried

have a

by the Concord

have few possibilities


of affixation
with
The example given was that of the root

the Concord Prefix Set of Lexical


form
Class
2
to
occurs
with
which
-bos
However, certain
Concord Prefixes
may carry some
a Noun ub8s "dog".
load even if the root has a high communication potential
lexical
and
4c and 6.

3,4a,

Classes

Their

role

to give information
about the
in Folktales,
about. the fictitious

is

the referent,
of
or,
quantity
or
size
that
is
the
to say,
referent,
of
nature
yagnification
and Typification.

the

Diminution

of

of-Lexical

Classes

is

referent

with

the

by affixing

effected

4c or 6 to

4a,

occurs

usually

which

Diminution,

the referent's

Diminution

: 1.2.3.1

10.4

Sets of Lexical

Those are the Concord Prefix

the referent.

identifies

a root

Concord

of high

Prefix

the

one of

prefixes
potential

co=unication

Set of

another

Lexical

Class.

the root -maanh is a root of high communication potential


form
the
to
the
Concord
Prefix
Set
Lexical
3
Class
with
occurs
of
which
is possible to create-another
Noun kamaanh "bag" (and no other affixation
For example,

However, if'one
meaning other than "bag").
of the, Sets
the
above
occurs with -maanh then the additional..
of
affixes
is that the bag is a little
information
one:

Noun with

a basic

pmaanh
=aanh
xmaanh

"little

bag"

(pl.

mmaanh,

Examles:
/

ryinx
2L.c-8-bj
but

pyinx
'Qx8b

/ xvinx
/ELg_b

(pl.

(pl.

*)
m'Lyinx

mx6b)

(pl.
rmn6li
=381i
only
I dorm. ")
means "girls

The definite

plural

"a little

"little

fish"

mm-ogii

"little

(fm.
man"
(fm.

ux8b
girl"

ninx

some areas
"man")
ynavinxt

"fish"
(fm.

namp9li

forms do not appear to be used for


262

"girl")

Minimation

10

Magnification

10. A : 1.2.3.2
Magnification
of Lexical

by affixing

effected

one of the prefixes

of high communication potential


which
Set of another Lexical Class.
the Concord Prefix

occurs with

usually

is

of the referent
Class 3 to a root

Exam-oles:

"big

impOli)

JO. A : 1.2.3.3

man"

fish"

"big

ix6b)

(pl.

kamp8li

"big

innx)

ka.vinx-(pl.
kax5b (pl.

girl"

Ty-pification

in the
more particularly
occurs only in the Polktales,
(of
Lexical
by
the
It
is
Fables.
affixing
1,nimal
effected
xprefix
Class 6) to a root which normally occurs with the Concord Prefix Set
the
is
2
Class
Lexical
of
and
referent
some
animal
character
whose
of
Typification

Fable.
ExaMDles:
"Hare' ' (fm.

umaal "a hare")


(fm. uigku "a bush-fowl")
I

-ar.aal
Y.,Igku "Bush-fowl"

Semantic Classes

10.4 -. 1.3

of Lexical

The most which could be said


theix

of Nouns selecting
noticedy'

have

criteria

e. g. Lexical

but

even in

Clause
but

of

exclusion

restriction

not

membership
Class

Lexical
points

at various
the

their

the

Grammar,

in

: 23 where

a human being.

not

5.3

by a referent
So it

is

There
the

to

upi

a-finga

umbanj

"the

uDi

a-finaa

unn-^l

a-finpa

Jon

*uni

263

Yet

followed

is
for

Complement

denoting

possible

is,

was

human beings,

as was observed.

division

a semantic

division.

denoting

referents

it

by semantic

entirely

an overlap,

a grammatical

may be manifested

but

is

Some Classes,

same Set.

almost

1 comprises
1 there

of

the

defined

Class

mentioned

SLr:

from

affixes

they axe groups

Classes was that

example,
in

an animal

to
a

a Passive/Goal
or a thing,

say. -

"the

goat was killed


goat was killed

YrLth a knife"
by a hyena"

"the

goat was killed

by John"

10

Class of the Noun, as


This restriction
appliesq whatever the Lexical
(Lexical
"workman"
Class 1);
human,
is
the
long as
e. g. nalem-p
referent
(Lexical
(Lexical
5);
"older
Class
Class
"enemy"
sibling"
bnhaasar
xmak
It

therefore

is

to have Semantic Classes

necessary

in addition

to the

Classes.

Lexical

The Component of Semantio Class has the following

features:

human
Inon-human
volitional

non-volitional
The featu=es

are =ealized
1

Class

Semantic

human

SO lb:

non-human

beings

volitional

comprising

SC la:

as follows:

in the Semantio Classes

Semantic Class 2 comprising

entities

non-volitional

Examnles:

SO la
ninx

"man"; Nasiembaxi, "God"; napOr "goblin"

=ak

"older

bfexar

"friend"

sibling"

SC lb
^1
iihyanall;
r,,,
,.In

um-n6linch "horse"

SC 2
"tree";

bko

Nouns of
in

words
'Prefix

Class

Semantic
Concord

1 govern
them..

with

Lexical
of
ces

of Lexical

kamaanh

"stone";

alak

Class

la,

"bag"
the

Semantic

of

Concord

is

realized

selection
Class

and Semantic

la
Class

lb

in

Prefixes
in

Concord

in

Concord
Prefixes

Class 2a.

Class are viewed as one Component from the


Semantic Class and Lexical
the
them
because.
Concord,
selection
governs
only one of
point of view of
of

the

Concord

Prefixes,

Semantic

Class

whenever Semantic Class 1 is present.

overriding

Lexical

Class,

6)

10

Examples:

Class

Concord of Lexical
naDax nalole
one
child
(one child)
Concord

Class

Semantic

of

bairaanx
Rpax
Three
,
children
(three
children)

10.4
All

Verbal

:2

Prefixes
function

Prefixes

the Verbal

in the Identifier

of the Verbal
(10.4 : 2.2);

Elements

the Identifier
Prefixes
They are the following:
(10.4
Prefixes
Prefix
the Aspective
: 2-3); and the Integrating
(10.4 : 2-4).
They may occur in a Complex of Identifier
Prefix and
(h
Prefix
Prefix,
Aspective
Integrating
Prefix.
Aspective
only)
and
or
forms are discussed at 10-4 : 2.1.
in Infinitive
Prefixes
occurring
Group.

: 2.1

10.4
rThe
of

features
Set

the
nominal

and

+infinitive
(10.4

Prefixes

+infinitive

(see
x
the

reflects

Set

Infinitive

and

table

of

force

+nepative

+-positive

Concord
which
are

are

realized

Roefixes
the

however

Infinitive
realized

2.2).

265

at

in

10-4

: 1.2).

may have.
in

the

I >.
r efixes

Concord

This
The

Identifier

features
Prefix

10

Prefixes

Identifier

: 2.2

10.4

Prefixes

The Identifier

the Identifier

manifest

Elements

in the Verbal

Group as follows:

in Identifier

Sets- 1-8

12
in
Identifier
2
Identifier
12
in
3
-

Sets 2,4,9
Sets 4,10

Polarity
Moodq
Tensev
of
discussed in Chapter 6.

eto.

2('5)

Features

sinz.

-olur.

maNJI)
mavamda-

Nm_
km(op)aj a) kawund-e('3)
v=d-

lat inol.
2nd

gda-

9da-

3rd hum.
no n - h= .

ba-

lst
2nd
3rd
lst excl.

ja-*
d8-

(cp) a-

0-*

x/chax
x-

are

.6

kak(CP)g-

iNm0-

m0(cp)a-

wund-*

wund-

wund-

ja-*
d9-

Zda-

9da-

(CP)9-*

b0-

(op)a-

10

a
2Lng. lst
2nd
-olur. 2nd
all other

in these prefixes

realized

12

11

maNa-

m0-

kaNk-

Nm-

N0

a-

0-

ka-

ITOtes
/n/

N represents
occurring
2.

(cp)

realized

only before

plosives

Prefix.

before

the Identifier

Prefix

axe conflated

(10.4

Identifier

the

of

a consonant

(basic

: 1.2)

The Concord Prefix

forms)

occurring

and the Identifier

as follovis:

Where the Concord Prefix


of

nasal),

and affricates.

a Concord Prefix

indicates

* indicates

as m, a,

(homorganic
etc

Prefix
and vowel,

consists
is

of a vowel only,

elided;

the

where

vowel

a complex of prefixes,

of

the

the

the -a-

Concord

Concord

or -A-

Prefix

Prefix

is

Consists
elided.

of which the second member is

Set 10.

266

from

10

The features

+neg-ative

realized

or +imperative

are

of Set 7 as followss

Prefixes

in Identifier

+infinitive

and either

+negative

+infinitive

i always x-

+ner,ative

+imperative

x-/nh x- in free fluctuation


: singular
always x-, preceded by the 2nd
plural
71ural 1xonoun :, ind
person

occur only where


The 3rd person forms shown with Concord Prefixes
If a Nominal Group
the Subject of the Clause is not manifested.
Prefixes.
Identifier
Group
Verbal
the
Subject,
without
occurs
manifests
Examles:

Set 1:

man - x1s

went-home

Set 2:

xis
man - x8p a
'n
I
returned
went and

Set 3:

man I-shall

Sot A:

man I-shall

Set 9:

in
xisax
I did not go-home
xis
a- ngb.1 Mhe viants that-I
go-home
ind
x- xis
":ot return home
you(pl)
(Do not return home)
kan - xis
man - ja
I-shall
return-home
when-I-or-anyone
(when one returns home)
kak-a
M- xis
man
Y
I -shall
again
return home
(I shall return home again)
kan
in
nexe
- xis
(17-shall
1-not
return-home
yet

set 6:
cset 7:
Set 8:

Set 9:

Set 10:

xis
retu=n-home
ka
x6p
Tshall
(and)
go

home

xis
=etuxn-home

Set 11:

man - kaka
I
again

Set 12:

n-xis
man - kaka n-A
I
again I did I retuxn-home
(I've been home again)

n(1)

xis
go-home

267

(E 103)

lo
10. /

1 2.1;

Annective

"lie AZPactive

'Prefixes

Prcfixes are the following:


k- occurs with Secondary Tenses
'aoccurs elsewhere

continuous

co=plollivo
cupcz-vening
yxrL. n T)l (in I

Kinta kn - con
=aani
Kinta J`ct) pound rice
('r*.inta wau pounding rice)
1, - t; on
bi
Kinta
bi
=aarii
('t)
Kinta
whon
pound whan rice
(whon Xinta vran poundinG rice)
Wbaand
110TCP)IL=ivo
(lie will linvo arrived)
U nal - xOp
und heTap) nent
(and then lie went)
10.4

t 2.4.

Inter-ratim-

Tho Integrating

Prefix

Profix

is

the following:

_ros_

It

)=

tho following

allo-morphu:

following

vowela

olcar-he-re
N ropromenOtts InI

realized

as a homorganic

nasal

before

plosives

and

affricaten.
500 5.2
1014

: 26 for

.I

7he Verbal

a description

of its

function.

Verb. al Suffixes
Suffixes

the 1--perative

Suffix

rznifest

the

System Element

and the Negative

268

Suffix.

of the Verb.

They are

10

10.4

3.1

InDerativo

The Imperative
is

Suffix

Suffix

is

The distribution

-an/-i.

of

the

allomorphs

0.0 follows:
a Verb Root

following

-an

cloewhere

-i

(Exr-mple

1)

(Fx. =ple

2)

Thic Suffix in oubjoct to the morpho-phonemic changes of Assimilation


(2.1 t 5-1) M=P10
3), and Fusion (2.1
5.2) (Example 4). If
(10-3) (Example 5), Or
followed by the lot person Pronoun Suffix
by the approximatinG Suffix -1 (10.2 : 1) (Example 6), the Imperative
io elided.

Suffix
Rxnmplen:

1.

tuk-tLn ".run";

2.

tukandi

"call";

4- jam

for
"bind

6. wuli
10.4

"give

The Negative

Vowel,

"laugh"

moll;

tanwund

here";

tuki

Suffix

is

Whon thic
auffixoa

if

following

suffix

follows

3);

"bind"

likariul

meat";

"bind

"run

tanan

"fetch

water

for

him"

us"

here";

p8ni

"come out"

Suffix
the

morpho-phonamic
(2.1
Anaimilation

(Example

water";
the

jiin

Nerntive

: 3.2

following

"fetch

uyamax 'Orun with

3- r8on
5- tanin

lik-an

1).

It

undergoes the
-ax
to roots ending in a
changes: If suffixed
(Example
(2.1
5-1)
2)
Fusion
1
or
: 5.2)
(2.1
Mutation
5.3)(M=p).
another
suffixg
suffix

the

may be conflatedt

the altornative
reflects
(word finally)
[n]
or

(Example

(10.2

2.2-5)
the two
suffix
-an
(Example
5). (This possibly
or -aanx.
CAI
realization
of the -an suffix
as

causative

-anex

phonetic
(intervocalically)).

EXPIMD1013:

1.

tukax

2. r8ox

"he did
"he did

not
not

run";
call";

3- J oLa "he did not say"


.1
4- tukandox uyamax "he did
fetch 7a-tor"
5. yenG=. oLx/yengaanx
.

"he is

likax

"he did

jiix

"he did

not

run with

not

silent"
269

not
not

fetch

water"

laugh"

the meat";

likaxex

"he did not

CONCLUSION.

In the foregoing
structures

pages an account has been given Of grarnmatical


in the Manjako language.. The analysis
has

existing

been based entirely

on actual

utterances

which were usually


the help of a 11anjak-o

transcribed
and later
with
It is hoped that all the major areas of the grammar
info=ant.
have at least been touched on and yet that a maze of inconsequential
has been avoided.
detail
taperecorded

The task has proved fascinating


description
into

this

In particular

it

research

to be undertaken.
Manjako

that

nominally
not

always

here will

presented

would seem desirable


It

for

morphemes

root

and with

obviously
purpose

its

relatable
which

the

work on the lexicon


fact

may function

of various

prefixes

that

of further

seems to me to be an interesting

or verbally

The practical

I trust

open up possibilities
language.

interesting

so many of

with

and rewarding.

about

either'

lexical

classes,

meanings.

supplied

the

original

the undertaking
of this analysis was the requirements
the
discourse
For
this
Literacy.
of
study
purpose,
and

stimulus

for

of Bible

Translation

structure

To quote C. Taber of the United


in Manjako would be valuable.
(Taber
1969; 2): "Bible translation
deals almost
Societies
Bible
highly
texts
in
the
are
structured
which
with
exclusively
The problem is to find what devices in the receptor
original.
language serve the same structural
purposes as the text-cohesive
" The structure
fatures
of the Story has been
of the original.
although doubtless much more
mentioned in the Introduction,
about it. There are many other types of discourse
could be writteh

270

to informal
genealogies
conversation,
for
translation.
Taber
is
adequate
needed
anticipates
each of which
features
be found to be mainly
that these text-cohesive
will
to be analysed,

semantic.
In the field
applied

from formal

of literacy,

the phonological

analysis

in the construction

of the practical

orthography

reading
applied to experimental
here.
be
insights
valuable
could
As was mentioned in the introduction,

being

primers.

has been
and is

Some psycho-linguistic

the grammatical

account

the
hand,
lexis
the
on
and
phonology
one
with
makes contact
but
does
to
deal
the
not
set
out
with
other,
on
and semantics
for
the
However,
detail.
in
practical
purposes mentiondd,
either
'
these other levels of analysis
are not less relevant.
with

1\

271

APPENDIX

THE TEXTS

page
A.

A CHIEF AND A BOY

B.

HYENA AND A FLY

C.

HYENAAND HARE

D.

MOSQUITOAND SAND-FLY

273
276
277
279

E.

HARE AIM VULTURE; HARE AND BUSH-FWL

280

P.

A DEMONAND A MAN

286.

G.

CHILDHOODPZJINISCENCES

289
.

Ha. AN EPIC ABOUT YPORTA IMINKIN

290

Hb. HARE AIM BUSH-PUYL

292

Ho. HYENA'S WRESTLING YATCH

302

Hd. 'LIM RM

WHICH WAS HOT DEAD

302

HARE AND VULTURE

303

CM. MARRIAGEAND DIVORCE

304
305
306
306
307
308
308
309

Ile.

CF. FUNERALCEREl-IONIES
PR. H9.7 TO GROWRICE
CR. CHILDHOODRMINISCENCES
CS. H9,V TO CATCHSQUIRRELS
SG. A STORYABOUTA GOBLIN
HH. EYMTAAND HARE
TO. A STORYABOUT TWOSTEP-BROTBERS

272

L.

1.

2.

A CHIEF AND A BOY.

Kat&tan nalon ninx nasien.


Story
one
man chief.
(A story about a certain
man who was a chief.

Ninx namgnx
nan a- ro ufesta
that he did feast
Man the-said
(The said man gave a feast, )
uyet
a na-fing
& he killed
cow
(killed
a cow)
a na-ro
& he called
(and called

banhaan blieng
all
people
all people)

bjelanul.
kada nhaan ng
yaar
each person that-he fetch portion-his.
(each one to fetch his portion. )
ka
bjelanul
untaang pyaar
A nalon ngaax bixe
have
time
to-fetch
portion-her
& one
after-all-not
woman
(One woman did not happen to have time to fetch her portion)
i
nan-chi
abokul
naties
na
wutan
a
&-she sent
son-her who was who little
(and she sent her little
son)
bjelan.
pa na-yaaxul
to he fetch-her
portion.
(to fetch
for
her portion

9.

A ab6kul
& son-her
(Her

her. )

baand a na-n&x
came & he stopped

son arrived

and stopped

a na-ja
nasien:
& he said chief:
to

and said

the

chief:

10.

kaax
ja
Aninji
untaang pbi
ri bjelan
time
to-come to portion
Ilother-my
said has-not
(Yq mother said she had no time to come for her portion)

11.

byAnkaxul.
a na - yeliin
to-take-for-her.
& she sent-here-me
(and she sent me here to collect

12.

13.

14.

it.

Penan.
jaul:
A nasien
Go-out.
& chief
said-him:
)
(The chief
Get
to
him:
said
out.
We
ka An
A na-jaul:
aninu
& he said-him:
What has which mother-your
(He said to him: Why hasn It your mother
A na-jaul:
Inji
& he said-him
I
(He said to him: I

ka
ri
not shall
not
shall

biix?
came-not?
)
come?

wulu.
give-you.
)
it
to
you.
give

273

A
banhaan blieng a ba, - yAnk.
te
15. A napax nAx
& they took.
& child stopped till
all
people
(The child stayed until
all people had taken their
6n:
16. A napax ja
ninx namenx
that:
& child said man the-said
(The child said to that man: )
17. Inji ni m- laang 6n uyamax. M& - mobu.
I'll
I
catch-you.
who you deny who meat
)
(You refused to give me meat. I'll
catch you.
At kIs. Ninx ji:
mobnin
we?
Ilan laughed: Bm, you'll
catch-with-me
What?
).
(The man laughed: Hm, how will
you catch me?

portions.

19. A na-ba
uyamax
pfa
to-divide
& he finished
meat
(When he finished
the meat
dividing
20. a na-x8p aipinx
& he went &(sp) lay
(he vient to lie

ri pyonggi.
in hammock.
down in a hammock. )

21. A napax xis


a na-lenx anin
mex
& child returned house & he told mother
(And the child returned home and told his
22.

a na-ja
& he said
(and said

anin:
mother:
to his

19 - mobul.
I'll
catch-him.
mother: 1111 catch

mother)

him. )

Kjaul:
23. A anin
mobnul
we?
You'll
& mother said-him:
catch-with-him
what?
(His mother said to him: How will you catch him? )
,
Lipanl
24. A napax jaul:
Wait!
& child said-her:
(The child

said

to her:

Wait!

An
25- Uyek
a napax jej
umgnx
plele
that & child took lemon
Burning the-said
(Straight
away the child took a lemon)

paay
sour

26. a na-jej
umbanj a na,-Rlna.
& he out-with.
& he took knife
(and cut it with a knife. )
*
27.

A na-repa
bga pya
& he follow
way to-go
(Then he followed
the
to give him his meat.

i
ri nasien na - laangul
uyamax.
to chief
who denied-him
-,.
vho meat.
way to go to the chief
who had refused
)

274

t-t.
laj
28. A n8
plele
a
no
rant:
& he(cp) licked lemon & he(cp) sucked: t - t.
(and he set about licking
the lemon and sucking

it:

t. )

29. A na-baand ri nasien a na-xgnk


nasien xef.
& he found chief
& he came to chief
sat.
(He came to the chief and found the chief was sitting
banhaan: Da - r8i
30. A nasien ja
napax n6n,
You call-here
& chief
said people
child thatl
(The chief said to his people: Call that child herel)

down. )

31- A ba - r6ul
a na-baand.
& he came.
& they called-him
(They called him and he came. )
Xendin
ko
32. A nasien jaul:
Give-me thing
& chief
said-him:
(The chief said to'him:
Give me
Inji
ka 33. A napax jaul:
ri
I
& child said-him:
not shall
(The child said to him: I shall
Wulin!
34- A nasien jaul:
Give-mel
& chief
said-him:
(The chief said to him: Give it
Ma-mobu
35. A napax jaul:

k- re w6nkl
wi
which you eat which-thus I
the thing you are eatingl)
wulu.
give-you.
not give it

to you. )

to mel)
xari.

I
today.
& child
caught-you
said-him:
)
(The child
him:
to
I
said
caught you now.

laangin
36.1.1 - ro
uyamax. Inji
I
You did refuse-me
meat.
(You refused
to give me meat.

ka - wulu.
ri
not shall
give-you.
)
I won't
it
to
give
you.

ka - wulu.
Pleleinji.
37. jvj - laang
uyamax. Inji
ri
I
Lemon-py.
You refused
meat.
not shall
give-you.
(You refused
to give me meat. I shall
not give it to you.
The lemon is mine. )

36. A napax jaul:

M- r1iri

000

You desire-for-here
& child said-him:
ha-ha.
(The child said to him: You want to have it,

do you? )

39. A nasien kawa


m- me
napax a- mobul.
par
& chief
ashamed because you know child he caught-him.
(The. chief was ashamed because, you see, the child caught him. )
40. Banhaan blieng bji
nasien.
People all
they laughed chief.
(All people laughed at the chief. )
41. A- chi mkavi muyak. Kaax
bi
n6 - ro bi.
It
Had-not which he(cp) do which.
was shame big.
(It was a big shame. He couldn't
do anything. )
6n
42. A- TO viejax a na-ja
banhaan blieng,
nul pe
He did think & he said he more the-one
people
all,

(He had imagined that he was more powerful than everybody


)
else,

43. a napax kawandenul


ni
plele paay.
& child shamed-made-him with lemon sour.
(And a child put him to shame with a lemon. )
B HYENA AND A FLY.
.=.L
1.

Kat6tan
uu.
ni
unel
hyena and fly.
Story
(A story
about a hyena

and a fly).

2.

Ungil a ui
pjan
p6n
hunting
Hyena & it(sp)
went-out
(Hyena went hunting
and caught

3-

A uu baand ai& fly


came &(sp)
(A fly
came along

4.

5.

6.

7.

A unel

ja

uu:

a ui
- mob
& it(sp)
caught
a gazelle .

x6nk
wul.
found it.
and found it.

M- ri

maatir

k-

ubacha.
gazelle.

You not will


be-present
& hyena said fly:
(Hyena said to the fly:
You will
not be present)
xi
n-rena
wul.
n-=6
xi
,
(cp)
I
it.
I
eat-in
where
where
(at the place where I am going to eat it. )
tuk pa uu xA ungti pen
auptuk
& hyena went-out running & it
ran to fly not
(Hyena started
to run and ran-so that the fly
A- ja
aunbx,
uu ka u- tuk te
It
when it
(Every time

& it
ran till
stopped
he ran and stopped,
the

fly
fly

(ot)

win wul.
see it.
)
it.
would not see
baand.

come.
)
would come.

ko,
xi
uu maatir.
fly be-present.
where thing
)
where you eat something.

8.

Uu,
xko
m- me,
Fly, you know, place
(Fly,
you know, will

xi
m- rena
where you eat-in
be at the place

9.

Mon,
Well
(Well,

Uu U- ron
maatir.
ufly
it
be-present.
always it
like
the fly always to takepart.

nga'lax
ungil
hyena like-not
Hyena did not

tuk te
nLx,
au& it
stopped
ran till
the
he ran and stopped,

10.

ja
AuIt
when it
(Every time

11.

tuk, a ui - niaj
Aux1on xko.
& it
& it(sp)entered
one
ran
place.
)
(He ran and entered
a certain
place.

12.

A ui
niaj
xi
ulion
& it(sp)
entered
where lion
(He entered
theplace
where

13.

uu
fly
fly

ka - baand.
(ct)
come.
)
would come.

bok
Xi.
gave-birth
where.
had his young
a lion

)
ones.

A ulion
ja
m- bi
won pro
xi?
wul: We
& lion
said him What you came what to-do here?
(The lion
said to him: What have you come to do here? )

276

)'

14. A undl
l6nk
au&- Hyena frightened & it
(Hyena became fi-ightened

ja
wul:
said him:
)
to
him:
and said

15. Aninji
ninx, man-te
m- b6k2
Mother-my man
I
heard you had-youn one,
Oy uncle, I heaxd you had a young one,
16. a m-bi
a mobariu
pvrinu
& caught-for-here-you
&I came to-see-you
(so I came to see you and here I brought
)
I
had
for
caught
which
you.

ubacha.
gazelle.
you a gazelle

ba.
17. A ulion yAnkna
ivul ubacha, aure, autook-from him gazelle, & he ate & he finished.
& lion
(The lion took the gazelle out of his hand and ate till
it all. )
he finished
18. Aure,
& he ate,
(He ate it

a suaxax,
au& satisfied-not,,
& it
and was not satisfied.

mob
unel
a fing.
caught Hyena & killed.
He caught Hyena and killed

kat6tan kam&nx
ki,
19. Jaka - te
pax
m- me,
the-said
this,
because you know,
Tle-shall. hear story
(We shall understand this story,
because you see, )
20. undl
uyamax
a- chi xi katukand
hyena it
was in running-away-with
meat
(Hyena was running away with the meat)
baand pchax wul. Ganhirex
koulon.
21. auX&nkna
& he found-with
came death his. Gained-not something.
(and came to meet with his death. He did not gain anything.

it.

C. HYD-NAAND HARE.
Unel
p6nar
pxong
ni
umaal.
a ui
travelling
Hyena & it(sp)
went-out
and Hare.
(Hyena and Hare went out on a journey.
)
2.

ka
A gai
&- thoy(sp)(ot)
(a last
they

baand ri rlon mex


ri kato.
nasien.
come in one house in house chief.
at a house of the chief's
viere a=iving

)
compound.

3.

A nasien epar umaal a na-ja


ka - jaaka
wul: Katimu
& chief
asked Hare & he said him: Name-your (ot) be-called
(The chief spoke to Ha--e and asked him. What is
)
your name?

4.

A umaal ja:
Katimji
ka - jaaka
Ptibi
Mam-paabna
(ct)
&' Iaxe
Name-my
be-oalled
Matchet
I
said:
clear-with
(Haxe said:
)
TAy name is Matchet-I-clear-forest.

8M?
how?
xi
in

breng.
forest.

A unel
ja:
Katim, kan a -chi katim. nauyak.
Ila-yLk
kul.
&
Name that it is
big-man.
said:
I
took
name
it.
-Eyena
(Hyena
said: That name is a name of an important
I have
person.
taken that one. )

6.

Mbon, a umaal ja:


Katimji
ka - jaaka,
Manel Fugon.
Well, & Hare said: Name-my will
be-called
Manel Fugon.
(Well, Hare said: My name is Emmanuel Kitchen. )

7.

A nasien p6nandi
a na-wul
ptibi
unel
& chief
brought-out
matchet & he gave Itrens,
(The chief brought out a matchet and gave it to Hyena)
a na-ja
ri breng.
wul: X6pan ri kapaab
& he said him: Go
in clearing
in forest.
(and said to him: Go and do the clearing
in the forest. )

8.

bux kaliron,
also kettle
out also a kettle)
10. a na-wul
umaal, a u- j6ngna
pre xi ufugon.
& he cooked-with
food in kitchen
& he gave Hare
(and gave it to Hare, and he cooked food in it in the kitchen.

9.

Idbon, a na-p8nandi
Well, & he brought-out
(Well, then he brought

bi
kam
11. lAbonp a unel
ri kapaab
ri breng
Well
& Hyena (sp) fought in clearing
in forest
(Well, afterviards
Hyena struggled
the forest,
in clearing

12. auainhaam pre =i


umaal.
nor, auwIxa
& he tired& he returned &(sp) asked food from hare.
(and he became tired and came back asking food from Hare. )
13. Pan
aunhaan pre ri umaal.,
auwIxa
Morrow & he returned & he asked food from hare.
(On the next day he came back and asked Hare for more food. )
ja m- ngal katim Kapaab
14. A umaal ja
ri Breng,
wul: 71i TO 6n
in forest,
& Hare said him You did the-one say you like name clearing
(Hare told him: You are the one who said you liked the name Clearing
in Forest, )
15. x8pan, ki
riala
(sp)
eat
go
you-will
(go and eat in the forest.

ri breng.
in forest.
)

tuk, au
16. A ung-11 pea
ni
ubon,
au& hyena overcome with hunger & he ran & he
(Hyena was overcome with hunger, and therefore
the forest, )

breng,
niaj
entered forest,
he ran and went into

17. te
un8 pi
a kaxe
ya mex.
xari
day like today*& no-more go house.
till
(and has not come home until
this day. )
18. Onk ri
g- me An
Thus how vie knovi how
(By this vie see)
tukar
19. jaka
koulon
jakai
niam
xi wul.
be-losers
in it.
vie, shall ran-for
something we-shall(sp)
(vie often strive
for something which results
in our loss. )

D
D. MOSQUITOAND SAND-PLY.
1.

Kalon kat6tan uleka ubaarum ni


upit.
One
story
about mosquito & sand-fly.
(A story about Mosquito and Sand-fly. )

2.11

ubaarum a- me,
You know, mosquito he
(As you know, mosquito

3.

Upit
Sand-fly
(Sand-fly

4.

Upit
Sand-fly
(Sand-fly

5-

Ulon un6 a gai


plik,
- ya
One day & they(sp) went spring,
(one day they went to the spring,
baand
ka
a gai
ri plik
& they(op) will come to spring
(and as they were coming to the

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

nhikex pxim.
is-thin
leg.
has thin legs. )

a- pe
wul kar6mb
PXim.
leg.
she surpasses him thickness
)
legs.
surpasses him in the thickness
her
of
a- chi xi kaji
ubaarum kuma a- nhikex
pxim.
in laughing Mosquito that he is-thin
leg.
she is
was laughing at the mosquito for his thin le'gs. )

)
ja:
a upit
& Sand-fly
said:
the sand-fly
spring,

Kada nhaan =on


y8nx
pliki
Each person by-and-by put-on-head water-pot
(Each one shall by and by put the water-pot
Upit
ja:
a- wejax
auSand-fly
she thought & she said:
(Sand-fly
thought to herself: )

wul.
his.
on his

)
said:

)
head.
own

Uchi ubaarum jej


k6g ri pxim, ppliki
wul aucheta,
If
Mosquito takes water-pot
his & he rest on leg
it'll
break,
(If Mosquito takes his water-pot
and rests it on his leg, it will break)
kay6nx
ma wul a- yilan
pliki
wul.
but she she beable
to-put-on-head
her.
water-pot
(but she will be able to put her
)
her
head.
water-pot
on
Y,-- An
A upit
jej
likar,
u- axar.
pliki
wul, auHas which she trust.
& Sand-fly
took vrater-pot her & she filled,
(Therefore
Sand-fly took her water-pot
she was confident.
it
and filled
a pa-baand
pnchuaf, auy8nx
& it arrive middle
& she put-on-her-head
(and when it was half full
she put it onto her head)
jej
aulikar
pkaanda
aua pa-chum.
& she took calabash
& she filled-with-water
& it full.
(and then she took a
it with water to the brim. )
calabash and filled
A ubaarum ruka
likar
te
pliki
wul
a
pa-chum.
(r/p)
& Mosquito
fill-with-water
his till
&
it
full.
water-pot
(Mosquito kept filling
his water-pot
it was full. )
with water until

279

E
15. Auba
a kaxe
yilan
priangg pul.
& he finished
& no-more be-able lift
it.
(When he finished
he was no longer able to lift
it. )
16. Au-A
ri pxim, a pxim cheta.
& he put on leg
& leg
broken.
(He put it on his leg and his leg broke. )
17. A upit
ji.
A ubaarum ja
wul:
fi8li
laughed. & mosquito said her:
sand-fly
And Sand-fly
laughed and-Mosq4o said to her:
8n
18.
knauyak, inji
ni
Ji
-a
Girl
big
I
laugh the one ?
who you'll
(Big girl,
am I the one whom you are laughing at? )*
19. A upit
xO - ya psinx ben rin,
a ba-cheta a yer.
(op) go shake head only
& Sand-fly
& it broken& fell.
(Sand-fly was going to shake her head and it broke and fell.
20. Upit
a- chi xi pji
ubaarum,
Sand-fly
she was in laughing mosquito,
(Sand-fly
)
laughing
the
was
at
mosquito,
ben wul, au21. a- axaraan
ben.
cheta
head her, & she was-broken head.
she trusted-made
(she was trusting
in herself
and broke her head. )
E. HARE AND VULTURE; HARE AND BUSH-POVIL

'
Ya-ngAl
I
want
(I viant

plenx
to-tell
to tell

kalon kat6tan
one
story
a story
about

2.

Umaal a- penax
Hare he went-out
(Hare went visiting

3.

A ga - yandaar te
till
& they walked
(They vialked until

4.

uleka umaal ni
ujuchich.
about Hare
and Vulture.
)
Hare and Vulture.

pxong
ni
to-visit
with
with Vulture.

ujuchich.
Vulture.
)

ka
baand
gai
ri mlon mlik.
they(sp)(ot)
arrive
at one water.
they were about to arrive at a certain water-hole.
A umaal ja
Xko
ja
jak
lamv
ujuchich:
xi
aPlace this anyone when we-shall swim2
& Hare said Vulture:
(And Hare said to Vulture:
In this place, when we, or for that matter
)
anyone, shall swim,

kxaan.
m- ri
you not will drink.
(you must not drink. )
6.

7.

8.

E,
ulof
11m, thirst
(Hm, thirst

ba gal
bi
abi
re
byaas.
ga - penar
it
hurt(P)
them when they went-out
when journey.

has been plaguing


them ever since they started
theirJo
urn ey.,
A umaal ja
wul: G- lam xi.
A ga - jot
plam.
& Hare
said him: We swim herel
& they began to-swim.
(.And the Haxe
said to him: Let us swim here. And they began to swim. )
A umaal ja
u6. - lam,
kai
um2j
ra
raan.
& Haxe when he(cp)
(cp) drink.
swam he dived vrill(sp)

(While

Hare

was

syri=ing,

he

dived

and
280

would

then

set

about

drinking.

t8ban
Uraana auau& he
Drinking & he quenched-his-thirst
(And having drunk, he quenched his thirst

katai.
surfaced-here.
and came to the surface. )

10. A ujuchich kulof


chax ni
praan.
(ot)die
drinking.
&- Vulture
with thirst
)
(And the Vulture was nearly dead with thirst.
ka
baand
blon
breng.
ba
11. Aua gai
ri
a ga - kata
(ct)
&
they(sp)
finished
&
they
it
&
come in one forest.
got-up
(When it was finished,
they were about
they got out and afterwards
)
forest.
to
to come
a certain
E, xko,
12. A umaal ja
xi
a- r8mb
gtiew.
ujuchich:
Hm, place this it
& Hare. said Vulture:
abounds blow-flies.
)
(And Hare said to Vulture:
blow-flies.
Hm, this place is fall
of
13. Ba a- ja .mchax
wambar.
ron
do-not shoo-from-yourself.
But one when you feel-like
(But should you) or for that matter anyone, feel like
)
don't.
from
yourself,
away
kkaang.
14. M- Wambar
rin,
m- ri
face-straight.
You shoo-from-yourself,
only, you not will
(If you shoo them away only the slightest
it will
bit,
)
with you.
15.

lal pwambar
A ujuchich
fear to-shoo-from-himself
& Vulture
(Vulture
to shoo the
was afraid

16.

a gtievr
& blow-flies

370
(cp)

(and the blow-flies

re
eat

shooing

them

not be well

gtiew
blow-flies
)
blow flies
away,

wul
him:

started

to bite

him. )

17. A umaal ja
uu jOt wul u- ja:
& Hare when fly sat him he said:
(',ihen a fly sat on the Hare, he said: )
ka - kgr
ka - ker
18. D, mSh -baand use
xi.
namp6linji,
xi
I'll
Hm, I'll
smear here.
smear here I'll
come house girl-my
(Well, when I come to my girl-friend's
house, I shall smear oil
)
here.
here
and
on
19.

kaax
A ujuchich
had-not
& Vulture
(Vulture
couldn't

bi
a gtiew
ro bi,
uhow he do how & blow-flies
do anything
and the blow-flies

1.0
re
wul.
( op) bite
him.
began to bite

him. )

ja
A ga - xep, a go
ujuchich:
a
umaal
okan,
& Hare
& they went & they(cp)near
said Vulture;
(They went on and as they were coming near, Hare said to Vulture:
)
6nk
bi
Ka
ja:
Da - mobil
21. E,
bte
aa!
m- ya mHm youwhenyou hear they
You catch-he=el
come thus hurrahl
say He'll
(Iffell,
Catch and bring
her
when you heax them say: He is coming, hurrah!
tuk.
kja
22. kU-ruka
fingja.
boka
ngAl,
mme
like
run.
you'll
1t
lmaei
they
kill-us.
you
when
You'll
come
-will
)
it,
like
run.
(you will
us. If you feel
know they want to kill
281

20.

E
baand
arrive

ka8 23. A umaal a- ro, me kme


gko
& Hare he did know (0t) know animals (ot)(op)
(Hare knew well that when they have arrived, )
24. gfingara
unkambe. Ka w6n
Has the-one
they will-be-killed-for
pig.
(they will
be killed
for
get a pig which will
deceived Vulture. )

u- fal
ujuchich.
he deceive Vulture.
them. That is why he

25. Umaal a- ro ngal u- ron


u- re kor
wul.
he eat alone he.
Hare he did want he afterwards
(Hare wanted to eat it then himself. )
26. A ga - x6p a g6
okan a ba - Ja:
(And
they went on and-drew neax
&
they
&
they(cp) near
& they went
said:
the people saids)
and
6nk aal
. Da-mobil
27- Ka - bi
Catch-here!
He'll
come thus hurrahl
(He is coming, hurrahl
Catch ardbring herel)
Ix
te
28. Rina
aua w1xa
ujuchich
heaxd & he flew & returned
Immediately Vulture
(As soon as Vulture heard it, he took to his wings and returned. )
baand.
29. A umaal x8p kor wall au& Hare went alone he, & he arrived.
(Hare went on by himself and arrived. )
30. Ubaand,
a- chi x8m?
wul: Achinxu
a ba - ja
& they
Arriving,
said him: Companion-your he is where?
(When he arrived,
they asked him: Where is your companion? )
8nk as,I
ja:
d8 Ka - bi
E, da - ya
Da-mobi I
ja:
31. AuHm, you
& he said
when you(cp)
(And he said;
Well,
when you said:

32.

=ina

u - ja

kuma d8

said: He'll
come thus hurrah I Catch-herd
He is coming, hurrahlCatchtbring
her
fing

wund,

au-

tuk,

a xis.

he said that you-will


& he ran & returned.
kill-us
)
back
home.
he said you would kill
us and ran
WIxaan,
d- chi ni
33. A ba - jaul:
achinxuq
& they said-him: Go-backv you be with companion-your,
(But they told him: Go back and bring your friend, )
fingaxind
34. Wundkai
unkambe.
We - shall(sp)
kill-for-you
pig.
)
(We shall kill
for
you.
a pig
immediately
(immediately

ja
bux
kaka
G35. -A umaal x6p,
ujgku:
a ui
ya pxong.
& Hare went
& he(sp) again said also
Let-us go visiting.
Bush-fowl:
(Hare-went and afterwards
he said the same thing to the Bush-fowl:
)
Let us go to visit
somebody.
36. A ga - x8p

te

ga

& they went till


they(op)
(They went on until
they

37.

baand ri

plam.

A umaal ja

uj&ku:

came to swimming. & Hare


said Bush-fowl:
Hare said to Bush-fC671)
came to a swimming-place.

Xko
lam
ja
kxi
am- xi
Place this
one when you swim you not
(In this
place,
when you, or for that
)
drink.
you must not
282

kxaan.
drink.
you
anyone,
matter

shall

swim,.

E
38. Uj&ku
w6n
plan.
plam. Umaal yil
yilax
)
to-swim.
Hare
the-one
Bush-fowl not-able
able
swim.
(Bush-fowl
)
Hare
the
was
one who could swim.
could not swim.
39.1.1bon, a umaal ja u- mij
ui
raan ri uxia,
-A
he(sp) (op)
drink in below,
& Hare when he dived
Well
(Well, when Rare dived under water, he began to drink there, )
k40. Uj8ku
raan bux ri ruax.
Bush-ffowl (ct) drink also in above.
)
(Bush-fowl was drinking
top.
on
Enton, m- naam kjaul:
kAtai
41. Auauzaan.
(ct)
drink.
& he surfaced & he said-him: Well
you seem
(He surfaced and said to him: Well, you appear to be drinking. )
ka - ja
42. Ujgku
wul: Ma-nhaw pr6maj.
Bush-fovil
(Bush-fowl

43.

(ct)

wash beak.
said him: I
)
I
beak.
him:
to
was washing my
says

A ga - x8p, to
au& he
& they went till
(And they went on until
him. )
deceive

ka uri
winu-: ron
(ot)
he
sawha3ater
not
he saw that he was not

yilan
pfal
wul.
be-able
deceive
him.
be able to
going to

a- ka gtiew.
44. A umaal ja
xi
wul: Ila xko
has blow-flies.
&. Hare said him: But place this it
(Hare said to him: There are blow-flies
in this place. )
11 - wambar, k'
k45.21a
par chax wambar
a- ja
--chax.
You shoo
die.
But one when you'll
shoo-from-yourself.
you'll
passdon't
(But when one passes, one must not shoo them away. If you do2you'll
die.,
Aj8t, umaal auja:
46. A uja
utiew
(cp)
blow-flies
& when
sit, Hare & he said:
(When the blow-f2ies
began to descend, Hare said: )
ka - kgr
ka - kgr
xi,
47. Mim - baand use
namp9linji,
here
I'll
I'll
here.
house
I-shall
smear
smear
girl-my
come
(17hen I come to the house of my girl-friend,
I shall smear here andhere)[
Ix.
ka
ka
Rin
naxa
48gtiew
(ct)
(ct)
flew.
blow-flies
Immediately
rose
)
(And the blow-flies
kept flying
immediately.
away

49. A uj 6kU

& Bush-fowl
(Bush-fowl

ka -ja
(ct)
also

bux wul: A-iak-

fong
ya ka
(ct) -

One when you go


say also him
says: When one goes to a funeral

mourn
dance, )

uxaan,
companion,

ka -lichlichander
uliaf. Ujgku
50- g- lichlichan
(ct)shook-shook-himself,
body.
Bush-fowl
ve shake-shake-cause-to
(vie make our bodies shake and shake. Bush-fowl shook and shook himself)
x.
A
ka
ka
te
ga
n&xa
x6p
51- a gtiew
a g6
okan.
(ct)
(ct)
flew. &. they went till
& th6y(cp)_ near.
& blow-flies
rose
(and the blow-flies
kept rising
and flying
away. They went on and
)
for
the
they
bound.
place
which
were
were coming near
ba ba
52. A umaal-ja
wul: E, jaka. - baand, m- te
Ja:
(P)they
hear
Hm,
& Hare said him
come you
we-shall
say.,
(Hare said to him: Hm, when we arrive,
should you hear them say.283

E
8nk aal
Da - mobi Ik53. Ka - bi
me boka - fingja.
You catch-herel
know they-vill
ct) come thus hu=ahl
kill-us.
you'll
He is coming, hu=ahl Catoh and bring here! You. Ill know they want to
kill us. )
54. A ga - x6p a g8
okan, a ba - ja
ri use
ninx. & they went& they(op) near & they said in hobse man:
(They went on and when they were
getting near, they said in the
)
house:
mm's
8nk aal
55. Ka - bi
Da - mobil
et)
come thus hu=ah! You catch-herel
He is coming, hurrah! Catch and bring herel)
Ix
56. A ujgku
aux8p aiwela
ri kakul uniew.
& Bish-fovil
flew & he went &(sp) descended in eaves house.
(Bush-fowl flew away and then let himself down
under the eaves of the
house. )
57. A umaal ui
baand
x8p
auaune uj&ku
wejax au -ja
xis.
& Hare he(sp) went & he came & he thought&he thought
Bash-fowl left
(And Hare went on and arrived
thinking
that Bush-fowl returned home. )
ja:
Achinxu.
58. A b6k a- chi x6m?
& they(ct)
said: Companion-your he is
where?
(They said: Where is your companion? )
Da - ya
ja:
59. Au-.
d8
ja:
Ka
bi
I
Da-mobi
I
onk
aa
he said: You when you(cp) said: He'll
thus hurrahl
Catch-herel
come
And he said: When you said: He is coming, hurrah, catch and bring here)
60. auja
tuk a xis.
ne d6 - fing wund, au& he viondered if you kill
& he ran & returned home.
us
(he vjonderedif you would kill
us and he ran back home. )
61. A ujgku
jai
In - xisax;
Inji
iini.
ri pbaambeser:
& Bush-fowl said-hither
in behind-doors: I-not return-not;
I
here.
(Bush-fowl said from behind the door: I did not go home; I
am here. )
62. A ba - fingax
bkul unkambe,. a ba - x6 bkul uyamax ri imaanh,
& they kill-for
them pig
& they put them meat
in bags,
(They killed
a pig for them, and they put some meat into their bags, )
63. a ba - j6ngar
bkul uchinx. A ga - riala,
ba,
a g8
& they cooked-for
them rest
& they ate
& they(op) finished,
(and cooked for them the rest of the meat. They ate it
)
finished,
and
64- a ga
Umaal
lap
p6n
pxis.
w6n
uyamax.
& they went to-return-home.
Hare carry the-one meat.
(and they started
on their way home. Haxe was the one who carried
the meat. )
65.

A Ca - ja
ga - yandaax
& they when they walked
(And as they viere
walking

66.

IThaan ka - r8in.
Ungaaba
a ui-fAl
Person (ot)
& he cut
call-me. Detouring
(Somebody is
Turning
calling
aside
me.
he was leaving
it there. )

te
ri breng,
in forest
till
in the forest,

284

a g6
ron
umaal ka - ja.
& they(cp)
later
Haxe
will
say
then by and by Hare says. -)
uyamax, ka - ruk.
(ot)
leave.
meat
he cut the meat and
,

67. Ujgku
baar
uyamax ri breng, urianggar ruax,
ya win umaal rO
Bush-fowl go see Hare (cp) finish meat
in forest, rising
up,
(When the Bush-fowl saw that Hare was about to finish the meat in
the forest, he flew, )
68. auja:
Aauyer,
& he said: It
& he fell
(and descended and said: It
thing is rotten. )

ay
mak. Uyamax a- ay
mak. Uko
it
sour much. Meat
sour much. Thing
is very sour. The meat is very sour.

Waraax
- bad.
The

69. Umaal ruka l8nk


U-n: aca ja
u- tuk, ui
p6nani
uyamax.
it come when he ran he(sp) brought-out
Hare (r/p)fright.
meat.
(Hare got a fright.
It happened as he ran that he brought out the meat
)
him.
with

Umaal
kaka
jot
baand a r8nander kak
kak.
70. Aupxis.
pfal
wul
to-. return. Haxe again start cheat him more!
& he came & follow
again
(Ile came, following
his way home once again. Hare started to cheat him
)
again.
71, Uj6'ku
yer rina
Bush-fowl fell
straight-away
(Bush-fowl fell
and straight

u- chaxenker.
he died-like.
'
away he began to feign
2. A umaal j ej wul ,aix8 ri kamaanh.
& hare took him &(sp)put in bag.
(Hare took him and then put him in his bag. )

death. )

Ux6p
baand
73- Ubaand
aumex.
u- bi yaax uyamax, ui
p6nani.
he(sp) brought-out. Going & he came house
he (sp) fetch meat
A=iving
(When he-came (to the place where the meat was hidden the second time)
he went to fetch the meat and pulled it out. Then he went . on and
)
home.
came
&ku
E, wunda-ya pxong
A umaal j a:
74
xj
a nai. - chax.
ni
& he(sp) died.
& Hare said: Hm,we
go visiting
with lash-fowl
(Ha=e said: Well, vie went to pay a visit,
lush-fowl
and 1, and he died)

jaka
bielan.
Jaka
75- jejanul,
- ro
- ama n1k uyamax.
We - shall yet leave meat.
Take-him we - shall do
gravy.
(Take him, we shall make a gravy. We shall keep the meat for the time
being. )
76.

A uj6kU
& Bush-fowl
(Bush-fowl

ja:
E,
auuyamaxinji.
nLxa
xmaal, wulin
he said:
Hm, Hare
stood-up&
give-me meat-my
Well,
Hare, give me my meat. I
stood up and said:

M6n -xis.
I111 go.
)
am going.

Wi xj&ku
77.11 - ro ja
M-, wxaax,
ne man-chax. A xmaal ja:
died. & Hare said: You Bush-fowl you good-not.
You had ihcught that I
(You said that I was dead. Hare said: You bad Bush-fowl. )
ja
ink
78- VIi km- fal
nhaan nan-kamandiu,
aa
You will
say thus you deceive person who struggle-make-here-you
until
(This is how you scheme to deceive someone who was toiling
to get you
here. so much)
k79. a k8 - ba
ja m- chaxax.
& you(cp)finish
you'll
sayyoudead-not.
(and when it is all finished
)
that
then you will
dead.
you are not
say
285

80. Umaal a- na
blipal
aunor.
Hare he pride cleverness & he tired.
(Hare showed off his cleverness
till
he grew tired. )
ka
j8k
81. A gai
ni
uj&ku,
a uj&ku
pe
wul.
& they(sp) Yrill meet vrith Bush-fowl & Bush-fowl more him.
(And he meets with Bush-fowl and Bush-fowl was cleverer
than he. )
ka bi u- ro bi. Uom pe
82. A kaxe
bliPal?
won
uchinx
& he-no-more had how he do how. Which more the-one companion cleverness?
(He could no longer do anything.
Which one of them was cleverer
than
his companion? )
P. A DEITONAND A MAN.

1.

Kalon kat8tan uleka uchaay ni


ninx.
One
about demon and man.
story
(A story about a demon and a man. )'

2.

fal
Uchaay a- na
a ui
mafalar
nalon ninx.
'
&
he(sp)
Demon he pride cheating
cheat one
man.
(Demon was proud of his cheating and then, he cheated a certain

Au-

Jaka

jaul:

)
man.

fexar.

Vle-shall be-i'xiends.
& he said-him:
(He said to him: Let us be friends. )
Ninx j aul:
Man said-him:
(The man said

5-

7-

Mbon, uchi m- ngal,


jaka
Well
if
you like
we-shall
to him: Well,
if you like,
let

fexar.
be-friends.
us be friends.

bai
baand
kajaar.
Uchaay chi ni
ninx te a ba - ja
they said they(sp)
Demon was with man till
arrive ploughing.
(The demon stayed with the man until
they said they would start plougIfInCI
kaay.
ja
Auninx: TAmbanderi, m&n - ruka
I-shall
& he said man Work-hard
remain watching.
)
(He said to the man: Work hard while I keep vigil.
te
Ninx ka - chi xi kajaar
un6 ulon, a uchaay ja
ninx:
day other &demon said man:
11an (ct) be in ploughing till
(The man kept
day, when the demon told
another
on ploughing until
him: )

8.

B, g- jon
g8 - lemp xi,
xi
Hm, vie tarry where we(cp) work where,
(Well, vie have spent much time in this place where we have been
)
together,
working

9.

ma xari
un8 baand nron
but today day came I
by-and-by
(but as from today I shall
gradually

ka
fingu.
kill-you.
shall
)
kill
you.

10.

Nirric. ja
uchaay:
Man said demon:
(The man said to

uleka vie?
about what?
)
kill
you
me?

fingin
Kpar
You'll
kill-me
for
the demon: Why will

11.

Aujaul:
E,
kan
man-ro
& he said-him:
Hm, I
did (ct)
(He said to him: Wellp I
was helping

x8nku
help-you
you in

xi ulemp.
in work.
)
your work.

12. Ninx ja
G- ja
uchaay: M- x6nkaxin.
jain:
g- baand ulemp, kMan said demon: You help-not-me.
We when we came work,
you said-me
(The man said to the demon: You did not help
me. When we came to work,
)
tell
you would
me:
13- TAmbanderil
Work-hard!
(Work hard!
14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

te
K8 ay
m- meex
nada.
You(cp) viatch till
you know-not nothing.
You would be keeping vigil,
in fact, you knew nothing at al
Uchaay ruka fieran ninx. Ninx wajax a kaax
bi
n6 - ro bi,
Demon (r/p)haxass
man. Man thought had-not what he(cp) do what,
(The demon kept insisting
but
against the man. The man thought,
)
do
anything,
could not
ja-ro bk6n
uchaay: Mon$ un8 pi xari
a na-ja
ujipan,
& he said demon: Well, day as today we do the-ones talk,
(and he said to the demon: Well, we have done with the talking
today, )
Jaka, - xis
ma a- baand, jaka
ma lipin.
- garander ujipaninja.
but it
take-up
talk-our.
We-shall return but wait-me
came vie-shall
(when te time has come2 we shall take up the matter. We shall go home,
but wait for me, )
baandi
a kao mS_- ya byaas,
m -baandi
=in,
wi
- un6 wi
I'll
day which I return-here
which only
go voyage &I 111(cp)return-here,
(I shall make a jou=ney and shall come back again, and on the same day)
Ba mSn - rukaru
fingin.
kmex, kay
mex,
But I'll
leave-for-you
kill-me.
house you'll
you'll
watch house
(you will kill
me. But I shall leave the house with you, take care of it,
k
ten gbob
gul
xbob
pkaaw, gbob
xbob
pl8nk.
.they not-eat
termites not-eat wall.
see termites
you'll
straw
('see to it that the termites
)
don't eat the straw-roof,
the
nor
wall.
Uchi mex
bualesa,
kbual,
re
us8bal s6bar
pl&nk.
If
house uncovered, youIll
cover, lest rain
rain-wet
wall.
(If the house is
it,
uncoveredpover
so that the rain does not wet
the wall. )
Ma un6 wi
k
fingin.
n- ro
m-baandi
son,
But day which I(
kill-me.
cp) I come-here only
you'll
(But on the same day on which I
)
here,
kill
come
you will
me.
A ninx xep
ubaabu, a na - yili.
& man went abroad
& he
tarried-there.
(The man
went abroad and stayed there

23- Uchaay ja
ka wi
Demon when which will
(Demon used to
go in the

for

a year.

fa
wi
rin auya, kai
rise which only& he went hetll(sp).
morning around the house. )

fayess,
round

mex
house. i,

24- Gbob
kbob pkaaw, ma ri
ka - yilan
praf.
Termites ( ct) eat straw
but not (0t) be-able to-shake-off.
(The termites were eating the straw, but he
)
them
could not shake
off.
287

bi
Kaax
bualesa.
25. Fan
u- =o bi.
u- baand, a mex
Morrow he came & house uncovered. Had-not how he do how.
(He came on the next day, and the house was uncovered. He could not
do anything. )
1
26. A us6bal bi s6bar
ye=.
pl8nk bi
pl6nk te
(sp)
(sp)rain-wet
fall.
till
& rain
wall
wall
(Then rain wet the wall until
fell. )
it eventually
tuk
Aukunggna
ka xko
a xis.
xi.
27. Uchaay kaxe
uxi
Demon no-more had place where he hide -in where. & he ran & returned.
)
(Then the demon had no place to shelter
home.
he
ran
and
baand,
ka
pten
mexul.
a na-p6n pya
28. Ninx chi ri ubaabu. te
nai
& he went to-go to-see hoHM,
he(sp) will
Man was in abroad till
come
(The man was in a foreign
Then eventually-he
country.
was returning
)
his
house.
to
he
see
went
and
A- ruka
ba.
pfien.
a
29. A na-xenk mexul
choka
It
finished.
ruin.
& he found house Us spoiled it
was-left
)
left
It was
(He found his house was completely ruined.
a ruin.
ja:
tuki
auau30. Uchaay winul
Demon saw-him, & he ran-here & he said:
(The demon saw him, he ran to him and said: )
baand. Jaka - xis
bfexarinji
xaXi.
31.0;
Hm, friend-my
came. We-shall return home today.
(Well, my friend has come back. We shall go home today. )
32. Ninx piaxar uchaay kkes, a na-ja
wul:
Man looked demon eyes & he said him:
(The man looked the demon in his eyes and said to him: )
An,
Onk
ja
da
bi
jaks,
Bi
ri
33. Xari
m- ngAl
mam-baandi
- ro.
do. So as you say as,
Today I
came-here. As you like as we-shall
)
the
(I have arrived
This
is
today. We shall do as you wish.
way you say,
lempara
ka
banhaan,
ind
d6
fal
a
34. da - ron
be-worked-for
&
deceive
by-and-by
you
will
people
you(cp)
you
(that

you will

be gradually

lempara
k35. bkon
be-worked-for.
the ones (ct)
(ones for whom others will
but you will
let us fight,
36.

Uchaay n&xand
Demon stand-up-made
(The demon made the
)
kill
him.
would

37.

E,
uchaay yilanex
Hm, demon could-not
(Hm, the demon could

38.

deceiving

people,

and that

you will

be the)

k-fingin
kam.
Uchi ukam jaka
ri
ma
mfight but you not kill-me
If
fight
vie-shall
fight
be
If
is
to
there
a
alone.
work and you
)
kill
me.
not

fing ninx, o ninx ka - fing wul.


uu-ron
him.
kill
he kill
he by-and-by
man or man will
him eventually
or the man
man stand up to kill
breng.
tuk, a xep
auninx,
pfing
& went forest.
to-kill
man & he ran
the man'and so he ran away into
not kill

the

forest)

falinja.
Gja uten, bi m- me b6nk, uchaay aron
uhe deceives
Let us see as you know as demon he when he gradually
us.
(Let us see, as you know, that the demon intends
to deceive
us gradus, 113
288

39- U- ron
Gfexar,
ka
u- jau. x6nku,
He by-and-by he say-you Let-us be-friends &-l-will
help-you
(By and by he says to you:. Let us be friends and I will help
)
you,
lemp, ba rix ulemp. Uchaay ri
40. jaka ka - jaar,
vie-shall work but not to-work Demon not will
plough,
(let us work together,
but he will not work. The demon will not plough, )
ka - ro koulon
ka - bual
41. Ti
ri
mex. Nhaan ka - roar wul mex,
do anything not will
do-for him house
not will
cover house. Person will
(will
not do anything,
will not cover the house. Man will build him a
house, )
Gten bi u- falinja
bink.
42. ka - wul wul. pre.
give him food. Let-us see how he cheat-us how.
will
(and will
)
him
Let
food.
how
he
give
us see
cheats us.
G. CHILDHOOD REMINISCENCES.

koulon
bi
Ma-les
bi
n-ro
n-chi napax.
I remember something when I (past) when I was child.
(I remember something from the time when I was a child. )
2. Untaang wi m-p6n wi xi
myil, aninji
rukin
ri mex
asinji,
Time
in house father-my
-as I left as from milk
mother-my left-me
(At the time when I was weaned, my mother left me in the house of
)
father,
my
bkul.
A na - ja
3. A na - xis
mex
na - ron
& she said she from-time-to-time
& cie retrned house their.
(and returned to the house of her family.
She said that from time to time:
Ma untaang wi n8 bi
baand wi 8nk ptenin
4- n8 ptenin.
as she(op) came as thus to-see
she(cp) come to-see-me. But time
(she would come to see me. But when she did come to see me, )
ka -ruka xi ufexul
kao 5. a n8 Ydsj
rug
& she(cp) returned I'll
stay in back-her I'll(op)
cry.
(and was going back, I would keep following
her, crying. )
6. Ka - rug te banhaan ka - bi
kai
kawixanda.
pxis
mobin
I111
to bring-back
people will
come will(sp)
cry till
catch-me to-return
(I would cry till
to bring me
people would come to catch me to return,
home. )
1.

7. Ifia untempu um8nx


ja
ba w6n bron
But time
the-said
that they
they
from-time-to-time
said
(But at that time they said,
from time to time they used to
8.. uchi ya n-xep
bakaalam. kai
ni aninji,
xL--in
if
go I follow
witches
and mother
will(sp)
eat-me.
(if
)
I follow
witches
my mother,
will
eat me.
9. Ma inji
ka - lal
untempu umenx
won inji
ri
nada.
But I
time
the-said
that I
fear nothing.
not will
(But me, at that time,
)
I
to fear anything.
used
not

b6ka,
they'll
)
say,

ja
say

Ha

10. Inji
in-roox
me ne pchax a- chi; kao is
I'll(cp)
II
did-not know if death it
(Me, I did not know if there
was death, I only
)
mother.

rag so wundka x8p.


cry only we -shall
go,
to go with my
cried

11. Ko
les
umgnx
wi
man-ja
wul, ka. - wejax
Thing the-said
this I
I'll
think
when remember it
(Whenever I remembered this thing, I would think about it, )
12. te
inji
ka - me
bi n-ro
bi n-chi.
ri
till
I
know how I- did how I was.
not will
(till
I did not know what to think of it. )
13. Inkri.,
a n-ruka n-ja
wejax, ka - me
pchax a- chi.
(r/p)I
Novi
&I
I'll
know death it
is.
when think
(When I now come to think about it, T know that death is. )
Ha. AN EPIC ABOUT MPORTA KNINKIN.

Nalon ninx a- chi xi uchaak.


One man he was in land.
(There was a certain man. )
2.

3-

4-

5.

6.

7.

Napax ja
na-boka
a na-chi ba - ninx, rin
ng-,fingul.
Child when he was-born & he was (past)man' straight
away he killed-him.
(When a child was born, if it was a male child,
he killed
it immediatel
Ble Kab9mb. Mbon, a nalon ngaax bi
Katimul
ka - jaa
sempa.
(sp)pregnant.
Name-his will be-called
Ble Kab8mb. Well, & one
woman
(His name-'was Ble Kabemb. Well, there was also a certain woman who
became pregnant)
ka plik pi
kAum- me
pi
x8p plik
has well which you know
& it
which you'll
go well
(There was a well, and, you know how it is, you go to the well, )
lik
k6
ba,
k
ki
a
yOnxander,
(sp)
fetch-water
& you'll(cp)
finish
you'll
you'll
put-on-head,
(you go to fetch water and when you have done so, you will be trying
to lift
the water-pot
to your head, )
ka - y6nxanu.
te
nhaan ri
till
put-on-your-head.
person not will
(and there will be nobody to put it on your head. )
A n6
bok.
rina
y8nxander,
na
-

& she(cp)
put-on-head
straightaway
she
(And while
the water-pot
she was lifting
)
birth.
she gave
8.

Anin
Sim, chax
rug, a na-jaul:
& he said-her:
Mother cry
Yes, don't
(The mother cried
and he said to her:
I-am-not-afraid-of-anybody.
Kninkin
-

57.

Kada banhaan bat6b ri untaank'


bateb
Each people
two
to barrel
two
(Two people to each
of the two barrels.
290

gave-birth.
to her head,

straight

away

kaaa Mporta Kninkin.


rug, katimji
M. K.
be-called
cry
name-my will
Don't cry. My name is Mporta
)
ri untaank.
to barrel.
)

Ha

63. Mhon, a uchi pfingin


fier,
pi
n-ro
xi.
p6n
pul ka p8n m-bi
killing-me
Well
& if
which I did which need that has that I came h=e.
(Well, if you say I ought to have been killed,
that is just why I have
)
here.
come

67. A na-x6p
te
kak.
a ba - laweler
piparler
& he went till
& they distant-from-each-other
to(sp)pass-each-other
again
(He-vient till
they were far from each other in order to pass each other
)
once more.
68. A n8 - vill kaej,
A na-fill
kaxux. Auruka iwaanx.
a na-l6ma.
three.
left
& it
& he(cp)hit
sword & he lay-down& he cut neck.
(And he hit at him with his sword, and he lay down. Then he cut off
his head and there were three left. )
laweler
b69. A ba - kaka parler
kak.
A ba - x6p te
they far-apart
& they. again pass-each-other
again. & they went till
(Then they passed each other again. They went till
they were far apart, )
kapaxler
70. a ba - b8tai
a n8 - w1l kaej, a na-l8ma,
& he(cp) hit sword &-he lay-down
& they turned passing-each-other
(and they turned and passed each other, and he hit at him with his
)
he
lay
down,
and

sword

A ba - kaka paxler,
a ba - lawander,
71. A na-f_l, a ruka kalole.
far-apart
&
they
&
they
& he out & left
again
pass-each-other
one.
(and cut off his head. There was one left.
Then they passed each other
)
fax
apaxt,
again and were
kaej
b8tai
72. a bo
na-nggp
a
a
na-vill
pparler
& he hit sword & he bent
& they(op) turned to-pass-each-other
(and they were turning to pass each other and he hit at him with his
)
he
bent,
sword and
kalole.
ka=
A na-tuam,
73. a na-wI1 k1chul a na-fal.
& he hit sword-his he cut. & he finish
neck one.
(and he hit at him with. his sword and cut him and finished
cutting
off
)
left.
head
the only
bi.
Banul
77. A na-ja
gul: Ma-fing.
head-his
this.
& he said them I killed,
(He said to them. I hilled
him. Here is his head. )
kip
kr
Mbon, kakanda kapl"ch
85- Mon, a ba - jaul:
wund-jau
told-you which,
Well & they say-him: Well
calabash boasting which we
(Well, they said to him: Well, the magic calabash which we told you aboili
kul.
86. k6ki. Y[undka -- wulu,
this. We - shall give-you it.
(is this one here. We shall give it to you. )
90.

kamandaar uchaak blieng


tu.
Mporta Kninkin
ruka
land
lAporta Kninkin
was-left
ruling
all
all
(14porta Rainkin became the ruler
It
the land.
of all

291

A- ba.
It
finished.
)
is finished.

Rb
Hb.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7-

8.

9.

10.

11.

HARE AND BUSH-FOWL.

Xmaal ni
uj&ku.
Haxe and Bush-fowl
(Hare and Bush-fowl

fexax
te
aja
g6
ron a gai
they were-friends
till
they(cp)
then & they(sp)
said
Then one day they said)
were friends.
ka - ya byaas. Mon, a ga - r6nander
gko
a g6ey(-P) pexan,
Well
& they walked-together
& th
animals will
go trip.
0
chattered
(that they would make a jo urn ey. Well, they
walked together and hey
)
kept chattering,
konta
bfexar
lawan..
gul
n1r mak. A ga - p6n
a g8
because friendship
theirfat
& they(cp) distant.
much. A they left
(because their friendship
their village
was very close. They left
far away. )
and were getting
Xmaal ni
blipal
ja
katim wul ka - jaa Baxon,2
gko
vrul g8n auHare and things cleverness his that & he said name his will be Guests
(Hare with his underhandedness in everything
said that his name would be
)
Guests.
called
ja
A uj eku
kuma k1ch
Babi.
wul ka'- jaa
& Bush-fowl said that
the-one his will
You-who-came.
be-called
(Bush-fowl said that his name would be You-who-came. )
A umaal ja:
Mbon, uchi g- jaa
katimul,
nhaan ni
& Hare said: Well
if
we are-called
person with name-his
(Hare said: Well, now that we each have our own name, )
6n
katim, nhaan bi
ka
r8a
ri pxong
nul
re
pre.
(sp)
he will
name person
called in visiting
eat the-one food.
(if the name of one of us is called in the place where we are going to
)
he
be
the
to
will
one
pay a visit,
eat.
Te
ba - rO" wi
katimu
kun6 wi
ruka. re pre.
Till
day which they call which name-your you-will
stay eat food.
(You will
)
long
they
continue eating,
as
as
call your name.
ba
Ba - rOox
katimu.
kchi ni
=i pxong,
ubon
(past) name-your you-will
They call-not
be with hunger in visiting,
(If they do not call your name you will be hungry while visiting,
)
Albon, a ujgku
te
kkax6p.
xis
ri pxong.
nran
Well
till
& Bush-fowl consented to-go.
you-will
return in visiting.
(until
)
home.
Well,
Bush-fowl
to
agreed
you return
go.
A ga - x6p,
a ga - n&x
a ga - baand pxong
xi blay.
& they stood in yard.
& they vient & they came visiting
(They went on and they came to the place where they were going to
)
the
in
they
yard.
pay a visit,
stood
and
bkul
kuma:
pOn,
a ba - ja
their
that
& they said
that:
the place which they were visiting

12.

A banhaan p8ni
ri kato
& people
came-out of house
(The people came out of the
)
and said:

13.

Baxong, da
ixefi!
A
moban
xmaal yink pxefi,
a xef,
Guests
take
& Hare
took seat
you
seats!
sat,
,&
(Sit
down, guests.
Hare took a stool
and sat down. )
292

pxong
visiting
house at

Hb

Kaax
katimul
k14- te
nbx.
pxefi
par
r6aax.
nZLx
ujgku
Bush-fowl stood (ct) stood Had-not seat
till
since name-his called-not.
(while Bush-fowl kept standing.
He had no seat because his name was not
)
called.
te
15. Yoo, a xjeku
a napax ro
pbi,
nAx
peid
(op)
till
&
Bush-fowl
Yes, &
child
come-out to-come
stood
(Yes, and Bush-fowl stood until
a child came out in order to go)
16.

bkul uniew ba - niaj


kawetar
uniew,
au -x6nk
& he found
them house they enter house
to-sweep
(to sweep the house for them, so that they might
)
he
the
in
Bush-fowl
was standing.
place where

ujgku
Bushf.
go in,

xi u -nLx
xi.
in he stood in.
andshe saw

M- ri
kja
jampeser. Au17. A ujeku.
xef-a?
ujeku:
?
You
Bush-fowl:
&
she said
& Bush-fowl was-sad.
sit
not will
(Bush fowl was sad. She said to Bush-fowl:
Won't you sit down?)
ME- xef, aa. Par enxazc
jaul:
18. A ujgku
pjaul:
hm. For dare-not to_spy_to_her:
& Bush-fowl said-her: 1111 sit
de
he
did
For
I'll
down.
f
(And Bush-fowl said to her- Ye's
not
sit
Uo
kawa.
itim
say to her:
19. Wund-ro faar
ri bia.
We did divide names in way. Animal was-ashamed.
)
(We
here.
He
' chose our names on our way
was ashamed.

to

Baxong, da -x8pan uniew.


20. Mbon, a na-wet
a n8 - ba, a na -ja:
uniew,
(cp)
house.
Gues
ts
hous
&
Well
go
you
she
say:
e&
she
end
Ehe swept
9&
Guests,
(Well,
finishing,
house
the
said:
she
and
as
she
was
she swept
)
house.
the
inside
go
I

21. Uj8ku
uniew.
ri uxaand. A umaal niaj
ruka
in outside. & Hare entered house.
Bush-fowl'stayed
)
(Bush-fowl
Hare
in.
went
while
stayed outside,
bkul
br8a,
ka
kaka
pya
ptaaban
22. Aa
peni
ri
pram
ngaax
them fire,
to-go to-light
Till woman again (ot) come-out from shelter
(Then the woman of the house was coming from the kitchen in her
)
fire
for
them,
to
light
the
to
turn in order
go
Ank
23. a nai
xi
nAx
xi,
uxi
uxaand
ujgku
found Bush-fowl in outside in he stood in
&'she(sp)
(and she found Bush-fowl outside where he was standing. )
24.

8ku
Uj
A na - ja
m- ri
wul:
& she said him: Bush-fowl
you not
(She said to him: Bush-fow12
viontt

25.

A ujeku
raaxul
& Bush-fowl
not-reply-her
(But Bush-fowl
did not
)
the fire,

Aa
=ek.
Till
only.
say anything.

kniaj-a?
enter?
will
)
in?
you go
taaban br8a,
aingaax niaj
&(sp) lit
fire,
woman entered
At last
the woman went in and lit

A, Bsent
ja ayenul
26. a na - p8ni
naxong ni,
aithis,
& she came-out &(sp)say husband-her: Hm,Vincent,
guest
(and came out and said to her husband: Hm, Vincent,
about this
27. nako
kaax
totul
kanhan,
mtum -a? X6pan, ki
hand
person has-not mouth ? Go
you'll(sp)
pull-him
(hasn't he got any mouth? Go and pull him in by his hand, )
293

)
guest,

Hb

Man-ja
28. ng
jaankmaax.
niaj
ank
uniew.
nhaakanaanul
a
nor
he-will
when speak-to-him. & tired replied-not.
enter thus house. I
(so that he may go inside.
I kept talking
to him and talking
to him,
but he did not say anything. )
A ga - x6p
29. A xmaal bux au- yer ri bkaab auchi xi pji.
& Hare also & he fell on bed & he was in laughing. & they went
(To add insult
Hare fell
to injury,
on the bed and was laughing.
They went on,
Is
A
br6m.
30- te
a bai
uf8ri
u- chi
& dinner dished-up & fiaished-here
it
till
was night.
)
(till
brought
dished-up
dinner
Then
the
and
out,
was all
nightfall.
Baxong,
31. a paf
Ja:
uniew, aiuyamax unkambe, a na -niajand
Guests,
&(sp)
house
&
brought
& put-on meat
said:
she
pig
(pork added to it, and then she brought it inside the house and said:
Guests, )
A xmaal ji
32. da - nkcan d- re pre.
a xef.
un&x
&
Hare
laughed
food.
&
sat.
standing-up
eat
get-up
you
you
(get up and eat. Hare laughed, and sat up. )
33. Auauxenk nai - suax, au- r8ar pkaarria.
re uyam x unkambe, te
& he call gourd.
till
& he found he(sp)full
& he ate meat
pig
)and
he
(He was eatingthe
hunger
his
till
he
felt
called
satisfied,
pork
for the calabash to be taken away, )
ko.
br6m. Reex
34. A bai - ynk. Uj&ku
a f6r
pinx
& they(sp) took. Bush-fowl lay-down & slept night,
ate-not thing..
(and they took it away. Bush-fowl lay down and spent the night without
)
eating anything.
kawet
Ittai
fan,
ja
uniew,
niaj
35. Aur05
namp6li
uk.
un8,
u- chi
,
(cp)
house
it
enter
sweep
& it
rising
sun girl
was morning
when
(When it was morning, at sunrise,
the girl
came in to sweep the house ,
ba
TO riala
j8kanda xmaal xijar
36. aum- me uko
ni
uxaand,
& she was-met Hare have-for with outside
you know animal had eaten(p)l
(and she found Hare going outside to the toilet,
since, as you know,
)
he had eaten to satisfaction,
i=ig
Auau37. auruk
uxaancl
xep
suax.
& he went outside open-space & he left
& he was-satisfied.
(and was full.
in the open space and left...
He went to the toilet
38.

kor
uigk. u
wul ri
Bush-fowl
him in
alone
(Bush-fowl
in the house
)
Bush-fowl,

:
uniew. A napax jaul
house. & child
said-him
And the child
by himself.

A,
xj&kuj
Hm2 Bush-fowl,
said to him:

M- bi
juabaxer ink we?
39. ampxong
rina k& you are-sad
thus what? You came visiting
now you'll
(why are you sad in this way? You came to visit
us, and
like this? )
.
Aukor
jaul:
40. Xmaal, kchapan ink
wul.
Hare he'll
thus alone him. & he said-her:
chatter
(Hare himself keeps chattering
in this way. And he said
294

Well,

juabaxer
ink?
be-sad
thus?
now you are sad

to her: )

Hb

lenx we?
Ba a- ja
41. A, napax, md m- chi xi bfexar ni
xmaal,
I-shall
Hm, child,
say what? But one when you are in friend with Hare,
(Hm, child,
)
I
has
When
Hare
for
his
friend,
say?
one
what shall
br6a. Wunda-p6ni
42. kkuma
a wund-chi
yer
ri bga, a xmaal ja
We
fall
fire.
were in way, & Hare said that
went-out & we
you'll
(you. will
into fire.
As we left
fall
our place to come here and were orL
our way, Hare said that)
ka - jas,
itim.
Katimul
Baxong bki,
43. wundka, - faar
Name-his will be-called
Guests these,
we- shall dividenames.
(we shall each take a name. That his name will be Guests, )
Babi
bki.
44. a inji
a n-A
n-jaa
(cp)
You-who-came these.
I be-called
&I&I
(and me, I sould be called You-who-came. )
bkul.
45. A, ba katim, Babi
chix
xi mtum, a- chi Baxong kor
Guest alone
in mouth, it
is
Hm, but name You-who-came i6-not
they.
(Hm, but nobody ever calls the name You-who-came; it is only Guests all
the time. )
in-kaax
bi
kul
bi2
Pdeony-him
a n-ruka niran,
n-A
(r/p)accept
I have-not what I (0p)
&I
what,
)
I have accepted it2 I have no way of getting
it.
out of
ba
katim.
47. ba nako
a -chakes ba a jok
(p) & grabbed (p) name.
but person. he first
)
( but he jumped in first
took
for
the
himself.
and
name

46. A uja
& it-when
(Novi that

48.

da - ja
do - ja
baxong bki
Mbon, wul ka w8n ink
rin,
it
has that thus you when you
Well
say guests these only,
(Well,
that is just why when you say the word guests, )

49.

6n.
D6
ja
baxong
bki,
da
ka
kaan
nul
- moban pxefi,
these you
the-one.
You-will
take
he will
say guests
seat,
cry
(he will
You say, guests,
take a seat, )
be the one to reply.

DO ja -baxong bki
da - niajan
50. nul ka - xef On.
he will
say guests these you enter
sit the-one. You-will
(he is the one who sits down. You say, guests, go inside, )
51.

Da - roox
totin
knul ka - niaj
On.
(ct)pull-me
You
had-not
the-one.
he will
enter
(he is the one who goes inside.
If you had not
)
I would have spent the night
ouside.

52.11bon,
Well
(Well,

ka
a dai
x8nganLuf6ri
& you(sp)(ct)bring
dinner
in the
and then you bring

uniew,
house,

xi kanhan, ka - f6r uxaazull


I'll
by hand
sleep outil
pulled
me in by my hand

ja
baxong
bki.
a dai
& you(sp)
say guests these.
dinner
and you say Iguests'.

53.

A na-chi
kangander
bkaab, par ubon
xi pji,
a m-pinx
& he is
in laughing
&I
lay
bed
for hunger
cry-wet
(He keeps laughing
at me and I lie making my bed wet with
I am hungry. )

54.

A na-re
& he eat
(He eats

Aarind
pre
a na-xgnk
nai
pkaanda.
food & he find
he(sp)
call-you
calabash.
the food,
and then he yet calls
you to take

295

the

ka - rein.
eat-me.
will
tears because

calabash

away. )

Hb

55. Wul ka vi8n


yilaanx
unhaakan, m- me mam-bonax.
It
has that
I-cannot
speak
you know I
am-hungry.
(That is why I cannot speak. I am hungry, you know. )
1.1bon, bi u- chi bi ank wan, s6ma nako
56. A na-jaul:
chix
& shesaid-him:
Well
is
like person is-not
as it
as thus that
(Andshe said to him: Well, if that is the case, I mean, now that he is
)
here,
not
kuetanin
57. amn6nu =i prom.
ank man-ro
m-baand bux ka - kuetan
I come also I'll
& you oonfided-me thus 1111(op)
confide milm in shed.,
(and you told me confidentially
like this,
as soon as I get there, I
)
the
kitchen-shelter.
tell
in
shall
my mum
Mon. Rina
ka - chi w1chu xari.
58. Uferi
napax x8p prom.
Dinner vrill be yours today. Well. Straight-away
child went shed.
(Dinner will be yours today. Well. The child went to the kitchen-sheltei
immediately. )
59. Umaal p8ni
Ti
ptamb, a ui
ri uniew, a ga - piwc
- x8nk uj6ku
Hare came-back from toilet&- he(sp)found
Bush-fowl in house & they lay
(Hare came back from the toilet
and found Bush-fowl in the house, and
they lay dovm, )
60. a ga - chi
A- ja
rul.
u- baand brem, a ba - chxan uf8ri.
& they speed dinner.
& they were there. It
when it
came night,
(and they stayed there. When night came, they hurried with the dinner. )
61. Pchaal
baand uniew.
ka - y8r
a kankuel kuel
uf8ri
rina
dinner came house.
fall & dusk
Sky-redness will
dusked, straight-away
(The redness of the sky gave way to dusk and then the dinner was
brought inside the house. )
62. A xmaal ruka kur plIlan
xi
u- pinx xi.
,
& Hare (r/p)feel
where.
gladness where he lay
(Hare cheered up on his bed. )
63. A- jaar
k6n.
katimul,
ka - r6a
be-called
the-one.
He thought name-his
will
(He thought that his would be the name to be called.
64.

Rina napax ja:


Babi
paapu.
dad
Then child
said: You-who-came
(Then the child
You-viho-came,
said:

Da - nL-, m
dy&nk uf8ri.
You get-up you Ill take dinner.
dad! Get up and have your dinner.

65. Rina xmaal kaka kuutesa


a. ygr ri bkaab, ka - ruug.
(ct) weep.
Then Hare again roll-over
& fell on bed
(Then Hare rolled over falling
)
the
bed
on
again, ci-jing.
66. A-win u- chi uyamax. Mon, a xj&ku
a re uf6ri
naxa
He saw it
Well
& Bush-fowl stood-up & ate dinner
vias meat.
(He saw there was meat. Well, Bush-fowl got up and ate his dinner)
67. te
khkan
A- ya
u- suax, aupkaanda.
ubaand brem
till
he full
& he returned calabash. It
when coming night
(till
he was satisfied
and then returned the calabash. When night came)

68. ubon u- frontaar umaal, aunbxa a jej


mmaaj kanchupa
hunger it
Hare
& he got-up & took maize porridge,
worry
(hunger worried Hare, and so he gotup and took the
)
eating maize,

Hb

jej
69. a k1ret
Aute.
ri kanaanh xjgku.
mmaaj kao - sual
in bag
Bush-fowl.
& he took maize he(op) stuffed
& gnavied till,
(and gnawed at it till
he was satisfied.
Then he took the -maize and went
)
Bush-fowl.
the
bag
it
into
on stuffing
of
kao - sual
ri kamaanh xjgku
Bush-fowl
in bag
he(ep) stuffed
into Bush-fowl Is bag)
leaves and stuffir)gthem
i6nk
ii
A
ifetar
baar
iul.
me
mmmaaj,
u- xenknai
them. & husks maize as you Imovi as-thuE
finish
he found-with-here
The maize husks, which as you know)
them-all.
he found he finished

itambaul,
70. Kao - jej
He(op) took outer-leaves
(Then he kept taldng outer
71- te
till
(till
72.

ifetax
ka - kiret
uko
(ot)
gnaw husks
animal
(the animal gnaws husks

i6^ - buax ni
WU1 3?i MtUM q
they fill
with him in mouth,
)
fill
his
they
till
mouth,

bfal
kawet
bi
baand
kBi
blay
uniew
73. kaO napax
uniew.
yer xi
(cp)
fall on floor house. When child (ct) came when sweep houseu
(fell then on the floor of the house. In the morningt when thechild was
)
house,
the
to
sweep
coming
ja
ifetar
74. a na - wini
mmaaj, a na - tuk ai& she saw-there husks maize & she ran &(sp) said
(and savi there the maize-husks,
she ran and said to
ba
75- A, Paapu, baxong bki
reinja
mmaaj uchapi
&
those
they
Hm, dad,
seed
eat-us
maize
guests
(Hm, dad, those guests have eaten our maize-seed all

asinul
father-her
her father:

kuma:
that:
)

ba.
finish.
)
up.
kuma:
u- ja
he said that:
)
away:

kacharan mtum wul k8n rina


76. Xmaal ni
Hare with speeding mouth his that straight-away
(Hare with that quick mouth of his said straight
Man-ja
bki?
a suax,
uyamax
n-re
77. E, yen? 11 - rix ja Babi
.
. these. I
& fU112
Hm, who? You not say You-who-come
when I eat meat
(Hm, who? Why don't you say that You-who-came. Having satisfied
myself
)
the
full,
to
with meat
78.

ka
kai
n&xa
rill
get-up %,
will(sp)
(shall
I then get up
You-who-came
did it?

bki.
Babi
Mja
k1ret
rix
mmaaj.
these.
You-who-came
You
not say
gnaw maize.
to gnaw at the maize. Why don't
you say that
)

kangg6ngg
te
A
umaal,
79. A xjgku
na-me
a
nantoy
yengander rek.
Hare,
he
heard
&
knew
&
& Bush-fowl was-silent
cheating
only.
man
(But the Bush-fowl kept silent.
And the man of the house heard it and
knew-Hare's deceit, )
irig,
d8 jaka
jampesain,
Baxongji bki
xep
gul:
them: Guests-my these you-will
forgive-me
go out
vie-shall
to them: My guests, excuse me, please, vie shall go outside, )
ka
tambtambanind
i
81. kai
me
mmaaj.
nhaan
nan-rein
I'll
know person who eat-me who maize.
vrill(sp)deposit-droppings-your
(you will
deposit your droppings there and I shall know who ate my maizj

80. a na-ja
& he said
(and. said

297

tamb
ibex
ikay
au82. A ba - xep irig,
a xjgku jita
& B-fowl squatted& he deposited droppings dry.
& they went out
(They went out and Bush-fowl squatted and deposited dry droppings)
jitai
ni
uyamax. A xmaal k83. par pre pi
u- re pi
(ct)squatted-here
Hare
&
he
for food which
ate which with meat.
(because the food which he had eaten was with meat. Haxe scarcely
)
squatted,
84.

85.

86.

87.

88.

89.

bul.
kalon
bmaaj
kor
baf6ka.
ruka
auchi
chuari
au(r/p)was
maize alone it.
it
loose-stool&
& he had-diarrhoea
one
(he passed loose stool which turned all into maize. )
6n.
ka
A,
Mbon, bxmaal, wi
wul:
r6 ja
- niamlen
the-one.
lose
Well, they (op)said him: Hm, Haxe
you will
(Well, they said to him: Hm, Hare, you are the one who, lost. )
da
mexinji,
Ila viundka xi
ma
ivutind
- xisan
leave-you but you go-home from house-my
But vie-shall
)
home,
house
(But we shall let you go, nevertheless
and go
get out of my
Mbon,
jaul
Auwundka - xis.
Inji
mak.
nagebelen
ng1lax
Well,
&
he
returil'
like-not
vie-shall
trouble-maker
I
said-him:
much.
(I don't like trouble makers very much. And he said to him: Well, we
)
home.
shall go
ubos.
nhaan
Da - lipan,
bkul:
A nantoy ja
m6n - xendind
dog.
I-shall
You
them:
person
& man
give-you
wait,
said
(The man said to them: Wait, I shall give you a dog each. )
la
kchax kteb,
A na - x6p
ai&(sp)
& he
twisted
ropes two
vient
(He went, twisted
two ropes,
and tied
the house. )
inside

a na-gaangana, gb8s ri ulaay unievi.


house
dogs in yard
& he tied
them axound the necks of the dogs

ka
katim
blay.
Mbon,
Gi
ulon
ub8s
go.
a na-xB
xmaal achi xi
he was in yard. Well
& he put dog one name will
They Hare
(Hare and his companion were in the yard outside.
Well and he
Kanhaay
Mon,
Sombasombo.
jaa
91.. Kanhaay, a na-A
ulon uKanhaay
Well,
& he put one he
Sombasombo.
Kanhaay
called
(Sickly
Sickly)
the
he
Burly.
Well,
said
called
one
, and
92.

Auliaf.
chi usempatel.
achi kon kan - r5mb ki
big
It
it
viho body.
was stocky-built.
vias tInt who
)
(was the one who was big.
It was stocky-built.

93.

Ybon,
Well,
(Well,

Sombasombo won
Sombasombo that
Burly
that

auxas
pchax.
& he seek death.
was on the point

Yilaanx
Not-able
of dying.

ichar,
a na-chilani
ank gul,
a na-gaang
thus them & he brought-out
& he tied
ropes
he put the ropes on their
necks and brought
)
them:
to
ropes out and said

94.

Yhon,
Well
(Well,

95.

Pchar
Rope
(Here

kachxan
Xmaal ni
Sombasombo pi.
Hare
Sombasombo this.
with speeding
is the rope of Burly. Haxe with that
298

pya.
to-go.
He could

jaa
ba-called
on
called
kam6nx k8n
the-Paid

haxdly

walk.

a na-ja
gul:
& he said them:
the ends of the

ja:
mtum wul k6n
aumouth his that & he said:
)
quick mouth of his'said:

Hb

96. Vlulin
pchar Sombasombo. Auwaj
pohax.
Give-me rope Sombasombo. & he grabbed rope.
(Give me the rope of Burly. And he
)
the
grabbed
rope.
97. A xj&ku
tot
ruka ykik pchar Kanhaay. Bi
bi
98
gul
& Bush-fowl (r/p)took
rope Kanhaay. When they(cp) pulled when them
(It was left
to Bush-fowl to take the rope of Sickly.
When they
pulled them)
98. ri
uniew, a g6
p9ni uxaand,
a xmaal ruka win Sombasombo.
from house & they(cp)
& Hare (r/p)see
Sombasombo
came outside
(from the house and they came outside,
Hare came to realize
that
Burly)
99. chi won Kanhaay, par kaax
ja
kuma:
uliaf,
auis
& he -said that:
one Kanhaay for had-not body
(was the one who was sickly,
for he was thin, and he said: )
100. Jelca - x6xan gb8s. A xjgku
A ga - x9p te
pok.
ri bga
Vle-shall swap dogs. & Bush-fowl refused.
& they went till
on way
(Let us exchange our dogs. Bush-fowl refused.
They went till
on the way)
101. a xmaal ja
wul: Yen ron k- ya pxong
a nai
xiji
ub8s.
& Hare said him Who ever (ct)go visiting
& he(sp) lead dog.
(Hare said to him: Who ever goes to pay a visit
and then comes away
leading a dog. )
102. G
fing
A xj6ku
ka
gb6sinja,
gre.
ri
pok a ja
Let-us
kill
dogs-our,
let-us
deny&. sav not will
eat. & Bush-fowl
(Let us kill
our dogs and eat them. But Bush-fowl
said he would
kill
his. )
103. Ka - xiji
ubos wul uHell lead dog his he
(He said he would take

xisand
par uko
bring-home
for animal
his dog home, because

104. A xmaal ja
wal: 1116- fing.
& Haxe
1111 kill.
said him
(Hare said:
I'll
kill
mine.

for

Lipin
Wait-me
Wait for

him. )

l1lan
uliaf.
body.
pretty
he was well built.

mS - fing.
I'll
kill.
me, I will

fing.
kill.
not

Au-.
lip
wul.
& he waited
him.
kill
him. And he waited

105. A u- fing
Aua-chau.
ruk- ben bjenx. Auruk ben rin.
& he killed
& he left head clean. & he left head only.
& roasted.
(He killed
it and roasted it and left
He left
a skull.
only a head. )
106. A ga - pen te
baand
kanxieli
kalon,
g8
a gbacha
p6ni.
& they went till
they(c-o) came plain
& gazelles
one
came-out.
lo
(They went on and
came
a certain
plain and gazelles came out. )
107. A xj6ku
wutan Kanhaay wul, au -ruak
te
ubkha
& Bush-fowl sent Kanhaay his
& he hunted gazelle till
(Bush-fowl sent his Sickly
and he hunted the gazelle till).
108. ux8nknai
Mbon, a xmaal a- pe
a- mob
a fing.
wul ptuk,
he caught & killed.
meeting-with-there
Well, & Haxe he more him run.
meeting with it,. he caught it and killed
it. Well, Hare could run
faster than he, )

299

Hb

109. A u- tuk a ijAnkan ben bchau


ja.
Sombasomboinji fing.
au& he ran &(sp) grabbed head roasted & he said: Sombasombo-my killed.
(He ran and made the roasted head
grab it and said: My Burly
killed
it. )
110. Mbon, nay6
i
nan-j6t
ri beham
a na-jaul:
Well, tapper who perched who on palm-tree & he said-him:
(Well, a palm-wine tapper who was perched
)
to
him:
on a palm tree
said
lll. Ayeen, ,d6 fing ub&oha nasien ri breng.
Ha-ha, you'll
kill
in forest.
gazelle chief
(Ha-ha, you kill
the chief's
gazelles in the forest. )
112. A xmaal ja:
Yen, inji
ben bchau
fing
ni
a kaj
ubacha.
& Hare said: Who? I
kill
with head roasted & shall(sp)
gazelle.
(Hare said: Who? Me with
my miserable roasted head, and shall I kill
)
a gazelle?
113-M - rix ja xjeku?
A- chi ub8s xjgku.
You not say Bush-fowl? It
was dog Bush-fowl.
(vall you not rather say it was Bush-fowl? It
And he denied it. )

Aupokes.
& he denied it.
was the dog of Bush-fowl.

114. A nay6 ' X6


bux wul: Aa, ma-falind.
Jai
& tapper (cp) say-here also him: Aa, I deoeived-you.
(The tapper then said to him: Aa, I
was just laughing.

115. Nasien ri
ka - ka
Mbon, bga bi
bi
ub,:cha ri breng.
u- wixna
(ct)
Chief
have gazelle in forest.
Well way which he turn-byiid&j'
not
(Chief has no gazelles in the forest.
Well, the way by which he might
turn)
116. ufex u- ja:
fing On
kaxe
kawa.
a- chi inji
chi. Uko
back he say: it
kill
the-one no-longer was. Animal ashamed.
was I
(back to say: I was the one
it, no longer was open to him.
who killed
He was ashamed. )
117. Xjeku
jej
A ga - x8p a go**'
baand
uyamax a xisand.
Bush-fowl took meat
& carried-home.
& they went & they(cp) came
(Bush-fowl took the meat and
carried it home. They went on and they
arrived
at)
118. mex
xieku
a ga - loj
uyamax. A xjeku
ng&l pwul wul bjelan.
house Bush-fowl & they divided meat.
& Bush-fowl like give him portion
(Bush-fowl's
house when they aivided the meat. Bush-fowl wanted to give
)
him a portion
of meat.
119. A xmaal ja
kuma uko
kiwatan
xii
& Hare
said that
animal has girl-friends
(Hare said that he had five
girl-friends.

kanh&n. U--ja
kako
He said piece_
five.
When each pibce
120. ki
ka - fala
ki
ja
ka - Angan
uuse
uyuatan
(ct)
be-cut
which
take
which he said will
house fathei-of-girl
(was being cut he said he
would take to the house of his
)
father.
girl-friend's
121. A xieku
& Bush-fowl
(Bush-fowl

rukanda
was-left
was left

kon
bjelan
biole.
Mbon, a xmaal jej
only portion
Well
one
& Hare
took
Well,
with only one portion.
Haxe took
300

wul.
his.

uyamax vnxl,
hist
meat
his meat, )

Hb
Bi
122. a xO ri kamaanh, aubi
xisand.
xmaal xisand
&'he
When Hare carried-home when
& put in bag
carried-home.
(putting
it in his bag, and he carried
it home. When he brought it..

bi
ba,
a(3. - pexan uar wul, bi u- fal
aux6p,
how he cheat how
& he went & Sp) talked wife his
finished,
to his wife about how he cheated...
home, he then went talking
...
6ku
A uar wul ja
blipal.
kuma a- pe
124. xjeku,
wul:
xj

123. a u& he

Bush-fowl,
(3ush-fowl,

he
that
and that

more 3ush-fowl
cleverness.
than he.
he is more clever

& wife his said him:


His wife told him: )

kwaam.
m- waam,
(ct)
are-glutton.
you axe-glutton
than he. You axe just a big glutton. )
AP
ink
kan
Ma
inji
Inji
126. A u- ja
waamax.
wul:
But I
& he said her: I
am-not-glutton.
shall I go thus
(He said to her: I am not a glutton.
Anyway, I am on my way to go...
125.1-1- peex
wul blipal,
You more-not him clever
(You are not more clever

111.
Uliafinji
bnonx.
Man-rianaanul.
127. use
xjgku
Body-my
did-cheat-him.
house Bush-fowl playing. I
pleasant.
)
(
happy.
I
him.
I
him.
house
to
to Bush-fowl's
am
visit
-cheated
...
kuma ka - ya katen
128. A u- baand rin,
uyamax,
ruka
x8p,
a ujeku
that will
& Bush-fowl(r/p)
& he came only
go to-see meat,
go,
(As soon as he arrived,
Bush-fowl went away saying that he would go
to have a look at the meat, to see... )
jont
129. ne uko a-wara ank. Auqh,t
uyamax au -ruka jau
he jumped
& he pecked meat & it(r/p)when
if thing good if
(if the meat was good. He pecked the meat, and kept jumping up and)
B61a b6la b6la.
ja:
130. rina
auu - yer xi uxia
bla
bla.
to ground & he said:
Bla.
he fell
straight-away
(immediately
to the ground and kept saying: Bla, bla, bla. )
he fell
k.&ti
ka - mob Nvul, au131. Xmaal tukai
au -ja
wul:
prim plole,
(ct) catch him, & he, raise voice one
& he says him:
Hare ran-here
(Hare ran to him and was catching him, and he raised his voice very much
and said to him :)
banene.
132.0,
wan uko x8a
xmaal, uyamaxinji
that, thing was-put poison.
Oh, Hare,
meat-my
(Oh, Hare, that meat of mine was poisonous. )
133. Rina
wul, kuma ka - mint kalon,
pxep mex
umaal m&r ptuk
Immediately Hare tore to-run to-go house his
that
will run one
(Immediately
the Hare started
to run to his house saying he would run
fast, )
baand
134. re
ubok wul bi
naam re uyamax, auchax. Aulest son his (sp) seem eat meat
& he die.
& he arrived
(so that his son would not think of eating the meat and dying.
he came, )
135. a ruka yonx uyamax, a guz
ri IrIff
a baax
rul.
& throw in outside & finish
r/p) carry meat
there.
(and, bit by bit,
carried the meat on his headt throwing it
)
he
till
had
left.
outside
none

And

away

He I Hd

lip
kankuel a- kuel.
136. Uieku
aux8p a i- jej
uyamax,
dusked & it
it
Bush-fowl waited dusk
went &(sp)took meat,
(Bush-fowl waited till
dusk, then he went and took the meat, )
A- ba
kank.
137. a xisand
mex wul. Umaal peetir kul.
it.
It
finished
& took-home house his Hare lost
that-so.
(and carried it home. Hare D3st it. It is finished. )
,

Hc.

HYENAIS WRESTLING MATCH.

Au27. A ga - kaka kaka


a chat,
chat, a chat
& he jumped& jumped & jumped
& they again returned.
(They returned
)
And
he
kept
jumping,
once more.
on
28. a uchalabux kaka tuai
& iguana
again tripped-here
(and iguana tripped him again

wul, auhim & it


and brought

kob xi uxia.
hit on ground.
him down. )

32. Ubaand
a uar wul ja
wul: A, Patron, m- ro 6m amch5r ri ukam?
Coming
& wife his said him: Hm,Patrono you do how & you quick in fight',
(When he came back, his wife asked him: Hm, Patron, how is it that you
)
back
from
the
fight?
axe
so soon
Hd. TIM HFAD WHICHWAS NOT DEAD.
2.

4-

9.

11.

12.

An uyamax mak?
Om ri m- rl
BIbon, a nhaan jaul:
Well
& person said-him:
How as you want as meat
much?
(Well, and someone asked him: How is it that you want meat so much?)
Sim, amja m- rl
a na-jaul
uyamax, ma uchi uyamax,
& he said-him
Yes, & you say you want meat
but if
meat
(and he said to him: Alright,
)
but
if
do,
you
so you say you want meat,
ba
ra - p9n
ungaay amwin uyamax.
raayan, ki
(p)
& you watch
you go-out
walk
you(sp) see meat.
(if you go for a walk and look well, you will find meat. )
Mbon, m&n - x8p kajaar.
ke5mand.
Rukaan jej
ben b8n ki
Well, I'll
Remain take head this you(sp) prepaxe.
go ploughing
(Well, I am going to plough. Take this head
)
it.
and prepaxe
Lipan, md - nb=a
katopachir
ben parsk
kaO' - baand no - lenxarin
Wait
I'll
head because he(cp)come
he(ctell-off-me
get-up preparing
(Wait, I'll
get up and prepa-re the head, because when he comes home,
he will
tell me off. )
Ariangga,
She lifted
(She lifted

bul ptibi
kapak, a ben
bux
a na - ja
ch&ti
& she
said it
matchet whack, & head jumped-here
also
the matchet
and whacked it hard, and the head jumped up, )
bux.
Mbon, a na
a i-jej
ptibi
a tibul
kaka
nLxa,
&-(p)tDckmatchet & hit-it
Well
& she
also.
again got-up,
(and took the matchet and hit it back. Well,
she got up again, )

302

He

20. A, kai
Hm, Itll(sp)
(Well, there

ka - jau
ruku
rukaan topachir
afer,
leave-you I'll
tell-you
thing,
remain prepare
you are: I leave you and tell you to fix up this thing)
baand
jaka
kemand
21. a kao
aferinja....
& I'll(cp)
come vie - shall Prepare thing-our
(and when I come we shall prepare our thing....
22. Mhon, m-i - yandaar a ux
bul, amles
re bul, km- nimaaxa.
Well, I'll
& xoastAt
& you eat it
go
ied
you'llremember
you unmam?
(Well, I am going to roast it, but if
you eat it, remember, we axe not
)
married.
23. A ngaax jaul
bux:
A, im. - pokax
umgnx
& vioman said-him also:
Hm, I
deny-not
the-said
(And his wife said to him: Well, that's
alright
with

w6n.
that.
)
me.

He. HARE AND VULTURE.

1.

Kalon katetan uleka umaal ni ujuchich.


One
about Hare and Vulture
story
(A story about Hare and Vulture. )

2.

Umaal, uko ' x6p bvial.


Ni
ujuchich.
Hare
With Vulture.
animal ivent fishing.
(Hare, he went fishing.
With Vulture. )

3.

I.Thon,
Well,
(Well,
dried.

4-

11a a ga - win bux gx6b, a ga - chum


But & they saw also fish
& they plentiful
(But they saw many fish in that pool. )

5.

bi
brem
u--ron
ujuchich
ya
auwin
I'Abon,
Well, Vulture
whenhy1hen& he saw as night
(Well, when Vulture saw that it was getting
to rain, )

a ga - wal
& they were-fishing
they were fishing
)

te
,
till
till

brem j6k. I'Wal


kayax.
dry-not.
night met. Tidal-pool
but the tidal
nightfall,
pool had not

6.

xi pwal
in tidal-pool

pmgnx
the-said

p6n.
that.

jek bi, a u- win us6bal jdabi,


met as & he saw rain
sprout
dark and that it was going

ja
ten baxi: us6bal ka - bi
auumaal: E, xmaal, tenan k(ct) look sky:
& he said Hare
Hm, Hare,
look
rain
will
come
(he said to Hare: Hm, Hare, look, just look
at the sky: it is going to
rain)
20. A uvrux
ja:
A- chi yen? A xmaal jaul:
A- chi inji.
& leopard
is
is
I.
said: It
who? & Hare said-him: It
(The leopard said: Who is it. Hare
)
It
is
I.
said:
40. A xmaal nkcai
aurukar
wul gxeb, aupen pxis.
& Hare got-up & he left-for
him fish
& he went to-return.
(Hare got up, left
the fish for him to take and went on his way home. )

303

cm

CM. IURRIAGE AND DIVORCE.


Uchi m- nim
aaru
xi xari
a dai
- ngom
If
in today & you(sp) quarrel
you marry wife-your
(Today, if you marry and then quarrel with your wife, )
2.

3.

4-

bupul
bi da - ngom bi ni aaru,
ama un8 lingg,
a na - xis,
& she
& sun right
as with wife & you beat-her
return
as you quarrel
(when you quaxrel
to her
with your wife and beat her, and she returns
)
father's
house,
then,
time
'..
at a convenient
*
Kja
bkul.
bkul:
Sim, mam-bi
ri aarinji,
amx6p mex
You-will
& you go house their.
come to wife-my,
say them: Yes II
(you go to their
house. You will
I have come concerning
say: Well,
my wife
B6ka
jau:
D8
vrond - xis.
You-will
They-will
let-us
say-you:
go-home.
(I want her to come home with me. They will

16.11bon,
Well,
(Then

a ninx ka - ruka ja
(X/P)say
& man will
the man will
say to

17.

Inji
mam-bi
on,
(sp)
I
I
the-one
(I am the one who put

18.

in

- ri

kam

-purir

I
not shall can
(I have nothing left
19.

bux
also
them:

Ukeesee,
bkul:
them:
Complaint,
The complaint
is

1&chul
a m-buara,
&I
be-plenty
blamed-her
blame on her, and plenty,
pka

unhaakan

to-have word
to say, )

aarinji.
plach
ma, mam-buar
to-blame
but I
wife-my.
plenty
(except
that I put too much blame

n-A

wi

whichI

22.

wul, a - chi
is
it
it
true. )
ma benten,
but please
but please

(cP)

)
over.

uchar.
true.

da - perdiaaxi
forgive,
you
)
forgive
me,
Wit

nhaakan

which,

speak

)
her.
on

da
Sim,
jaul:
20.111bon, boka
- xisan.
-Yes you
Well
they will
go-home.
say-him:
(Well,
they will
say to him: Yes, take your
let it happen again)
21.

plenx. '
watan
talk
make-fall
say to you: Talk it

Ma utebanxen
But second-time
wife home. But

xnot
don't

xan
xi xari.
that in today.
(as a repetition

bUPu1
ba
1.9- kaka
a na - xisi
(p)
beat-her
&
You again
she return-here
If you beat her again and she returns
of today.

inindkai
vie - shall(sp)
(vie shall
take
be
there will

ka - wul
penandul
give
will
go-out-make-her
her from you and give her
no more)

23. bupa
beaten
(beating.

304

ka
liave
let

here)

Bnim,
ka - kaxe
nalon.
Marriage
no-more
one.
will
to someone else.
In the marriage

CF

CF., FUNERAL CEREMONIES.

1.

b6ka
Uchi nhaan maak,
j6nd
pyaarul
kabol.
If
they- will
begin to-fetch-him
person is-sick
sacrifice
(If a person is seriously
ill,
people will
start preparing a sacrificial
)
him,
for
ceremony

2.

boka
bolax
te
blieng,
te
boka
me ko
wi
till
they- will
till
they -will
know thing which
sacrifice
all
(until
they have sacrificed
all and come to know why)
APand
Uchi nai
boka
kai
na-maak
wi.
chax,
ugok,
he is-sick
he(sp) dies, they-will
take
fowl, will(sp)
which. If
(he got sick. If he then dies, they will
take a fowl, and give it)

3.

wul.
give

4-

kai
ichan
nangguran,
nangguran
ri uchaay, ng - me uchuasul,
divine=,
diviner
divine by demon heIll
know cause-deabhf
will(sp)
(to the diviner
divine with the help of the demon and
who will
)
find
the
death,
will
out
cause of

5.

bkul,
ne pchax a- china
ank xi, use
a ne a- re ank k- re kakux.
(ct)ate
if death it
is -by if
in house their
& if he ate if
"food".
(if the cause of death is to be found in their family,
or if he used toest;
)
witchcraft-food.

6.

Uler uchuas,
boka tiemanul,
boka p9nandiul,
Time , cause-death,
they will
dress-him,
they will bring-out-him,
(At the time of the inquest,
they will
dress the corpse, *bring it out, )
kai - xO ri bkaab pOM,
boka xas banhnnn babaaker,
bed
four
will(sp)puton
seek people
corpse, they will
(will
put it on a bier,
get four people)
boka Nabich
ka - chuas
y8nxul.
xi pbuam.
they
Corpse-dresser
hold-inquest
in
before-door.
will
carry-him.
will
U
(to carry it. The corpse-dresser
enquire about the cause of death
will
in the doorway. )

7.

S.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

A uchi ujipan noran


xas ninx naxafal,
mak, boka & if
talk
tire-cause
much they-will
seek man old
(and if the
they will
matter is too difficult,
get an old man)
j8pesi
ba,
ka - x6p ungguran.
ni
unhaakan uchak. BOka p8m
first.
They-will
finish,
who dig-out word
corpse will
go cemetery.
(who remembers ancient incantations.
When they have finished,
the
)
be taken to a burying-place.
corpse will
Boka baand ri nanggaran, nhaan nan-chax i
ka - me
onk ri
They-will
know
come to cemetery,
person who died who thus not will
(When they come to the burying-place,
the dead person will not know)
Nanggaran kte
uchuasul.
raachul
no - ba
(ct)
Diviner
talk-softly
till
cause-death.
he(cp) finish
(the cause of his death. The diviner
gently persuadeshim)
kfinga
a uchi na-ja
a- fin. -a
kall.
nangguran ka - jukanul
(ct)killed
he say he killed
& if
diviner
ju-ju.
will
place-him
(and if he says that he has been killed,
the diviner
him
will
make
)
the
ju-ju.
cross

305

PR2 CR
ka - enx pl6t
14- Uchi na-90ngg, ri
kall.
If
he lied
dare cross ju-ju.
not
will
(If he had lied,
he will
not dare to cross

Nangguxan ka - jaul:
Diviner
will
say-him:
the ju-ju. )

15.

Wi
kakux.
Xbanhaan.
Da
bkaab.
wunda-me
mre
noran
,
- welani
You Vic
know you ate "food"
Not tire
You put-doyrn bed.
people.
(Listen,
food.
Stop worrying
vie know that you have eaten witch-craft
)
Put
bier
the
down.
everybody.

16.

Boka
welan
They-will
put-doim
(They put the bier
hand him)

17

na
p8m
corpse that-he
(the corpse to
digger climbs

moy
bury
bury
out

bkaab,
bed
on the

ka - wela
baar, bo^ka
najep
- y8arul
digger
they-will
will
go-down hole
pass-him
the digger
the hole,
they
ground,
gets into
I

ri
in
it
of

Naj6p
ka - p6ni.
uchen,
a n6 - ba.
horizontal-holell;
e(cp) finish. Digger. will
get-out
in the horizontal
grave and he does. The gravethe hole, )

18. I%Thaannan-chax Onk


Uchi ba - roox
ng - wlxai naper.
turn goblin.
If
they had-not
person who died thus he-will
(The dead will
If he was an enemy)
change into a goblin.
19.

ni
with

(to

nhaan,
person

n8 - xasul
he OP) seek-him

yerler
be-friends

pkamanul.
to-fight-him.

someone, he seeks him out to strive

against

him. )

PR. HOW TO GRUY RICE.

1.

ba
kkiay ko...
Kk8 K
utul.
chet,
penarl
take-out gleanings.
You'll
break, you'll
finish
You'll
you'll
wait thing
(I.Whenyou have finished
the harvest,
you take the gleanings away. Then
)
for
a while...
you vrait
10. Boka
ba,
bok
katan
a
chet,
uruka
chi
umaani.
break & they- will
finish
They- will
it
remains be to-bind rice.
(When they have finished
the harvest,
it remains to bind the rice. )
12. I-la-fin
ktul wi
ka - chi xi kaay
uler vii
plenx
upax
I forgot to-say time which you'll
sowwhich children
will be in watching
(I forgot to say that at the time of sowing, the
children
will bewabchin
13. pa gkach rix re.
UjOnd
ka wul ka - beba
ay
gchaxa
(ct) be-graining
to birds not eat. Beginning it
will
watch monkeys
(the birds,
so that they don't eat it. When it begins to fill
with grain,
they will watch the monkeys, )
14.

pa gul
xtavi
umaani.
to they not tear rice.
(so that they don't
tear

the

rice.

CR. CHILDHOOD RELFENISCENCES.


Kint'la, bi
na - chi bi
napax, a ba - xepandul
Kinta
when she was when child
& they took-her-away
(When Kinta was a child,
they took her away, because

306

para aninul
for
mother-her
her mother)

cs

2.

a- ch.r a- chax. Depos, a ba - x6pandul


pigux) para a- maak mak
& they took-her-away
to-throw for she sick much
she quick she died. Then
(died very soon after her birth.
Then they took her away to throw her
)
because
she was very sick.
away,

A ba - j8k ni
nalon ninx, a n8 - xisi
ulon uchaak.
& they met vrith one
& he(cp)return-here
man
one country.
(They met with a certain man who had just returned
from another country.
A i. - xijul
Kinta, a x6pand
katoul.
4. A na-cha
te
n6
ron
& he took Kinta
house-his&(sp)kept-her
& took
till
he(cp) then
(He took Kinta and brought her to his house. He kept her till
eventually)
buatanul,
kato.
a banhaan kakron a ni - wixai
(ct)
(ct)
& People
then & she returned house.
weaned-her&
(people weaned her and eventually
)
to
her
house.
she returned
Xi uchaak wund, uchi napax b6ka,
a n6 maakenker,
In country-our
if
& he(cp)
is-sick-like,
child is-born
(In our country,
if a child is born, and it is sickly, )
ka - wbt
kam- baandi i ng - mobul,
7. nhaan 'ni
xi uxia,
take-him
throw on ground
person who will
will
come who he'll
(anyone who comes into the house will
take him and throw him on the
ground)
a. n8 - pulpulan,
n8 - lenxazul ne
a- chi ank uko
o ng - jej
he(cp) tell-him
he(cp) drag
if
he is
if
take
animalor he'll
(and drag him about, he will
chide him for being non-human, or take)
txa
9. plombaj kaS
tuchanaanul,
uchi
na-chi
uko
ng
- chx pw:
hetll(cp)
beat-him
if
he is
stick
animal he'll
quick to-return
(a stick and give him a whipping,
so that, if he is a non-human, he
would return speedily)
10. ri bachinx,
nul xnoran
aninul.
to companions, he not-tire
mother-his.
(to his equals, and not worry his mother. )
3.

CS. HOW TO CATCH SQUIRRELS.

1.

Uchi m- ng-l kajan katgnk


kIf
You like hunt
squirel
youtll
(If You viant to
go squirrel-hunting,
because that t: vee has thorns. )

tibna
2.21-VI You hit-vrith
(If you hit

ba
ute5nic,
(past)squirrelv
a squirrel

with

tib gndog bxonk


pax bko xij iyu.
thorn-tree
for tree has
cutstick.
cut off a stick from a thorn-tree,

rin
uhe
straight-away
it,
it ddes straight

.A

yer.
falls.
)
away.

Ma utgrik
k
a- noi: z'
j6p par u-j
ep
pi
urelander
it
tire
But squirrel
to-dig (ct)
dig for
he digs-here safety-exit
(But squirrels
)
axe hard to dig out, because they dig safety-exits,
kUler wi
win urelander.
par m- ri
m- ng.l wi - pmob wul,
for you not you-will
see safe ty-e xit. Time when you like when catch-him,
(because you can't see a safety exit. When you
)
to
it,
want
catch

307'

SG, EH

10. u-

rin
straight-away
through with

tuk.
kai
u- peni,
he comes-out, will(sp)
run.
his head and comes out straight

urelanaer
ubi
he rams-here safety-exit,
(he pushes the safety-exit
)
away, and escapes.
ka - ka
kuler ivi
Para uchi m- ru
ru
wul I ri
(0t)
in
time
have
it
For if
not
will
smoke
you smoke
(Because if you smoke him out, he will not have time to dig. )

vii
&pna
u-j
he cliffFin
I en

SG. A STORY ABOUT A GOBLIN.

kwaanx, kbaaker...
Plole, ktebarl
o, ma-niam
A na-pin:
four
three
two
oh I am-confused
& he counted: One
Oh$ I am confused)
(He counted: one, two, three, four
...
HH. HYENA AND HARE.
1.

10.

11.

12.

25.

bchaagan.
x8p
Ungil ni - umadl
a gai
& they(sp)
went river-dam-fishing.
Hyena and Hare
)
(Hyena and Haxe went to catch fish in a river-dam.
Man-jau
ka - lenxu.
chag
gMbon, man-ro
jaul:
U(ct)
fence
let-us
I
had
I
Well,
say-you
say-you.
He said-him:
let
build
to
I
us
(He said to him: Well,
I was telling
you
said
you.
the fence)
8nk
ko
chix.
VIi
xi
mlik,
chag
kakay.
pok.
amxi
is-not.
thing
in
thus
You
fenced
water,
& you refused.
on dry-land
this
in
like
fence
the
You
(on dry ground,
but you wouldn't.
made
)
it.
in
is
nothing
and there
water,
ikaan.
ka
Xng-11
xi
chi
A
Tenan gx6b xi ptakinji.
ga - xep.
in
be
Hyena
crying.
they
&
will
dam-my.
Look
in
fish
went.
)
Hyena
(Look at the fish
was crying.
in my dam. They went on.
Uchumaal,
ja_
wul:
Xngil
auvral,
x6nki
uya

llyena when he found-here him & he


07hen Hyena found him there, he said

26.

ja
wi
You when
(You are
take you

m- ron
on
the-one
you always
the one who always
)
away.

Hare,
him:
said
to him: Hare, )

Lipan$ mcm - x8pandu.


kiej
k6
ptak.
V11
Vlait2
dam.
ca=7-yot
steal
you'll(cp)
I shall
from my dam. Wait,
keeps stealing

27- M- bi
m-.,, iaap.
You (sp) you sell.
(You axe going to be sold. )
38.

39.

A Y.chmaal
& Hare
(Haxe said:

i
ten
Mon,
da - bili
di
ja:
nan-tana
Well,
who bound-who
you come-here you(spsee
said:
Well,
)
come and see the prisoner.

ka - waapa
i
Nan-tana
on.
v1ho bound vrho will bo-sold the-one.
(The prisoner will be the one who will

308

be sold. )

TO

40. IJ - yilaaiuc
uchi k8 - viaa nhaan, n8 You can-po; if
you'll
soff
rson, he'll
(It is not allowed, if you sJ10 a prisoner.

kaka tanu
kak.
again bind-you again.
for him to sell you again. )

TO. A STORY ABOUT TVIO STEP-BROTIMS.

1.

Ab8k najibin
ni
ab6k naamand
Son decoomd-woman and son living-woman
(A child whose mother had died
went with
)
to find kindling.

2.

Ab6k najibin
jaul
ba - ro by8nxeler
Son deceased-L-Tiomansaid-him they do to-lift-on-each-other's-head
(The son of the deceased woman said that they ought to lift
)
head.
onto each other's

3-

Ab8k najibin'
pok.
naamand
a na-k8nggak6ngga
Son deceased- woman & he tried-hard
refused.
surviving-woman
the son of the surviving
The boy whose-mother
woman refused.
died strained hard)
A na-baand, a na-ja
a na-y6nxander.
yayaul:
& he put-on-his-head.
& he came & he saia-milother-his:
(and loaded the kindling
his
on his head. Ile came home and said'ft
)
mother:
A na jaul:
Yaya - o. Wulin
X8pan, ki
jeji
preinji.
ri kalua-C
Mother oh. Give-me food-my. &she caid-him:
Go
you(sp) take in safe.
(Oh, mother. Give me my food. And she said to hims Go and take it from
the food-safe. )

4-

5-

6.

kam8l.
ya
a bai
& they(sP) go to-find-kindling.
a child of a surviving
woman
a
&
the loads

ab8k
son
(but
had

A na-x8p
baand kaluaf,
aia na-jej
pre Ab6k naamand
a re.
& he went & (sp)c=e
& he took food son surviving-woman & ate.
safe
(He went to the food-safe
and took the food of his step-brother
and ate
it. )

7.

Ab8k naamand
bux im8lul,
baand,
a- y8nxi
a n6 Son surviving-woman
he put-on-his-head
& he(op) came,
also kindling,
(His step-brothor
also loaded the kindling
onto his head and came home)
76. Te
ab8k naamand
baaxp
a na-chax
ri baar, a na-tota
ri
Till
& he died
in' hole & he was-pulled
son surviving-woman
from hole,
(UnUl his
died in the hole and when he was being pulled
step-brother
Out Of the hole, )
77.

a na - ruka
(T/P)
& she
(she wan left

toti
p8m ' ruk,
pull-here
corpoo left
with a corpse to pull

78. A- ba.
It
finished.
(The story is finished.

309

a pa-ruka
& it (r/p)
out and it

ijuas
ruk.
left.
coal
came to be all

cazrbonized

BIBLIOGRAPHY

is
to which specific
books and articles
reference
together
in
the
thesis,
the
the
in
with
others
realm
some
of
course
made
helpful
Full
been
in
its
have
linguistics
preparation.
which
of general
This Bibliography

bibliographical
language itself

lists

details

relating
of articles
1.1
Chapter
in
are given

directly

(1963)
A Structure-Function
T.
J.
Bendor-Samuel
Phrases; Canadian Journal of Lingniistics,
(1969)
Holtv
Social Anthropology;
P.
Bohannan

to the Manjako

Description
of Terena
Vol. 8, No. 2 PP- 59 - 70.
Rinehart and Winston.

Inc.
(1968)
World,
Brace
Harcourt,
Languae;
Aspects
and
D.
of
Bolinger
(1955)
Classification;.
Studies in African Linguistic
H.
J.
Greenberg
Compass, Newhaven.
Columbia University,
Indiana
(1963)
Bloomington,
The Languages of Africa;
University.
17,3
(1961)
Grammar;
L10-rd
Theory
the
Categories
of
K.
19. A.
of
Halliday
pp. 241 - 292.
(1964) with McIntosh A. and Strevens P. The Linguistic
Sciences and Language Teaching; London, Longmans2Green.
(1967a)
Notes on transitivity
and theme in English Paxt'2;
3 PP. 199 - 244.
Journal of Linguisticst
(1967b)
Some Aspects of the Thematic Organization
of the
(memorandum
RAND
Corporation
The
English Clause; Santa Monica,
RM-5224-PR)in the
(1969)
Options and functions
clause;
-nglish
No. 8 pp. 81 - 88.
Brno Studies in English,
(1970)
Language Structure
and Language Punctionj;
Lyons J. (Ed. ), PP. 140 - 165,
New Horizons in Linguistics,
R; c-n-Kw; c-r
- -tT: Penguin Books.,
Homburger L. (1941)
Les langues n6gro-africaines
(later
Paris
Parlent;
Payot,
ed. 1957).
Hudson R. A. (1971)
Complex Sentences;
English
Grammar; North-Holland.

et les
Introduction

peuples
to

qui

les

Systemic

S. V1. (1854)
Polyglotta
Africana;
Church Missionary
Society', London.
Reprint,
Fourah Bay College, The University
o Sierra Leone 1963Longacro R. E. (1970) Hierarchy in Language; Method and Theory in
( Janua Lingu=lm,
Series Maior 40; The Hague, Mouton)
Linpuistics
pp. 173 - 195.
Introduction
to Theoretical
Linguistics;
Lyons J. (1969)
Cambridge
University
Press.
Koello

Martinet

(1949)

About Cultural

Sketches; Word V, 35 PP. 13 - 35.

T. W. H. (1913) The Languages of West Africa II; London, Kegan


Paul, Trench, TrUbner.
Pickett V. (1960) The Grammatical Hierarchy of Isthmus Zapotec; '
Language 36.1
Pike X. L. (1966) Tagmemicand Matrix Linguistics
applied to Selected
African Languages; U. S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare,
Office of Education.
in a Narrative;
Taber C. R.. (1969) The Identification
of Participants
The Bible Translator Vol. 20 No. 3.
ThomasElaine (1969) A Grammatical Description of the Engenni Language;
Ph. D. Thesisv University of London.
Westermann,D. and Bryan M.A. (1952) The Languages of Africa;
Handbook
Part
III
London.
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African
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I'ligeot,