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nite element methods of analysis

Thomas Telford

Published by Thomas Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Limited, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD.

URL: http://www.t-telford.co.uk

Distributors for Thomas Telford books are

USA: ASCE Press, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400

Japan: Maruzen Co. Ltd, Book Department, 310 Nihonbashi 2-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103

Australia: DA Books and Journals, 648 Whitehorse Road, Mitcham 3132, Victoria

First published 1999

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 0 7277 2757 5

# F. Guarracino and A. Walker, and Thomas Telford Limited, 1999

All rights, including translation, reserved. Except for fair copying, no part of this publication may be

reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Books Publisher, Thomas

Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Limited, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD.

This book is published on the understanding that the authors are solely responsible for the statements

made and opinions expressed in it and that its publication does not necessarily imply that such statements

and/or opinions are or reect the views of the publishers.

Typeset by Academic Technical Typesetting, Bristol

Printed and bound in Great Britain by Bookcraft (Bath) Limited

Preface

The last two centuries have witnessed an impressive development in the

size and complexity of engineering structures. During the early part of

the 19th century much of the design analysis was based on empiricism

and experience. The latter half of the 1800s saw the inception of methods giving insight to the forces generated in frame structures due to

external eects, such as gravity, wind and thermal radiation. Supreme

examples of the complexity of structures that could be constructed on

the basis of these hand calculation methods are the Eiel Tower (Fig. 1)

and the Forth Bridge (Fig. 2). These structures are evidently robust

and their continued use is a tribute to the skill of the engineers to

apply the analysis methods available to them and to ensure that the

structures incorporated adequate levels of safety to compensate for

the engineers' ignorance of the detailed forces and deformations in

the elements of their structures.

The methods that were available to structural and mechanical

engineers from 1860 to 1950 were based essentially on energy principles

and on the requirements of equilibrium of forces and compatibility of

deformations. These factors, basically, still underlie all the current

methods of structural analysis. The major change in the intervening

years since the last quarter of the 19th century has been the possibility

of applying the methods to even more complex forms of structures and

the possibility of extending the linear analysis into the non-linear

regime to examine the failure modes of the structures.

The advent of structures such as aircraft and airships, and their

development during the period 19001930 emphasised the need for

the design of minimum weight structures which implied that the very

large levels of conservatism incorporated in bridge and building

design had to be reduced. The methods available to airship designers

were adequate to allow them to calculate the forces in the quite complex shapes of wires and beams that formed the frames of the ships.

An example of this is given in Fig. 3, which shows an airship called

the R27 on the right. The photograph shows the bulkhead between

iv

Preface

gas bags. The bulkhead was formed by an outer ring frame supported

from an inner hub by tensioned wires, much like the construction of a

bicycle wheel. The novelist Nevil Shute1 was an engineer working on a

later airship called the R100, a sister ship of the ill-fated R101, which

had a similar bulkhead, and he describes how he and a colleague

worked together for many weeks calculating day after day the tensions

in the wires until eventually their analysis converged to satisfy force

equilibrium and deformation compatibility requirements.

This higher degree of analysis complexity was required for airships to

maintain their low weights but, in general, for bridges and framed

1

Preface

buildings the level of analysis was much less sophisticated which meant

that the estimation of the real forces in the members of structures could

be quite inaccurate. However, reliance on experience and factors of

safety enabled a satisfactory approach to the design and construction

vi

Preface

of bridges during the rst half of the 20th century. The analysis of

complex structures such as aircraft and ships was based on formulations derived from experience, testing and the results of research and

specialist analysis performed on elements such as plates and curved

shells.

It was widely appreciated that the availability of analysis capabilities

that would supply many more accurate details on the deformations

and loads in structural elements in complex structures, and that

could be applied in a commercial environment, would provide engineers with the facility to design structures with specied levels of

safety and with greater economy of materials. More particularly, however, the growth of the aerospace industry, with supersonic military

and passenger aircraft ying at very great altitudes, and the need to

design huge oshore structures and ships with high levels of structural

eciency and the ability to withstand extreme environmental loads,

provided a signicant spur to develop more eective structural analysis

capabilities. The major innovation that has enabled success to be

achieved came not from the mechanical or structural engineers but

from electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists. They have

made available extremely powerful computing capabilities that

enable tasks, such as those tackled by Nevil Shute, to be completed

in a few seconds instead of weeks and at very much greater structural

detail. The present generation of structural and mechanical engineers

has access to powerful computers and programs that enable designers

routinely to evaluate the strains and displacements in very complex

structures and thus to rene the form of their structure to obtain

greater economic and technical eciency. Figs 46 are a few examples

of structures that have been designed during the last 20 years using

computer-based analysis methods.

This book presents a unied development of the analysis principles

and methods that are currently embodied in computer analysis programs. The development is founded on fundamental energy principles,

particularly the law of conservation of energy, and proceeds through a

uniform yet essentially rigorous approach by gradually introducing the

reader to variational principles and thus deriving the underlying

approaches in frame and nite element analysis. It is the authors'

experience in teaching structural analysis methods, and applying

them in practice, that in text books the presentations of the basis of

energy methods and frame and nite element analysis can too often

be confusing and lead engineers to misunderstand the results they

obtain from the application of these methods. In fact, in many cases,

because engineers do not have a sucient understanding of the principles underlying nite elements, they treat computer analysis as a `black

Preface

vii

box' and take an uncritical approach to the results from the analyses.

This, we feel, is dangerous since a computer analysis will nearly always

achieve some result from the calculations, but this does not necessarily

imply that the result is appropriate to the structure being designed.

In preparing this book we have followed a logical structure that will

enable the reader to follow the development of the nite element and

frame analysis methods from fundamental energy principles through

to the type of formulations that are embedded in commercial nite

element programs. The emphasis in the development is on strain, compatibility of deformations and energy. Stress is considered as a less

important, secondary concept calculated from the strains in a structure,

so that it practically plays no part in the theoretical basis of the analysis

methods. Our intention is to provide engineers with an understanding

that allows them to interpret results from nite element analyses and

to determine what the results mean in a physical sense. The presentation

in the text encompasses methods of structural analysis that can be used

to provide simplied formulations in particular cases and enable the

investigation of parametric variation without recourse to lengthy computation. Our experience is that these methods, such as those proposed

by Rayleigh, Cotterill, Castigliano and others, are very valuable during

preliminary design where a `feel' for the structure's capability to resist

the applied loads is being investigated. The text shows that these simplifying methods are one step towards the computer-based methods used

in the design oce. By basing the development in this text rmly on

viii

Preface

and the trial function methods proposed by Rayleigh and Ritz lead

directly to practical computer methods without any recourse to additional and somewhat misleading aspects such as the concept, sometimes

introduced in other treatments, of cutting a structure up into totally

independent elements and then imposing equilibrium at discrete

points, i.e. the node joining elements.

This book is essentially an introductory text and therefore deals with

a linear elastic treatment of structural analysis. However, we feel it is

important that the reader is made aware of at least one of the limitations of this form of analysis. As structural forms become evermore

ecient in their use of materials the possibility of failure by buckling

becomes an important factor. This aspect is introduced in the last

Preface

ix

chapter of this book to show how geometric non-linearity can be introduced into nite element and frame analysis. Of course, this type of

non-linearity leading to failure in practical structures is only one

facet of the limit state behaviour of structures. The other facets such

as material non-linearity, local buckling and the eects of the variations in structural geometry are reserved for consideration in a

future text.

F. Guarracino

A. Walker

Acknowledgement

This book has been a long time in gestation. During that period, our

wives have shown considerable forbearance over the time we have

spent discussing the contents of the book and developing the presentation.

We are truly grateful to Angela and Barbara, without whose patience

and encouragement this book would never have seen the light of day.

Contents

1

Introduction

1.1 Work and energy

1.2 The principle of conservation of energy

1.3 Equilibrium of mechanical systems

Introduction

2.1 Equilibrium of rigid bodies

2.2 A general innitesimal displacement kinematics for

systems of rigid bodies

2.3 Reactions of constraints

2.4 Internal reactions for a straight beam

2.5 A three-dimensional example

Suggested exercise problems

11

11

11

Introduction

3.1 Deformation properties in one dimension

3.2 One-dimensional thermal strain

3.3 Three-dimensional strain

3.4 Straindisplacement relationships

3.5 Simplications possible when deformations are

very small

3.6 Deformation in the neighbourhood of an

arbitrary point

3.7 Transformation of the components of strain with

the change of reference frame

3.8 Principal directions of deformation. Maximum

and minimum extensions

3.9 Plane strain

3.10 Straindisplacement compatibility conditions

49

49

50

58

60

63

1

1

1

5

9

20

33

35

43

46

67

70

73

75

78

79

xii

Contents

3.12 Yield criteria

Suggested exercise problems

4

81

87

91

Introduction

4.1 Deformation of axially loaded bars

4.2 Deformation of beams

4.3 The theory of very small displacements

4.4 Euler's method for the analysis of beam deformations

4.5 The boundary conditions associated with Euler's

equation of beam deformation

4.6 Example of application of Euler's method of beam

deformation for a beam with a variable depth

4.7 Approximate solution of Euler's equation of beam

deformation using the method of nite dierences

4.8 Applied displacements and constraint reactions

4.9 Eects of temperature changes

Suggested exercise problems

93

93

95

98

102

105

Introduction

5.1 The principle of superposition of the eects in the

linear theory of elasticity (existence and uniqueness

of the solution)

5.2 Reciprocal theorems in the linear theory of elasticity

141

141

Introduction

6.1 The principle of the stationary value of total

potential energy

6.2 Two important remarks regarding the principle of

stationary value of total potential energy

6.3 CotterillCastigliano's rst theorem

6.4 CotterillCastigliano's second theorem in the linear

theory of elasticity

6.5 Numerical example: frame analysis by

CotterillCastigliano's theorem

Suggested exercise problems

151

151

154

155

Introduction

7.1 The basis of the method of trial functions

169

169

170

111

116

121

126

130

137

142

147

151

158

160

166

Contents

7.3 The quality of the trial function

7.4 Numerical example: the method of trial functions

applied to a cantilever with linearly varying depth

7.5 The systematic search for a trial function

7.6 Localised Rayleigh functions

7.7 Numerical example: application of Rayleigh

localised trial functions to the analysis of a frame

Suggested exercise problems

8

10

xiii

173

178

183

187

189

199

203

Introduction

8.1 Plane pin-jointed structures as systems of axially

loaded bars

8.2 Matrix formulation of the elastic equilibrium

equations for plane pin-jointed structures

8.3 Numerical example: analysis of a truss

8.4 Matrix analysis of pin-jointed space structures

Suggested exercise problems

205

205

Introduction

9.1 Plane rigid-jointed frame structures as systems

of beams

9.2 Matrix formulation of the elastic equilibrium

equations for plane rigid-jointed frames

9.3 Numerical example: analysis of a rigid jointed frame

9.4 Matrix analysis of space frames

9.5 Equivalent joint loads

9.6 Restraint displacements

9.7 Some nal remarks on the matrix analysis of

structures

Suggested exercise problems

233

233

Introduction

10.1 Kirchho's model of plate deformation

10.2 Equilibrium of stretched plates

10.3 Equilibrium of bent plates.

10.4 An example of the method of trial function for the

solution of bending plates.

10.5 More examples of application of simple trial

functions to plate bending

267

267

269

270

274

206

212

221

226

230

233

240

245

249

254

259

261

263

286

290

xiv

Contents

plate bending

11

12

Introduction

11.1 Sub-division of a structure into nite elements

11.2 Displacement functions and shape functions

11.3 Element mapping and intrinsic coordinates

isoparametric elements

11.4 Convergence criteria for the displacement

functions the patch test

11.5 Some general families of shape functions

11.6 Strain energy, work of applied loads and equilibrium

equations

11.7 Evaluation of stiness matrices and equivalent nodal

loads numerical integration

11.8 Numerical example: analysis of a compressed

foundation

295

303

303

305

307

314

318

323

330

335

341

beamcolumns

Introduction

12.1 The concept of stability. Initial buckling of columns

12.2 Energy criterion of stability

12.3 Some illustrative examples of stability conditions.

Branching points and limit points.

12.4 Euler's equation of beam deformation in the

presence of axial loads

12.5 Analytical treatment of some examples of columns

12.6 Method of trial functions for the initial buckling

of columns

12.7 Localised trial functions applied to the initial

buckling of struts

12.8 Method of trial functions for the initial buckling

of frames

12.9 Analysis of a frame loaded by vertical and

lateral loads

12.10 Localised trial function analysis of frame buckling

Suggested exercise problems

404

408

417

Index

421

353

353

353

357

358

365

372

384

391

399

1.

Introduction

This chapter introduces the concepts of work and energy that are the

basic building blocks of the methods of analysis that are developed

later in the textbook. We take as self-evident the concept of force and

follow Newton's1 approach that a force is an inuence that causes

changes in displacements and velocities within a dened mechanical

system. A force may also cause deformation of a body and is represented

by a vector that impinges on a body along a specied line of action.

This chapter proposes a denition for equilibrium and establishes a

test for the equilibrium of a body in a given frame of reference.

1.1

moving its point of application along a certain path. For example,

given a force P (assumed constant) and a displacement s

A2 A1 of its point of application (Fig. 1.1), we will dene the

work done by the force as the scalar product

W P s P A2 A1

1:1

W Px sx Fy sy

1:2

at a certain time t can be dened by

dW Ps t ds

1:3

the component of the force P at the time t in the same direction (Fig.

1.2).

1

and mathematician, one of the most prominent gures in the history of modern science.

Sx

A2

Sy

A1

P

Py

x

Px

Fig. 1.1

written as

a1

Ps ds

1:4

a0

multiplied by a length (that is F L) and this concept encompasses

moment times rotation, and pressure times change of volume: these

all being products characterised by the same physical dimensions.

Work is performed when we apply a moment to the stopper in order

to open a bottle, or when we inate a balloon by increasing its internal

pressure (Fig. 1.3).

It appears thus natural to introduce the concept of energy as the

capability of a system to perform work.

a1

a0

Ps

Fig. 1.2

Fig. 1.3

by, or on the system

E W

1:5

work stored in the system itself. It is worth noting that, according to

this denition, we are concerned only with changes of energy. In

fact, as we will see later, the absolute value of energy of a system is

not relevant to our purposes.

Dierent forms of energy can be recognised in nature. A body with a

mass m moving at a certain speed v can move another resting body by

hitting it; the rst body is said to possess a form of energy relative to

the stationary body that is called kinetic energy (Fig. 1.4).

The moving body can deform an elastic spring which, in turn, can

push the impinging body away by exerting a force on it (Fig. 1.5).

The spring is thus able to possess what is dened as elastic energy.

Heat is a form of energy: this can be illustrated by heating a pot of

water and arranging the pressure of the vapour to lift a weight, which

v*2

m2

m2

m1

v*1

v1

m1

Fig. 1.4

l0

l < l0

Fig. 1.5

was of course the primary source of power of the Industrial Revolution. This is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 1.6. Other examples

of energy are found in chemical and nuclear reactions.

Appropriate mathematical expressions can be derived to quantify

the energy gained or lost by a system. We say, for example, that

within a certain coordinate frame a mass m moving at a velocity v

possesses the kinetic energy described by the formula

K 12 mv2

1:6

reference which for many engineering calculations can conveniently be

taken as xed to the Earth's surface. It is convenient to use the convention that when the body is stationary in that particular reference frame

it has zero kinetic energy. However, relative to another frame, say one

xed on the Sun, the body has considerable velocity and is seen to

possess kinetic energy.

In a nuclear reaction an absolute energy can be attributed, according

to the theory of relativity, to a mass m by

E mc2

1:7

H2O

Fig. 1.6

the frame of reference.

To sum up, it is very important to bear in mind that energy is a

general property attributed to all systems and bodies in nature. The

universal nature of energy provides the foundation for the treatment

of structural mechanics which is developed here.

1.2

Thermodynamics, is a general axiom founded on the presumption that,

in the absence of any interaction with the environment, the energy of a

given system remains constant in the passage from one state to

another.

In other words, energy is not created or destroyed in a system

isolated from its environment and, consequently, the only possible

variation is given by the exact amount of exchange of energy or,

what is equivalent, work with other systems.

In the following text such a system, which experiences only internal

changes of state without interaction with external agents, is called a

closed system. Strictly speaking, no perfectly closed systems are found

in nature, since there is always some interaction between all material

bodies of the universe across nite systems. Nevertheless, the concept

of a closed system is a very useful approximation, both from a theoretical and a practical point of view, and is employed extensively in the

development of our analytical methods.

Everyone has experienced the exchange of heat by conduction that

takes place between two bodies at dierent temperatures or the phenomenon of heat generation by friction. The principle of conservation

of energy requires that in a closed system in the rst case the sum of the

heat of the two bodies remains constant, as well as in the second case

the sum of the work performed against friction and the heat produced

is a constant value.

This principle can be summarised in the following mathematical

statement, valid for any closed system

E const:

1:8

will now be restricted to two basic ways of exchanging energy: namely,

mechanical work W and heating Q.

Henceforth, we can write the principle of conservation of energy in

the following form

E W Q

1:9

P

l

l'

Fig. 1.7

work done on or by the system and Q is the amount of heat exchanged.

We will assume that the positive sign is for the work done on the system

and the heat given to it; the negative sign holds for work done by the

system and heat taken from it. Equation (1.9) is sucient to link the

variations of energy of a given system to its changes of state, that is

the changes of temperature, position or shape of its component parts.

In fact, the state of a mechanical system can be described by a number

of independent geometrical variables together with one thermodynamic

variable, say the temperature T. In mechanics these geometrical

variables are called generalised coordinates and the number of such

coordinates n required to specify completely the state of the system is

equal to the number of degrees of freedom less, of course, the geometrical constraints imposed at the system boundary. This is exemplied

later in the text.

For the sake of clarity, let us now consider the simple structural

element shown in Fig. 1.7, i.e. a bar subject to forces P at both ends.

It is natural to assume as the parameters dening the state of the

system to be its actual length l 0 and its temperature T. The initial temperature of the element is T0 and its corresponding length is l. A zero

value of energy is attributed to this initial state which is acceptable since

we are interested in measuring, by denition, the variation of energy.

When the system undergoes an innitesimal change of state, from

the principle of conservation of energy (equation (1.9)) we have

dE dW dQ

1:10

where, by denition,

dW P dl

1:11

If the material is linearly elastic, the following relationship can be

stated between the deformation and both the applied force and variation of temperature

l l 0 l

P

lT T0

k

1:12

are constants for the material and the element, at least for small changes

in temperature.

Further, the following relationship can be assumed between the heat

exchanged by the system and its temperature:

dQ C dT

1:13

provided the coecient of heat capacity C is not a function of temperature or stiness; which experimentally is accurate for a limited temperature range and small deformations. The requirement in equation

(1.13) is adequate for the type of mechanics considered here.

By means of equations (1.11), (1.12) and (1.13), equation (1.10)

becomes

dE C dT kl l T T0 dl

1:14

ET; l 0 C T T0 12 k l 2 kl l T T0 A

1:15

T T0 and l 0 l, we have in this case

ET0 ; l CT0 T0 12 k l l2 kl l l T0 T0 A

0

1:16

A0

1:17

ET; l 0 CT T0 12 k l 2 kl l T T0

1:18

and

This expression constitutes the denition of the internal energy E of

the structural member in term of its variables of state, i.e. its actual

length l 0 and its temperature T.

In the same manner, from equation (1.9), we can derive the expression of the energy possessed by a body of mass m dened as a point

moving along a straight path at a certain velocity v, as illustrated in

Fig. 1.8.

Let us assume that the body is motionless at the beginning of the

path and attribute zero energy to this initial state. Subsequent states

of the system will be dened by a single variable; the most convenient

variable is the position x along the straight path. According to the

second of Newton's laws, a force must be applied to the body in

order to move it along its direction.

v=0

m

Fig. 1.8

This force will produce a variation of velocity with the time t given

by the formula

dx_

1:19

dt

where the force Ft is considered as a function of time and the dot

represents the derivative with respect to the time, i.e.

Ft m

dx

1:20

dt

Equation (1.9) states, in absence of any exchange of heat energy, that

v x_

dE dW

1:21

dx_

dx

dt

Thus, using equation (1.20)

dW m

1:22

dE mx_ dx_

1:23

x_ v, and yields

E 12 mv2

1:24

This is the expression that was stated earlier, see equation (1.6), and

represents the energy possessed by the body due to its velocity v, i.e.

the rate of change of its state variable x with respect to time.

kinetic energy, and the derivation of equation (1.24) provides a basis

for the denition of equation (1.6).

1.3

motionless and experiences no change of state within a specied

frame of reference, i.e. all the geometrical variables required to specify

completely the position of the system in the space do not change for all

time. This is a common sense denition that provides engineers with a

valuable operational approach to the analysis and design of real structures. In the case of simple thermodynamic systems this intuitive concept can be extended to all the state variables of the system; that is to

say, the geometrical variables plus the temperature T.

We want now to establish a condition of equilibrium for mechanical

systems in terms of energy. This will form the basis of our ability to

predict the state of equilibrium of bodies subjected to any specied

system of forces. Later, the condition of equilibrium is further

extended to enable the analysis of complex structures to evaluate

their global and local deformations. Without loss of generality to

our purposes we shall restrict our attention to the case of absence of

heat exchange and assume dQ 0.

Evidently, if a motionless system has no rate of change in its geometrical variables xi with time, this means

dxi

0

dt

1:25

The kinetic energy of the system is thus constant and can be set equal

to zero. That is

X

1

_2

K

1:26

2 mi xi 0

i

are nite and positive quantities. In this case a generalised mass can be

thought of as asssociated with a certain geometrical variable xi .

Vice versa, if equation (1.26) holds then equation (1.25) must be

true, since the mass must always be positive, and the two statements

are therefore equivalent. This means that we can state the constant

zero value of kinetic energy as the condition of equilibrium for a

mechanical system.

As we assumed dQ 0, the energy of a mechanical system in equilibrium reduces itself to the strain energy U. This kind of energy is

10

related to the deformation of the system: in equation (1.18), for example, it is represented by the term 1=2k l 2 kl0 l T T0 . This

aspect of the energy is considered in greater detail in chapter 3.

For the moment, we can state that for a mechanical system in

equilibrium we have, from the principle of conservation of energy

(equation (1.10)),

dE dU dW

1:27

the system tends to produce only deformation of the system itself and

does not produce any kind of motion.

Importantly, equation (1.27) can be used to obtain a practical test of

equilibrium for mechanical systems. Let us consider a mechanical

system in a state of equilibrium and suppose that on account of the

geometrical constraints it could actually be able to move. We can

then apply to it a trial displacement eld; this is dened to be a eld

of displacements that have innitesimal magnitude and are compatible

with the constraints on the system, but are imaginary and do not

actually occur. Such a trial eld will be denoted with the symbol ,

and the same symbol will be used for all the variations in any quantity

aected by the same set of displacements. These quantities will be

called virtual to underline the fact that they could take place but in

actual fact are imaginary.

As the system has been dened to be in equilibrium, equation (1.27)

holds for any trial set of displacements and we have

U W

1:28

This relationship is at the same time a condition and a test of equilibrium. Thus, if the condition in equation (1.28) is satised for any

eld of displacements then equation (1.27) is true and we have

dK 0: this means that the kinetic energy of the system is constant

and equal to zero and the system is in equilibrium.

Alternatively, we can simply specify any possible set of displacements of the system and verify that equation (1.28) is satised: this

operation constitutes a practical test of equilibrium.

This very important approach, which is central to engineering

mechanics, is explored in detail throughout this book. In the following

chapter our study starts with the equilibrium of simple systems of rigid

bodies.

2.

systems of rigid bodies

Introduction

deformable, common sense tells us that some systems can be treated

as being composed of components that are essentially rigid, that is

undeformable. An example of such a system would be a collection of

billiard balls that move about the table and travel quite large distances

compared to their diameters. When the balls collide there will be some

deformation of the diameter, but this is so small compared to the

dimension of the diameter and to the distances moved that the deformations can be completely ignored in the calculation of the movements

of the balls.

This approach is very important in engineering mechanics since it is

not uncommon for a structure to experience both global and local

displacements. Another example of this division is the movement of

an aircraft that as part of its function may travel many thousands of

kilometres in ight and have extensive vertical movement in response

to air currents and turbulence. These same aerodynamic eects will

also cause exing of the wings. The deformations in the exing are

very small compared to the global body movements so that the

global movements are usually calculated on the basis that the aircraft

is a rigid body. The local deformations of the wing are calculated in

separate analyses with the aircraft modelled as being stationary in a

dened frame of reference.

This chapter presents the practice of using energy principles to evaluate the equilibrium of systems of rigid bodies with respect to applied

loading.

2.1

We will dene as rigid a body whose distance between any pair of its

points remains unchanged for any transformation and for all time.

12

can be approximated to be rigid on account of their very limited deformations. More generally speaking, we can say that any displacements

within the body are negligible compared to the gross displacement

experienced by the body itself.

According to this denition, for a rigid body, or system of bodies,

dl 0 for any pair of its points and thus

U0

and

dU 0

2:1

condition of equilibrium (equation (1.28)) becomes

W 0

2:2

which requires the work done by the external forces for any eld of

virtual displacements to be zero. This equation is generally known as

the principle of stationary work. In the case of rigid bodies it is possible

to perform this test of equilibrium in a very simple manner as the components of any innitesimal displacement eld can be represented in

terms of linear diagrams.

Let us start from the analysis of a rigid body free from any constraints on its movements in the two-dimensional Cartesian space

(i.e. in our case a plane whose points are referred to coordinates relative to two mutually orthogonal axis; essentially this idea was introduced by Descartes1 ). Its positions will be completely dened by the

coordinates of two of its points or, alternatively, by the coordinates

of one point and an angle of rotation in the plane. We say that the

body possesses three degrees of freedom and we call these parameters

(i.e. the two coordinates of a xed point and the angle of rotation)

Lagrangian coordinates (after Lagrange2 ). The numbers of degrees of

freedom can be determined, at least for simple collections of bodies,

by counting the number of coordinates that are needed to draw the

xed shapes of the bodies in some arbitrary position.

To x our ideas consider a simple rigid bar (Fig. 2.1) subject to two

forces PA and PB at the ends A and B. As an eect of its denition,

a rigid bar is one that cannot deform by bending or stretching and can

only experience rigid body movements.

To describe the position of the bar in the xy space we choose as

Lagrangian coordinates, for example, the coordinates of the extremity

1

Descartes, Rene (La Haye, Touraine, 1596 Stockholm, 1650), French mathematician and philosopher.

2

Lagrange, Joseph-Louis (Turin, 1736 Paris, 1813), Italian mathematician of French

origins.

13

B

C

P (A)

P (B)

y

d (C)

Fig. 2.1

The angle of rotation is assumed positive when anticlockwise. This

description of the system means that the coordinates of any point,

say C, along the axis of the bar can be expressed with respect to the

coordinates of the point A, xA and yA, to the angle and to the

distance dC from the end point A

xC xA dC cos

2:3

yC yA dC sin

2:4

The new coordinates x0 C and y0 C of a point at distance dC

from the extremity A are given by the relationships

x0 C x0 A dC cos0

0

2:5

y C y A dC sin

2:6

and the angle assumed by the displaced bar, respectively.

B

C

u (C)

u (A)

y

'

A

Fig. 2.2

B

C

14

If instead of an actual nite displacement we consider a virtual displacement eld, the virtual movement can be dened by

0

Therefore, equations (2.5) and (2.6) become

2:7

3

2:8

2:9

Now, since the virtual displacement eld is required to be innitesimal, for small displacements expand the terms sin and cos in

the following manner

cos0

sin0 2

2:10

1!

2!

sin0

cos0 2

2:11

cos cos0

1!

2!

and take into consideration only the rst order terms in the above series;

that is, we can assume 2 , 4 ; . . . 1 and 3 , 5 ; . . . , and

hence

sin sin0

sin

2:12

cos 1

2:13

x0 C x0 A dC cos dC sin

0

y C y A dC sin dC cos

2:14

2:15

x0 C x0 A dx C dy C

2:16

yC yA dy C dx C

2:17

the components of the distance dC along the axes x and y.

Let us denote with ux x0 x and uy y0 y the components of

the virtual displacement of a chosen point. By subtracting equation

(2.3) from equation (2.16) and equation (2.4) from equation (2.17)

we obtain

ux C ux A dy C

2:18

uy C uy A dx C

2:19

Note: cos cos cos sin sin and sin sin cos cos sin .

15

ux

uy

Fig. 2.3

the points of the element we get two straight lines that constitute the

diagrams of the displacement components, as shown in Fig. 2.3.

Let us now write down the condition of equilibrium equation (2.2)

following on from the relationships in equations (2.18) and (2.19).

Dening Px and Py , respectively, as the components of the generic

force P along the axes x and y, we have

W Px A ux A Py A uy A Px Bux A ly

Py Buy A lx 0

2:20

W Px A Px B ux A Py A Py B uy A

Px Bly Py Blx 0

2:21

ux A, uy A and are totally arbitrary and independent. Therefore, in order to satisfy equation (2.21), each of the terms separately

must equal zero, and equation (2.21) can be replaced by the following

three equations

Px A Px B 0

2:22

Py A Py B 0

2:23

Px Bly Py Blx 0

2:24

16

being sucient to describe the actual position of the body and this,

by the requirement of zero virtual work, will automatically give

three independent equations of equilibrium.

The equilibrium conditions may also be expressed as

Px A Px B

2:25

Py A Py B

2:26

ly Py B

lx Px B

2:27

which means that the forces PA and PB must have the same direction of the axis of the element and be opposite in direction for the

system to be in equilibrium, as shown in Fig. 2.4.

The application of zero virtual work shown above provides exactly

the same result as we would have arrived at using Newton's Laws. In

fact, equations (2.22) to (2.24) are equivalent to

.

.

.

Summation

P of vertical components of the forces being equal to

zero, i.e.

Py 0.

Summation P

of horizontal components of the forces being equal

to zero, i.e.

Px 0

Summation of the P

moments about some point in the plan being

equal to zero, i.e.

M 0.

However, the approach leading to equations (2.25) to (2.27) is somewhat more advantageous than the Newtonian method. A merit of the

energy approach is that in the case of complex systems it may be

relatively simpler for engineers to decide on the numbers of degrees

of freedom than to decide on how many equilibrium equations are

valid. In fact, the energy method automatically determines the correct

number and format of the equilibrium equations.

So far we have dealt with a rigid but unconstrained body. As a

further step and as an example of a constrained body let us now consider the same rigid bar hinged at one end (Fig. 2.5).

B

P(B)

ly

A

P(A)

Fig. 2.4

lx

17

B

P(B)

Fig. 2.5

not possible any more, so ux A and uy A are both zero. We are

thus left with a single degree of freedom, determined by the Lagrangian

coordinate . Any virtual displacement eld will be dened by the

variation .

Applying a force PB at the point B, the work requirement in equation (2.2) can be written

W Px Bly Py Blx 0

2:28

ly Py B

lx Px B

2:29

This requires that the direction of the applied force is along the axis of

the bar.

A further and particular merit of the energy approach is that it automatically rules out the presence of constraint reactions in absence of

friction.

The situation becomes slightly more complicated dealing with a

system of rigid bodies mutually constrained. As usual, it is rst of all

necessary to identify the number of Lagrangian parameters required

to completely dene the position of the system in the Cartesian

space. We have already seen that in the Cartesian two-dimensional

space a rigid unconstrained body possesses three degrees of freedom.

With reference to the hinged rigid bar in Fig. 2.5 this number has

reduced to one because a point of the bar is xed in the space and

no displacements are allowed at that point.

From observation, we can intuitively state a formula that provides

the number of degrees of freedom of a rigid body in two-dimensional

18

C

A

Fig. 2.6

space, i.e.

f 3c

2:30

of simple constraints applied. In the case of the hinged bar (Fig. 2.5),

c 2 because two components of translation are eliminated at the

point A.

If we are dealing with a system of rigid bodies mutually constrained,

equation (2.30) may be re-written as

f 3b c

2:31

emphasised, however, that in this case we can also have relative constraints, i.e. constraints limiting the mutual positions of the bodies.

As an example of this, consider the system shown in Fig. 2.6. This

gure shows two rigid bars mutually hinged. One bar is also attached

to the foundation by another hinge and the other is constrained to slide

parallel to the foundation at the point C. The number of simple

constraints is thus given by the sum of two, due to the hinge, plus

one, due to the sliding support, plus two, due to the internal hinge

(once the position of one of the two members is dened the internal

hinge suppresses two degrees of freedom for the other). We have

therefore

f 3b c 3 2 2 1 2 6 5 1

2:32

This means that all the congurations of the system can be determined

by a single coordinate, which can be the angle of rotation of the rst

rigid bar member or the y-coordinate of the central hinge, yB.

This can be conrmed by sketching the bodies at some arbitrary position and noting that only one angle has to be dened to enable the

sketch to be completed, as is shown in Fig. 2.7.

B

19

uy (B)

y

Fig. 2.7

drawn, see Fig. 2.8, the equation of equilibrium (2.2) can be very

straightforwardly written for any system of forces acting upon the

system.

It is worth noting that we have zero displacements for points A and

B, which are therefore xed centres of rotation, and consequently we

see zero values in both diagrams. Moreover, we read the same value

for the components of displacement in correspondence to the internal

hinge, which is a relative centre of rotation.

This concept is more fully claried in the following section, where

kinematics of systems of rigid bodies for innitesimal displacement

elds will be systematically developed.

ux

uy

Fig. 2.8

20

2.2

systems of rigid bodies

space, i.e. a plane, possesses three degrees of freedom and that for an

innitesimal rotation we may assume

sin

2:33

cos 1

2:34

of rigid bodies. Now a more general theory for the kinematics of rigid

bodies will be developed which will allow us to deal with any system of

rigid bodies mutually connected in the two-dimensional space. Once

these concepts are fully stated, the extension to the three-dimensional

Cartesian space will be briey discussed.

We begin our discourse by introducing the following theorem,

proposed by Euler4 :

Every displacement of a two-dimensional rigid body in a plane can be reduced to a

translation or a rotation about an axis normal to the plane.

This is true in general and holds both for innitesimal and nite displacement elds. We are not going to demonstrate this theorem, but the

reader will nd it easy to verify the generality of the theorem by trial

sketches. In fact, once two points A and B have been chosen on a

rigid body, by denition the line AB will retain the same length for

any displacement of the body. Dening A0 B 0 as the position of the

line after the displacement has occurred, it is straightforward to recognise that in every instance we can bring AB on A0 B 0 (and therefore

the whole body) by means of a simple translation or a rotation.

Conversely, it is worth noting that, dealing with innitesimal displacement elds, we can take the normal to the radius for the arc, as

shown in Fig. 2.9; actually, this is the geometrical meaning of formulae

(2.12) and (2.13), i.e. taking the rst-order terms only in the series of

equations (2.10) and (2.11).

In the present section we will assume that all the displacements are

innitesimal and their components will be simply indicated as ux and

uy . Rotations from the reference conguration, which also are assumed

to be innitesimal, will be simply indicated by .

In this case the kinematics of a free body is extremely simple; once

we have dened the centre of rotation (which is a proper one in the

4

several fundamental contributions to the mechanics of structures.

21

A

A'

Fig. 2.9

case of a rotation and an improper one in the case of a simple translation), we can project this point on the axes where we are drawing the

components of displacement. When the centre is a proper one, its displacement is zero, otherwise the centre is said to be at innity and this

means that all the points have the same components of displacement.

In fact, a translation is nothing more than an act of rotation having its

centre at an innite distance, being 0.

The displacement of any of the points of the body, shown in Fig. 2.9,

can be given with reference to the displacement of the centre of

rotation, according to equations (2.18) and (2.19)

ux A ux C dy C

2:35

uy A uy C dx C

2:36

where dx A and dy A are, respectively, the components of the distance d from the centre of rotation C to the point A along the axes x

and y. As stated, in the case of a simple translation the centre is an

improper point at innity, 0 and we have

ux A ux B

2:37

uy A uy B

2:38

where A and B are any pair of points on the body. Note that the diagrams of the displacement components form two straight lines as was

pointed out in the previous section and is illustrated in Fig. 2.10.

With regard to the constraints a distinction is made between external

and internal constraints. External constraints have the eect of limiting

22

ux

dy (A)

dx (A)

C

uy

Fig. 2.10

the displacement of the body with reference to the points of the plane,

which are considered xed. Internal constraints have the eect of limiting the displacement of the body with reference to the points of another

body of the system. Therefore the internal constraints aect relative

displacements. External and internal constraints both can be classied

according to the number of degrees of freedom they aect. For example the xed end of the rigid rod in Fig. 2.11 prevents the displacement

Fig. 2.11

ux (A) = uy (A) = = 0

A

23

B

ux (A) = uy (A) = 0

Fig. 2.12

ux (A) 0

uy (A) = 0

0

x

Fig. 2.13

of the point A and any rotation, and therefore suppresses all the three

degrees of freedom of the rod.

A hinge acts to prevent any displacement of the point to which it is

applied but leaves open the possibility of rotation (Fig. 2.12). A roller prevents any displacements of the point P along its normal axis (Fig. 2.13).

A two-pinned bar prevents, for innitesimal displacement elds, any

displacements along its axis and therefore acts like a roller (Fig. 2.14).

ux (A) 0

uy (A) = 0

0

x

Fig. 2.14

24

above can be classied according to the degrees of freedom they suppress

in the plane and can be therefore categorised as simple, double or triple.

Having referred the displacements of all the points of a rigid body to

the position of its centre of rotation, we can now examine the kinematics of a constrained body through the conditions imposed by the

constraints on its centre of rotation. In Fig. 2.15 the most common

Name

Type

Notes

Roller

Simple

ux 6 0

uy 0

6 0

belong to the normal to the

roller's direction

Simple

ux 6 0

uy 0

6 0

belong to the axis of the bar

Double

ux 0

uy 0

6 0

pinned point

Double

ux 6 0

uy 0

0

is improper and lays at the

innite on the direction of

the bars

Triple

ux 0

uy 0

0

allowed

y

x

Two-pinned bar

y

x

Hinge

y

x

Pair of parallel

two-pinned bars

y

x

Fixed end

y

x

Fig. 2.15

25

Fig. 2.16

the centres of rotation of a rigid body.

Of course, it may happen that the constraints imposed on the body

forbid completely the existence of a centre of rotation and in this case

the body is xed in the dened space. This is the case, for example, of

the body constrained by three two-pinned bars, as shown in Fig. 2.16.

This happens because the centre of rotation should belong to the axis

of each of the two-pinned bars but they do not concur in any point.

Therefore the centre of rotation cannot exist and the body is prevented

from any movement.

By denition, a simple constraint imposes a single condition on the

centre of rotation, while a double constraint imposes two conditions

and a triple constraint imposes three. As the position of a proper or

improper centre of rotation is dened by two conditions, it is clear

that at least three simple constraints are needed (or, what is equivalent,

a double plus a simple one or a triple one) to x a body in the space. In

fact, a double constraint is fully equivalent to two simple constraints

and a triple is fully equivalent to three simple ones. This is in accordance with the formula (2.30) stated earlier

f 3c

provided, however, that the constraints are all eective.

In other words, if we consider the example shown in Fig. 2.17 we will

discover that one two-pinned bar is ineective as it requires the centre

of rotation to be on the axes of the other two two-pinned bars. The

centre of rotation is therefore placed in C and the beam still possesses

a degree of freedom.

It must thus be borne in mind that the term c in equation (2.30) (as

well as in equation (2.31)) is the number of the eective simple constraints applied. We have also stated that the internal constraints

restrict the displacements of a rigid body with reference to another

26

Fig. 2.17

ones. Nevertheless the internal constraints can still be calculated as

shown in the equation (2.31)

f 3b c

since for any part of the system they suppress the same number of

degrees of freedom as if they were external.

For example, consider the system shown in Fig. 2.18. It is evident

that the internal hinge still suppresses two degrees of freedom for the

element BC whose position is dened by the position of the element

AB and by the angle of rotation 2 . Given the presence of internal

constraints, discovering if a constraint is eective or not becomes a

slightly more complicated matter for a general system of rigid

bodies. In fact, we must recognise along with the presence of

absolute centres of rotation the presence of relative centres of rotation.

Nevertheless it is quite simple to state two theorems regarding the

position of the absolute and relative centres of rotation for any innitesimal displacement eld.

Let us consider two rigid bodies A and B and their innitesimal elds

of displacement in the plane. To x our ideas we can make reference to

Fig. 2.19.

A

Fig. 2.18

27

ux

cB

cAB

cA

uy

Fig. 2.19

respective displacement elds can be reduced to rotations with regard

to the centres CA and CB . Now, consider the relative displacement

elds, i.e. the displacements of the points of B with respect to A and

the displacements of the points of A with respect to B. In order to

draw the relative displacements of the points of B with respect to A

we can imagine A to be xed in space and express the relative displacement eld with regards to a relative centre of rotation CAB .

Moreover, we can imagine B to be xed in space and express the

relative displacements of the points of A with respect to B with

regard to the same centre, being the two relative elds equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. As a direct consequence of this fact we

have

CAB CBA

2:39

28

This is because that in two-dimensional space the relative centre of rotation is a point which has the same absolute displacement either considered belonging to A or to B. Since we know that the displacement of a

point P in the rst case is orthogonal to the direction CA P and in the

second to the directions CB P we are led to the conclusion that the

relative centre CAB must lie on the line CA CB .

We can therefore state the rst of the proposed theorems

If each of two rigid bodies A and B undergoes an innitesimal displacement eld in twodimensional space, the absolute centres of rotation CA and CB and the relative centre

CAB must all lie on the same straight line.

rigid bodies.

The second rule of concatenated displacements for rigid bodies, i.e. the

second of the proposed theorems, follows in a straightforward manner

from the rst one. If we consider three rigid bodies A, B and C and

their innitesimal displacement elds in the plane we can recognise

the existence of three absolute centres of rotation CA , CB and CC

and of three relative centres of rotation CAB , CAC and CBC . We already

know that relative centres must be aligned with the corresponding

absolute ones. Let us consider one of the bodies, say A, to represent

the xed space. The relative centre CAB becomes the absolute centre

CB and the relative centre CAC becomes the absolute centre CC . Therefore CBC must be aligned with CB and CC and so also must be the

relative centres CAB , CAC and CBC .

Thus the second rule of concatenated displacements for rigid bodies

can be written as:

For innitesimal displacement elds, the relative centres of rotation of any triplet of

rigid bodies must lie on a straight line.

The rst and the second rule of concatenated displacements for rigid

bodies allow us to deal quite simply with the kinematics of any

system of rigid bodies. For example, consider the system of rigid

rods in Fig. 2.20.

This is a system of three rods constrained to a foundation by two

hinges and mutually connected by two more hinges. The number of

double constraints is four and we get from formula (2.31)

f 3b c 3 3 2 4 1

2:40

This means that we have at least one degree of freedom for the system,

which therefore can actually move.

In order to discover if the constraints are all eective, we can

perform the analysis of its kinematics by means of the two rules

stated. First of all locate the absolute centres of rotation C1 and C3 ,

B

29

C

2

Fig. 2.20

which must coincide with the pinned ends A and D, and thereafter the

relative centres C12 and C23 , which have to be located at the hinges B

and C. This is shown in Fig. 2.21.

The rst rule of concatenated displacements now enables us to dene

the position of the absolute centre C2 . This centre must lie at the intersection of the lines C1 C12 and C23 C3 , as it is shown in Fig. 2.22. No

constraints can be classied as ineective and the knowledge of these

centres is sucient to draw the diagrams of the components of displacement of the system. These diagrams depend on the parameter chosen

B C12

C23 C

2

A C1

C3 D

Fig. 2.21

30

ux

C2

C12

C23

C3

C1

uy

Fig. 2.22

rotation of the rod 1.

Now, consider a nal aspect of concatenated displacement. So far

we can assert that for a system of n rigid bodies undergoing a certain

eld of innitesimal displacements we have n absolute centres of rotation. We can also arrange all the centres of rotation in a symmetrical

matrix

0

1

C11 C1n

..

.. A

@ ...

2:41

.

.

Cn1 Cnn

where the centres of rotation o-diagonal in the matrix are the relative

ones. Therefore, the number of relative centres is

nn 1

2

and the total number of centres is

nn 1

2

2:42

2:43

A

C

1

31

E

2

Fig. 2.23

We can now reect on the fact that we usually take into consideration systems whose elds of displacement are dependent on a single

parameter; that is, one degree of freedom activated at a time. In

order to dene any diagram of displacement components for such

systems we must draw n straight lines and we need to dene 2n 1

points. We are thus led to the conclusion that in order to draw these

diagrams we do not need to locate all the centres of rotation but we

just need to know the position of 2n 1 centres.

Finally, it is necessary to underline that a careful study of the centres

of rotation of the system must be always carried out, as this is the only

way to investigate the kinematics of rigid bodies in a consistent and

rigorous manner. In fact, as we have already pointed out, we can

often have an odd layout of the constraints themselves. For example,

let us consider the structure in Fig. 2.23.

In this system we have two rigid rods constrained by two double

constraints and three simple ones. If equation (2.31) is applied, regardless of the eectiveness of the constraints, we have

f 3b c 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

2:44

The fact that the number of degrees of freedom is negative might suggest that the system is not only allowed to move, but it has one redundant constraint, too. However, if we carry on the study of the centres of

rotation, as illustrated in Fig. 2.24 we discover that rod 1 cannot move

because its absolute centre of rotation must belong to the axes of the

two-pinned bars and at the same time it must be an improper centre

on the direction of the pair of parallel two-pinned bars. As the twopinned bars are not aligned with the pair of parallel ones this centre

cannot exist. Moreover, each of these two-pinned bars is sucient to

forbid the existence of the centre C1 and therefore one is redundant.

The hinge in D can therefore be considered as an absolute centre of

rotation for rod 2 and this is the case, as the roller in E requires this

32

C1

B

A

y

Fig. 2.24

centre to be aligned with its axis. It is evident that the roller constitutes

an ineective constraint. Therefore, element 2 can actually move and its

eld of displacements is dened by a single degree of freedom, i.e. the

angle of rotation , as is shown in Fig. 2.25.

Equation (2.31) gives the correct result if we drop from the calculation the redundant constraint and the ineective one

f 3b c 3 2 2 2 1 1

2:45

we can have two types of constraints

(a)

(b)

degrees of freedom of the body

ineective or redundant constraints, ones that aect degrees of

freedom already suppressed by other constraints.

A

Fig. 2.25

33

a careful study of the kinematics of the system.

2.3

Reactions of constraints

systems of rigid bodies is given by the principle of stationary work

(equation (2.2)), that is,

W 0

which requires the work done by the external forces for any eld of virtual displacements to be zero. If we remember the denition of virtual

displacement eld, i.e. a eld of displacements that is innitesimal and

compatible with the constraints of the system, but is imaginary and

does not actually occur, we are immediately led to the conclusion

that the principle of stationary work can only be applied to those systems that possess at least one degree of freedom. This is a requirement

because a system that does not possess any degrees of freedom must be

considered in equilibrium irrespective of the particular set of applied

forces, since we will always have

ui A 0

2:46

for any of its points and therefore equation (1.26), which has been proposed as the denition of equilibrium,

X

1

_2

K

2 mi xi 0

i

always holds true. However, the principle of stationary work can also

be applied to evaluate the forces that the constraints must apply to the

system to keep it in equilibrium. This approach can be dened as the

principle of substitution of constraints and establishes an equivalence

between a geometrical entity, i.e. a constraint, and a static entity, i.e.

a force.

As an example, consider the three-pinned arch shown in Fig. 2.26,

that is subjected to the vertical force P at the hinge B.

Equation (2.31) gives

f 3b c 3 2 2 2 2 0

2:47

are not aligned.

Therefore the system is in equilibrium regardless of the particular set

of applied forces. As the hinge at A can be imagined as being composed

of two orthogonal rollers, as pointed out in Fig. 2.27, we can conceptually suppress the hinge at A and leave the vertical roller only

(Fig. 2.28).

34

C12 B

C1 A

C2 C

Fig. 2.26

and we can evaluate, using the principle of stationary work (equation

(2.2)), the vertical force exerted on A in order to maintain the system in

equilibrium. This force can be thought of as being equivalent to the

eect of the horizontal roller.

With reference to Fig. 2.28, equation (2.2) can be written as

R 0

2:48

2

In fact, once we have assigned an arbitrary vertical displacement

to the point A, the vertical displacement of the point B is seen to be

=2 and from equation (2.48) we have

W P

P

2:49

2

The negative sign means that the force R has the opposite direction to

the force P. We call R the reaction of the horizontal roller. The procedure is therefore very simple

R

A

A

Fig. 2.27

35

C12

C1 C2

R

uy

uy (A) =

uy (B) =

2

Fig. 2.28

In order to obtain the reaction of a certain constraint we can suppress that constraint

and draw the innitesimal displacement eld thus allowed (if any). The reaction is

represented by the force that, acting instead of the constraint, renders the total work

of all the applied actions to be zero. The reaction is considered to act in the same

direction of the suppressed constraint.

constraints. If the suppression of a constraint does not enable the

system to have a displacement eld, we are not able to identify any

work in equation (2.2) and cannot evaluate the reaction. Actually, it

should be noticed that in the presence of redundant constraints a

system of rigid bodies is generally in equilibrium and the fact that

we are not able to calculate the reaction of some constraints is only

due to the idealisation of rigidity. In the following text we will learn

that dropping this simplication allows the determination of the reaction of all of the constraints.

For the moment, we say that systems whose constraint reactions can

be evaluated according to the scheme of rigid bodies are called statically determinate, otherwise they are called statically indeterminate.

2.4

able to transmit certain forces to the bodies in order to keep them in

equilibrium. In the same manner we can assume that a certain part

36

P

z

P

2

P

2

Fig. 2.29

order to keep that part of the body in equilibrium. The material in

this section is illustrated, for clarity, by the simply supported beam

shown in Fig. 2.29.

Using the principle of stationary work (equation (2.2)) we can

simply determine the reactions transmitted by the supports at A and

B, i.e.

P

2:50

2

We can also contemplate an imaginary vertical cut through the beam

at the section marked YY, at a distance z from the support A. In

this situation we can consider the portion of beam between the support

A and the section YY as a free body subjected to the force P=2 at A,

as shown in Fig. 2.30.

Notice that a free body is dened to be

RA RB

a portion of a structure, or system, that is abstracted from the structure and the

continuity of the structure between the free body and the rest of the structure is

represented by forces applied at the boundary of the free body.

Thus the portion of beam shown in Fig. 2.30 will be subjected to the

resultant of the forces transmitted by the portion of beam on its

right side, which must be able to maintain it in equilibrium.

Looking at the case of a beam contained in the plane zy, let us

decompose this resultant force in terms of a horizontal component N

37

z

Y

Y'

Y'

P

2

M

N

S

Fig. 2.30

section YY, together with a moment M, as is customary for any

system of forces in the plane. We will call these components axial

force, shear force and bending moment, respectively, in the beam at

the section YY. Their values are calculated using the principle of

stationary work, equation (2.2), and are

P

Pz

and

M

2:51

2

2

If the principle of zero work is applied to the rigid beam on the right

hand of the cut, we nd that the resultant of the forces transmitted

to the portion of beam on the right side of the cut must have the

same magnitude but opposite direction of the resultant of the forces

applied to the left side of the cut; which is in accordance with the

third of Newton's Laws. Therefore, we have

N 0;

P

Pz

and

MR

2:52

2

2

where the superscript R denotes that the forces are applied to the right

side of the cut.

Notice that no superscripts were applied to equation (2.51). This is

because it is conventional to assume that the axial force, the shear

force and the bending moment, i.e. the so called characteristic of internal action, are the components of the force acting on the left side of the

cut. They are normally referred to a Cartesian reference frame in which

the z-axis coincides with the axis of the beam, aligned with the centroids of the normal cross section (which for simplicity here is thought

to be uniform along the beam length), and the x and y-axes coincide

N R 0;

SR

38

Fig. 2.31

with the principal axes of inertia of the cross sections. The convention

adopted in this book is for the z axis to be positive when measured

from the left-hand end of the beam and the y axis is ordinarily arranged

to be vertical with downwards positive, as shown in Fig. 2.31.

Of course, this is purely a convenient convention and others can be

equivalently adopted, provided they enable consistent communication.

By sequentially applying the equilibrium equation (2.2) to any

chosen portion of the beam under consideration, it is easy to recognise

that

(a)

(b)

(c)

sum of all the horizontal components of the external forces

acting to the left side of that section or to the sum of all the

horizontal components of the external forces acting to the

right side of that section

the shear force at any section is equal to the opposite of the

sum of all the vertical components of the external forces

acting to left side of that section or to the sum of all the vertical

components of the external forces acting to right side of that

section

the bending moment at any section is equal to the opposite of

the sum of all the moments yielded by the external forces

which act to the left side of that section with reference to the

centroid of the section itself or to the sum of all the moments

yielded by the external forces which act to the right side of that

section.

the characteristics of the internal action at any section. At the same

time it can be valuable to obtain a graphical representation of the

distribution of the various forces acting along the beam by plotting

their distribution along the length of the beam. These plots are

39

w (z)

z

Fig. 2.32

diagrams.

To simplify the preparation of the diagrams it is very useful to establish some general relationships between distributed forces, shear force

and bending moment. Distributed force is nothing more than a system

of forces that act over at least part of the length of the beam. This type

of force is generally measured per unit length and is represented by a

function qz of the position z along the axis of the beam. For example,

a special case of a uniformly distributed force is given by the self-weight

wz of the simple supported beam of Fig. 2.32, while a non-uniformly

distributed force is exemplied by the cantilever beam shown in Fig.

2.33 (for the sake of simplicity both these forces are considered to

act normally to the beam axis).

Given a displacement eld uy z, the work of a distributed force

qz between the positions z0 and z1 is obviously provided by the

integral

z1

qzuy z dz

2:53

zo

q (t)

z

Fig. 2.33

40

q (z)

z0

z1

z

uy (z)

Fig. 2.34

obtained by means of a conceptual cut at two very close cross sections

(Fig. 2.35).

The element under consideration will be subject to an axial force N,

a shear force S and a bending moment M at its left hand end and to an

axial force N dN, a shear force S dS and a bending moment

M dM at its right end. Since the length dz is very small, we can

neglect the amount by which the distributed vertical load qz varies

over the element.

The equilibrium of the innitesimal part of beam can be once more

investigated by means of the principle of stationary work, equation

(2.2). There are three degrees of freedom in the zy plane, so

W N N dN uz S S dS qz dz uy

M M dM S dz 0

2:54

products of the type dS dz, are neglected.

q (z)

M + dM

N + dN

S + dS

dz

Fig. 2.35

41

dN 0

2:55

dS

qz

2:56

dz

dM

S

2:57

dz

which must hold for the equilibrium of any portion of the beam. In

particular note that equation (2.56) implies that the slope of the

shear force distribution is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to

the intensity of the vertically distributed lateral load at any position

along the beam. Similarly, note that equation (2.57) implies that the

slope of the bending moment distribution is equal to the value of the

shear force at any position along the beam.

However, it is obvious that the presence of an applied vertical point

force P (or couple M) at a certain section A implies that for A0 and A00 ,

the sections immediately on either side of the conceptual cut, we have

SA00 SA0 PA

00

MA MA MA

2:58

2:59

point force P leads to an abrupt step change in both the shear force

distribution and the slope of the bending moment distribution, while

an applied couple M causes an abrupt step change in the bending

moment distribution but leaves the slope unchanged.

At this point a simple step by step procedure can be outlined for

plotting the shear force and bending moment diagrams in cases of

statically determined systems of beams

(a)

(b)

(c)

nd the values of the shear force at key points along the beam

(e.g. points of application of point forces)

plot the shear force diagram according to equations (2.56) and

(2.58).

z2

Sy z2 Sy z1 qz dz

2:60

z1

point force.

42

(d )

locate the sections where the shear force is zero. These sections, according to equation (2.57) are positions of maximum

or minimum bending moment

(e) nd the values of the bending moment at key points along the

beam

( f ) plot the bending moment diagram according to equations

(2.57) and (2.59).

z2

M z2 M z1

S z dz

2:61

z1

for any two sections of the beam which do not include an applied

couple.

An example of shear force and bending moment diagrams for a

system of beams is shown in Fig. 2.36.

The presence of axially directed distributed or point loads and the

consequent procedure for drawing the diagram of the axial force can

be treated by means of trivial modications of the previous equations

and is left to the reader.

q

l/2

l/2

+P

+ P + ql

Pl ql

2

P

2

+ Pl

4

Fig. 2.36

2.5

43

A three-dimensional example

two-dimensional Cartesian space, i.e. to rigid bodies which can be

analysed with reference to a plane of symmetry that contains also

the applied forces and constraints. This may seem a severe restriction,

but actually it is not, as a very large number of structures can be

analysed as formed of substructures which can be treated as a plane.

However, the concepts which enabled the treatment of equilibrium

in the preceding sections remain exactly the same in the case of rigid

bodies in three-dimensional Cartesian space. The condition of equilibrium is obviously the principle of stationary work (equation (2.2)),

that is

W 0

for any eld of virtual displacements. Of course the virtual displacements take place in the three-dimensional space, but apart from this

fact all the simplications deriving from their being innitesimal

hold true in the same manner.

In order to illustrate this fact with a practical example, consider the

beam shown in Fig. 2.37.

x

B

2

C

y

z

l

5

Fig. 2.37

44

b

P

3

Section A

Section B

Section C

Fig. 2.38

bars and subject to a force P at the middle of the span l. The exact position of the constraints and of the applied force is shown in Fig. 2.38

with reference to the cross sections at A, B and C.

It is easy to infer that a rigid body in the three-dimensional space

possesses six degrees of freedom. For example, once we have assumed

the three orthogonal axes x, y and z to be immovable on the beam, it is

clear that the position of the beam in the space will be determined by

the position of these axes. As the position of the axes is uniquely identied by, say, the coordinates of their origin O0 and by the three angles

of rotation that the axes themselves form with reference to another

reference frame xed in the space, it follows that six parameters are

sucient to dene the position of the beam in the space. The situation

is shown in Fig. 2.39.

Thus, six simple constraints may be sucient to suppress any degree

of freedom, provided they are all eective. This fact, as has been said

before, can be investigated only by analysing the kinematic of the body.

With reference to section A of Fig. 2.38, it appears clear that this

section can only rotate about the centre given by the intersection of

the directions of the pinned bars 2 and 3. The same happens to section

C, but section B is allowed to rotate about a centre which must lie along

the axis of the pinned bar 4 and therefore cannot be aligned with those

of sections A and C. We can therefore conclude that the beam cannot

undergo any rotation about any axis parallel to the axis z. As any translation of the sections A and C is forbidden, too, we see that the origin O0

of the axes x, y and z cannot move in the plane xy as well. Three

degrees of freedom consequently must be eliminated.

On account of the presence of pinned bars 2 and 5 any rotation

about the x axis must be excluded and the same happens to any

rotation about the y axis on account of the presence of pinned bars

45

3

2

O'

x

O

Fig. 2.39

pinned bar 1 and therefore all the degrees of freedom must be considered as eliminated. The constraints are all eective.

In order to nd the reaction of the constraint represented by the twopinned bar 4, we can suppress it and draw the innitesimal displacement eld thus allowed. This turns to be a rotation about an axis

identied by the centres dened by the intersection of the directions

of the pinned bars 2 and 3 and by the intersection of the directions

of the pinned bars 5 and 6, respectively. Thus, all sections can rotate

about the trace of this axis in their respective planes and the situation

for section B is shown in Fig. 2.40.

The equilibrium equation (2.2) can be therefore written as

W Pb Rb 0

2:62

and we have

R P

2:63

direction to the force P. The reader will nd very easily, by the same

way, that the reactions of all the other constraints are null.

46

b

b

Fig. 2.40

W

l

P

l/2

Fig. 2.41

1.

2.

Fig. 2.41. The bars AB and CD are at an angle to the vertical.

Use the principle of stationary work to derive a relationship

between the weight W of the bars and the force P required to

maintain equilibrium of the frame.

[Ans: P 4W tan ]

Two weightless rigid bars are shown in Fig. 2.42. One is pivoted at

A and the other at B. The bars contact without friction at C. Use

the principle of stationary work to derive a relationship between

the forces P and W and the angle to maintain equilibrium.

[Ans: cos1 W=2P]

47

l/2

B

l/2

C

l/2

P

W

Fig. 2.42

h

W

l/2

A

Fig. 2.43

3.

4.

two extensionless but exible wires, each of length l. A second

bar has pins attached at a distance l=2, as shown in Fig. 2.43.

Use the principle of stationary work to determine the distance h

that maintains equilibrium of the two bars if it is assumed that

no friction occurs between the pins and the wire.

[Ans: h 0:711l ]

Two solid rigid cylinders of the same density lie inside the bore of a

rigid cylinder, as shown in Fig. 2.44. Use the principle of stationary work to derive the value of the angle that corresponds to

equilibrium of the system.

[Ans: 18:38]

48

4D

2D

D

Fig. 2.44

375 mm

200 m

50 mm

75 mm

P

2 kN

400 m

m

200 m

Fig. 2.45

5.

elements of the xture can be treated as being rigid bars and the

pin connections as being completely frictionless. Use the principle

of stationary work to calculate the force P that is required to

generate the clamping force of 2 kN.

[Ans: P 0:445 kN]

3.

material properties

Introduction

to the analysis of systems of rigid bodies. These are systems in which

the deformations of the bodies are insignicant when compared to

the movements of the component bodies in the system. At that stage

we illustrated this with the example of the collision of two billiard

balls in which the deformations at the contact area are negligibly

small compared to the distances moved by the balls. The rigid body

approach allows us to predict the macroscopic, or global, movements

of the components parts of the systems.

However, no body is ever completely rigid and we can consider the

analysis of most systems at two scales; one is the macroscopic that, as

described above, is concerned with the movements of the bodies as if

they never change their shape. The other scale is rather microscopic

in which we are concerned with the detailed changes of shape of the

bodies comprising the system. In this scale the colliding billiard balls

are `frozen' in macroscopic space and only the local deformations in

the balls as they impact are considered. In reality, of course, systems

operate simultaneously in the macroscopic and microscopic scales

but it simplies analysis, usually without signicant loss of accuracy,

to separate the analytical treatment of the two scales.

It must be noted that there are also many systems like, for example,

rubber bands, which experience deformations on a large scale and

whose analysis cannot be performed according to the earlier outlined

procedures. These systems require a special treatment and there are

several theories in structural mechanics which allow us to tackle

such analyses. However, on account of their complexity, these methods

of analysis are denitely out of the scope of the present book and the

interested reader can nd excellent introductory textbooks to this

fascinating area of mechanics.

50

Before moving on to formulate the energy involved in the deformation of a body we need to examine how materials deform and to characterise the deformations, and the forces that cause the deformations.

The approach followed is to subject a sample of the material to a

simple one-dimensional test and to generalise, using mathematical

constructs, the results from the test to obtain a description of the properties of the material for deformations in three dimensions.

3.1

The approach followed for most materials is exemplied here by reference to testing of a typical structural carbon steel. Figure 3.1 shows a

specimen machined to a suitable shape for the uniaxial test. The shape

of the specimens, Figs 3.1(a) and (b), rectangular and round section,

respectively, have evolved during a century of material testing. The

objective of the shape is to ensure that the gauge length, lg , has uniform

conditions resulting from the axial force, P, applied to the specimen in

the test machine and is not inuenced by the complex conditions of

forces in the parts of the specimen gripped by the testing machine, as

shown hatched in Fig. 3.1. The test section shown in Fig. 3.1(a) has

thickness t and breadth b giving an area A.

During a typical test to evaluate the quasi-static properties of the

material the axial tensile load is applied at a slow rate that eliminates

any dynamic eects and causes the gauge length gradually to extend

from lg to lg lg . The change of length is measured by an instrument

t

P

P

b

lg

(a)

P

d

lg

(b)

Fig. 3.1

51

1

2

lg

Fig. 3.2

specimen. Several types of extensometers have been developed during

the past century to measure the very small change of length, typically

lg 0:05 to 0:5 mm. The instrument may be based on mechanical

magnication of the changes of the gauge length or it may use the

change of electric resistance of a length of wire that is constrained to

change its length proportionally with the change of the gauge length.

Figure 3.2 shows typical results from tests on specimens with dierent

values of cross-sectional area, say by increasing the thickness.

It is evident that the initial part of the curves is fairly linear and the

load at which the curve reaches a maximum is dependent on the area.

Figure 3.3 shows comparable results from tensile tests specimens in

which the area is maintained constant and the gauge length is changed.

Moreover the load at which the curves reach a maximum is unaffected by the gauge length but the extension is aected by the changes.

lg1

lg2

lg3

lg3 > lg2 > lg1

lg

Fig. 3.3

P/A

52

lg /lg

Fig. 3.4

It is also evident from tests that if the ordinates of the graphs of the

results are normalised, as shown in Fig. 3.4, by dividing the applied

load by the area of the specimen at the gauge length and by dividing

the extension by the gauge length, then all the curves coincide.

The normalisation denes two parameters that are used widely in

structural analysis, namely,

strain; " lg =lg

and

stress; P=A:

If in the above denition of strain the initial gauge length is used, then

what is normally dened as the nominal strain is obtained. A dierent

measure of strain, called the true strain, can be obtained by dividing the

elongation of the bar by the actual gauge length, which increases as the

tensile load is applied. In the development of this book we will always

make reference to the nominal strain.

Stress is a parameter that can be derived simply in the analysis of the

results of a tensile test by measuring the applied load and dividing it by

the corresponding initial value of the area of the cross-section of the

gauge length, which gives the nominal stress (a more exact value of

the axial stress, known as the true stress, can be calculated by using

the actual area of the bar, which can become signicantly less than

the initial one). The denition of stress depends on the assumption

that the load is uniformly spread across the cross section of the

gauge length. In general, the state of stress is complex in practical

structures and since it cannot be measured directly it must be inferred

from measured values of strains and deformations using assumed or

measured values of material properties. Alternatively, strains can be

measured directly on the surface of a structure by arranging the readings from extensometers to be normalised by dividing the measured

53

Fig. 3.5

Modern electrical resistance strain gauges can have very short gauge

lengths, currently as small as lg 2 mm, and the electronic monitoring

of the changes in resistance of the gauges directly provide strain values,

usually up to a maximum value of strain of 0:05, i.e. 5%. An example

of the measurement of strains on a tensile test specimen using microgauges is shown in Fig. 3.5.

Other methods, such as the use of laser interferometry, also enable

the direct measurement of strains in engineering structures.

Figure 3.6 illustrates the full range of results that are obtained from

a tensile test on a structural grade carbon steel.

The linear part of the graph extends up to a strain value of about

0:002, that is 0:2%, and thereafter the stressstrain graph becomes

non-linear; this is called yielding. The gure shows the stress increasing

gradually with increasing strain up to a strain level of about 0:04, i.e.

54

600

Stress, (N/mm2)

500

400

300

200

100

0

10000

20000

Strain, (%)

30000

40000

(a)

600

Stress, (N/mm2)

500

400

300

200

100

0

20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000

Strain, (%)

(b)

Fig. 3.6

4%, this is called strain hardening. In some structural steels the stress

does not increase with increasing strain following the onset of yielding,

up to a strain of about 2%. This is called the yield plateau, or Luder's

plateau after the famous German physicist. The maximum load is

reached at a strain of about 810%, as is shown in Fig. 3.6(b), at

which stage the cross-sectional area of the tensile specimen reduces

rapidly and the specimen fractures, this is sometimes called necking.

The ultimate load, at which necking begins, is usually about 10

20% greater than the load at which yielding is initiated. Fracture

Stress,

55

loading

(ii)

unloading

(i)

Strain,

(a)

Stress,

Strain,

(b)

Fig. 3.7

ductility of the steel.

Close to the yield strain the test specimen completely recovers its

original geometry when the load is removed. In other words the

material properties are reversible; this portion of the stressstrain

properties are classied as elastic. Thus for the elastic condition, as

shown in Fig. 3.7(a), provided that the load is kept to less than the

value at which linearity is lost (that is the proportional limit of

strain, "p ), the variation of load, increasing and decreasing, is directly

related to the strain.

In many structural steels the proportional limit and the loss of elasticity due to the onset of yielding are virtually coincident and thus the

56

strain, or stress whichever is appropriate. An approximation to the

stressstrain curve is made that considerably simplies analysis and

is particularly relevant to the methods presented in this text. This is

that stressstrain curve up the yield strain is modelled as being

linear, and this gives rise to the linear elastic conditions that underlie

the later developments in this text.

If the load in Fig. 3.7(a) is reduced during the test, at a strain greater

than the yield strain, "0 , the graph follows the line (ii) in Fig. 3.7(a)

until the load is completely removed at point D. In other words,

after the yield strain is reached the material no longer has a unique

stressstrain relationship and the loading and unloading paths are

not reversible back to the original material condition of zero stress

and strain. If the test specimen is reloaded from D it will follow

the slope of the original elastic line, AB, until there is a loss of

proportionality and the stressstrain graph intersects with the yield

line at E. Thus, provided the change of strain due to external loading,

starting from zero load value, is less than the yield strain for the

material, the material may be regarded as elastic no matter what its

previous history of loading may have been. Tests show that for

many elastic materials the stressstrain properties are the same in compression as in tension.

Figure 3.7(b) shows the stressstrain curve for a material, typied by

an aluminium alloy, that has a much more marked non-linear stress

strain curve: from points A to B the relationship is fairly linear, but

from B to C there is a distinct curve. The limit of proportionality at

B does not necessarily indicate the limit of elastic behaviour of the

material. The material may load and unload elastically along the line

ACA. A pseudo elastic property is often constructed for such a

non-linear elastic material, in that the stressstrain relationship is

taken to be linear up to the load corresponding to point C, as shown

by AD in Fig. 3.7(b).

The analysis methods developed in this book are concerned only

with the linear elastic part of the stressstrain curve of the material

and with predicting the limiting levels of loading at which the material

no longer remains elastic. The methods therefore apply to the great

majority of engineering analyses that are performed as a basis for

design. The fact that the material does not fracture at the yield strain

and that the engineering structure can carry increased load before

material fracture actually occurs is used by structural engineers as a

measure of in-built safety for their structure. The elastic material

model that is used as the basis for the analysis methods developed

here is shown in Fig. 3.8.

57

E = tan

Fig. 3.8

test, the constant of proportionality is called the material modulus, or

Young's modulus.1 The material modulus is given the symbol E. The

limiting allowable level of strain for the elastic analysis is the yield

strain, "0 . Thus the strain is related to the applied load in a simple

uniaxial loading test by

P

3:1

AE E

This equation is often referred to as Hooke's law, after Hooke,2 who

rst proposed this loaddeection proportionality.

The values of E for a typical carbon steel range from 195 000 to

210 000 N/mm2 and commonly a value of 205 000 N/mm2 is used in

design analyses. The yield strains for steels widely used in structural

applications vary from 0:12% to 0:25% depending of the grade of

material. Special heat-treated steels can have yield strains of up to

0:5%.

Stress conventionally plays a central role in structural analysis. Many

text books in strength of material and in structural mechanics make

great use of stress in the development of the theory of structures and

in the presentation of the limiting strength of materials. Mathematical

descriptions of the equilibrium of components or complete structures

"

1

Young, Thomas (Milverton, Somerset, 1773 London, 1829), English natural philosopher.

2

Hooke, Robert (Freshwater, Isle of Wight, 1635 London, 1703), English physicist.

58

structural analysis then has the objective of evaluating the magnitudes

of these stresses throughout the structure and comparing the greatest

magnitude with the maximum allowable stress for the particular

material from which the structure is composed. This comparison then

determines the maximum allowable value of the loading that may be

applied to the structure. In this text, which is primarily concerned

with linear elastic structural analysis using energy methods, the basis

of the analysis methods is not stress but the deformation, and therefore

strain elds, that exist in structure and their components. The arbiter of

the allowable loading is not the level of the maximum stress, but the

level of the maximum mechanical strain in comparison with the allowable maximum strain for the material. This text therefore does not use

the concept of stress widely, not for any reason other than that from this

standpoint in most cases there is no real need to make resort to it.

3.2

Fig. 3.9.

The rollers in the gure represent that the specimen is not restricted

from axial movement. The thermal strain "t is dened as the ratio of

the extension of a gauge length to the original gauge length, that is

"t

lg

lg

3:2

experimentally to be linearly related to the change of temperature,

for temperature ranges up to about 100 8C. Thus,

"t T

i:e: lg lg T

3:3

change of temperature.

The coecient of linear expansion varies slightly with temperature,

but is taken to be constant in the analysis methods developed in this

lg

lg

Fig. 3.9

59

106 C 1

16

14

12

100

200

300

Temperature C

Fig. 3.10

book. The value of the coecient for a structural steel in the range

0 < T < 100 8C is usually taken as

1:25 105 mm=mm=8C

3:4

The actual variation of the coecient of expansion with the temperature is shown in Fig. 3.10 for a high strength carbon steel.

Notice that the thermal strain equals the yield strain at a temperature change of

"

T 0

3:5

that is, for a medium grade structural steel

1:5 103

T :

120 8C

3:6

1 25 105

The foregoing remarks relate to changes of length that result from

changes of temperature where there are no constraints or applied

forces. The situation illustrated in Fig. 3.11 is one where the change

of temperature occurs simultaneously with the application of an

external force P.

The strain " induced in the bar is the sum of the mechanical strain due

to the force and the thermal strain due to the change of temperature.

T

P

Fig. 3.11

60

Fig. 3.12

Thus

P

T

3:7

EA

The constraint can take the form of displacement restrictions on the

boundaries of the body. An extreme example is illustrated in Fig. 3.12

in which the ends of a bar are prevented from movement, i.e. l 0

and therefore the total strain in the bar is zero.

"

P

T 0 and P EA T

3:8

EA

The negative sign implies that the force is compressive to maintain zero

total strain for the increase in temperature.

3.3

Three-dimensional strain

the gauge length of a tensile test specimen when viewed in the direction

of the applied load. However, test observations show that the crosssection of the gauge length also changes its dimensions. That is, as illustrated in Fig. 3.13, the application of the load P causes changes in the

dimensions normal to the direction of the load.

The thickness t changes to t t and the breadth changes from b to

b b. If we dene a set of orthogonal coordinates, x, y and z as

t + t

lg

x

z

Fig. 3.13

lg + lg

b + b

61

"x

lg

;

lg

"y

b

;

b

"z

t

t

3:9

values of l. The test results show that the strain normal to the

direction of the applied load is related to the strain in the direction

of the load by a constant, called Poisson's ratio, , after S. D. Poisson.3

Thus,

"y

"z

3:10

"x

"x

The values of Poisson's ratio measured in tests for the elastic part of

the stressstrain curve of a typical carbon steel are about 0:270:31

and 0:3 is commonly used in design analyses for steel structures.

Poisson's ratio increases to about 0:5 for strains much greater than

the yield strain.

During the application of the load P the volume of the gauge length

will change due to the elastic strains. The change of volume V is

V l1 "x b1 "y t1 "z lbt

lbt"x "y "z f "2 ; "3 ; . . .

3:11

Since the strain is very small for elastic deformations, the higher order

terms in the equation can be ignored as being insignicantly small and

the volumetric strain "v that is the ratio of the change of volume to the

original volume, is

V

"x "y "z "x 1 2

3:12

V

Uniaxial tests are commonly carried out to establish relevant

material properties for use in design analyses; typical results have

been discussed above. It is possible to generalise these results to

describe the possible eects of applying simultaneously load in the

three orthogonal directions. The practical diculties of ensuring that

the loads are applied is such a manner that the test specimen has uniform conditions throughout its gauge volume have meant that there is

only a limited range of experimental conrmation of the theoretical

development that now follows. However, the application of the

theory to the analysis of real structures and the measurement of strains

"v

Poisson, Simeon-Denis (Pithiviers, Loiret, 1781 Paris, 1840), French mathematician, physicist and astronomer.

62

Py

Pz

Px

Ay

y

x

Az

Ax

Px

Pz

Py

Fig. 3.14

the generalisation of uniaxial tests to triaxial loading is valid.

Figure 3.14 shows a test specimen subjected to three loads, Px , Py

and Pz applied in the x, y and z directions such that the conditions

are uniform throughout the gauge volume.

A uniform change of temperature, T, is also applied concurrently

with the change of loading. The strain, "x , in the x direction is

"x

Py Pz

Px

T

EAx EAy EAz

3:13

"y

Py

Px Pz

T

EAy EAx EAz

3:14

"z

Pz

Px Py

T

EAz EAx EAy

3:15

In most books equations (3.13)(3.15) are stated in terms of the nominal stresses

xx Px =Ax , yy Py =Ay and zz Pz =Az , i.e.

yy zz

T

"x xx

E

E

E

yy xx zz

"y

T

E

E

E

yy

"z zz xx

T

E

E

E

3

2

Px

3

2 3 2

36 EAx 7 2

7

T

"x

1 6

6 P 7

7

6 7 6

76 y 7 6

7 4 T 5

4 "y 5 4 1 56

6 EAy 7

7

T

"z

1 6

4 Pz 5

63

3:16

EAz

material modulus is constant in all directions: this denes an isotropic

material and is a reasonable description for a vast class of materials

used in structural engineering. There are other engineering materials,

such as bre composites, for which the material modulus varies from

one direction in the body to another, this is classed as anisotropic

material. However, this introductory book is concerned only with

the development of analysis methods relevant to linearly elastic isotropic materials.

3.4

Straindisplacement relationships

strains are incurred. These strains vary throughout the volume of the

body and can be related to the displacements of the points of the

body. The relationship is illustrated using the planar body shown in

Fig. 3.15.

Figure 3.15(a) shows the original shape of the planar body. An element is identied on the body of length dl between two points A and B.

For some reason, which for the present purpose does not need to be

specied, the body changes shape as shown in Fig. 3.15(b). The

points A and B move to A0 and B 0 , respectively, and the length of

A'

(a)

Fig. 3.15

B'

l'

(b)

64

y

B'

ux

A'

uy + duy

x

uy

ux + dux

B

A

x

Fig. 3.16

strain, incurred by the element can be related to the local displacements.

A rectangular coordinate system (x; y) is identied with the element,

as shown in Fig. 3.16, to simplify the presentation.

The point A initially has coordinates x; 0 and moves to

A0 x ux ; uy ; the point B moves from x dx; 0 to

B 0 x dx ux dux ; uy duy .

The original length of the element is

l dx

3:17

l 0 dx dux 2 du2y 1=2

2 2

quy

qux

qux 1=2

1

2

dx

qx

qx

qx

Thus the strain induced in the element is

2 2

quy

l0 l

qux

qux 1=2

1

2

1

EAB

l

qx

qx

qx

3:18

3:19

element AB laying in the x direction was indicated as EAB and not as

"x as was done for equation (3.9). This is due to two facts that will

be fully claried in the following presentation: rstly, the reference

coordinate system x, y, z, for the specimen in Fig. 3.13 was oriented

along the principal directions of deformation, which in that particular

case were the same throughout the whole body; secondly, the notation

"ij refers to the components of strain in the small displacement theory

65

applications, substantial simplications can be assumed on account

of the fact that deformations are extremely small. Notice also that in

equation (3.19) the relationships are concerned only with relative

local displacements in the body. The global, i.e. rigid body, displacements do not incur strains.

The generalised straindisplacement relationships can be derived by

considering a general displacement of an element in a three-dimensional body subjected to a general form of loading. Consider a straight

segment between the points A and B of length ds at some position in

the undeformed three-dimensional body. The point A initially has

coordinates (x; y; z) and the point B initially has coordinates

x dx; y dy; z dz. When the body is subjected to a deformation

the position, orientation and length of the element changes and its

length becomes ds 0 such that we can write

EAB

jABj

ds

3:20

point of original coordinates x, y and z, are, evidently,

x0 x ux x; y; z

y0 y uy x; y; z

3:21

z0 z uz x; y; z

where, once again, ux , uy and uz are the components of the displacement of the point along the Cartesian axes x, y and z. Without any

loss of generality, we shall consider the displacement a continuous vectorial function, together with the partial derivatives of its components.

Applying equation (3.21) to the points A and B and expanding the

right-hand side by Taylor's series and retaining only rst-order innitesimal terms, we have

qux

qu

qu

0

dx 1

dx x dy x dz

qx

qy

qz

quy

quy

quy

3:22

dy0

dx 1

dy

dz

qx

qy

qz

qu

qu

qu

dz0 z dx z dy 1 z dz

qx

qy

qz

66

jABj2 ds2 dx2 dy2 dz2

3:23

jA0 B 0 j2 ds02 dx02 dy02 dz02

3:24

jA0 B 0 j2 jABj2 ds02 ds2

2exx dx2 eyy dy2 ezz dz2

2exy dx dy 2exz dx dz 2eyz dy dz

3:25

where

2 2

quy

qux 2

quz

exx

qx

qx

qx

2 2

quy 1 qux 2

quy

quz

eyy

qy 2

qy

qy

qy

2 2 2

quy

qu

1 qux

quz

ezz z

qz 2

qz

qz

qz

1 quy qux qux qux quy quy quz quz

exy eyx

2 qx

qy

qx qy

qx qy

qx qy

1 quz qux qux qux quy quy quz quz

exz ezx

2 qx

qz

qx qz

qx qz

qx qz

1 quz quy qux qux quy quy quz quz

eyz ezy

2 qy

qz

qy qz

qy qz

qy qz

qu

1

x

qx 2

3:26

3:27

3:28

3:29

3:30

3:31

components of strain or Green's strains (after Green5 ) and equations

(3.26)(3.31) themselves represent generalised straindisplacement

relationships.

Green, George (Sneinton, Nottingham, 1793 ibidem, 1841), English physicist and

mathematician.

67

strain EAB occurred to the element AB to the components of strain

eij as follows6

EAB 1 12 EAB ds2 exx dx2 eyy dy2 ezz dz2 2exy dx dy

2exz dx dz 2eyz dy dz

3:32

EAB 1 12 EAB exx 2x eyy 2y ezz 2z

2exy x y 2exz x z 2eyz y z

3:33

In case the linear element before deformation is parallel to the x axis,

we have x 1 and y x 0. Therefore from equation (3.33) we

get

p

EAB 1 2exx 1

3:34

which, by virtue of equation (3.26), coincides with equation (3.19).

The straindisplacement relationships (3.26)(3.31) are absolutely

general. However, they form non-linear relationships of the partial

derivatives of the components of displacement. This is a major complication and even if progress in various engineering elds has necessitated

and produced detailed study of non-linear problems, a vast class of

engineering problems have been treated successfully by means of the

linear theory of elasticity. This is accomplished by linearising the

above mentioned relationships, as will be seen in the next section.

3.5

very small

actually subjected only to extremely small deformations. Therefore it

In fact, it is

jA0 B0 j2 jABj2 jA0 B0 j jABj jABj2 jABj2

EAB jABj jABj2 jABj2

EAB ds ds2 ds2

2

2EAB EAB

ds2

68

are insignicant compared with unity and that any product involving

these terms can be ignored. This means that we can rewrite the

straindisplacement relationships (3.26)(3.31) in the following form

qux

qx

quy

qy

"xx

3:35

"yy

3:36

"zz

quz

qz

1 quy qux

2 qx

qy

1 quz qux

"xz "zx

qz

2 qx

1 quz quy

"yz "zy

2 qy

qz

"xy "yx

3:37

3:38

3:39

3:40

are components of strain for small deformation and are the basis of the

linear theory of elasticity. It is worth noting that in compact form

equations (3.35)(3.40) can be often written in a summarised form as

1 qui quj

"ij

3:41

2 qxj qxi

with i, j 2 x; y; z and the convention that xx x, xy y and xz z.

The components "xx , "yy and "zz have a simple geometrical meaning.

In fact, let us consider once more a linear element of the body which

before deformation is parallel to the x axis and has length dx. After

deformation, the projection of this linear element on the same axis is

given by the rst of equations (3.22), i.e.

qux

0

dx 1

dx 1 "xx dx

3:42

qx

Therefore, we have

dx0 dx

3:43

dx

that is "xx represents the relative increase in the projection on the x axis

of a linear element which before deformation was parallel to this

axis.

"xx

69

Pyx

dy

Pxy

Pxy

Pyx

dx

x

Fig. 3.17

Moreover, the components "xy , "xz and "yz can be simply related to

an additional form of strain called shear strain. This form can be

demonstrated, for example, by reference to the deformation of a

small element of material in which the forces are parallel to the faces

of the element, see Fig. 3.17.

A practical example of this form of strain occurs in the deformations

of a thin-walled cylinder subjected purely to torsional loading, shown

in Fig. 3.18.

The perimeters AB and CD move angularly relative to each other

and the material between closely spaced perimeters will experience the

`lozenging' shown in Fig. 3.18. Considering the general deformation at

a point on a body, restricted here for clarity to a plane section, the

point moves from O to O0 . The bres dx and dy experience extension,

but, in general, they also experience relative rotation, as shown in

Fig. 3.19.

A

T

Fig. 3.18

70

y

) dy

ux

y

dy

(1 +

uy

y

2

1

uy

x

dx

o'

v

u

(1 +

ux

x

) dx

Fig. 3.19

quy =qx

quy

qu

qu

1 x x

1 tan 1

qx

qx

qx

1 qux =qx

3:44

quy

qux =qy

qux

qux

2 tan 2

1 quy =qy

qy

qy

qy

and the relative rotation 1 2 results in

quy qux

2"xy

1 2

qx

qy

3:45

shear strain xy , that is

quy qux

3:46

xy

qx

qy

As the treatment of structural analysis in this book is almost entirely

concerned with problems which do not justify the more complicated

non-linear theory (the only partial exception being constituted by the

presentation of buckling phenomena in chapter 12), in the following

we will always make reference to the simplications introduced in

this section.

3.6

arbitrary point

Always with reference to a deformed body, let us consider the displacement of a point B in the neighbourhood of a generic point A.

7

71

system x; y; z. By a simple Taylor's expansion with origin at location A,

if only rst order innitesimal terms are retained, we have

qux

qux

ux B ux A

xB xA

qx A

qy A

qux

yB yA qz zB zA

A

quy

quy

uy B uy A

xB xA

qx A

qy A

3:47

quy

yB yA qz zB zA

A

quz

quz

xB xA

uz B uz A

qx A

qy A

quz

yB yA qz zB zA

A

or also, for brevity,

qux BA qux BA qux BA

x

z

qx A

qy A

qz A

quy BA quy BA quy BA

uy B uy A

x

z

qx A

qy A

qz A

qu

qu

qu

uz B uz A z xBA z yBA z zBA

qx A

qy A

qz A

ux B ux A

3:48

ux B ux A "xx xBA "xy !z yBA "xz !y zBA

uy B uy A "yx !z xBA "yy yBA "yz !x zBA 3:49

uz B uz A "zx !y xBA "zy !x yBA "zz zBA

where

1 quz quy

!x

2 qy

qz

1 qux quz

!y

2 qz

qx

1 quy qux

!z

2 qx

qy

3:50

3:51

3:52

72

(3.52) are evaluated at A. This means that all coecients occurring

in equation (3.49), i.e. ui A, "ij and !i , have to be considered constants

and equal to their value at A.

It follows that an innitesimal small region surrounding an arbitrary

point A on account of deformation is in general subject to the sum of

(a)

(b)

(c)

a rotation with components !x , !y and !z . In fact in the theory

of small displacements, as we have already seen in chapter 2, it

is easy to realise that the product of a skew-symmetric matrix

! by the position vector, i.e.

3

32

2 r3 2

0

!z !y

ux

xBA

6

7

4 ury 5 6

0

!x 7

3:53

4 !z

54 yBA 5

r

BA

!y !x

0

uz

z

always represents a rigid rotation displacement eld about the

origin A;

changes in dimensions and shape given by the displacement

eld

32 BA 3

2 3 2

"xx "xy "xz

ux

x

76 BA 7

6 7 6"

"

"

3:54

5

4 uy 5 4 yx

yy

yz 54 y

BA

"

"

"

uz

z

zx

zy

zz

A'

z

u (A)

A

Fig. 3.20

73

Thus, apart from a translational and rotational movement, the deformation of an innitely small region surrounding A is described by

equation (3.54). This is a linear transformation, where straight lines

remain straight, planes remain plane (and both remain parallel if

they were parallel before occurrence of deformation), and in general

any second-order surfaces transform into second order surfaces, that

is, for example, a sphere transforms into an ellipsoid, as is shown in

Fig. 3.20.

3.7

the change of reference frame

with the change of reference frame, that is, for example, in the passage

from a Cartesian system of orthogonal coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 to

another Cartesian system x2 , y2 , z2 with a dierent origin and with

rotated axes, can be pursued very easily with a minimum of matrix

algebra.

In fact, look at the situation in Fig. 3.21 and consider a vector v of

components vxz , vyz , vzz with reference to the second Cartesian frame

x2 , y2 , z2 .

In the rst reference frame x1 , y1 , z1 the same vector has components

vx1 , vy1 , vz1 which are related to the components vxz , vyz , vzz by the

formula

2

3 2

32

3

nx2 x1 nx2 y1 nx2 z1

vx2

vx1

4 vy 5 4 ny x ny y ny z 54 vy 5

3:55

1

2 1

2 1

2 1

2

nz2 x1 nz2 y1 nz2 z1

vz1

vz2

z2

v

z1

x2

y2

y1

x1

Fig. 3.21

74

where nx2 x1 ; . . . ; nz2 z1 are the direction cosines of the axes of the second

system with respect to the rst one.

Hence, in the passage from x2 ; y2 ; z2 to x1 ; y1 ; z1 the pure strain

displacement eld given by equation (3.54) becomes

32 3

2 3 2

nx2 x1 nx2 y1 nx2 z1

ux2

ux1

7

6 u 7 6 n

6

7

3:56

4 y1 5 4 y2 x1 ny2 y1 ny2 z1 54 uy2 5

uz1

nz2 x1

nz2 y1

nz2 z1

uz2

cosines is orthogonal, i.e. its inverse coincides with its transpose that

is n1 nT , the inverse relationship of the above equation (3.56),

results in

3 2

3

2 3 2

nx2 x1 nx2 y1 nx2 z1 T ux1

ux2

7 6 7

6 u 7 6 n

3:57

4 y2 5 4 y2 x1 ny2 y1 ny2 z1 5 4 uy1 5

uz2

nz2 x1

nz2 y1

2 3 2

nx2 x1 nx2 y1

ux2

6 7 6

6 uy 7 6 ny x ny y

2 1

4 25 4 2 1

nz2 x1 nz2 y1

uz2

2 BA 3

x1

6 BA 7

7

6

4 y1 5

nz2 z1

uz1

(3.54)

3 2

nx2 z1 T "x1 x1

7 6

6

ny2 z1 7

5 4 "y1 x1

nz2 z1

"z1 x1

"x1 y1

"x1 z1

"y1 y1

7

"y1 z1 7

5

"z1 y1

"z1 z1

3:58

zBA

1

Thus, the following relationship holds true

2 3 2

3 2

nx2 x1 nx2 y1 nx2 z1 T "x1 x1 "x1 y1

ux2

6 7 6

7 6

6 uy 7 6 ny x ny y ny z 7 6 "y x "y y

2 1

2 1 5 4

1 1

1 1

4 25 4 2 1

nz2 x1 nz2 y1 nz2 z1

"z1 x1 "z1 y1

uz2

2

32 BA 3

nx2 x1 nx2 y1 nx2 z1

x2

6

76 BA 7

76

7

6

4 ny2 x1 ny2 y1 ny2 z1 54 y2 5

nz2 x1 nz2 y1 nz2 z1

zBA

2

"x1 z1

7

"y1 z1 7

5

"z1 z1

3:59

75

results in

2

3 2

3

nx2 x1 nx2 y1 nx2 z1 T

"x2 x2 "x2 y2 "x2 z2

6

7 6

7

6 "y x "y y "y z 7 6 ny x ny y ny z 7

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

2

1

2

1

4

5 4

5

"z2 x2 "z2 y2 "z2 z2

nz2 x1 nz2 y1 nz2 z1

2

3

"x1 x1 "x1 y1 "x1 z1

6

7

7

6

4 "y1 x1 "y1 y1 "y1 z1 5

"z1 x1 "z1 y1 "z1 z1

2

3

nx2 x1 nx2 y1 nx2 z1

6

7

7

3:60

6

4 ny2 x1 ny2 y1 ny2 z1 5

nz2 x1 nz2 y1 nz2 z1

Finally, as they will be useful in the next section, we can develop

these matrix products in extenso and write

"x2 x2 "x1 x1 n2x2 x1 "y1 y1 n2x2 y1 "z1 z1 n2x2 z1 2 "x1 y1 nx2 x1 nx2 y1

"x2 y2

...

...

"y2 x2 2 "x1 x1 nx2 x1 ny2 x1 2 "y1 y1 nx2 y1 ny2 y1

3:61

2 "x1 z1 nx2 x1 ny2 z1 ny2 x1 nx2 z1

2 "y1 z1 nx2 y1 ny2 z1 ny2 y1 nx2 z1

...

...

3.8

minimum extensions

which the extension given by equation (3.43), i.e.

"xx

dx0 dx

dx

minimum.

76

This study can be performed very easily with the aid of the law of

transformation (3.61). In fact the problem amounts to nding the

values of n x1 , n y1 and n z1 for which the rst of equations (3.61)

becomes a maximum or a minimum. As by denition of direction

cosines the following relationship must hold true

n2x1 n2y1 n2z1 1

3:62

calculus, it can be dealt with by means of Lagrange multipliers (named

after the eminent mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange, see chapter

2). In other words, we are led to searching the stationary value of

the following function

Ln x1 ; n y1 ; n z1 ; " " "n2 x1 n2 y1 n2 z1 1

3:63

we equate to zero the partial derivatives of expression (3.63) with

respect to n x1 , n y1 and n z1 , we obtain the following system of three

homogeneous algebraic equations

8

>

< "x1 x1 "n x1 "x1 y1 n y1 "x1 z1 n z1 0

"x1 y1 n x1 "y1 y1 "n y1 "y1 z1 n z1 0

3:64

>

:

"x1 z1 n x1 "y1 z1 n y1 "z1 z1 "n z1 0

The zero solution of this system has no interest on account of the condition (3.62). Consequently, in order to nd the non-zero solutions of

equation (3.64) we must equate the determinant of its coecients to

zero, that is

"x x "

"x1 y1

"x1 z1

1 1

"y1 y1 "

"y1 z1 0

3:65

det "x1 y1

"x z

"y z

"z z "

1 1

1 1

1 1

"3 E1 "2 E2 " E3 0

3:66

where

E1 "x1 x1 "y1 y1 "z1 z1

3:67

E2 "x1 x1 "y1 y1 "x1 x1 "z1 z1 "y1 y1 "z1 z1 "2x1 y1 "2x1 z1 "2y1 z1 3:68

E3 "x1 x1 "y1 y1 "z1 z1

"x1 x1 "2y1 z1 "y1 y1 "2x1 z1 "z1 z1 "2x1 y1 "x1 y1 "x1 z1 "y1 z1

3:69

77

Because the principal extensions are independent of the choice of direction of the coordinate axes, also the coecients E1 , E2 and E3 result

independent from this choice of the coordinate axes and are named

strain invariants.

From a mathematical standpoint, solving equation (3.65) means

nding the eigenvalues of the problem

" "I 0

3:70

obtained from a symmetric matrix, it can be demonstrated that it

admits always three real values, which are the eigenvalues of the

problem, equation (3.70). Corresponding to these values, we nd

three sets of direction cosines (that is, for example, n x1 , n y1 , n z1 ;

n x1 , n y1 , n z1 and n x1 , n y1 , n z1 ) which represent the eigenvectors of

equation (3.70). By virtue of a well known property of eigenvectors,

the three directions associated to these sets of direction cosines are

mutually perpendicular.

We are therefore led to the conclusion that for every point of the

body it is always possible to nd three perpendicular directions in

which the components of strain "ii assume stationary value, that is

are a maximum or a minimum relative.

The values assumed by the Lagrangian multiplier, i.e. the roots "1 ,

"2 , "3 of equation (3.66), represent exactly these components and are

called principal components of strain. In order to illustrate this point,

let us consider again the rst of equations (3.61). By grouping its

right-hand terms, it can be written as

" "x1 x1 n x1 "x1 y1 n y1 "x1 z1 n z1 nx1

"x1 y1 n x1 "y1 y1 n y1 "y1 z1 n z1 n y1

"x1 z1 n x1 "y1 z1 n y1 "z1 z1 n z1 n z1

3:71

Given that "1 and the set of direction cosines nx1 , ny1 , nz1 satisfy equations (3.64), then equation (3.71) becomes

" "1 n2 x1 "1 n2 y1 "1 n2 z1 "1

3:72

and, by repeating the same procedure, we nd also that " "2 and

" "3 .

An important property of the principal directions of deformation is

that along these directions the components " , " , " of strain, i.e.

the shear strain components, are zero. To show this property the

78

" 2"x1 x1 n x1 "x1 y1 n y1 "x1 z1 n z1 n x1

2"x1 y1 n x1 "y1 y1 n y1 "y1 z1 n z1 n y1

2"x1 z1 n x1 "y1 z1 n y1 "z1 z1 n z1 n z1

3:73

Again, as "1 and the set of direction cosines n x1 , n y1 , n z1 satisfy equations (3.64), equation (3.73) becomes

" 2"1 n x1 n x1 n y1 n y1 n z1 n z1 0

3:74

By applying the same line of reasoning to the fth and the sixth of

equation (3.61) we conclude that

" " 0

3.9

3:75

Plane strain

There are structural forms that are very long, in the z direction,

compared to their other dimensions. Two examples are shown in

Fig. 3.22.

Figure 3.22(a) represents a part of a very long dam wall that is supported at its base and at its ends. The ends are prevented from movement in the z direction and the loading is uniform along the length of

the dam face. We may deduce that, on account of the length, there is

symmetry of deformation at any section along the dam and that it

may reasonably be assumed that there is no displacement along the z

axis and therefore no variation of deformations or strains along the

dz

z

(a)

Fig. 3.22

(b)

79

dam wall. In fact, the deformation of the wall can be assumed to be the

same at any cross section and can be dened completely by the nonzero components of displacement ux and uy , which are assumed to

be functions of x and y only. Thus, the response of the wall to the

applied loads may be analysed using a representative length dz of

the wall as shown in the gure. Similar conditions may be assumed

for a very long tunnel that has a uniform pressure along its length

from the surrounding soil, see Fig. 3.22(b).

These cases are normally referred to as plane strain and the assumption of zero variation of strain along the length can signicantly simplify the analysis. However, it must be remembered that the results

pertain only to deformations far from the ends and that near the

ends the deformations will actually be three-dimensional.

Formally, the above assumptions can be written as

ux ux x; y

uy uy x; y

uz 0

3:76

and the expressions (3.35)(3.40) of the strain components can be simplied as follows

"xx

qux

qx

3:77

"yy

quy

qy

3:78

quz

0

qz

1 qux quy

"xy

2 qy

qx

1 quy quz

0

"yz

2 qz

qy

1 qux quz

"xz

0

2 qz

qx

"zz

3.10

3:79

3:80

3:81

3:82

describe a complete derivation of the strains from the displacement

eld throughout a body. However, one may wonder if an arbitrarily

chosen set of six continuous functions eij fij x; y; z dened in the

domain of the body always represent an actual deformation of the

80

disparity between the number of strain components (six) and those

of the components of the displacement eld (three) and therefore not

all the strain components can be independent. Hence, it can be

shown that the functions eij fij x; y; z will dene the deformation

of a body, thus satisfying all the continuity conditions, only if they

full a set of six dierential equations, called strain compatibility conditions. These conditions may be derived in a straightforward manner

when deformations are very small, i.e. with reference to the simplied

straindisplacement relationships (3.35)(3.40). For the sake of simplicity, the derivation of the compatibility conditions is exemplied

with regard to a case of plain strain.

So, with reference to equations (3.77), (3.78) and (3.80)

"xx

qu

x

qx

"yy

quy

qy

"xy

1 quy qux

2 qx

qy

q2 "xx

q3 ux

qy2

qx qy2

3:83

q2 "yy

q3 uy

qx2

qy qx2

q2 "xy 1 q3 ux

q3 uy

qx qy 2 qx qy2 qx2 qy

3:84

that the condition of compatibility of the strains to ensure continuity

of the displacements is

2

q2 "xy

q2 "xx q "yy

0

2

qx qy

qy2

qx2

3:85

deformation, but it is possible to show that it also is sucient. However, the discussion of the conditions of solvability of the set of equations of strain compatibility conditions is somewhat more complicated

and goes beyond the scope of this book.

The compatibility relationship (equation (3.85)) is for a case of plane

strain. Nevertheless, by applying a similar procedure we can easily get

the complete set of conditions relating to a general three-dimensional

z

dz

Px

dx

81

Px

dy

y

Fig. 3.23

body, i.e.

2

q2 "xy

q2 "xx q "yy

0

2

qx qy

qy2

qx2

q2 "xx q2 "zz

q2 "xz

0

2

qx qz

qz2

qx2

q2 "yy q2 "zz

q2 "yz

0

2

qy qz

qz2

qy2

3:86

qy qz qx qy qx qz

qx2

2

2

2

q2 "xz q "yy q "xy q "yz

qx qz qy qz qx qy

qy2

qx qy qx qz qy qz

qz2

These conditions are generally known as Beltrami's equations.8

3.11

Strain energy

This text presents the development of methods for the analysis of structures using the concept of strain energy and work as a basis. The

formulations of strain energy for a linear elastic body are presented

in this section.

Figure 3.23 shows an innitesimal element of material as some position in a continuous body. The element has dimensions dx, dy and dz.

A force Px is applied to the element in the x direction. The value of the

force starts from zero and gradually reaches its nal value Px . The

8

82

to the work done W by the force during the loading process on account

of the incremental change of length, from zero to dl "xx dx, of the

element in the x direction. Thus

"xx

U W

Px d"xx dx

3:87

As for a linearly elastic material the relationship between the force and

the strain is, according to the test results reviewed in section 3.3,

"xx

Px

E dy dz

3:88

therefore

"xx

U

Px d"xx dx

0

"xx

E"xx d"xx dx dy dz

E 2

" dV

2 xx

3:89

loaddeection relationship, as is the case in equation (3.88), which

is described by a relationship of the type

l "xx l Px =k

3:90

the work performed by the load Px in the loading process from 0 to its

nal value Px is

l

l

Px dl

0

kl dl

0

1

1

kl 2 Px l

2

2

3:91

i.e. it amounts to half the product of the nal value of the force Px by the

nal value of the displacement l.

This fact is of fundamental importance in the linear theory of elasticity

and constitutes the statement of Clapeyron's theorem, named after

Clapeyron9 who investigated the phenomenon in a wider context.

Clapeyron, Beno t-Paul-Emile (Paris, 1799 ibidem, 1864), French engineer and

physicist.

9

83

Pz

z

dz

Px

Py

dx

Pz

Px

dy

y

Fig. 3.24

equation (3.89) can be employed to dene the strain energy per unit

volume at a point, which is called strain energy density. This is

simply done by letting ' U=dV and assuming the constant which

denes the reference value of the strain energy to be zero in the unconstrained conguration. It follows immediately that the value of strain

energy for a body with a volume V, uniform strain "xx and constant

value of modulus E, is

E 2

U ' dV

"xx dV

3:92

2

V

We next consider the situation where also forces in the y and z directions are applied. The examination of the test results in the previous

sections showed that forces applied normal to each other inuence

the strains through a constant, called Poisson's ratio, . Figure 3.24

shows an elementary volume of material subjected to forces in the x,

y and z directions.

The strains related to these forces and directions are

Py

Px

Pz

E dy dz

E dx dz

E dx dy

Py

Px

Pz

"yy

E dx dz

E dy dz

E dx dy

Py

Pz

Px

"zz

E dx dy

E dy dz

E dx dz

"xx

3:93

3:94

3:95

over the volume of a body of volume V, if we assume an homogeneous

and isotropic condition for the material constants, E and , that is,

84

they are constant throughout the body and are constant in every direction at every point in the body, we obtain

E

U

1 "2xx "2yy "2zz

21 1 2

V

3:96

strains in the y and z directions are zero, that is "yy "zz 0, we conclude that this is possible provided that

Py

Px

1 dy dz

dx dz

3:97

Pz

Px

dx dy

1 dy dz

and the value of the strain energy is

E1

"2 dV

U

21 1 2 xx

3:98

are direct and shear strains in the elementary volume, still assuming an

homogeneous and isotropic condition for the material constants E and .

Before doing so, consider the shear loading shown in Fig. 3.25,

similar to that already considered in Fig. 3.17.

In such a case it is found from testing that

xy

Pxy

Pyx

G dy dz G dx dz

3:99

y

Pyx

Pxy

Pxy

dy

Pyx

dx

Fig. 3.25

y

85

Pyx

y

Pyx

C

PAC

Pxy

Pxy

Pxy

A

Pyx

PAC

Pyx

x

(a)

Pxy

x

(b)

Fig. 3.26

Equation (3.99) is normally referred to as Hooke's law for shearing.

This law applies also when more than one loading (shear or normal)

is acting, i.e. shear forces do not inuence each other, nor inuence

or are inuenced by normal forces. The constant G can be easily related

to the constants E and .

In fact, let us consider that the innitesimal element has the shape of

a square, that is dx dy. As this innitesimal element is in equilibrium, it is easy to conclude that we must have jPxy j jPyx j. Moreover, if we ideally make a cut along the diagonal line BD, as shown

in Figure 3.26(a), and write the equilibrium equations for the triangular sub-elements ABD and BCD, we are led to the conclusion that on

the surfaces of the cut

pcan

only be present normal tensile forces PAC of

magnitude equal to 2Pxy , see Fig. 3.26(b).

By repeating the same reasoning for an ideal cut along the diagonal

AC, we nd that along the direction

pBD

and normally to the cut a compressive force of modulus PBD 2Pxy is acting, see Fig. 3.27.

Thus, applying Hooke's law for axial loading to the direction AC we

have "AC , the component of strain along the direction AC,

Pxy

P

P

pBD

1

"AC pAC

E 2 dy dz

E 2 dx dz E dy dz

3:100

change of reference axes, equations (3.61), applied to the case of

pure shear strain at hand yields

xy

"AC "xy

3:101

2

86

Pyx

Pxy

PBD

PBD

Pxy

Pyx

Fig. 3.27

xy

Pxy

1

2

E dy dz

3:102

At this point, a simple comparison between equation (3.99) and equation (3.102) provides the relationship between the constant G and the

constants E and , that is

G

E

21

3:103

The expression of the strain energy for the situation where all the

strains, direct and shear, are present in the elementary volume is

now simple. In fact, given that there is no interaction between Hooke's

law for direct and shear strains, we can simply compute the work done

by the shear forces on the elementary volume, that is

quy

1

qux

1

1

W

Pxy

dx Pyx

dy Pxy
xy dx Pyx
xy dy

2

2

2

qx

qy

3:104

given that for the element to be in equilibrium we must have Pxy dx

Pyx dy and provided we made reference to Clapeyron's theorem. By

virtue of Hooke's Law, equation (3.99), we can write equation

(3.104) as

1 2

E

W G
xy

"2 dx dy dz

dx dy dz

2

1 xy

3:105

Finally, by superposing the eects of the shear forces Pxy , Pyz , Pxz ,

Pzx , Pyx and Pzy and by integrating over the domain of a body with

volume V we obtain the general expression of the change in strain

E

U

"2xy "2xz "2yz dV

1

87

3:106

E

1 "2xx "2yy "2zz

U

21 1 2

V

21 2 2

2

2

"xy "xz "yz dV

1

3:107

At the end of this section it is worth noting that the strain energy is a

scalar quantity and by its own nature it is independent of the particular

reference frame. Hence, the expression of the strain energy density at a

point must give the same value with respect to any system of coordinate axes. In particular, when we make reference to a system of axes

coincident with the principal directions of strain , , we can write

'

E

1 "2 "2 "2

21 1 2

2" " " " " "

3:108

because the shear strain components are zero in this particular reference frame.

3.12

Yield criteria

that the linear loadextension property of the material is limited

to certain values of strain. At the value of strain, "0 , which we

can call the yield strain, the forcedisplacement properties become

non-linear. The onset of the non-linear conditions have for many

years been generally regarded as a limiting condition in structural

design. However, relatively recent developments in mechanics of

materials and the alliance of the non-linear material properties

assessment with more advanced numerical techniques of analysis

have enabled the actual limiting state of failure of structures to be

investigated and, in some cases, incorporated in design analysis.

These non-linear analyses can be extremely complex and involve

local and overall buckling of the structure as material yielding

spreads. This level of analysis is outside the scope of this text, but

the following provides criteria that have been developed which can

88

methods.

The primary requirement in the development of the yield criteria is

to extend the observations from uniaxial tension tests to the complex

conditions of a three-dimensional strain eld that exists in the interior

and on the surface of a structure subjected to various forms of loading.

As a matter of fact, there are no currently available tests that can

validate uniquely or directly any specic yield criterion. The usual

approach is to particularise the three-dimensional yield criterion

using the yield strain derived from a uniaxial test on the material

from which the structure is composed, then apply the yield criterion,

with some reduction for safety, to the linear elastic analysis results to

determine the allowable level of the external loads that can be sustained in practice. Experience has shown this approach to provide a

fairly reasonable basis for structural practice.

The strain energy formulation developed in the previous sections

has been related to a general state of three-dimensional strain at

some point in the interior of a structure. The strain state encompasses direct and shear strains. The relative magnitudes of these

components of strain will vary with the choice of direction of the

axes, x, y and z. As we have seen, it is possible to choose the

axes such that there are no components of shear strain in the description of the strain state. Here we identify these strains as "1 , "2

and "3 .

The strain energy formulation, in terms of the principle strains is

given by equation (3.108), i.e.

'

E

21 1 2

2

where ' is the strain energy density at a point in the structure and the

strain energy U for the whole structure is obtained by integrating the

strain energy density across the volume of the structure.

U ' dV

3:109

V

the structure we will use the strain energy density as the relevant property to be considered in the development of a yield criterion.

Several yield criteria have been proposed over the years and some of

these will be reviewed here.

89

yield will occur for a three-dimensional strain state at a point in a structure when the largest of the principal strains at the point equals the

yield strain measured in a uniaxial tension test on a corresponding

material.

Thus yielding will occur when

"0 "1 "2 "3

3:110

relevant to brittle materials in which there is very little extension in

the material after the onset of yielding.

will be initiated in the three-dimensional state of strain at a point in

a body when the strain energy density at that point equals the strain

energy density at the yield strain in a uniaxial tensile test on a corresponding material.

The state of principal strains at the inset of yielding of a uniaxial test

specimen is

"1 "0 ;

3:111

and the corresponding strain energy density '0 is, according to equation (3.110),

E 2

"

3:112

2 0

Thus equating the strain energy density at some point in the structure

with the strain energy density at yield for a uniaxial tensile test specimen of corresponding material, we have

'0

"eff "0

where "eff is the eective strain dened by

1

1 "21 "22 "23

"eff

1 1 2

1=2

2"1 "2 "1 "3 "2 "3

10

3:113

3:114

Loir-et-Cher, 1886), French mathematician and engineer.

90

yielding according to Beltrami.

strain energy density at some point in the structure. However, in the

von Mises11 criterion the particular component of the strain energy

is that which is associated with distortion of the material.

The strain energy density formulation in equation (3.108) can be

reformulated as

E

1

'

" "2 "3 2

2 31 2 1

1

2

2

2

" "2 "1 "3 "2 "3

3:115

31 1

By remembering equation (3.12) it is easy to infer that the rst term in

equation (3.115) can be associated with volumetric change owing to the

strain state by means of the material constant K, the bulk modulus.

K

E

61 2

3:116

associated with the strain energy of distortion of the material due to

the strain state. The von Mises criterion postulates that yielding will

occur when the distortional strain energy density in a three-dimensional state of strain equals the distortional strain energy density at

the yield strain in a uniaxial tensile test specimen of the corresponding

material.

Thus the strain energy density 'd associated with distortion is

'd

E

1

" "2 2 "1 "3 2 "2 "3 2

2 31 1

3:117

specimen is

E 2 1 2

"0

2

3

Hence, the von Mises criterion is

11

'od

3:118

"eff "0

3:119

Mises, Richard von (Lemberg, Austria, 1883 Boston, 1953), German mathematician and engineer.

91

where

1

"eff p

"1 "2 2 "1 "3 2 "2 "3 2 1=2 3:120

21

Experience has shown that the von Mises criterion provides results

that accord reasonably with tests on biaxial tests on ductile materials,

such as structural steels and aluminium alloys. It is accepted that

this criterion is more appropriate for ductile materials than that

proposed by Beltrami and is preferred for application in structural

practice.

1.

is shown in Fig. 3.28. The specimen was subjected to a axial load

P and the change of length, l for the gauge length, lg 50 mm,

was measured using a mechanical extensometer that was accurate

to 0:005 mm. The change of diameter d was also measured.

The following are the results from the test:

P (kN)

9:9 20:1 28:45 35:8 45:9 52:9 53:20 53:4 52:9 53:2

l (mm) 0:02 0:04 0:06 0:07 0:09 0:11 0:15 0:20 0:29 0:52

d (mm) 0:01 0:02 0:02 0:03 0:04 0:05 0:06 0:09 0:16 0:27

2.

values of the material modulus, the yield strain and Poisson's

ratio.

[Ans: "0 2:2 103 , 0:44, E 2:56 105 N/mm2 ]

A section of structure is essentially operating in plane strain. The

strains in orthogonal x and y directions are "xx 1:78 103 ,

"yy 1:28 103 and "xy 1:66 103 . The negative sign

denotes compressive strain. Calculate the principal strains in the

plane and determine, using the von Mises criterion, if the strain

state in the material exceeds the elastic limit. The material has a

yield strain, "0 2:15 103 in a tensile test.

[Ans: "1 2:0 103 , "2 2:5 103 , "eff 3 103 ]

15 mm dia.

P

lg = 50 mm

Fig. 3.28

4.

of beams

Introduction

frames and grid structures. Essentially a beam, or bar, is a structural

component whose length is signicantly greater than its breadth and

width. Conventionally a bar is an axially loaded element, while a

beam has loads applied normal to its longitudinal axis. A beam may

be supported at various positions along its length and in various manners, as is seen later in the text.

Up to this stage we have examined the behaviour of elastic materials,

the interpretation of tensile tests and the concept of strain in one, two

and three dimensions. Chapter 1 also considered the concept of equilibrium for general systems. Essentially, the objective in structural

mechanics is to determine the manner in which specic structures or

components are deformed by external actions and to enable design calculations to evaluate the maximum levels of loading and deformations

that can safely be allowed in practice. The analysis of the response of a

beam to a specic pattern of applied loads requires that

.

.

.

with the applied loading.

The deformations of the beam must be continuous and compatible with the restraints of the supports.

The strain energy must conform with the properties relevant to

the material (in our case the conditions of elasticity).

The exact solution of the deformations of a generic structural element is, in general, very dicult to achieve for solids with arbitrary

shapes. The approach is simplied by dening classes of elements,

for example bars, beams, plates and shells, whose shapes have generic

features which enable us to make assumptions to reduce the complexity of the analysis. Of course, the introduction of such assumptions

94

q

Fig. 4.1

has shown that the assumptions result in predictions for the deformations of elastic and many plastic structural components within an

accuracy acceptable for engineering applications.

Starting here with bars and beams, which are essentially three

dimensional, with length, depth and breadth, we seek to simplify the

analysis by the assumption about the way in which these elements

deform in response to loading. We consider beams composed of

materials with linear elastic properties and loaded such that they

remain in the range of small deformations.

Simple observation shows that if one were to draw a line around the

surface of an unloaded beam or bar, say with rectangular cross section,

the line being composed of straight parts and normal to the axis of the

element, then when the beam is loaded and deforms, the line is still continuous and the originally straight lateral parts are still reasonably

straight. This is shown in Fig. 4.1.

The above observation leads to a generalisation that

a plane section imagined as cut through the beam before loading will remain plane after

loading.

the very important purpose of reducing the actual three-dimensional

deformations to an idealised one-dimensional model in which the

variation of the deformations can be described with reference to the

behaviour of the longitudinal axis of the beam. It goes without

saying that the same model applies to the simpler case of axially

loaded bars that are also introduced in this chapter. Notice that bars

loaded axially in compression can exhibit a form of instability, or

buckling, and this is considered in detail in chapter 12.

An alternative but essentially identical approach to assuming plane

sections remain plane, is to make a simplifying assumption with regard

to the strain distribution induced in the beam during loading. For a

1

95

normally loaded element the simplest and acceptably accurate assumption in the realm of linear elasticity is that

the strain varies linearly through the beam in the direction of any normal to the

longitudinal axis.

Bernoulli assumption of plane sections. Of course, for beams composed of materials with more complex characteristics, or elements

made from a composite of dierent materials, the assumption of

linear distribution of strain has to be carefully validated by comparisons with the deformations predicted by more exact analysis and

with the corresponding results from carefully conducted tests.

In the following two sections we consider bars and beams of uniform

cross section: this is purely for the sake of simplicity, but the same

treatment can be applied to bar and beams which vary in shape

along their longitudinal axes as shown in an example in section 4.6.

4.1

We start the mathematical treatment of the deformation of one-dimensional elements by considering axial loading only, i.e. the deformation

of bars. Following what has been said in the introduction to this

chapter and without loss of generality, a bar is dened here to be a

straight element with a uniform cross section and to be axially

loaded. Reference is also made to a Cartesian frame with the z-axis

coincident with the axis of the bar, represented by the straight line

through the centroids of the cross sections. The x and y-axes are

arranged to coincide with the principal axes of inertia of the cross

section, as shown in Fig. 4.2.

N

z

N

y

Fig. 4.2

96

N

dl

dl'

l

l'

dA

(a)

dN

dl

(b)

Fig. 4.3

any cross section remains plane and orthogonal to the curve representing the deformed

axis of the beam.

Consider the bar shown in Fig. 4.3(a), which is in equilibrium with the

two opposite axial forces N applied at the ends.

First of all it is worth noticing that we can obtain an elementary

length of the bar by means of two cuts normal to the z axis at two

very closely spaced cross sections dl apart. If we rely upon the smallness of the deformation of such a slice of the bar and consider each

of the parts of the bar as rigid bodies, we are led to the conclusion

that for the equilibrium it is necessary to have the same axial force N

applied at any section. This fact follows from equation (2.55).

We will also assume that the axis of the initially straight bar remains a

straight line. The implications of this assumption are examined in

chapter 12. Given the adopted model of deformation, we can extract

an innitesimal sectional area from the body of the bar and derive

from its behaviour a relationship which describes the behaviour of

the whole bar, see Fig. 4.3(b).

We are primarily going to deal with linearly elastic materials and

from tensile tests we know that the relationship between the length

of the innitesimal specimen before the deformation, dl, due to the

axial force dN acting on its section dA, and the length after the

1 dN

dl

dl 0 1

E dA

97

4:1

In the bar, every elementary length between two chosen cross

sections has the same elongation which is the consequence of the

assumption that plane sections remain plane. Therefore, as

N dN

4:2

A

and

dA

4:3

1

0

dN

C

B

N

0

A

C

B

4:4

dl @1

A dl 1 EA dl

E dA

A

provided, of course, that E is constant. This constitutes the deformation formulation for an innitesimal element of the bar between two

very near cross sections under the axial force N. As the axial force is

constant for the whole length of the bar, we can integrate over the

length l and obtain the relationship between the applied axial force

and the elongation of the whole bar

N

N

l dl 0

dl 1

1

dl

EA

EA

l

1

N

l

EA

4:5

The energy stored in the bar is simply given by the work done by the

axial forces N during the process of loading, i.e.

l

UW

Nl dl

0

4:6

98

l 0 l

EA

4:7

l

and we can write, remembering Clapeyron's theorem for linearly elastic materials, see equation (3.91),

N

UW

4.2

1 EA 0

l l2

2 l

4:8

Deformation of beams

the deformation of beams subjected to a variety of types of loading.

Start by considering a beam to be essentially a straight structural

element of uniform cross section capable of resisting shear forces

and bending moments about the two principal axes of inertia in the

plane of its generic cross section. The shear forces and the bending

moments are considered here to be induced only by end forces and

transverse loads, i.e. normal to the longitudinal axis of the bar. As

before, a Cartesian reference frame is adopted with the z-axis coincident with the axis of the bar, represented by the straight line through

the centroids of the cross sections along the beam. The x and y-axis

are taken initially to coincide with the principal axes of inertia of the

cross section, see Fig. 4.4.

As we are primarily interested in establishing some relationships that

can describe the bending deformations of a beam, regardless of the

particular loading applied, let us consider, for the sake of generality,

the beam shown in Fig. 4.5.

Mx

My

x

Sx

y

Sy

Fig. 4.4

99

z

x

y

dz

l

Fig. 4.5

the left and right ends of the beam, respectively. These couples are

equal in magnitude and opposite in sign and therefore in equilibrium.

This beam is classed as being in pure bending.

Following the same line of reasoning adopted for the axially loaded

bar of Fig. 4.3, i.e. conceptually cutting the beam in two parts at any

cross section, we can easily deduce that the same bending moment is

applied to every cross section of the beam.

Also in this case we will assume, according to Bernoulli's model,

that any cross section remains plane and orthogonal to the axis after the deformation

has occurred due to the bending moment.

straight, we will assume that in this case

the axis of the beam becomes an arc of a circle. Moreover, we will also assume that this

arc of circle retains its original length, so that we can consider that no stretching of the

axis of the beam has occurred.

Now consider Fig. 4.6, where an element of the beam between two

cross sections at distance dz is shown.

As a consequence of the assumptions stated above, it is evident that

after deformation has occurred, the right side face of the element has

rotated through an angle d about the axis x relative to the left side

face. In this framework, it is evident that the bres of the beam have

increased or decreased their length proportionally to their distance

from the x axis, according to the simple rule

dl 0 dz y

4:9

100

d

z

y

dz

Fig. 4.6

Notice that the bres below the axis have increased their length, as

the sign holds for their distance from the axis, while the bres above

the axis have decreased their length, being governed by negative values

of y. We can now refer to the elongation, equation (4.1), to obtain a

relationship between the bending moment M and the radius of curvature r of the axis of the beam after deformation has occurred. Thus,

from equation (4.1) we have

dl 0 dz

E dA

4:10

dz

and this means that an axial force dN acts on the typical innitesimal

element of the cross section extracted from the beam. The magnitude

of this force is obviously dependent on the deformation. Substituting

equation (4.9) in equation (4.10) we obtain

y d

dN

E dA

4:11

dz

We can now sum all the contributions of the elementary forces on

the cross section to obtain the resulting axial force N and bending

moment M. Thus,

y d

d

E dA

E y dA

N dN

4:12

dz

dz

A

A

A

y d

d

E dA

E y2 dA

4:13

M y dN

dz

dz

dN

centroid of the cross section, then from this condition we have

y dA 0

4:14

A

101

and therefore

N0

4:15

Notice that for pure moment the neutral axis, that is the position

where the longitudinal bres neither extend nor contract, passes

through the centroid of the cross section of the beam. The integral

term on the right hand part of equation (4.13) is termed the second

moment of area Ix , sometimes called the moment of inertia,

4:16

Ix y2 dA

A

In this case the second moment of area has been evaluated about the xaxis. The magnitude of this parameter will vary according to the orientation of the axis about which the second moment of area is calculated.

Now, we can write

d

EI

4:17

dz x

which yields the desired relationship between the bending moment M

and the radius of curvature r. As we have

M

d 1

dz r

it follows

4:18

M

1

EIx r

4:19

subjected purely to a bending moment.

It is a simple matter to calculate the relative rotation between the

ends of the beam of Fig. 4.5. As the bending moment is constant, we

can integrate equation (4.17) over the whole length l of the beam

and obtain

l

l

M

M

M

dz

dz

l

EIx

EIx

EIx

0

4:20

The strain energy stored in the beam is given by the work done by the

couple M during the process of loading and is

U W M d

0

4:21

102

theorem, equation (3.91),

UW

1 EIx 2

2 l

4:22

So far we have dealt with a bar subjected to a constant axial force and a

beam subjected to a constant bending moment about the axis x.

It is signicant that all the relationships obtained above are linear and therefore the

behaviour of a beam subjected to both bending moment and axial force can be obtained

very straightforwardly by adding the eects of the axial load to those of the bending

moment.

In the next section we will see why this can be allowed from a geometrical point of view in the framework of the theory of very small

displacements. Following from their derivation, it is also clear that

equations (4.4), (4.17) and (4.19) hold true for any element of beam

between two innitesimally near cross sections. Therefore they can

also be applied to the analysis of beams subjected to axial forces N

and bending moments M that vary along the axis z.

4.3

the study of the deformations of simple systems of beams subjected

to a variety of types of loading and constraints. A foreword is, however, necessary to introduce the basis on which the theory presented

here is founded, i.e. the theory of very small displacements, also called

the theory of innitesmal displacements. In order to x our ideas, by

very small we may for example intend displacements of the beam

normal to its longitudinal axis that are less than about 1% of its

length. In this manner the strains will remain in the elastic range for

most engineering materials.

This theory of very small displacements is essentially based on two

hypotheses, namely

.

in comparison with its dimensions and therefore eects from

separate loading states can be geometrically added with reference to the position and form of the element before loading

on account of the smallness of the displacement eld the forces

acting on the body can be always referred to the unstrained, i.e.

undeformed conguration.

These hypotheses are normally suciently accurate for the great majority of engineering applications and allow a substantial simplication for

analysing most cases of structural deformation. From a mathematical

103

dz

0

z

uy

uy + duy

ds

Fig. 4.7

the second and higher order terms in the derivatives of the displacement

eld. This point can be claried, for example, with respect to the expression of the curvature of the axis of a beam. In fact, with reference to

Fig. 4.7, it is

duy

arctan

dz

s

2

q

duy

dz

ds dz2 du2y 1

dz

4:23

d2 uy

1 d d

1

dz2

s

s

2 3

r

ds

dz

duy 2

duy

1

1

dz

dz

where uy is the displacement of the beam centroid in the y direction and

is generally a function of z, i.e. uy z. Remember that conventionally,

anticlockwise rotations are considered to be positive.

As stated above, typically in the practical engineering application of

beams the deection is less than 1% of the length and the slope is also

negligible in comparison with unity, that is for an initially straight bar

with the axis coincident with the z axis

2

duy

1

4:24

dz

104

displaced axis of the beam

2

d uy

1

2

4:25

r

dz

This approximation has also a particular geometrical meaning, as it

assigns, to the same order of approximation, the identical length l to

both the undeformed uy 0 and the deformed uy uy z axis of

the beam between the values z 0 and z l. In fact, for the undeformed state, uy 0, it follows that

0

l dz l

4:26

s

2

l q l

duy

1

dz

dz2 du2y

l0

dz

0

4:27

(4.24),

0

l dz l

4:28

Therefore the line of equation y uy z has the same length of its projection on the z-axis and we can consider the horizontal displacement

of the left end of the cantilever of Fig. 4.8, to be zero when subject to

bending due to the applied couple M.

The second of the hypotheses stated above can be claried by saying

that we can consider a force N which is perfectly axial before the deformation to be still axial after the deformation has occurred; or if the

force N is normal to the beam before deformation it will still be

normal after the deformation has occurred as it can be always referred

to the unstrained conguration of the beam. This is shown in Fig. 4.9.

Fig. 4.8

105

Fig. 4.9

eects (which eventually lead to buckling) cannot be considered. Buckling is considered in chapter 12 using an appropriately modied

description of beam deections. Other implications will be discussed

as we further the study of deformable bodies.

4.4

deformations

In the previous sections expressions have been derived for the strain

energy of a beam that deforms under the inuence of axial forces and

bending moments. Now we consider the methods with which we can

extend these expressions to analyse the behaviour of actual beams

subjected to specied loading and constraints. From a general point

of view there are two distinct approaches to this analysis process, i.e.

.

.

use the dierential equations of equilibrium which can be

derived from the variational statement, equation (1.28).

obtained to the dierential equation describing the equilibrium of

the beam the answer can be considered exact, at least for the model

adopted. The disadvantage is that such solutions usually are restricted

to idealised boundary conditions and only to limited variations in the

geometry of the beam and its types of supports. Nevertheless, the range

of exact solutions that have been developed for beams is fairly extensive and forms a valuable counterpart to the direct use of the energybased methods. One particular value of the exact solution of the

dierential equations is that such results provide a standard against

which to compare and validate the accuracy and use of approximate

methods, such as nite elements, involving direct use of the energy

functional and trial functions.

Thus, the approach followed in this text is similar to that in current

structural engineering practice in which the deformations of beam with

106

q

Fig. 4.10

simple boundary conditions, uniform geometry and loading are evaluated using simple expressions derived from the dierential equation of

equilibrium developed in this section. The deformations of more complex conditions of beam geometry and loading are usually calculated

by means of approximate methods, such as the nite element methods

developed later in this text, but the exact solution of simplied beam

conditions is always kept as a validation benchmark.

It is also possible to obtain approximate solutions from the dierential equation of beam equilibrium by using the method of nite dierences. This was a quite popular and successful approach in the years

19301950. However, the nite element method has essentially

eclipsed the nite dierence approach for structural analysis, although

the latter remains the basis for computer modelling of uid dynamics.

For the sake of completeness, section 4.7 presents the nite dierence

method as applied to the analysis of the deformations of beams. From

a purely theoretical standpoint, it may be noted2 that the nite dierence and the nite element method, introduced later in this text, can

both be considered to be essentially forms of assumed trial functions,

with the former applied to the functions involved in the dierential

equations of equilibrium derived from the energy formulation and

the latter applied directly to the energy functionals.

In order to derive the dierential equation of equilibrium for

straight beams we apply the classical variational calculus to the

energy functional. This route is essentially due to the eminent Swiss

mathematician Euler (actually, after a suggestion by Bernoulli3 )

hence the classication of this development can be stated as Euler's

method of analysis of beam deformations.

Consider the simple supported beam shown in Fig. 4.10, subject to a

uniformly distributed vertical load per unit length q.

2

Croll, J. and Walker, A. C. 1971 Finite dierence method as a localised Ritz process.

Intnl J. of Eng. Math. 3, 155.

3

Bernoulli, Daniel (Groningen, 1700 Basel, 1782), Swiss mathematician and physicist, nephew of Jacob.

107

make reference to the general condition, equation (1.28)

U W

and write down the equivalence between the variation of the strain

energy and the variation of the work done by the external forces,

both due to a virtual eld of displacements u.

Writing the variation of the work done by the external forces is quite

a simple matter

l

W q uy dz

4:29

direction.

However, writing the variation of the strain energy requires a little

more development. Following the approach in equations (4.17) and

(4.22) for a beam subject to constant bending moment, we can write

the energy stored in an innitesimally long element of beam as

1

d2

Udz EIx

2

dz

4:30

which holds true provided the curvature, and therefore the bending

moment, is evaluated point by point along the beam. In fact, in general

the moment and therefore the curvature varies along the length of the

beam. The energy stored in the whole simply supported beam is given

by the integral

l

1

d2

U

EIx

2

dz

4:31

or, equivalently,

2

l

1

d

EIx

dz

U

2

dz

4:32

2

2 2

l

l

d uy

1

1

1

U

EIx

dz

EIx

dz

2

r

2

dz2

0

4:33

108

uy is4

l

4:34

d2 uy

u00y

4:35

2

dz

We can therefore write the condition of equilibrium (equation (1.28))

as

l

EIx u00y

u00y

l

dz q uy dz

4:36

equivalent dierential equation. Thus, integrating the left hand

4

The application of the calculus of variations provides a means to minimise the energy

functional and is summarised as follows. Suppose we are given a functional U in the

integral form

q

q

; ::: dV G ;

; ::: dS

U F ;

qx

qx

V

where F and G are functions of x; . . . and S is the boundary of the closed region V.

Suppose also that the variations in are taken among the admissible set of functions

satisfying the general boundary conditions

H1 0

on S1

H2 0

on S2

where S1 S2 S.

Then, for a small admissible variation from to we dene the corresponding

rst variation in U by

qF

qF

q

dV

U

q

qq =qx

qx

V

qG

qG

q

dS

q

qq =qx

qx

109

l

EIx u00y

u00y

dz

EIx u00y

u0y l0

0

EIx u000

y uy dz

4:37

l

EIx u00y

u00y

dz

EIx u00y

u0y l0

EIx u000

y

uy l0

EIx u0000

y uy dz

0

(4.38)

innitesimal and compatible with the constraints on the beam, let us

have a closer look at the two rst right hand terms. The rst term, i.e.

EIx u00y u0y l0

4:39

EIx u00y

4:40

bending moment Mz at the ends of the beam. In fact, for a beam

with simple supports at A and B and loaded such that no couples

are applied at A and B the bending moment at the ends is zero and

equation (4.39) is evidently zero.

The second term on the right hand side of equation (4.38), i.e.

l

EIx u000

y uy 0

4:41

is also equal to zero, as the variation must vanish on the simple supports at A and B which do not allow any vertical displacement.

Thus, the condition of equilibrium (equation (4.36)) reduces to

l

EIx u0000

y

l

uy dz q uy dz 0

4:42

to the fourth order dierential equation

EIx u0000

y q 0

4:43

as its solution represents the deformed conguration of the elastic

beam under the specied lateral load distribution q. In the present

example of the beam shown in Fig. 4.10, the term EIx , which is

110

therefore the solution to equation (4.43) is trivially obtained by integrating equation (4.43) four times to give

uy z

qz4

Az3 Bz2 Cz D

24EIx

4:44

equation (4.44) the geometrical and mechanical constraints (i.e. in

terms of displacements and forces, respectively) at the simple supports

A and B, which allowed us to drop the terms in equations (4.39) and

(4.41). This process enables the evaluation of the constants of integration. These constraints require that

uy z 0

Mz

for z 0

EIx u00y z

and z l

for

z0

4:45

and z l

4:46

in the four unknown constants A, B, C and D. The system is

8

uy 0 D 0

>

>

>

>

>

EIx u00y 0 EIx 2B 0

>

>

>

<

ql 4

4:47

u

l

Al 3 Bl 2 Cl D 0

y

>

>

24EI

x

>

>

>

2

>

>

> EI u00 l ql 6EI Al 2EI B 0

:

x y

x

x

2

or, in matrix form,

2

32 3 2

3

A

0

0 0 0 1

6 0 2 0 0 76 B 7 6

7

0

6

76 7 6

7

4:48

6 3 2

76 7 6

7

4

4l

5

4

5

4

l

l 1

C

ql =24EIx 5

6l

0 0

ql 2 =2EIx

and yields

A

C

ql

;

12EIx

ql 3

;

24EIx

B0

D0

4:49

4:50

Finally, we get

uy z

q

z4 2lz3 ql 3 z

24EIx

4:51

111

z

B

y

l

Fig. 4.11

displacements, uy z, which the axis of the beam undergoes to

assume its conguration of equilibrium under the assigned uniformly

distributed load q. As the axis was originally straight, equation

(4.51) also prescribes the deformed conguration of the beam, as

shown in Fig. 4.11. The solution of the dierential equation (4.43) is

exact and therefore within Bernoulli's assumptions, this method of

analysis predicts exactly the deections of the initially straight beam.

Up to now we have illustrated the Bernoulli model of beam bending

and shown that we can obtain the conguration of equilibrium of a

simple supported beam under a specied form of loading, according

to the general condition equation (1.28). In the next section we will

see that Euler's equation for beam deformation, equation (4.43), can

be employed for the bending of any other simply constrained beam,

provided appropriate boundary conditions are taken into account.

4.5

equation of beam deformation

beam. However, the procedure which led from the variational condition of equilibrium (equation (4.36)) to the Euler equation of equilibrium (4.43) is a general one and can be applied to any kind of

variously constrained beam. The resulting dierential equation (4.43)

does not change, but the boundary conditions of the problem can

assume dierent forms. Therefore, let us now consider a generic

beam, whose bending behaviour is described according to Bernoulli's

model of plane sections. For the moment the treatment is not restricted

to any specic applied constraints.

Consider a beam subjected to a generic distributed vertical load per

unit length qz, as shown in Fig. 4.12. The load qz can vary along the

axis of the beam but is always orthogonal to it and is taken to act in the

y direction.

112

q (z)

y

l

Fig. 4.12

beam, it is straightforward to write the general condition of equilibrium

(equation (1.28)) in the form shown in equation (4.36). Integrating twice

by parts the terms on the left hand side of equation (4.36) we obtain

equation (4.38) where, of course, the virtual displacement eld has to

be innitesimal and compatible with the constraints applied to the beam.

Let us now have a closer look at the rst two terms on the right hand

side of equation (4.38). We already know that

Mz EIx u00y z

4:52

and, if we consider Fig. 4.13, we can readily deduce that in the theory

of innitesimal displacements

z tg

duy z

dz

4:53

duy

dz

Fig. 4.13

113

That is, the rotation of a generic cross section can be identied with the

negative value of the slope of the axis of the beam. Therefore we can

attribute a precise physical meaning to the terms which appear in

equation (4.38), as follows

EIx u00y M

4:54

u0y

4:55

EIx u000

y z

4:56

which links the slope of the bending moment diagram to the value of

the shear force, we have

dMz

EIx u000

4:57

y z S

dz

Thus it is clear that the rst two right hand terms of equation (4.38)

are zero whatever the constraints applied at the beam's ends. This is

exemplied by a simple cantilever, as shown in Fig. 4.14. We have at

the left hand end,

uy 0 0

4:58

Ml EIx u00y l 0

y l 0

4:59

EIx u00y u0y l0

l

and EIx u000

y uy 0

4:60

are zero. Therefore, also in this case Euler's equation of beam equilibrium (4.43) is valid. Of course, while integrating the dierential

q (z)

Fig. 4.14

114

l/2

l/2

Fig. 4.15

appropriate boundary conditions, i.e. equations (4.58) and (4.59), to

evaluate the constants of integration. The reader may nd it edifying

to verify that the terms in equation (4.60) vanish for any beam in the

yz plane with various constraints at the ends, provided the beam is

indeed xed in the frame of reference when considered as a rigid body.5

Another interesting example is that given in Fig. 4.15. This is a beam

clamped at the left-hand end and simply supported at the right-hand

end. It is subject to a point load P at the middle of the span. In

order to derive an expression for its deection, it is convenient to

divide the whole span into two half-spans of length l=2. Let us consider

the two half-spans separately and denote the vertical displacement eld

of the rst half-span as u1y and that of the second one as u2y . The

condition of equilibrium (1.28) can be written as follows

l=2

EIx u001y

u001y

l

dz

4:61

l=2

where, of course, the displacement at the mid point of the whole span is

unique and is denoted by u1y l=2 u2y l=2 uy l=2.

After integrating equation (4.61) twice by parts, as discussed above,

we get

l=2

l=2

000

l

EIx u001y u01y 0 EIx u002y u02y ll=2 EIx u000

1y u1y 0 EIx u2y u2y l=2

l=2

0

5

EIx u0000

1y

l

u1y dz

EIx u0000

2y u2y dz Puy l=2

4:62

l=2

It is worth pointing out that for the cantilever in Fig. 4.8, which actually corresponds

to the situation in Fig. 4.5, it is found that uy M=2EIz2 . This represents an arc

of a circle only under the assumptions of small displacement theory developed in

section 4.3.

115

u1y 0 0

4:63

4:64

4:65

4:66

000

EIx u000

1y l=2 EIx u2y l=2 P

4:67

u2y l 0

and M2 l

EIx u002y l

4:68

which impose the geometrical and mechanical aspects of the constraints at both ends of the beam and require the continuity at the

mid-point of the span, we are led to the equation

l=2

EIx u0000

1y

l

u1y dz

EIx u0000

2y u2y dz 0

4:69

l=2

equations

l

0000

4:70

EIx u1y 0 for z 2 0;

2

l

0000

4:71

EIx u2y 0 for z 2 ; l

2

provided the conditions given by equations (4.63)(4.68) are applied to

the general solutions

l

3

2

4:72

u1y z Az Bz Cz D for z 2 0;

2

l

u2y z Ez3 Fz2 Gz H for z 2 ; l

4:73

2

in order to dene the value of the eight constants AH. In detail, we

have

u1y 0 0

and 0 u01y 0 0

4:74

4:75

4:76

4:77

116

000

EIx u000

1y l=2 EIx u2y l=2 P

u2y l 0 and

M2 l

4:78

EIx u002y l

11 P 3

3 Pl 2

z

z

u1y z

96 EIx

32 EIx

4:79

l

z 2 0;

2

4:80

for

5 P 3

5 Pl 2

Pl 2

Pl 3

z

z

z

96 EIx

32 EIx

8EIx

48EIx

l

for z 2 ; l

2

u2y z

4:81

of the propped cantilever under analysis. Notice that the illustrated

procedure can be extended in a straightforward manner to any

system of concentrated loads.

4.6

deformation for a beam with a variable depth

We have seen above that it is fairly straightforward to obtain an analytical solution to Euler's dierential equation (4.43) for a beam with a

uniform exural stiness EIx . The analysis becomes more complicated

when we consider beams with variable loading and geometry. As an

illustration of this, the following analysis considers a cantilever with

a linearly varying depth subjected to a load at its tip, as shown in

Fig. 4.16.

The gure shows that the cantilever has a length l. At the built-in end

the depth of the section is d1 and at the tip the depth is d2 . The uniform

d1

dx

d2

y

l

Fig. 4.16

117

breadth of the beam is b, so that the second moment of area of the cross

section at some position z along the beam is

Ix z

bd 3 z

12

4:82

dz d1 d2 d1

z

l

4:83

we can write

d; d1 1 1

4:84

we have

df df d 1 df

dz d dz l d

4:85

distance dz we can consider the depth as constant and we can again

make reference to Bernoulli's model of beam deformation introduced

in section 4.2. Retracing the steps of section 4.4, we can therefore write

the dierential equation governing the deformation of the beam as

2

1 d EIx d uy

q

4:86

l 2 d 2

l2

d 2

As in the present case no distributed load q is applied (we consider

the weight of the cantilever negligible in comparison to the applied

force P), by integrating twice equation (4.86) we get

2

1 d EIx d uy

Al

4:87

l d

l2

d 2

2

EIx d uy

4:88

Al 2 Bl

d 2

l2

The mechanical boundary conditions are

2

1 d EIx d uy

S1

P

l d

l2

d 2

2

EIx d uy

0

M1

l2

d 2

4:89

4:90

118

Al P

Pl Bl 0

P

l

4:91

BP

4:92

A

)

so that

2

EIx d uy

Pl1

l2

d 2

By virtue of equations (4.82) and (4.84) we can write

2

1 d uy

Pl

12Pl

1

1

EIx

l 2 d 2

Eb d13 1 13

4:93

4:94

as follows

1 duy

l d

12Pl 2

2 2 2

C

Eb d13 2 12 1 2

4:95

condition

1 duy

0

l d

at 0

4:96

Hence, we have

A

2

2 12

4:97

;

1 duy

12Pl 2 2 2

l d

Eb d13 21 2

4:98

The deection function for the beam is obtained from equation (4.98)

once again by integration, thus

12Pl 3 f1 ;

uy ;

D

4:99

Eb d13 f2 ;

119

where

f1 ; 3 2 2 42 2 5 2 3 2 2 2

21 2 ln1

4:100

f2 ; 21 13

Evaluating the constant D for the boundary condition

uy 0; 0

we have

D

2 13

4:101

4:102

3

2

3 42 5 2 2 21

7

6

12Pl 3 4

21 ln1 5

4:103

uy ;

Eb d13

21 13

The most easily recognised result from equation (4.103) is the value

of the deection of the tip of a cantilever with a uniform depth d1 . In

fact, for 1 and 1 equation (4.103) gives

uy 1; 1

4Pl 3

Eb d13

4:104

Figures 4.17(a)(c) show typical results for the deection along the

beam for values of 1, 0.5 and 0.05, respectively.

In these gures the value of the deection has been normalised with

respect to the deection of the tip of a cantilever with a uniform depth,

that is all the calculated values have been divided by equation (4.104).

The value 0:05 has been chosen since the value of 0 causes the

tip of the cantilever to have no depth and therefore the deection

becomes unrealistically large at the tip.

The variation of the normalised deection at the tip of the cantilever

with the parameter is given by

3

42 3 2 ln

u~y 1; 3

4:105

2 13

Figure 4.18 shows results from equation (4.105).

It is clear that for dierent and more complicate variations of the

depth of the section along the beam length the integration of the dierential equation can pose some problems. In such a case, if we wished

we could integrate the equation of equilibrium numerically. However,

120

10

=1

08

u ()

06

04

02

0

0

02

04

(a)

06

08

10

06

08

10

06

08

10

20

= 05

u ()

15

10

05

0

0

02

04

(b)

= 005

5

u ()

4

3

2

1

0

0

Fig. 4.17

02

04

(c)

121

Fig. 4.18

following such an approach a simple formula for use in design calculations would not be readily available. The next section shows an alternative approach to obtaining a solution to the Euler dierential

equation of deformation.

4.7

deformation using the method of nite dierences

the method of trial functions, including the method of nite elements. In

fact this latter method has in recent years become the main approach to

evaluating the deformations of beams, plates and shells with practical

forms of geometry, boundary conditions and loading. Several exact

analytical solutions, usually for simplied boundary conditions and

loading, of the dierential equations of equilibrium derived from the

corresponding energy expression for beams, plates and shells can provide valuable information for validating the nite element numerical

modelling and are generally used to assess the accuracy of the results.

It is possible, nevertheless, to obtain approximate solutions for the

dierential equations of equilibrium for a variety of geometries and

loading conditions. This can be achieved using the nite dierence

method. Nowadays this method is not used widely in practical engineering design analysis, largely because of the greater versatility of the nite

element method and the large number of available commercial computer programs that incorporate the nite element method.

However, for the sake of completeness in this text, the present

section presents the basis of the dierence method and exemplies its

use for the determination of the deformations of beams based on the

Euler equation of equilibrium.

122

f (x)

(n +1)

(n 1)

(n)

Fig. 4.19

slope of the curve at some position x is obtained analytically by dierentiation of the function, i.e.

df x

4:106

dx

The slope can be approximated as follows. The range of the function is

sub-divided to form a series of nodes along the curve describing the

function. The nodes are usually, but not necessarily, equidistant

from each other. In the gure the nodes are separated by a distance

h. The value of the function at node n is fn and the slope at that

node is approximated by

f 0 x

1

f

fn 1

4:107

2h n 1

Intuitively, as the nodes become very closely spaced, i.e. h ! 0, the

approximate value for the slope approaches the analytical value. The

higher order derivatives can be obtained using the same approach.

For example, the second derivative is written as the ratio between

the increment of the rst derivative between the mid-points of the

arcs n 1; n and n; n 1 and the distance h, namely

d df x

fn 1 fn

fn fn 1

00

f n x

dx dx x xn

h

h

f n0 xn

1

fn 1 2fn fn 1

h2

4:108

123

1

f n00 1 2f n00 f n00 1

h2

1

4 fn 2 4fn 1 6fn 4fn 1 fn 2

h

f n0000

4:109

beam with uniform cross section, simply supported at both ends and

subjected to a uniformly distributed load q. The accuracy of the

result is judged by comparison of the value of the mid-span deection

with the corresponding value from the analytical solution of the Euler

deformation equation, see equation (4.51),

l

5ql 4

ql 4

uy

:

2

384EIx 76 8EIx

Figure 4.20 shows the arrangement of the nodes along the beam, in this

case the model includes three internal nodes, i.e. between the end

boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are chosen so that displacement in the y direction is zero at z 0 and l and that the moment,

and therefore the curvature, is also zero at these positions.

Thus

u0 u4 0

and

u1

u1 ;

u5

u3

4:110

l

q

EI

z

y

1

h=

Fig. 4.20

l

4

124

Node 1

u1 4

u0 6

u1 4

u2 u3

qh4

EIx

and by setting

l

h ;

4

Q

ql 4

256EIx

5

u1 4

u2 u3 Q

Similarly,

Node 2

u2 4

u3 Q

4

u1 6

Node 3

u2 5

u3 Q

u1 4

The equations describing the relationships between the deections at

the nodes and the applied loading can be put into matrix form, as

A

un Qn

where

5

A 4 4

1

4

6

4

4:111

2 3

3

2 3

u1

1

1

4 5 un 4 u2 5 Qn Q4 1 5

u3

1

5

4:112

The values of the deections at the nodes may be obtained from equation (4.111) by rearranging the equation as

un A1 Qn

which gives

2 : 3

2 3

25

u1

4 u2 5 Q4 3:5 5

2:5

u3

and the deection at the mid-span is

u2

3:5 ql 4

ql 4

:

256 EIx 73 1EIx

125

by increasing the number of nodes included in the model. However,

this will increase the numerical eort and to maintain a minimum

eort it is worthwhile to use any form of geometric symmetry that

will occur in the beam. This is illustrated in this example by increasing

the number of internal nodes to ve and by incorporating symmetry of

deformations at the mid-span. The arrangement of the nite dierence

model is shown in Fig. 4.21.

The symmetry is readily incorporated by specifying

u4 u2 ;

u5 u1

Now

l

h ;

6

ql 4

1296EIx

Thus, dealing with each of the nodes in turn, a matrix equation, similar

to equation (4.111), can be obtained. In this case

2

3

5 4

1

6

7

A 4 4

7 4 5

2 8

6

and the solution is

2 : 3

8 75

6 : 7

un Q4 15 0 5

17:25

The deection at mid-span is

u3

17:25 ql 4

ql 4

Symmetry

Fig. 4.21

126

required, an even greater degree of accuracy can be obtained by

increasing the number of nodes in the model.

4.8

structures is now introduced. However, these actions cannot be classied as forces or thermal loads but they can be classied as applied

displacements. In order to x our ideas, let us consider the beam

with built-in ends shown in Fig. 4.22.

We assume that in its initial conguration the beam is undeformed

and we attribute the zero value to the energy of this status. Let us

now suppose that as part of the loading procedure the built-in end B

is forced to undergo a vertical displacement uB and a rotation

B,

as shown in Fig. 4.23.

Even in the absence of applied loads, the beam is thus forced to

assume a deformed conguration. The deformations can be examined,

as described above, by means of Euler's equation of beam deformation

(4.43) in its homogeneous form, that is

EIx u0000

y 0

4:113

uy 0 0

and u0y l 0

at A

4:114

uy l u and u0y l at B

4:115

Fig. 4.22

uy

Fig. 4.23

127

2

3

u 3

u 2

uy z 2 3 z

z

4:116

l l2

l

l

On account of this deformation the beam will possess a certain level

of strain energy U. This can be calculated using the expression in

equation (4.33)

l

1

U

EIx u00y 2 dz

2

0

2

u 12

1

4

12

u2

2 3

U EIx

2

l

l

l

4:117

However, one could object that the expression of the internal energy

(equation (4.117)) should actually be zero, as the principle of conservation of energy requires that

U U W

4:118

and in our case there are no externally applied forces, and so it would

seem

W 0

4:119

But obviously this is not really the actual situation. In fact, a displacement applied to its constraints requires the structure to assume a

certain conguration. Remembering what has been presented in

chapter 2, section 2.3, we can have two cases, namely

(a)

(b)

strictly only sucient to prevent any rigid body displacements

(there are no redundant constraints)

the system is statically indeterminate, i.e. there are more

constraints than degrees of freedom (some constraints are

redundant).

In the rst case the structure can move bodily without deforming, in

accordance to the kinematics of rigid bodies studied in chapter 2.

This is the case shown in Fig. 4.24.

Of course no strains are induced, as the reader can easily verify by

integrating Euler's equation of beam deformation with the following

128

uy

Fig. 4.24

boundary conditions

uy 0 0

uy l u and

EIx u00y l

at A

at B

4:120

4:121

We know as well that, in this case, in the absence of applied forces the

reactions of constraints are zero (section 2.3) and therefore U is eectively zero. The case of the structure in Figs 4.22 and 4.23 is, on the

contrary, that of a statically indeterminate system. In this case some

of the constraints are redundant and a rigid body displacement eld

cannot take place. An imposed displacement and/or rotation of the

built-in end B can only occur by means of a deformation of the structure. Moreover, we discover that at B we have non-zero values of the

bending moment and of the shear force, which represent the reactions

of the constraint. Thus, we have

6

u 4

MB

Ml EIx u00y l EIx 2

6 0

4:122

l

l

12

u 6

RB

Sl EIx u000

6 0

4:123

l

EI

x

y

l3

l2

Notice that also at A, i.e. for z 0, we also have non-zero values for

the reactions at the xed ends. These are

6

u 2

00

MA M0 EIx uy 0 EIx 2

6 0

4:124

l

l

12

u 6

000

RA S0 EIx uy 0 EIx 3 2 6 0

4:125

l

l

We will now see that the deection of the beam can be related to the

reactions arising at the constraints. First of all it must be pointed out

that the deformed conguration of the beam is the same as would have

obtained by considering a cantilever xed at A and subject to a force R

at the end B, where the values of the moment and force

and a couple M

are given by equations (4.122) and (4.123). This would have clearly

meant imposing the following two mechanical conditions at B instead

129

Fig. 4.25

6

u 4

00

EIx uy l MB EIx 2

l

l

12

u 6

EIx u000

l

RB

EI

x

y

l3

l2

4:126

4:127

and the result would have been seen to be identical. Because of this

result, let us evaluate the strain energy for the beam shown in Fig.

4.25, which is therefore perfectly equivalent to the beam in Fig. 4.23.

We have, by Clapeyron's theorem

1

1

R

u M

2

2

1

12

u 6

1

6

u 4

EIx

2 u EIx 2

2

2

l

l3

l

l

2

u 12

1

4

12

u2

U EIx

2 3

2

l

l

l

4:128

4:129

It is now clear that

the strain energy stored in the statically indeterminate beam can be related to the work

done by the reactions of the constraints along the deformation process.

In other words, the strain energy stored in the beam results from the

work that we must perform against the stiness of the beam in order

to apply a given displacement at the built-end B. Therefore U is not

zero, and the principle of conservation of energy is not violated as

W is also not zero.

It should be noted that the magnitudes of the reactions, equations

(4.122) and (4.123), are linear functions of the bending stiness EIx .

As a consequence, very rigid structures induce very high values of

the bending moments and shear forces, even for quite small displacements of the constraints. At the end of this section we shall derive

130

B

uy

Fig. 4.26

are applied at the end A of the beam shown in

uA and a rotation A

Fig. 4.26.

This is a situation really complementary to that shown in Fig. 4.23

and has been dealt with in the preceding presentation. However trivial

its solution actually is, it is of considerable importance for the matrix

treatment of frames which we will develop in chapter 9 and is it therefore valuable to that development to present here the above mentioned

results in some detail.

We have from the above analysis

6u 4

MA M0 EIx 2

4:130

l

l

12u 6

RA S0 EIx

2

4:131

l3

l

6u 2

4:132

MB

Ml EIx 2

l

l

12u 6

RB

Sl EIx 3 2

l

l

4.9

4:133

In this, the nal section of this chapter, we wish to deal briey with the

eects of temperature changes on bars and beams. In section 1.2 we

presented the expression of the energy of a bar which we assume is in

equilibrium under the actions of equal and opposite axial forces N and

N and a temperature increase T T T0 . This is, see equation

131

(1.13),

ET; l 0 CT T0 12 k l 2 kl lT T0

We attribute the zero value of energy to the state dened by T T0

and l 0 l. The relationship between the elongation l l 0 l and

the applied forces and variation of temperature is given by equation

(1.12)

l

F

lT T0

k

where k is the axial stiness of the bar and is the coecient of linear

thermal expansion, which for small changes in temperature can be

considered constants for the material and the element. We can now

give a more precise meaning to the axial stiness k of the bar and,

remembering equation (4.5), write

1 EA 2 EA

l

l lT T0 4:134

2 l

l

Elucidating equation (4.134) it is noted that the rst term on the right

hand side of this equation, that is

ET; l 0 CT T0

CT T0

4:135

represents the heat stored in the bar and is directly related to the variation of temperature T T T0 . The second and third terms, i.e.

1 EA 2 EA

l

l lT T0

4:136

2 l

l

represent the dierence between the equation (4.8) for the elastic

energy U which would have been stored in the bar if the elongation

l l 0 l had been a consequence of the application of only the

axial forces N and N and a correction term. This term can be rearranged as

EA

l lT T0 NlT T0

4:137

l

and is seen to represent the work done by the axial load N as an eect

of that part of the elongation due to the thermal expansion only. This

work is not actually stored as elastic energy of the bar and is subtracted

from equation (4.8). The system is dened to be in equilibrium and

therefore the kinetic energy K has zero value. Therefore, from a

purely kinematic point of view the eect of the temperature increase

T T T0 can be reduced to the elongation

lT T0

4:138

132

T = T T0

Fig. 4.27

(4.138) constitutes a strain eld which does not depend on the applied

loads. Such strains are generally called inelastic strains. In the case of

thermal strains we can easily characterise them using the assumption

that the material is isotropic and has the same thermal expansion properties in all directions. Thus we can say that the meaning of the coecient of linear thermal expansion is that for a unit rise in temperature

the normal strain produced in all directions is equal to , that is

"xx "yy "zz T

4:139

If the body is free to expand this state of strain is not associated with

elastic energy and the only energy stored in it is represented by the heat

expressed in equation (4.135). The unit change in volume "v , is given by

the expression

"v "xx "yy "zz 3 T

4:140

However, we may now also consider that the body is not free to

expand. For example, let us refer to the bar shown in Fig. 4.27. This

bar is clamped at each end and is subject to a temperature increase

T T T0 . The end constraints prevent any changes in length

and thus react to produce a state of strain which, superposed on the

thermal strain, makes the total strain equal to zero. From a mathematical viewpoint we have

N

l0

4:141

EA

where N is the axial force induced in the bar due to the constraint reactions, as shown in Fig. 4.28.

The value of the axial force is seen to be

l l T

N T EA

4:142

same value but opposite in sign to that induced by the thermal expansion. The energy of the bar ET is

ET CT T0

1 EA

T T0 l 2

2 l

4:143

N

133

l

l + l T

Fig. 4.28

xed). The magnitude of the reactive forces that are activated by temperature changes may be very high; this is exemplied by a steel bar

0.5 m long, whose sectional area is 2500 mm2 . If we dene this bar to

be rigidly xed between two walls, the force N given by equation

(4.142) is equal to 244 kN (for steel bodies between 0 8C and 100 8C

the coecient can be taken equal to 11:6 106 8C1 and the modulus can taken as 2:1 105 N/mm2 ). For this reason the forces induced

by thermal strains must always be carefully evaluated in all those structures that are exposed to direct sunlight, like bridges and tall buildings.

As we stated in chapter 1, our study is limited purely to the mechanical behaviour of bodies. Therefore we do not concern ourselves with

the heat exchanged between the environment and the body under analysis, provided all the transformations take place very slowly and the

body assumes at any stage the same temperature as the environment.

This condition is satised for practically all the structures in normal

engineering practice and we can limit ourselves to the kinematic eects

of temperature changes, i.e. the expansion and thermal strains introduced above. In this manner we can simply determine the deformed

state of a simple supported beam which is exposed to direct sun

rays, such as is shown in Fig. 4.29.

For the sake of simplicity, consider a rectangular cross section and

suppose that the temperature of the upper face of the beam, which is

directly exposed to the sun, is T2 , while the temperature of the lower

T2

T1

A

B

l

Fig. 4.29

134

T2

x

H

T1

Fig. 4.30

T2 > T1 > T0

4:144

We suppose also that the temperature gradient is constant through

the depth of the cross section, that is the temperature varies linearly

between the bres at y H=2 and the bres at y H=2, as shown

in Fig. 4.30.

It is convenient to think of such a state of thermal strain as being

equivalent to the sum of a uniform temperature variation, that is

T T2

T 1

4:145

2

i.e.

and a linear temperature variation between the values T and T,

T T2 T2 T1

T T2 1

4:146

2

2

T T2 T1 T2

T T1 1

4:147

2

2

at H=2 and H=2, respectively. The situation is pictured in Fig. 4.31.

T2

T1

Fig. 4.31

+T

T=

T1 + T2

2

T=

T2 T1

2

T =

T1 T2

2

135

T2

T1

A

Fig. 4.32

we nd also

With reference to the uniform temperature variation T,

that the resulting thermal strains are uniform through the depth of the

beam and we have

"z T

4:148

On the other hand, with reference to the linear temperature variation

we nd that the thermal strains also vary linearly

between T and T,

through the depth of the beam and we have

2y

"z T

4:149

H

It is clear that this expression corresponds to a curvature of the

longitudinal axis of the beam given by

1

1

T

4:150

r

H

which is constant along the longitudinal axis of the beam. Therefore

the simply supported beam being considered here deforms in response

to the temperature variation as shown in Fig. 4.32, and the displacements at A and B are

l

uz B T dz Tl

uz A 0

4:151

0

l=2

A

0

l=2

B

0

1

l

dz T

H

2H

4:152

1

l

T dz T

H

2H

4:153

T

It is worth noting that in the case where the same variation of temperature is applied to a xed-ended beam (Fig. 4.33) the displacements

described in equations (4.151)(4.153) are not allowed any more.

136

T2

A

B

T1

l

Fig. 4.33

In order to evaluate the reactions that arise at the ends, we can once

again imagine the thermal strains as given by the sum of the contributions in equations (4.149) and (4.150). With reference to the uniform

axial strain eld, equation (4.149), we have already found that the constraint reactions are represented by the forces

Ry A T EA

Ry B T EA

4:154

With reference to the linear strain eld, equation (4.149), by recalling

equation (4.33) we can write the elastic energy of the beam as

l

1

1

1 2

T

U

EIx

dz

2

r

H

0

l

1

1 2

EIx u00y T

dz

2

H

4:155

where the term between brackets is the elastic curvature, i.e. the

algebraic dierence between the total curvature and the thermal one.

The condition of equilibrium is

1

00

u00y dz 0

U EIx uy T

H

l

4:156

led to the conclusion that this condition is equivalent to the fourth

order dierential equation

1 00

EIx u00y T

0

4:157

H

The general solution of this equation is in the form

1 2

z Cz D

uy z Az3 B T

H

4:158

137

uz 0

for

z0

z u0y z 0

and z l

for

z0

4:159

and z l

4:160

produces

uy z 0

4:161

This means that apparently the beam does not undergo any deformation. In reality the elastic strains compensate exactly the thermal

ones at any point of the beam. The bending moment resulting from

equation (4.157) is seen to be constant and has the same value of the

reactive moments at the constraints A and B, that is

1

MA M0 EIx u00y 0 EIx T

H

1

MB Ml EIx u00y 0 EIx T

H

4:162

4:163

1.

composed primarily of reinforced concrete is shown in Fig. 4.34.

The wall is subjected to the pressure of the water. Ignoring the

eects of the end conditions of the dam we can make an initial estimate of the deection of the top of the dam wall using a unit length

of the wall. Calculate this deection assuming the equivalent

uniform modulus of the reinforced concrete as Ec 40 kN/mm2 .

[Ans: 11:4 mm]

3m

40 m

Fig. 4.34

35 m

138

400 mm

q

20 mm

C

20 mm 15 m

20 mm

t

D

10 m

75 m

30 m

15 m

(a)

(b)

Fig. 4.35

2.

3.

A bridge consists of two longitudinal girders joined by a transverse beam carrying the load. The loading on the girders can be

represented by the uniform distributed load shown in Fig.

4.35(a). The girders have the cross-section geometry shown in

Fig. 4.35(b) and are made from steel with a modulus of 205 kN/

mm2 . The bottom anges of the girders are reinforced by increasing the thickness from 20 mm to 20 t mm so that the longitudinal strain in the ange at the mid-length, position C in Fig.

4.35(a), is equal to the strain at the quarter length, position D in

Fig. 4.35(a).

Calculate the required thickness t of the reinforcement and also

the reduction in the deection that will result from adding the

reinforcing plate.

[Ans: t 23:9 mm, the mid-span deection of the reinforced beam

is 76% of the beam without reinforcement]

The main beam of a bridge is supported at mid-span by a column

sitting on an elastic foundation, as shown in Fig. 4.36(a). This is

equivalent to the idealisation shown in Fig. 4.36(b) where the

column is represented by a spring with a stiness of k [N/mm].

q

EI

EI

(a)

Fig. 4.36

(b)

139

30 m

30 m

30 m

Fig. 4.37

4.

5.

of the bridge deck, relating the deection , the exural stiness

EI, the length l, and the uniform distributed load q.

[Ans: 5ql 4 =384EI 8kl 3 ]

A pipe carrying uid with a unit weight, f 11 000 N/m3 , has an

outside diameter of 1 m and a wall thickness of 15 mm. The pipe is

supported at 30 m intervals as shown in Fig. 4.37. The uid ows

through the pipe such that it half lls the pipe. The uid has a temperature of 80 8C and it may be assumed that the conduction of the

heat from the uid to the atmosphere through the pipe is such that

the temperature varies linearly from 80 8C at the bottom of the pipe

to ambient temperature of 20 8C at the top, at end A.

Calculate the deection of the pipe at mid-span when it is rst

installed empty, the unit weight of steel is s 77 000 N/m3 .

Calculate also the change of deection as the uid ows through

the pipe and the temperature reached at the equilibrium conditions specied above.

[Ans: 1 6:3 mm, 2 13 mm]

A mechanical component comprises two straight bars joined

rigidly at B. The bar BC is subjected to a uniformly distributed

load, q 2000 N/m, as shown in Fig. 4.38. Both bars are made

A

50 mm diameter

2m

q

B

C

3m

Fig. 4.38

140

foundations at A, B and C. The modulus for steel is 205 kN/

mm2 . Develop a solution to enable the evaluation of the rotation,

c of the joint at C. Evaluate also the maximum strain "m experienced by the elements in the structure.

[Ans: c 0:029 rad, "m 1:91 103 ]

5.

of linear elastic structures

Introduction

analysis of structures and structural components, such as beams,

that have a linear relationship between the levels of the applied loads

and the eects of these loads with regards to the strains and deformations of the structure and all its components. It is common experience

to expect that if a beam is loaded by a force normal to its axis the

deformation of the beam will be in the direction of the load. If we

double the magnitude of the force we would expect that the level of

the deformation would increase by a factor of two. Essentially the

common experience forms the basis for linear behaviour of structures.

We should be aware, however, that structures do not always obey this

linear correspondence between load and eect. In chapter 12 we consider the situation of beam and frame buckling where the application

of a load aligned with the axis of the beam can result in deformations

normal to the axis. The level of the deformations is in such a case nonlinearly related to the level of the load. In other words, if we increase

the level of the load the magnitude of the deformations are increased

disproportionally. Another source of non-linear relation between loading and consequent deformation would result from non-linear material

properties, either a non-linear stressstrain path or yielding of the

material at a constant stress. This source of non-linearity is not

included in the presentations of this text.

The linear behaviour of structures and its analysis constitutes a

central feature of structural engineering and this text considers a

wide range of types of structures and components that exhibit this

form of behaviour. There are some general principles that form the

fundamental basis of this linear behaviour and of the analysis methods

developed to explain and predict the response of structure to applied

loading. This chapter presents these principles of superposition and

142

with regard to simple beams, it should be remembered that the principles are completely general and apply to all forms of structures, such as

trusses, frames and plates.

5.1

linear theory of elasticity (existence and uniqueness

of the solution)

bars and beams, and dealt with their treatment using energy principles.

It is now timely to give some attention to the framework in which we

are operating, i.e. the linear theory of elasticity. In order to make completely clear the foundations of this theory, let us recall what we have

already determined in the previous chapter, namely

.

Bernoulli's model of beam deformations are both linear. This

means that eects resulting from axial forces or bending moments

are proportional to the intensity of these actions on the element

operating in the theory of innitesimal (very small) displacements allows the displacement and strain elds corresponding

to dierent load conditions simply to be added.

These are the two pillars on which the linear theory of elasticity is

founded, as indicated in Fig. 5.1.

The rst of the points above, which involves the linearity of the constitutive relationships of the model, is clearly a physical assumption,

Fig. 5.1

143

P

q

A

B

l/2

l/2

Fig. 5.2

strain elds, is essentially a mathematical axiom. As may be inferred

from its description, in this theory all the equations are linear, with

comprehensible and acceptable simplications in the treatment of a

vast class of structural problems.

First of all it is clear that in this framework the principle of superposition

of eects holds true. In other words we are allowed to add and subtract

the eects due to dierent separate loading conditions. In its simplest

form this means that if we, say, were to double the magnitude of the

external forces, i.e. by adding to a certain set of loading a second set of

loading equal to the rst one, we would expect the consequent deformations also to increase by a factor of two. As a further example, let us

consider the beam shown in Fig. 5.2, loaded by a uniformly distributed

load q and by a concentrated load P at the middle of the span.

With respect to any eect, we can analyse the beam model shown in

Fig. 5.3 and add the resulting solution to the one already obtained for

the beam shown in Fig. 4.15 and analysed in chapter 4.

The eld of lateral displacements, i.e. normal to the longitudinal

axis of the beam, for the beam in Fig. 5.3, subject to the uniformly distributed load q is given by the solution of Euler's equation of beam

deformation, (4.43), under the following boundary conditions

uy 0 0

and 0 0 at A

uy l 0

and Ml 0

5:1

at B

q

Fig. 5.3

144

uy z

qz2

2z2 5 l z 3l 2

48EIx

5:2

The solution for the beam in Fig. 5.2, subject to both the evenly distributed load q and the concentrated load P at the mid-point of the span, is

thus given by the simple addition of equation (5.2) to equations (4.80)

and (4.81), i.e.

u1y z

z2

9Pl 6ql 2 11P 10qlz 4qz2

96EIx

5:3

u2y z

l z

2Pl 2 10Plz 5P 6qlz2 4qz3

96EIx

5:4

for z 2 l=2; l.

Of course we would have obtained the same expressions by writing

the condition of equilibrium for the beam subjected to both these

loads simultaneously and developing all the calculations accordingly.

However, as will become clearer in the following, the principle of

superposition of the eects is a very powerful tool not only from a

practical, but also from a theoretical point of view.

For example, let us x our attention on two apparently very simple

questions

.

.

solution of the problem?

Is this hypothetical solution unique?

yes.

With regards to the rst question, the demonstration of such a statement is quite a complicated matter from a general point of view and it

has been fully established only in relatively recent times. Nevertheless,

it is very easy to reach the correct conclusion in many specic

problems, given the linearity of the equations that describe the

models. This has been the case, for example, of Euler's equation of

beam deformation, (4.43).

With regards to the second question, the answer was provided by

Kirchho 1 about the middle of the 19th century and its demonstration

1

and physicist.

145

Pi

V

u=0

Fig. 5.4

of eects. In order to demonstrate the assertion of uniqueness, let us

start our reasoning from the most general possible standpoint.

Let V be a generic linearly elastic body with certain geometrical constraints on the boundary and subject to a generic system of forces P i ,

as shown in Fig. 5.4.

Let us initially assume the existence of two distinct solutions of this

problem, say A and B. Also we assume that these solutions are dened

by the elds of displacements uA x; y; z and uB x; y; z. As we know,

the variation of the strain energy of the body is dependent on its

state of deformation only, that is

U f "ij dV

5:5

V

this strain energy is a quadratic function of the strain components "ij ,

see equation (3.107),

E

1 "2xx "2yy "2zz

U

21 1 2

V

21 2 2

2

2

1

5:6

ux; y; z, we can derive a dierent strain eld for each of the two

146

quA

x

qx

A

1 quy

quA

x

2 qx

qy

quB

x

qx

B

1 quy

quBx

2 qx

qy

"A

xx

"A

xy

"Bxx

"Bxy

5:7

5:8

write the principle of conservation of energy with reference to the difference between the solutions A and B of the problem. This dierence

is characterised by the strain eld

B

"ij "A

ij "ij

5:9

Pi Pi 0

5:10

E U W 0

5:11

W 0.

But, on account of equation (5.6), we have

E

B 2

A

B 2

U

1 "A

xx "xx "yy "yy

21 1 2

V

"A

zz

"Bzz 2

B

A

B

2 "A

xx "xx "yy "yy

B

A

B

A

B

A

B

"A

xx "xx "zz "zz "yy "yy "zz "zz

21 2 A

B 2

A

B 2

"xy "Bxy 2 "A

"

"

"

dV

xz

xz

yz

yz

1

5:12

147

B

where U is zero only if "A

ij "ij . With reference to the relationships in

equations (5.7) and (5.8), this means that the displacement elds

uA x; y; z and uB x; y; z, which represent two dierent solutions of

the problem of the elastic equilibrium, must dier at most by a constant, corresponding to a rigid displacement of the whole body. Therefore, if, as is the usual condition, the geometrical constraints are such

as to prevent any rigid displacements, the two solutions A and B must

coincide and the uniqueness of the solution is demonstrated.

5.2

elasticity

view the success of the mathematical theory of linear elasticity lies

undoubtedly on the extensive availability of powerful and practical

tools for the analysis of engineering structures. Among these tools a

very important place is occupied by the so-called reciprocal theorems.

In order to introduce these theorems, let us consider the simple supported beam shown in Fig. 5.5, which we consider to be loaded in

sequence rst by the group of forces P1 and then by the group of

forces P2 .

The work done by all these forces is

W11 W22 W12

W

5:13

where W11 is the component work from the group P1 , W22 is the component work from the group P2 (remember that for both these components of work Clapeyron's theorem holds true) and W12 is the so-called

displacement work of P1 , i.e. the work of P1 due to the displacement

P1

P1

Fig. 5.5

P2

148

P2

P2

P1

Fig. 5.6

done by a force along its own deformation, is also called eigenwork

(the word eigen is a German word and means `own').

If we reverse the order of loading by rst applying P2 and then P1 ,

we have, as shown in Fig. 5.6,

W W W

W

5:14

22

11

21

Of course, since the principle of superposition of the eects holds

true, the nal conguration of the beam will be identical in both

cases and we have from the principle of conservation of energy

W

U W

5:15

By comparison of equations (5.13) and (5.14) we are led to the conclusion that

W12 W21

5:16

Given two forces or two groups of forces acting on a linearly elastic structure, the work

done by the rst force, or group of forces, on account of the displacements due to the

second force is equal to the work done by the second force, or group of forces, on

account of the displacements due to the rst force.

by Betti's theorem. It states that for the same load applied at dierent

points A and B we must have the condition

uAB uBA

5:17

149

and uBA is the generalised displacement at B due to the same force at

A. In fact, if P is a generic load applied both at A and B, we have

from equation (5.16)

WAB WBA

P uAB P uBA

5:18

the applied forces to perform work. In this sense we can introduce generalised forces as

well. Thus, generalised forces and corresponding generalised displacements (or vice

versa) are quantities characterised by the fact that the sum of their products always

represents a true work.

6.

Introduction

that enable the solution for systems of rigid bodies and for beam deformations in a closed form. The latter is based on Euler's method to

derive the dierential equation of equilibrium. In some circumstances

of restricted forms of loading and boundary conditions the dierential

equation may admit a solution in a closed form. In general, however,

it has been found dicult to obtain an exact solution for several of

the practical ranges of beam geometry and loading types. For this

reason we often have to turn to approximate methods of analysis to

provide information for practical designs in structural engineering.

The foundation of the energy principles that underlie many of

the approximate methods developed in later chapters is introduced

here.

6.1

potential energy

the principle of stationary value of total potential energy. From a theoretical point of view, the reader will nd this principle to be nothing

more than a direct and formal derivation of what has previously

been presented in chapter 1. Nonetheless, this principle has a broad

eld of applications in mechanics and is central to methods to obtain

solutions to several problems in structural mechanics. Particularly,

the principle provides the basis for establishing approximate solutions

by means of trial functions, that, in turn, lead directly to the nite

element method of analysis.

With reference to a closed mechanical system in equilibrium and in

the absence of heat exchange, we have from the principle of conservation of energy, equation (1.21),

dE dW

152

are innitesimal and compatible with the constraints on the system,

but are imaginary and do not actually occur

E W

6:1

U W

K 0

the kinetic energy of the system.

We are now going to show that it is straightforward to build a special

functional whose variation within the eld of kinematically admissible

functions coincides with equation (1.28) and is therefore stationary

when the system is in equilibrium. In other words, if we write

UW

6:2

we have

0

U W 0

6:3

system, we can enunciate the principle of stationary value of total

potential energy

Given a closed mechanical system, isolated from its environment such that no exchange

of heat energy occurs across the system boundary, the stationary values of the total

potential energy represent congurations of equilibrium for the system itself.

point of view the principle of stationary value of total potential

energy can be claried with reference to a very simple pictorial representation. Thus, let us consider Fig. 6.1, where a landscape of hills and

valleys is represented.

Our mechanical system is simply simulated by a ball subjected to a

gravitational eld. Everywhere in the landscape the ball is therefore

subjected to a vertical force P having the following constant value

P mg

6:4

The force P is directed downwards into the plane. If we suppose the

landscape surface to be perfectly smooth and frictionless, we can

assume that the reaction of the surface can only act normally to the

surface itself. As no strain energy U can be stored in the system, the

condition of equilibrium, equation (1.28), becomes

W 0

6:5

153

(s)

E

D

A

B

C

h (s)

Fig. 6.1

where the work W is performed only by the force acting on the system,

i.e. the gravitational force P. The reaction R of the supporting surface

cannot perform work, as by its denition its direction is orthogonal to

any virtual displacement, which, by denition, must be tangential to

the landscape surface.

Since the gravitational force P is directed downwards, its virtual

work has value only in the case where a virtual displacement possesses

a vertical component. We are consequently led to the self-evident conclusion that the ball in the landscape represented in Fig. 6.1 cannot be

in equilibrium except at the top of a hill, the bottom of a valley or at a

point of inection.

In order to express the condition of equilibrium (equation (1.28))

with reference to the total potential energy of the system, we can write

s Phs

6:6

where h(s) is the height of the landscape path, described by the parameter s. The condition of stationary value of the total potential

energy is

s P hs P us W 0

6:7

and coincides with zero value for the virtual work performed by the

gravity force P, as shown in Fig. 6.2. It is worth noting that the

height function h(s) can be measured with reference to some base

level C. We already know that the value C of the constant cannot

aect the equilibrium, as we are interested only in variations.

From a physical point of view this means that only relative heights

are relevant and it does not matter if the whole landscape is raised of a

constant quantity everywhere.

154

u

u

h (s)

P

P

Equilibrium

No equilibrium

Fig. 6.2

with the load potential Phs, which represents the capability of

the gravitational force P to perform work on account of the height

hs of the ball. If no work tends to be performed by the gravitational

force, the principle of conservation of energy assures that no kinetic

energy (which by denition of this scheme is the only form of energy

that the ball can possess on account of its mass) can be gained by

the system and it is in equilibrium. The question as to whether the equilibrium state is stable or not is considered in chapter 12, it suces here

to note that the conditions and examples relative to structural systems

presented in this book are actually stable if not otherwise stated.

6.2

stationary value of total potential energy

of total potential energy, it is valuable to review two important aspects

of the principle

(a)

(b)

is a formal representation of a state equation (i.e. the condition of equilibrium, equation (1.28)) by means of extremum

conditions on a specically designed functional. It is a mathematical device and, despite the fact that we can often give a

pictorial representation of the terms of this functional, there

is actually no need for it to have a precise physical meaning.

As a generality, not all systems can have a total potential

energy functional. Such a functional is a property of socalled conservative systems, i.e. those system in which the

work, equation (1.4) performed by the forces acting on the

system depends only on the end points and not upon the

path joining them.

However, in the theory developed in this book, all the structural systems taken into consideration are conservative by

denition. Unless otherwise explicitly stated, we consider

155

sinks of energy and the processes of deformation of bodies are

totally reversible without transformation of mechanical work

into heat and vice versa. Under these circumstances the existence of relevant potential functionals is always assured.

Of course, once again the reader has be aware that no such structures actually exist in nature; but in engineering we deal with models

of real situations. The rules of behaviour for these models are set by

ourselves, and from an engineering point of view we are satised if

they produce, as they do, results adequately accurate for our needs

of design and safety in practical applications. The satisfactory nature

of the models has to be obtained by comparing the predictions of structural behaviour from the models with corresponding results from tests.

6.3

from the principle of stationary value of total potential energy, i.e.

CotterillCastigliano's rst theorem1;2 on the derivatives of the strain

energy function U. By means of this theorem it is possible to evaluate

the loads acting on an elastic system in equilibrium by means of a function of its strain energy. This is the rst of many practically valuable

methods derived from the principle of stationary value of total potential enegy and others are introduced in following sections.

The development is illustrated by taking into consideration the cantilever shown in Fig. 6.3. The total potential energy of this system is given

by

uy Uuy P

6:8

and is a functional of the eld of vertical displacements uy z, according to Bernoulli's model of beam. As we have seen in chapter 4, the

strain energy functional Uuy can be expressed as

l

1

EIx u002

Uuy

y dz

2

6:9

end , and the expression for this function can be easily obtained by

requiring satisfaction of the following geometrical and mechanical

1

2

Cotterill, James Henry (Norfolk, 1836 Parkstone, Dorset, 1922), English engineer.

Castigliano, Carlo Alberto (Asti, 1847 Milan, 1884), Italian engineer.

156

P

z

A

(B)

Fig. 6.3

uy 0 0

and 0 u0y 0 0

Ml EIx u y00l 0

and uy l

6:10

6:11

Remember that the general integral of Euler's equation of beam deformation in the absence of point loads along the beam is the third-order

expression

uy z Az3 Bz2 Cz D

6:12

for the displacement eld uy z as a function of the tip deection of

the cantilever is therefore

3

uy z 3 z3 2 z2

6:13

2l

2l

By making use of equation (6.13), the functional for the total potential

energy, equation (6.8), can be rewritten as a simple function of the

deection

U P

6:14

d dU

P0

6:15

d d

and allows us to state mathematically CotterillCastigliano's rst

theorem:

dU

P

d

6:16

157

deection at the end of the cantilever, according to equation

(6.16) all we need to do is to substitute the second derivative of equation (6.13) with respect to z in equation (6.9) and successively take the

rst derivative of the resulting function with respect to . Thus, we

have

l

1

3

3 2

U

EIx 3 z 2 dz

2

l

l

6:17

dU 3EIx

d

l3

6:18

Of course CotterillCastigliano's rst theorem has a much broader

eld of application than a simple cantilever subjected to one point

load. We can illustrate this by considering an elastic structure loaded

by n generalised forces Pk k 1; . . . ; n. From equation (6.2) we have

U

n

X

Pk k

6:19

k1

generalised forces Pk .

Provided we can express the strain energy U as a function of these

generalised displacements, we have

n

X

1 ; . . . ; n U1 ; . . . ; n

Pk k

6:20

k1

are

qU

Pk

qk

6:21

complete generality as follows

The partial derivative of the strain energy of an elastic system with respect to a

generalised displacement at a certain point gives the value of the corresponding

generalised force at the same point.

as the principle of stationary value of total potential energy, does not

158

the linearity of the elastic forcedisplacement relationships.

6.4

linear theory of elasticity

several theorems in structural mechanics that can be stated in the linear

theory of elasticity by means of purely mathematical relationships.

This is the case of CotterillCastigliano's second theorem, which is

formally a dual relationship of CotterillCastigliano's rst theorem.

This second theorem requires that the problem at hand is studied

within the framework of the theory of innitesimal displacements

and restricted to linearly elastic forcedisplacement relationships. In

fact, only in such circumstances can we make reference to the principle

of superposition of eects.

If we consider an elastic structure loaded by n generalised forces Pk

(k 1; . . . ; n), we can divide the loading into two groups. The rst

group is composed only of the force Pi , and the second group contains

all the remaining forces, Pj j 1; . . . ; i 1; i 1; . . . ; n.

Then the strain energy U of the structure is

U WI WI;II WII 12 Pi i;I Pi i;II WII

6:22

where WI is the component of work of the force Pi , i.e. the work done

by the force Pi along the line of the generalised displacement i;I and

due to the application of Pi only; WI;II is the displacement work done

by the force Pi along the generalised displacement i;II due to the

second group of loading; and WII is the component of work of the

second group of loading, Pj , on account of the generalised displacements due to the second group of loading itself.

As all the forcedisplacement relationships are linear, we can write

P

i;I i

6:23

K

where K is a stiness parameter. Therefore we can express the work WI

as

1

1 P

WI Pi i;I Pi i

2

2 K

and we get

6:24

1 P

U Pi i Pi i;II WII

6:25

2 K

At this point, provided we can express the strain energy U as a function

of the n generalised forces Pk k 1; . . . ; n, we can write down the

159

qU Pi

i;II

qPi K

6:26

qU

i;I i;II i

qPi

6:27

Castigliano's second theorem. This theorem can be stated as follows

The partial derivative of the strain energy of an elastic system with respect to a

generalised force at a certain point gives the value of the corresponding generalised

displacement at the same point.

it holds true only in the framework of the linear theory of elasticity

and from a physical point of view it does not rely upon a real energy

principle.

In conclusion it is instructive to apply CotterillCastigliano's second

theorem to the cantilever of Fig. 6.3 in order to nd the deection

due to the load P at B. In order to do so we have to express the

strain energy U of the cantilever as a function of the force P.

As we know that

EIx u00y Mz

6:28

1

U

2

l

0

M 2 z

dz

EIx

6:29

Mz Pl z

6:30

1

UP

2

l

0

P2 l z2

dz

EIx

6:31

UP

P 2l 3

6EIx

6:32

160

M (z) = P (l z)

lt

B

z

y

l

Fig. 6.4

6.5

dU

Pl 3

dP 3EIx

6:33

CotterillCastigliano's theorem

is applied at mid-span of the horizontal member. We consider the

elements to be axially undeformable.

This is called a portal frame and the horizontal and vertical members

have cross sections shown in Fig. 6.5(b), respectively. Given that the

members are made from a steel with a yield strain of "0 0:12%

and a modulus of E 2:1 105 N=mm2 , we wish to calculate the

maximum value of the load P that can be applied to the frame such

that the maximum strain does not exceed 0:7"0 .

The rst step in this example is to calculate the distribution of

moments along each of the members for a general portal frame,

shown in Fig. 6.6.

The free-body diagram is shown in Fig. 6.7. The symmetry conditions for the forces at C results in

Vc 0

Equilibrium of the forces at sections C and A gives

P

and

HC HA

VA

2

6:34

6:35

P

25 m

161

25 m

1

B

1

5m

A

(a)

10 mm

X

X

125 mm

10 mm

100 mm

8 mm

12 mm

150 mm

200 mm

Section 2 2

Section 1 1

(b)

Fig. 6.5

members, i.e. zones 1 and 2, respectively, are

Zone 1

M1 z1 MC

P

z

2 1

6:36

162

P

l/2

l/2

EI1

EI2

Fig. 6.6

l/2

P/2

MC

Zone 1

HC

z1

z2

VC

Zone 2

HA

MA

VA

Fig. 6.7

163

Zone 2

M2 z2 MC

Pl

HC z2

4

6:36b

The strain energy U is

1

U

2EI1

l=2

1 6

4

2EI1

l

1

M22 z2 dz2

2EI2

0

M12 z1 dz1

l=2

7

M12 z1 dz1 I M22 z2 dz2 5

6:37

where I I1 =I2 .

Substituting equation (6.36) into equation (6.37) and after integration the strain energy is obtained. This is

1

l

l2

l3

U

MC2 MC P P2

2EI1

2

8

96

3

3

l2

l3

2

2 l

2

2 l

MC HC l PHC HC

I MC l MC P P

2

16

4

3

The deformation conditions for the frame are, because of symmetry

Zero rotation at the position C, i.e. C 0

Zero horizontal displacement at position C, i.e. wC 0

Thus from the second of CotterillCastigliano's theorems,

C

qU

0

qMC

qU

1 1 2

1

Pl MC l I 2MC l Pl 2 HC l 2

0

qMC 2EI1 8

2

6:38

For the horizontal deection at C, it is

wC

qU

0

qHC

164

Therefore,

qU

1

2

1 3

3

2

I

0

H l MC l Pl

qHC 2EI1

3 C

4

6:39

HC

3P

82 I

MC

I 1

Pl

42 I

6:40

(6.40) and (6.36), thus

1

1

Pl

MB

Pl

MA

82 I

42 I

The variation of the moment is linear between these values as shown

in Fig. 6.8.

The maximum strain due to the applied load P can occur at position

B in member AB or at position C in member BC and rst it is necessary

to evaluate the moments at these positions.

The second moments of area of members AB and BC about their XX

axes, i.e. I2 and I1 , respectively, are

I1

1

12

1

125 2243 12

115 2003 4:04 107 mm4

I2

1

12

1

100 1703 12

92 1503 1:51 107 mm4

1

MB = 4 (I + 2) Pl

B

1

MB = 4 (I + 2)

Pl

B

l/3

A M = 1 Pl

A

8 (2 + I)

Fig. 6.8

C

(I + 1)

MC = 4 (I + 2) Pl

165

hence

I

I1

2:68

I2

Taking rst the condition at position B for member AB, the moment is

MB 0:0534Pl 267P

the strain " is

"

My

EI

where y is the distance from the XX axis to the outer surface of the

ange. Thus,

267 P 85

" :

0:7 1:2 103

2 1 105 1:51 107

The maximum allowable value of the load, P, if the strain in member

AB at position B is not to exceed the specied level is

P 11:7 104 N

Considering now the strain at position C on the member BC,

983 P 112

0:7 1:2 103

" :

5

7

:

2 1 10 4 04 10

hence

P 6:47 104 N

It is evident that the lesser of the loads calculated above is that which

governs the permissible loading condition.

The vertical deection of the member BC at the point of application

of the load P, i.e. vc , can be calculated from the strain energy using

again CotterillCastigliano's second theorem

vC

qU

qP=2

qU

1 1

1 3

1 3 1

1

2

2

3

M l Pl I Pl MC l HC l

qP=2 2EI1 8 C

48

8

2

4

Hence, the vertical deection at C is

vC

1 2I Pl 3

2 I 96EI1

166

Thus

vC

1 2 2:68

6:47 104 50003

13:49 mm

2 2:68 96 2:1 105 4:04 107

length of the structural member, thus

vC

1

370

l

This result can be considered acceptable as codied guidelines give

admissible levels of deection as

vC

1

180

l

1.

and C. A horizontal load P is applied at C. It is free to move horizontally at C. The cross section of the arch is rectangular as shown

in Fig. 6.9. Develop expressions for the maximum moment, Mmax

the vertical deection at B, vB and the horizontal deection at C,

hC .

[Ans: Mmax 0:311PR, vB 1:73PR3 =Ebd 3 ,

hC 8:66PR3 =Ebd 3 ]

B

d

R

X

d

b

Section X X

Fig. 6.9

P

167

A

B

D

2P cos

Fig. 6.10

2.

3.

through the pipe is shown in Fig. 6.10, where the loads P are the

value of the line load per unit length of the pipe. Treating the pipe

as a plane strain problem, develop an expression for the maximum

moment Mmax in the ring for 608, and the position of the

maximum moment.

[Ans: Mmax 0:091PR at 1208 from A]

A rigid jointed frame is connected to a rigid foundation, as shown

in Fig. 6.11. The members of the frame are made from tube with

outside diameter D, and wall thickness t. Develop an expression

for the allowable load qa such that the maximum strain in the

q

D

t

l

60

Fig. 6.11

168

10 m

10 m

B

10 kN

C

1m

05 m

Fig. 6.12

4.

frame is not to exceed the material yield strain "0 of the tube

material.

[Ans: qa ED2 t"0 =16:8l 2 ]

A diving board consists of a beam attached to a frame, as shown in

Fig. 6.12. The board is to be proof tested by applying a 10 kN load

at the end C. Analysing the frame as being pin-jointed, calculate

the vertical and horizontal deections at C, hC , vC , that

would be expected to occur during the proof test. The beam has

a second moment of area of 5 104 mm4 and the bars have a

cross-sectional area 200 mm2 . E 200 kN/mm2 .

[Ans: hC 0:13 mm, vC 0:87 mm]

7.

Introduction

analysis and the examples presented in chapter 6 that these methods

can be very powerful in developing solutions to practical situations

in structural mechanics. The applicability of the methods, however,

depends on having available information, such as the variation in

the deection or of the moment of the beam or the frame being analysed. In many practical circumstances the precise variation of these

parameters is not available, but it would be very valuable if the

energy methods could still be applied. In this chapter we shall show

how this can be achieved.

It is appreciated that the solutions obtained by the use of approximate methods are themselves approximations to the exact situation

of deformation or forces in the structural model; but in any case in

engineering the prediction of structural behaviour will always be

approximate to some extent since knowledge on material properties,

loading and construction dimensions is never exact and, consequently, precisely represented in the mathematical model. Therefore,

provided we have some exact solutions available, usually related to

idealised structural forms and loading, with which to calibrate and

validate the approximate methods, the use of energy methods with

approximate variations in deections and internal forces is a very

powerful approach that underlies current structural engineering

practice. This practice makes considerable use of approximate

energy methods, usually in the form of the nite element method,

that are available in commercially produced computer programs.

The present chapter outlines the method of trial functions, outlines

how suitable trial functions may be identied and will enable the

reader to understand how the nite element method is eectively an

automated way of incorporating special trial functions in structural

analysis.

170

7.1

From the outset we must be aware that the method of trial functions is

an approximate approach that enables engineers to obtain predictions

for the response of complex structures to practical loading where no

exact solution to the behaviour of the structural model can be

obtained. The degree of approximation and how to estimate this is

considered in the following text.

So far we have dealt with basic ideas in the theory of elastic structures and in particular with the treatment of the Bernoulli model for

a beam. This is a particularly simple model of the behaviour of a

one-dimensional structure, with an approximation to the strain distribution that is quite satisfactory from an engineering point of view. As

we have seen in chapter 4, the general expression for the displacement

eld of a generic beam with constant bending stiness EIx is yielded by

the fourth-order dierential equation (4.43).

However, even in the simple case in which we need to take into consideration a straight beam whose section is variable along the axis and

subjected to a distributed load qz, the value of which is dependent on

z, we have seen in section 4.6 that we are led to a dierent and more

complicated equation, equation (4.86), that can be also written as

d2 uy z

d2

EIx z

qz

7:1

dz2

dz2

The solution of this equation cannot now be expressed as a fourthorder polynomial as was the case for equation (4.44), and the possibility of obtaining a closed form is strictly dependent on the particular

expressions of the functions EIx zand q(z) for the problem at hand.

This in the general case is not possible.

Thus even this very simple case clearly illustrates the necessity for

establishing an approximate method of solution. As was pointed out

in chapter 6, the ability to provide approximate solutions is one of

the most important applications of the principle of stationary value

of total potential energy, i.e. determining approximate solutions to

the problem of elastic equilibrium. This important application of the

principle of stationary potential energy is made by assuming equations

(6.2) and (6.3) as starting points and making use of trial functions. This

application is described below.

The trial function is essentially a possible representation of the

unknown quantity that has been used to describe the total potential

energy functional; in general this quantity is the displacement eld of

the structure or its elements. Under some circumstances, the quantity

is also called the shape or coordinate function.

171

beam already studied in chapter 4 and depicted in Fig. 4.10. We

found that the exact solution to this problem is given by equation (4.51)

q

uy z

z4 2lz3 l 3 z

24EIx

and is a fourth-order polynomial expression. The conguration of

equilibrium of this beam can also be described in terms of the total

potential energy functional, i.e.

uy 0

7:2

l

l

1

002

uy

EIx uy dz quy dz

2

0

7:3

the lateral displacement uy z of the axis of the beam. If treated with

the usual methods of the calculus of variations, the condition in equation (7.2) would lead us to the Euler equation of beam deformation, see

equation (4.43), together with the boundary conditions

uy 0

for

z 0 and

Mz EIx u00y 0

for

zl

7:4

z0

and z l

7:5

to this structural model posed by equations (4.43), (7.4) and (7.5). In

this circumstance we could use our engineering experience of the displacement of beams subjected to lateral loading and guess a suitable

displacement shape that could act as a trial displacement eld. The

analysis process is initiated by substituting the trial displacement eld

uy z in equation (7.3). In order to be admissible, the trial displacement

eld must satisfy the geometrical boundary conditions in equation

(7.4). We may choose, i.e. guess, a simple displacement eld which is

dened in shape but not in amplitude, for example

z

uy a sin

7:6

l

as is shown in Fig. 7.1.

Substituting the trial function, equation (7.6), into the potential

energy function, equation (7.3), we have

l

l

z002

z

1

EIx a sin

dz

7:7

uy

dz qa sin

2

l

l

0

172

q

uy* = a sin

z

l

Fig. 7.1

we have reduced the functional of the total potential energy to a simple function of the

parameter a, which regulates the amplitude of the shape function, equation (7.6).

satised by minimising a simple function rather than a functional,

i.e. the integral of the function of the parameter a. This is a situation

very much more amenable to algebraic manipulation than is the

integral equation for equilibrium, equation (7.2).

Thus in the present case we have

l

l

z002

z

1

a

dz

EIx a sin

dz qa sin

2

l

l

0

l

l

4

z

1

2

2 z

dz qa sin

dz

EIx a 4 sin

2

l

l

l

0

4

ql

EIx a2 2 a

3

4l

7:8

da

0

da

a4

ql 4

EIx 5

7:9

the applied load and the geometric and elastic material parameters

of the beam and is the amplitude of the trial displacement eld uy .

173

reference to the calculus of variation or solving dierential equations.

Of course, we must bear in mind that this is only an approximate

solution for the structural model of the beam; nevertheless, it may

furnish surprisingly good results. For example, if we compare the

vertical deection at the middle of the span obtained by the procedure

of trial function to the exact solution, given by equation (4.51) for

z l=2, we have

ql 4

uy l=2 0:0130208

EIx

(exact solution)

ql 4

uy l=2 0:0130711

EIx

(trial function)

7:10

of the beam with an error of 0.39% compared to the exact value.

With regard to the bending moment we have,

Ml=2 EIx u00y l=2 0:025000ql 2

M l=2 EIx uy 00 l=2 0:025801ql 2

7:10b

moments with an error of 3.2%. Of course this is a very simple

example and a fortunate case, due to the fact that the shape function,

equation (7.6), happens to t the exact displacement eld very well and

it is therefore a good choice. Generally, engineers through their observations have a good facility to describe the probable shape of the

deformations that will occur in their structure when the loading is

applied. This facility is an excellent basis for `guessing' an appropriate

trial function for the energy method described above. However, in

general, we may not always be so fortunate in our choice of trial function as was the case for the example analysis described, and we should

pay a good deal of attention to the procedure that is explained in the

following section.

7.2

trial function for the solution of the problem of elastic equilibrium in

the case of a simply supported beam. We now generalise the method by

presenting a more comprehensive procedure that can be developed

from the simple idea introduced above: this is called the method of

174

RayleighRitz.1;2 Section 7.1 has shown that the goal of the method of

trial functions consists of commuting the minimisation of a functional,

which requires a variational treatment and leads to a dierential

formulation, to the minimisation of a function, which is achieved by

means of elementary derivatives and leads to an algebraic problem.

Algebraic formulations are very much easier to solve than ones involving functionals.

The RayleighRitz procedure consists of the following steps

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

system.

Choose a trial function for the displacement eld; the function

must satisfy the geometrical boundary conditions (in the case

of a beam those relative to deection and slope) but it may or

may not satisfy the mechanical boundary conditions (i.e.

regarding moment and shear). This shape function must be

dependent on a nite number of parameters a1 ; . . . ; an .

Insert the trial function in the potential energy functional

and integrate over the dimension of the structure.

Minimise the obtained function a1 ; . . . ; an with respect to

the parameters a1 ; . . . ; an . We now have a linear system of n

equations in the n unknowns a1 ; . . . ; an given by

q

q

0

qa1

qan

(e)

value of the shape function and constitutes the approximate

solution of the problem of elastic equilibrium at hand.

already given in the previous section, with the dierence that we can

now have a trial function depending on several parameters or degrees

of freedom, also termed generalised coordinates.

The procedure outlined above is exemplied now by the case of a

beam encastre at one end and simply supported at the other, as

shown in Fig. 7.2. We consider this beam subjected to a distributed

load q of constant value, which will enable us to compare the results

given by the RayleighRitz method with the exact solution of the

model.

1

Lord Rayleigh (Strutt, John William) (Langford Grove, Essex, 1842 Witham, Essex,

1919), English physicist.

2

Ritz, Walther (Sion, Valais, 1878 Gottingen, 1909), Swiss physicist.

175

B

l

Fig. 7.2

following the sequence presented above.

(a) The functional of the total potential energy of the system is

l

l

1

002

uy

EIx uy dz qu dz

2

0

7:11

(b) Select a shape function with several degrees of freedom, for example we choose here ve variables of the type

z

z

b1 cos

uy a0 a1 sin

l

l

2z

2z

b2 cos

7:12

a2 sin

l

l

where the variables are a0 , a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 .

This shape function must satisfy the geometrical boundary conditions at A and B in Fig. 7.2, i.e.

uy 0 and u0y 0

uy z 0

for

z0

for z l

7:13

7:14

As we have

z

z

b1 sin

uy 0 a1 cos

l

l

l

l

2

2z

2

2z

b2 sin

a2 cos

l

l

l

l

7:15

8

>

< uy 0 a0 b1 b2 0

uy l a0 b1 b2 0

7:16

>

: 0

uy 0 a1 2a2 0

176

of a2 and b2 and we are left with a shape function that is dened by two

independent degrees of freedom only. That is

ao b2

a1 2a2

7:17

b1 0

and consequently the suitable trial function is

2z

2z

z

1 a2 sin

2 sin

uy b2 cos

l

l

l

7:18

(c) We substitute the trial function, equation (7.18), into the energy

functional, equation (7.11) and integrate over the length l of the

beam

uy

l

l

1

00 2

EIx uy dz qu dz

2

0

2

l

1

4

2z

EIx b2 2 cos

2

l

l

0

2

42

2z

22

z

a2 2 sin

2 sin

dz

l

l

l

l

l

2z

1

q b2 cos

l

0

a2 sin

2z

l

2 sin

z

l

dz

7:19

a2 ; b2

4ql

a qlb2

a2 3 b2

a2 b2

2

l5

l

3l 3

7:20

equation (7.19) by the approximating function of the two parameters

a2 and b2 , shown in equation (7.20).

177

parameters a2 and b2 , getting the linear system

q 10EIx 4

16EIx 3

4ql

0

3 a2

b2

3

qa2

l

3l

7:21

q 16EIx 3

8EI

a2 3 x 4 b2 ql 0

3

qb2

3l

l

in matrix form, as

10

16=3 a2

4=

ql 4

4

EIx 1

16=3

8

b2

(e) The solution of the system of equations (7.21) yields the values of

the parameters a2 and b2

1

15ql 4

EIx 3 16 452

ql 4

12

45

b2

EIx 2

162 454 128 3602

a2

7:22

7:23

Back substituting the results in equations (7.22) and (7.23) in the trial

function, equation (7.18) we have the expression for the approximate

solution of the problem of the elastic equilibrium for the beam

shown in Fig. 7.2.

It is instructive to compare the values of the deection, of the slope

and of the bending moment at the middle of the span furnished by the

two term trial function, equation (7.18), with those derived from the

exact solution, see equation (5.2). With regard to the deection at

the mid-span we have

ql 4

uy l=2 0:0052083

EIx

(exact solution)

uy l=2

(trial function)

ql 4

0:0043468

EIx

7:24

16.5%. Regarding the slope we have

3

ql

l=2 u0y l=2 0:0052083

EIx

0

l=2

uy 0 l=2

ql 3

0:0070998

EIx

(exact solution)

7:25

(trial function)

178

That is, the trial function over-estimates the slope at the mid-span with

an absolute error of 36.3%. Finally, with regard to the bending

moment we have

Ml=2 EIx u00y l=2 0:0625000ql 2

(exact solution)

(trial function)

7:26

showing that the trial function provides a good estimate for the

moment at mid-span and has an error of 1.6%.

It is worth noting that, despite the fact that we have employed a trial

function with ve degrees of freedom, we have obtained an approximate deection that is 16.6% larger that the exact one, while in the

previous section we got an error of 0.39% using a trial function with

only one degree of freedom. Moreover, in the example shown above

the approximation for the slope is much worse than that for the deection and the approximation for the bending moment is far better than

those for the deection and the slope. This variability of the degree of

accuracy of the approximate results is due to the capability of the

particular chosen trial function to t the exact solution and its derivatives. This aspect of the method underlies much of the problems associated with approximating techniques in structural mechanics and will

be discussed to more detail in the next section.

7.3

So far we have presented the results obtained for the beam shown in

Fig. 7.2 by means of the trial function described in equation (7.12) in

comparison to the exact solution given by the expression (equation

(5.2)). In order to make some simple observations about the quality

of the results yielded by the RayleighRitz method, let us take into

account another trial function, once again of the type

z

z

nz

uy a0 a1 sin

b1 cos

an sin

l

l

l

nz

7:27

bn cos

l

It is natural to expect that the quality of the approximation tends

to increase along with the number of degrees of freedom since the

additional terms may be thought of as giving greater exibility to the

functions to meet the requirements for the minimum energy conditions. To check this hypothesis we assume a seven degrees of freedom

179

Table 7.1

N

uy l=2

l=2

My l=2

5

7

exact

0:004347ql 4 =EIx

0:005097ql 4 =EIx

0:005208ql 4 =EIx

0:007100ql 3 =EIx

0:004711ql 3 =EIx

0:005208ql 3 =EIx

0:063499ql 2

0:059914ql 2

0:062500ql 2

uy

z

z

2z

b1 cos

a2 sin

a0 a1 sin

l

l

l

2z

3z

3z

a3 sin

b3 cos

b2 cos

l

l

l

7:28

able to show in Table 7.1, the values of the deection, slope and bending moment at the middle of the span of the beam in Fig. 7.2. These

parameters are written as functions of the overall number N

N 2n 1 of degrees of freedom that comprises the trial function,

where the last row gives the exact analytical values, uy l=2, y l=2

and My l=2. For the sake of simplicity Table 7.1 can be also expressed

in terms of percentage dierences between the approximate solutions

and their exact counterpart, as shown in Table 7.2.

Table 7.2 allows us to make some interesting considerations about

the quality of the approximations corresponding to the dierent

values of N. First of all, let us x our attention on the deection. It

appears that taking into account two more degrees of freedom leads

to a better approximation to the exact value. However, as we have

already noticed before, in both these cases the approximation is

worse than in the case of the simple supported beam of the rst section,

where we employed only a single degree of freedom trial function!

We can therefore conclude that in the RayleighRitz method a

major role is played by the shape of the trial function chosen. If this

shape is very near to the exact solution, the quality of the obtainable

approximation tends to be satisfactory even with a small number of

degrees of freedom.

Table 7.2

N

uy uy %

y y %

My My %

5

7

16.54%

2.13%

36.32%

9.54%

1.60%

4.14%

180

da (y0)

dz

a

y0

db (y0)

dz

y

z

Fig. 7.3

bending moment. Here the situation is quite dierent because increasing the number of degrees of freedom does not lead to a better approximation. By means of a trial function with ve degrees of freedom we

have an error of 1.60% only, while by means of a trial function with

seven degrees of freedom the error changes sign and increases in absolute value to 4.14%. This behaviour can be easily explained as follows.

The fact that the trial function satises the geometrical boundary conditions and is generally near in shape to the exact solution does not

necessarily imply everywhere a good approximation to the mechanical

parameters (i.e. those concerning the internal forces), such as the

bending moment, which depends on the derivatives of the deected

shape.

In other words, as shown in Fig. 7.3, we can have trial functions

which do not dier very much from the exact curve on average, but

whose gradients can dier signicantly from the exact one at many

points.

As a consequence of this discourse it must be pointed out that

another source of error is introduced by the mechanical boundary conditions, that is the conditions relating to the forces at the boundaries. It

was emphasised earlier that the method of RayleighRitz does not

require the respect of the mechanical boundary conditions.

In the case at hand, i.e. the Bernoulli model of the beam, these conditions involve the derivatives of the displacement eld of the beam

axis. For example, it can be seen that every term in the chosen shape

function, equation (7.27) violates the mechanical condition Ml 0

at B. Actually, we have M z EIx uy 00 z and the second derivative

of equation (7.27) is not zero at z l for a generic set of values of the

parameters a0 , a1 , b1 , . . . , an , bn . However, we could try to satisfy the

181

this should result in a better approximation but at the expense of

greater algebraic work. However, as we are going to see, this is not

necessarily the case.

In order to investigate this point, let us go back to equation (7.12)

and impose the requirement of satisfaction of the mechanical condition

M EIx uy 00 0

for

zl

7:29

Now we have the following system of four equations in the ve parameters a0 , a1 , b1 , a2 , b2

8

u 0 a0 b1 b2 0

>

>

< y

uy l a0 b1 b2 0

7:30

0

0 a1 2a2 0

u

>

>

: y 00

uy l b1 4b2 0

which can be solved in terms of a0 , a1 , b1 , b2 . Thus, we get

a0 0

a1 2a2

b1 0

7:31

b2 0

As a consequence, the trial function becomes

2z

z

2 sin

uy a2 sin

l

l

7:32

If we substitute equation (7.32) in potential energy functional, equation (7.11) and integrate, as before, over the length l of the beam, we

obtain

5EIx 4 2 4ql

a

a2

7:33

2

l3

It should be noted that by imposing an additional condition, i.e. the

moment requirement, another degree of freedom has been suppressed

and so the substitution of the approximating function, equation (7.32),

into the energy functional, equation (7.11) results in a function only of

the parameter, a2 .

We minimise the function a2 with respect to the parameter a2 ,

and get

a2

d 10EIx 4

4ql

0

a2

da2

l3

7:34

182

a2

2ql 4

5EIx 5

7:35

function, equation (7.32) we have the solution corresponding to this

case in which all the geometrical and mechanical boundary conditions

are satised.

However, if we take into account for comparison the values of the

deection, slope and bending moment at the middle of the span, we

have to recognise that the approximations obtained, i.e.

4

ql

uy l=2 0:0026142

EIx

3

ql

l=2 0:0082128

EIx

7:36

7:37

7:38

result in errors of 49.8%, 57.7% and 58.7%, respectively.

It is clear that these results are far worse than those in the case in

which, with the same trial function, only geometrical boundary conditions have been fullled.

Even if this is a limiting case (i.e. we have assumed too few degrees of

freedom), nevertheless it must be underlined that the error due to the

shape of the trial function can outweigh that due to non-compliance

with the boundary conditions. Indeed it is not inconceivable that a

trial function satisfying also the mechanical boundary conditions can

give inferior results compared with a function that satises the geometrical boundary conditions only but is generally nearer in shape to the

exact solution.

The conclusion from this assessment of the value of trial functions

is that one must choose the functions with great care and using as

guidance the maximum information on the probable deformations of

the structure. Even then it is possible that the results will not correspond closely with the exact solution. Nevertheless, even with one

degree of freedom trial function the method provides a quick initial

solution to structural problems that can be used as the basis for

later, more rened methods. However, it is evident that it would be

valuable if a systematic approach could be obtained to guide the

choice of trial functions. This is the subject of sections 7.5 and 7.6,

in which an automated approach is introduced by means of the concept of localised functions.

7.4

183

applied to a cantilever with linearly varying depth

uniform cross sections and material properties that do not vary

along the beam. We now go back to an example of the type of equation

(7.1) and expand on this to illustrate the capability of the trial function

method to provide a formulation also for the deection of a cantilever

beam in which the depth of the section varies linearly along its length.

The analytical solution for this beam was presented in section 4.6, here

we use the method of trial functions. This method is such that a simple

function will always result from the algebra. However, as we have seen,

the accuracy of the prediction for the deformations may not always be

acceptable and the results must be analysed critically.

Therefore, let us now present in detail the analysis of the beam with

the tapered depth using the method of trial function. First, a one

degree of freedom function is used.

We recall that the natural boundary conditions are given by the

equations (4.96) and (4.101), i.e.

uy 0

and

duy

0

dz

at z 0

freedom trial function that satises these conditions is

7:39

uy a1 1 cos

2

where a1 uy 1 is the deection of the tip of the cantilever beam.

The exural strain energy of the beam is

2

2

1

EIx z d uy z 2

EIx d uy 2

U

dz

d

2

dz2

d 2

2l 3

l

0

7:40

and note again that the exural stiness EIx must be contained

within the integral sign since for this beam the stiness varies along

the beam.

From equations (4.82) and (4.83) we can write the second moment of

area for the beam as

3

bd1

Ix

1 1 3 Ix 1 1 3

7:41

12

where Ix is the second moment of area corresponding to the crosssection geometry of the cantilever at the built-in end and d2 =d1 .

184

2

1

d uy

E Ix

U 3 1 1 3

d

2l

d 2

7:42

E Ix 2 2

121 2 3

U 3

128

2l

3 2

3

1 21 61 a21 7:43

16

The total potential energy of the deformation of the cantilever comprises the strain energy due to the exure of the beam and the loss of

potential of the load P applied at the tip of the cantilever. Thus

U Puy l U Pa1

7:44

potential energy with respect to the degree of freedom a1 , that is

d

0

da1

7:45

E Ix 2 2

121 2 3

128

l3

3 2

3

1 21 61 a1 P 0

16

(7.46)

Substituting the relevant value for for a particular beam geometry in

this equilibrium equation yields the value for the deection at the tip of

the cantilever and the shape of the deection along the length of the

beam. Example values are

1

Pl 3

uy 1 :

3 02EI1

0:5

Pl 3

uy 1 :

1 95EI1

Pl 3

uy 1 :

1 31EI1

7:47

185

Fig. 7.4

from the solution of the dierential equation, the deection at the

tip of a cantilever with uniform depth 1 obtained by means of

the trial function provides a very good result, but that as the value

of is reduced the results from the approximate method diverge

from the exact value. This is shown graphically in Fig. 7.4 where

the value for the tip deection from the one degree of freedom trial

function is compared to the exact result for corresponding values

of .

The approximation is reasonable, i.e. to within 5%, up to a value of

0:5.

Again, we can try to improve the accuracy of the result from the

approximate method by increasing the number of degrees of freedom

in the trial function. This allows greater exibility to the trial function

to t the exact deected shape of the cantilever. The following illustrates this by using a two degree of freedom trial function, i.e.

3

uy a1 1 cos

a2 1 cos

7:48

2

2

where a1 and a2 are the degrees of freedom, or generalised coordinates

of the trial function. The shapes of the functions corresponding to

these coordinates are shown in Fig. 7.5.

This function is substituted in the total potential energy functional

and the equilibrium equations are obtained, as before, from the

186

20

[1 cos /2]

[1 cos 3/2]

15

10

05

0

0

02

04

06

08

10

Fig. 7.5

are obtained from the conditions

q

0;

qa1

q

0

qa2

7:49

f1

f2

f3

f4

a1

a2

Pl 3 1

0

2E Ix 1

7:50

the degree of taper in the beam. These functions are

f1

3 2

16 1

2 3 34 1 3 32 3

1 4

1 2 3

64

f2

135 2

64 1

2

3

23 2 23 3 27

4 1 3 3

f3

135 2

64 1

2

3

23 2 23 3 27

4 1 3 3

f4

27 2

16 1

2 3 94 3 2 33

4

2

3

81

64 1

7:51

187

25

Exact solution

20

One degree of freedom

uy (1)

15

10

05

0

0

02

04

06

08

10

Fig. 7.6

The values for the generalised coordinates in the trial function are

simply calculated using

Pl 3 1 f2

a1

f1

2EI1

7:52

Pl 3

f3 f1

a2

2EI1 f2 f3 f4 f1

and the deection at the tip of the cantilever is obtained from

uy 1 a1 a2

7:53

the trial function; the agreement to within 5% of the exact value for

the deection at the tip of the cantilever now extends in the range

0:2 > > 1.

If greater accuracy was required across the full range of the parameter it could be achieved by increasing the numbers of degrees of

freedom of the trial function. Of course, we underline again that this

would be at the expense of greatly increased algebraic complexity in

the analysis.

7.5

chapter, it should be clear that in general terms to nd a trial function

is, in the rst instance, a matter of good judgement, experience and an

188

appreciation of the physical meaning of the problem. Generally, engineers develop with practice a good `feel' for the deected shapes of

structures. However, one may wonder if there is a systematic way of

nding such a function and, more importantly, if this function tends

to converge to the exact solution along with the increase of the

number of degrees of freedom taken into consideration.

The answer is yes, but unfortunately this is a quite complicated

matter and cannot be reasoned on the basis of simple mathematics,

to which this book is restricted. We will simply state that in order to

establish some criteria of convergence for the trial function, in the

rst instance we must deal with a special set of approximation functions, also named coordinate functions.

These coordinate functions fi are characterised by the following

properties

.

.

.

for any N, the elements f1 ; f2 ; . . . ; fN are linearly independent

for any solution g of the problem, we can always nd an approximation function a1 f1 a2 f2 aN fN which diers,

according to a certain measure, innitely little from g.

choices of a set of coordinate functions ensure the convergence of

the RayleighRitz approximation to the exact solution in the limit.

However, it is clear that for a nite number of coordinate functions

fi , one choice of functions might give better accuracy over the another.

Moreover, from a technical point of view, it must again be underlined

that we can obtain satisfactory results (with care!) even from a choice

of approximation functions that are not coordinate functions.

Going back to the examples presented above, we could have demonstrated that for the beam shown in Fig. 7.1 we indeed have the convergence to the exact solution of the approximate function

N

X

nz

uy z

where n is odd

7:54

an sin

l

n1

since

nz

an sin

l

7:55

is a set of coordinate functions. Each of the terms in the series, equation (7.54) fulls the geometrical boundary conditions specied in

equation (7.4). On the other hand, with regard to the beam shown in

Fig. 7.2 the choice of the approximate function described in equation

189

(7.27), i.e.

uy

z

z

nz

b1 cos

an sin

a0 a1 sin

l

l

l

nz

bn cos

7:56

l

of the terms independently satises the geometrical boundary conditions specied in equations (7.13) and (7.14).

7.6

It is fairly evident from the foregoing examples and analyses that the

RayleighRitz technique cannot be simply and directly automated for

general use in practical structural analysis. Nevertheless, the power of

the method lends value to the search for an automated application.

This section presents the basis whereby the method of trial functions, as applied to beams, may incorporate simple functions that,

through the stationary conditions of the potential energy of the

structure, can combine to describe the deected shape of beams with

a variety of boundary and loading conditions to a high degree of accuracy. The approach is introduced here as the localised RayleighRitz

technique, but it may be seen essentially as the progenitor of the

nite element method.

Suppose we sub-divide a beam into a number of regions. The end

points of these regions are called nodes and are numbered sequentially

along the beam, as shown in Fig. 7.7.

Now, we consider a trial function centred on one of these nodes, i, as

shown in Fig. 7.8.

The trial function has the following attributes

.

.

.

zero deection at all other nodes

zero slope at all nodes.

l

1

1

2

2

region 2

Fig. 7.7

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

node 5

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

10

11

190

li1

i 2

li

i 1

fi

i +1

i+ 2

z

zi1

zi

Fig. 7.8

the region on either side of node i as shown in Fig. 7.8, the coordinate

system is

0 z i 1 li 1

0 z i li

7:57

the coordinate system by dening

z

z

i 1 i 1 and i i

7:58

li 1

li

Thus, the coordinate system is (as shown in Fig. 7.9)

0 i 1 1

and 0 i 1

7:59

The boundary conditions that ensure the trial function has a degree

Element i 1

i 1

ui 1

i 1

Fig. 7.9

ui

i+ 1

191

fi 1 i 1 0

at i 1 0

fi 1 i 1 1

at i 1 1

dfi 1 i 1

0

di 1

7:60

at i 1 0 and 1

fi 1 i 1 3i2 1 2i3 1

7:61

The trial function fi between nodes i and i+1 is obtained in the same

way, and the corresponding polynomial function is

fi i 1 3i2 2i3

7:62

fi i 1 at

i 0

fi i 0 at

i 1

dfi i

0 at

di

7:63

i 0 and 1

With this trial function the deection of the beam is obtained by multiplying the trial function by the deection, ui , at node i as shown in

Fig. 7.9.

It is clear in the gure that the deection of the beam in the region

between nodes i 1 and i is governed only by the values of the deections at these nodes.

This region between the nodes is called an element and the deection

function for element i 1 can be obtained by combining equations

(7.61) and (7.62), i.e.

uiy 1 1 ui 1 1 3i2 1 2i3 1 ui 3i2 1 2i3 1

7:64

Ui 1

EI

x

2

li 1

EI

3x

2li 1

d2 uiy 1 zi 1 2

dzi 1

dz2i 1

1 2 i 1

d uy i 1 2

di 1

di2 1

0

EI

3 x 12

ui 1 ui 2

2li 1

7:65

192

P

1

Elements

Nodes

Fig. 7.10

each element has the same form of exural strain energy with respect

to the length of the element and the deections at the nodes bounding

the element. We can exemplify the application of this approach by

using the beam shown in Fig. 7.10, where for convenience the element

lengths are all equal.

The strain energy of the whole beam is

U

EIx

12

u1 u2 2

u2 u3 2

3

2l=4

u3 u4 2

u4 u5 2

7:66

mid-span is

7:67

U P

u3

Now, the boundary conditions for the simply supported beam are

u1 0

and

u5 0

7:68

384EIx 2

u2

u2 u3 2

u3 u4 2

u4 2 P

u3

l3

7:69

The equilibrium conditions result from the stationary value of the total

potential energy, that is

q

0;

q

u2

q

0;

q

u3

q

0

q

u4

7:70

193

32 3

2 3

2

u2

0

2 1

0

3

Pl 6 7

76 7

6

7:71

2 1 54 u3 5

415 0

4 1

768EIx

0

0 1

2

u4

From this we obtain the solution

u3

Pl 3

768EIx

u2 u4

and

u3

2

7:72

It is evident that this value for the deection at the mid-length of the

beam is quite dierent from the exact analytical solution of Euler's

equation of beam deformation, i.e.

uy l=2

Pl 3

48EI

7:73

value of the deection we have a choice, we can either

.

.

increasing the degrees of freedom by augmenting the number of

elements, or

increase the complexity of the trial functions and the number of

degrees of freedom within each element.

number of elements in the beam, as shown in Fig. 7.11, the equilibrium

conditions are

32 3

2

2 3

u2

2 1

0

0

0

0

0

0

76 7

6

6 7

6 1

607

6 7

2 1

0

0

0

07

76 u3 7

6

6 7

76 7

6

6 7

7

7

6 0 1

607

6

2 1

0

0

0 76 u4 7

6

6 7

3

76 7

6

6 7

Pl

76 u5 7

6 0

6 7

0

1

2

1

0

0

76 7 1536EI 6 1 7 0

6

x6 7

76 7

6

6 0

607

6 7

0

0 1

2 1

07

76 u6 7

6

6 7

76 7

6

6 7

7

7

6 0

607

6

0

0

0 1

2 1 54 u7 5

4

4 5

0

u8

(7.74)

194

P

1

Elements

Nodes

Fig. 7.11

u5

Pl 3

768EIx

u

u2 u8 5 ;

4

and

u

u3 u7 5 ;

2

3

u

u4 u6 5

4

7:75

which does not dier from equation (7.72). It is therefore clear that

this approach is not very fruitful. The reason lies in the fact that the

choice of the localised trial function was such as not to allow any rotations at the nodes, as a result of the third of the boundary conditions,

equations (7.60) and (7.63). In other words, the representation of the

deection makes the beam unrealistically over-stiened.

As mentioned before, the alternative approach to improve the accuracy of the localised method is to increase the complexity of the trial

function within an element. Thus, we now extend the trial function

for an element of the length of the beam to include two degrees of freedom at each node. These degrees of freedom relate to the deection at

the node i, ui , and the slope at that node, i .

Following the approach shown above for the derivation of the trial

function for the deection, the shape for the trial function for the slope

at node i is shown in Fig. 7.12.

The corresponding boundary conditions are

gi 1 i 1 0

at i 1 0; 1

dgi 1 i 1

0

di 1

at i 1 0

d gi 1 i 1

1

di 1

at i 1 1

7:76

g (i 1)

i 2

i 1

g (i)

i

gi

i+ 1

i+ 2

z

i 1

195

Fig. 7.12

gi i 0

at i 0; 1

dgi i

1

di

at i 0

dgi i

0

di

at i 1

7:76 cont:

gi 1 i 1 i2 1 i3 1

gi i i 2i2 i3

7:77

deections and slopes at the nodes bounding the element. Thus, for

element i 1, bounded by nodes i 1 and i, we have, by combining

equations (7.61) and (7.77) (notice that as duy =d 1=ln , for

simplicity in the presentation we dene n n ln )

uiy 1 i 1 ui 1 1 3i2 1 2i3 1

i 1 i 1 2i2 1 i3 1

ui 3i2 1 2i3 1 i i2 1 i3 1

7:78

196

Ui 1

EI

3x

2li 1

1

0

d2 uiy 1 i 1

di2 1

2

di 1

EIx

12

u2i 1 12

ui 1 i 1 12

ui 1 i 42i 1

2li3 1

12

ui i 1 4i 1 i 12

u2i 12

ui i 42i

It is worth noticing that the results from evaluating the partial derivatives of the strain energy with respect to the degrees of freedom ui 1 ,

i 1 , ui and i , in matrix notation are

2

3

qUi 1

6 q

7

6 ui 1 7

32

2

3

6 qUi 1 7

ui 1

24 12 24 12

6

7

7

6

6 q

7

8

12

47

EIx 6

76 i 1 7

6 12

6 i1 7

7:79

76

7

6

7 3 6

6 qUi 1 7 2li 1 4 24

12

24

12 54 ui 5

6

7

6 q

7

12

4

12

8

i

6 ui 7

4 qU

5

i1

qi

Essentially this is the basis for the stiness matrix for a typical element. In the analysis of the simply supported beam, given the increased

complexity of the trial function, we may restrict ourselves with a subdivision of the beam into only two regions, as shown in Fig. 7.13.

The total potential energy is

U P

u2

7:80

and again, once the boundary conditions for the simply supported

beam, i.e. u1 0 and u3 0, have been imposed, the equilibrium

P

1

Fig. 7.13

Elements

Nodes

197

energy, that is

q

0;

q1

q

0;

q

u2

q

0;

q2

q

0

q3

7:81

32 3

2 3

2

0

8

12 4

0

1

3 6 7

7

6 12

7

6

48 0 12 76 u2 7

Pl 6 1 7

6

7:82

76 7

6 70

6

4 4

0 16

4 54 2 5 4EIx 4 0 5

0

0 12 4

8

3

The solution of this matrix equation is

2 :

3

2 3

0 125

1

7

6 u 7

Pl 3 6

6 0:08333 7

6 27

6

7

6 7

5

4 2 5 4EIx 4 0

0:125

3

and the deection at mid-span is

u2

Pl 3

48EIx

7:83

This corresponds exactly with the result from the analytical solution of

Euler's beam deformation equation, primarily because that solution

shows the beam deformation can be described by a cubic function of

z and the localised trial functions used here include cubic terms.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that a further step to introduce the

automation of the procedure can consist in applying the natural

boundary conditions after the stationarity of the total potential

energy has been required. In the case at hand it would have meant

rst writing the results of equation (7.81) as

2

32 3

2 3

u1

24 12

24 12

0

0

0

6 12

7

6

7

6

7

8

12

4

0

0 76 1 7

6

607

6

76 7

7

3 6

6 24

617

12

48

0 24 12 76 u2 7

6

76 7 Pl 6 7 0

6 12

6 7

6 7

4

0

16

12

47

6

76 2 7 4EIx 6 0 7

6

76 7

6 7

4 0

405

0 24

12

24

12 54 u3 5

0

0 12

4

12

8

0

3

7:84

198

P

1

Elements

Nodes

Fig. 7.14

and then setting u1 0 and u3 0 by eliminating the rows and

columns relating to u1 and u3 , which gives the matrix shown in

equation (7.82).

In this manner the formulation can very easily be adjusted to enable

the analysis of beam with other boundary conditions than simply

supported. This can be exemplied with regard to a cantilever beam,

encastre at node 1 and having a concentrated load P at node 3, see

Fig. 7.14.

The natural boundary conditions are

u1 0

and

1 0

at node 1

7:85

Thus, we can simply eliminate the rst two rows and columns from the

matrix (7.84) and set the contribution of the load P at node 3. The equilibrium equations are

32 3

2

2 3

u2

48 0 24 12

0

3 6 7

7

6 0 16

7

6

12

4 76 2 7

Pl 6 0 7

6

7:86

76 7

6

6 70

4 24 12

24

12 54 u3 5 4EIx 4 1 5

12 4

12

8

0

3

and the result from this matrix equation is

u3

Pl 3

3EIx

7:87

To sum up, we see that with an accurate choice of the shape functions,

even with only two elements this approach of localised functions provides the exact answer for the deection of the cantilever and the central

deection of a simply supported beam. However, perhaps even more

impressive is the ease with which the resulting matrix formulation can

be particularised to incorporate the relevant boundary conditions for

the structure. It is this capability of the localised RayleighRitz

199

in such an easy manner by engineers for a great variety of types of structures. Chapter 11 in this book introduces formally the nite element

method which directly derives from the localised trial function approach

and formulations presented here.

7.7

localised trial functions to the analysis of a frame

functions to the analysis of the frame that previously has been analysed

using the CotterillCastigliano theorem, see section 6.5. The frame is

divided into a number of regions and, similar to the analysis in section

7.6, localised functions are proposed as trial functions.

The portal frame to be analysed here is shown in Fig. 7.15. Each

element is subdivided into two regions, or elements, each of equal

length, i.e. ln l=2.

The symmetry at position C is taken into account in this analysis

to reduce the number of degrees of freedom. Again, we consider the

elements to be axially undeformable.

We recall from equation (7.79) that for a typical element the partial

derivatives relative to the strain energy, which lead to the denition of

l/2

Symmetry

P

Node 3

B

l/2

Region 3

Region 2

I2

I1

Node 4

I2

Node 2

l=5m

l/2

I=

Region 1

Node 1

A

Fig. 7.15

I1

I2

= 268

200

2

32

3

ui 1

24 12 24 12

6

7

8

12

47

EI 6

6 12

76 i 1 7

K n 3x 6

76

7

2ln 4 24

12

24

12 54 ui 5

12

4

12

8

i

where ui is the deection at the node i normal to the axis of the element

and i is the change of slope at that node.

The junction of the regions 1 and 2 at node 2 is such that the elements have common values of deection and change of slope. The

junction of the vertical and horizontal members at B is such that the

deection of region 2 at node 3 is zero and the change of slope for

regions 2 and 3 is common at node 3. Thus combining the stiness

matrices of the three regions to provide the stationary condition for

the strain energy of the portal frame

32 3

2

24 12 24 12

0

0

0

u1

76 7

6

6 12

6 7

8

12

4

0

0

0 7

76 1 7

6

76 7

6

6 24

6 7

12

48

0

12

0

0 7

76 u2 7

6

76 7

6

4EI

2

6 12

6 7

4

0

16

4

0

0 7

K

76 2 7

l3 6

76 7

6

6 0

6 7

0 12

4 81 I 12I 4I 7

76 3 7

6

76 7

6

6 0

6 7

0

0

0

12I

24I 12I 7

54 u4 5

4

0

0

0

0

4I

12I 8I

4

where I I1 =I2 .

The boundary conditions are

u1 1 0 at A;

u3 0 at B

4 0 at C

and

Applying these boundary conditions and taking into account the term

relative to the potential of the vertical load P the condition of equilibrium of one half of the symmetric frame is

2 3

2

32 3

48 0

12

0

u2

0

6

6

7

6

7

4

0 76 2 7 P 6 0 7

4EI2 6 0 16

7

6

76 7 6 7 0

3

4

4

5

4

5

2

12 4 81 I 12I

l

05

3

0

12I

24I

u4

The matrix equation can be solved to give the deected shape for the

portal frame corresponding to various values of I.

201

equation gives the solution

u4

1

Pl 3

191:97 EI1

member of the frame is very much less than that of the vertical

members. Thus the horizontal member should react to the application

of the load as if it were a beam fully encastre at both ends. Note that a

value of I 0 would render the matrix equation singular.

The analytical formulation for the deection at mid-span for such a

beam is

u4

1 Pl 3

192 EI1

Thus the analysis compares nearly exactly with the analytical formulation. This is because the analytical solution which describes exactly

the deformations of the members of the frame is a cubic polynomial.

The trial function actually is also a cubic polynomial and therefore

completely satises the requirement.

Consider now the analysis of the portal frame shown in Fig. 6.5,

which has been shown in section 6.5 to have I 2:68. We have the

result from the matrix analysis as

3

2 :

2 3

u2

0 0134

7

6 7

Pl 3 6

6 0:0134 7

6 27

7

6 :

6 7

4 3 5 8EI2 4 0 0534 5

0:0423

u4

Hence the deection u4 at mid-span of the horizontal member, for a

load, P 64:7 kN, is

Pl 3

u4 0:0423

8EI2

13:49 mm

8 2:1 105 1:51 107

CotterillCastigliano theorem.

The strain at the mid-span can be calculated using the curvature of

the member BC at that point. In non-dimensional coordinates, the

202

d 2 uy

d2

2

ui 1 1 3 2 2 3 i 1 2 2 3

2

d

d

ui 3 2 2 3 i 2 3

ui 1 6 12 i 1 4 6

ui 6 12 i 2 6

2

d 2 uy

1 d uy

dz2

ln2 d 2

4

u3 6 12 3 4 6

l2

u4 6 12 4 2 6

where

0 at node 3, 1 at node 4 and with u3 4 0:

The result from the analysis for I 2:68 gives the curvature at C as

d 2 uy

Pl

Pl

20:0534 60:0423 :

2

2EI2

13 605EI2

dz

"c

0:84 103

5

7

:

:

:

13 605 2 1 10 1 51 10

CotterillCastigliano analysis, see section 6.5.

It is evident that the method of trial functions can be easily applied

to the analysis of frames. A more specic form of matrix-based analysis for frames is presented in chapter 9. This is based on the actual solution of Euler's equation for beam deformation and is the method that

is usually used in structural engineering practice. However, there may

be circumstances, such as the components of the frame having variable

geometry that would complicate the usual frame analysis. In such a

conditions the method of localised trial functions, i.e. the nite element

method, can be used to obtained accurate solutions for the strains and

deformations in the frame.

1.

2.

3.

203

and built-in at both ends. The beam is subjected to a uniformly

distributed load of q/unit length. Use the method of trial function

to derive an expression for the deection shape and the value of

the deection wc at mid-length. Compare the values obtained

with the exact ones from the analytical solution of Euler's equation for beam deformation.

[Ans: Trial function wc ql 4 =390EI, Analytical value wc

ql 4 =384EI]

The beam shown in Fig. 7.17 has a exural stiness of EI for half

its length and 2EI for the other half. The beam is subjected to a

uniformly distributed load q. Use the method of trial functions

to develop an expression for the deection at mid-length. Apply

the method of localised trial functions to provide a comparable

value for the deection.

[Ans: One term trial function wc ql 4 =16:1EI, localised trial function with two elements along the beam, wc ql 4 =26:3EI, localised

trial function with four elements along the beam, wc ql 4 =16:0EI]

The beam shown in Fig. 7.18 is subjected to a distributed load,

varying from Q/unit length at the end A which is simply supported, to 0 at the end B which is built-in. The beam has a uniform

q

A

B

EI

Fig. 7.16

EI

2EI

l

Fig. 7.17

204

Q

A

EI

Fig. 7.18

the deection of the beam at mid-span. Check the answer against a

two element localised trial function model.

[Ans: one term trial function, wc Ql 4 =399:0EI, two element

localised trial function, wc Ql 4 =347:8EI]

8.

trussed structures

Introduction

the analysis of bars and beams, both from the exact solution of the

Euler equation of deformation and from an approximate approach.

The present chapter and the next one extends the analytical solution

of Euler's approach to encompass collections of bars and beams that

constitute truss and frame structures. These types of structure are

ubiquitous in engineering practice, including the skeletons of buildings,

lattice bridges and a great variety of cranes and lifting equipment.

We begin this chapter with the analysis of pin-jointed structures.

These structures are collections of bars essentially subjected to axial

forces which therefore constitute the primary loading in the element.

However, as the joints in practical frame structures are fabricated by

welding or by using groups of bolts, some bending of the individual

members will be induced because of the rigidity of the joints, as well

as because of the bars' self weight. This bending is generally seen as

a secondary eect. Nevertheless, if the bars are arranged so that

their axes meet in one point at each joint, it is found that the secondary

bending can be considered negligible with comparison to the axial

forces. Indeed, in some bridges built in the 19th century the joints actually were eected using pins so that the forces in the bridge members

were in accord with the analysis.

Essentially the function of such pin-jointed structures, or trusses, as

they are commonly known, is that of carrying loads across a wide span.

It is common to introduce the analysis of pin-jointed frames through

consideration of the force equilibrium at the pin-joints. That method

requires that there is assurance that the truss has a geometry, i.e. an

arrangement of members, that allows that method of analysis to be

valid. The validity rests on the establishment that the truss is statically

determinate which means that the forces in the members can be

206

from chapter 2, if we remove a member from a statically determinate

truss the structure becomes a mechanism and the equilibrium is not

assured under any loading. Conversely, if additional members are

added to a statically determinate truss geometry the truss is classied

as having statically redundant members and the forces in the members

cannot be calculated solely from the force equilibrium of the pin-joints.

Thus the traditional approach for introducing the analysis of pinjointed frames is applicable only to a limited range of truss geometries

and, moreover, is not capable of extension to the analysis of rigidjointed frames.

The method presented in this chapter is completely general and is in

fact the basis of practical design analysis of frames. In the method presented here there is no requirement to investigate if the truss is statically

determinate or structurally redundant, and the method is such that it

can encompass all forms of truss geometry and will enable the evaluation of member forces and the deformed geometry of the truss.

8.1

loaded bars

bodies, like bars and beams and introduced the principle of stationary

value of total potential energy as a basis for approximate energy methods, like the method of trial functions. In the present case the analysis

methods are extended to the systems of several bars and beams and we

start by looking at the example of a plane pin-jointed structure, also

called a truss, shown in Fig. 8.1.

This structure is typical of the arrangement of bars to support a

pulley for lifting heavy pieces of equipment and is composed of three

straight bars AB, AC and AD, pin-jointed together at the point A

and attached to a vertical rigid wall by pin-joints at the ends B, C

and D, respectively.

We assume that the pin-joints do not oer any resistance to rotation

of the bars, either with respect to the wall or with respect to the relative

rotations of the members connected at a joint. This assumes, of course,

that we neglect any frictional forces acting at the contact surfaces

between the pins and the members that could occur in a practical pinjoint, but such forces could be made small so that we can be assured

that the above approximation is reasonable and thus no moments

can arise at the ends of any bar. The only force applied to the structure

is the force P at the point A, representing the load suspended from that

joint. For the sake of generality we suppose at this stage that the loading

is inclined to the vertical.

207

45

30

A

P

Fig. 8.1

rst necessary to consider its individual members, whose behaviour we

are able to analyse in a relatively simple way. In the present case all the

members are simple straight bars, such that for the equilibrium of each

of them, taken separately, we can immediately deduce that they can

only bear compression or tension, as shown in Fig. 8.2.

The deformation, i.e. the kinematic behaviour, of a typical member

of the pin-jointed frame is therefore quite simple and can be described

by the relationship (equation (4.5))

N

0

l 1

l

EA

that represents the relationship between the initial and the nal lengths

of the bar, l and l 0 , respectively, and the applied axial loading, N. The

elastic energy stored in the individual typical member of the truss on

account of its deformation is related to its change of length by equation

(4.8),

U

1 EA 0

l l2

2 l

208

N

Fig. 8.2

equilibrium of the whole structure can be carried out as usual with

reference to the general condition of equilibrium (equation (1.28))

U W

or, as we have seen in chapter 6, with reference to the principle of

stationary value of the total potential energy, i.e.

UW

where obviously the elastic energy of the whole structure is given by the

sum of the energy stored in each of its members, i.e.,

X i

U

U

8:1

i

done by the external forces is given by

W P uA

8:2

by the external forces can also be expressed in terms of components of

the vectorial displacement uA and we have

W Px ux A Py uy A

8:3

contained in one plane, that the structure can have only two degrees of

l' i

209

ux (K )

uy (K )

K

ux (J)

uy (J)

J

li

Fig. 8.3

freedom, that is, the degrees of freedom are the two components of

displacement of the point A, which in our example, see Fig. 8.1, is

the only one free to move. Once we have dened its position under

the applied load P, then we can immediately determine for each

member how much it is stretched and the value of the axial force it

is carrying (see equation (4.7)). In order to achieve this, let us relate

the initial and nal lengths of each bar to the coordinates of its ends

and to the displacement of the point A. With reference to Fig. 8.3,

we can write for a generic element, whose end points are J and K

q

l i xK xJ2 yK yJ2

8:4

s

fxK ux K xJ ux Jg2

l 0i

8:5

fyK uy K yJ uy Jg2

The following relationships hold true between the angle i and the

coordinates of the end points J and K

cos i

1

xK xJ

li

8:6

sin i

1

yK yJ

li

8:7

210

v

u

u 1 2 fu K u J cos i u K u J sin i g

u

x

y

y

li x

u

l 0i l i u

t 1

i2 fux K ux J2 uy K uy J2 g

l

8:8

We are operating in the framework of innitesimal displacements and

we can therefore simplify the expression in equation (8.8) by taking

into account only theplinear

terms of a simple Taylor's series expansion

(that is, of the type 1 1 =2). Thus, we obtain

l 0i l i ux K ux J cos i uy K uy J sin i

8:9

Element BA

i

sin i

cos i

ux J

uy J

ux K

uy (K)

ux A

uy A

l 0BA l BA ux A

U BA

8:10

1 EABA

ux A2

2 l BA

8:11

Element CA

i

sin i

308

12

cos i

p

23

ux J

uy J

ux K

uy K

ux A

uy A

p

3

1

ux A uy A

l

l

2

2

p

2

CA

1 EA

1

3

CA

u A uy A

U

2 l CA

2

2 x

0CA

CA

8:12

8:13

Element DA

i

458

sin i

p

22

cos i

p

2

2

ux J

uy J

ux K

uy K

ux A

uy A

p

p

2

2

u A

u A

l

l

2 x

2 y

p

p

2

1 EADA

2

2

DA

u A

u A

U

2 l DA

2 x

2 y

0DA

DA

211

8:14

8:15

U W U BA U CA U DA W

p

2

3

1 EABA

1 EACA

1

2

ux A

u A uy A

2 l BA

2 l CA

2

2 x

p

2

1 EADA

2

2

u

u

A

2 l DA

2 x

2 y

Px ux A Py uy A

8:16

variables ux A and uy A that render the total potential energy stationary are yielded by the fullment of the following stationary conditions

p

3

q

EABA

EACA 3

u A

BA ux A CA

u A

qux A

4 x

4 y

l

l

EADA 1

1

ux A uy A Px 0

DA

8:17

2

2

l

p

3

q

EACA 1

u A

CA

u A

quy A

4 y

4 x

l

EADA 1

1

u A ux A Py 0

8:18

DA

2 y

2

l

These conditions of course represent the equilibrium equations of the

structure under consideration.

Once we have obtained the values of ux A and uy A we know the

displacements of the ends of each member, its elongation, the corresponding axial strain it has undergone and, from equation (4.7), the

axial loading it is actually carrying. We can also evaluate the degree

of safety of the structure. In other words we know everything of the

plane truss from a mechanical point of view.

It is worth noticing that the key point of the example analysis has

been the choice of the number of variables that are able to describe

completely the kinematics of the elastic structure. We call these

variables the degrees of freedom of the structure because they allow

212

us to determine the exact position in the plane of the structure after the

deformation has taken place.

In addition, quite distinct from what happens for the systems of rigid

bodies examined in chapter 2 that can experience a displacement eld

only and only if the constraints are not sucient to x their position in

the space, elastic structures always tend to deform under loading, even

if rigid body displacements are prevented by the restraints. Strictly

speaking, any elastic body can be thus thought to be characterised

by an innite number of degrees of freedom, as each of the degrees

is necessary to dene the displacement of any of its points. However,

if we can describe by means of appropriate functions the behaviour

of an individual elastic element, as in the case of the elongation of

axially loaded bars or the solution to Euler's equation of beam deformation, we can always analyse very complex structures by dividing

them into their members and studying the overall systems with respect

to a nite number of variables, which we call once again degrees of

freedom of the system.

As we have just seen, in the case of the pin-jointed structures these

variables can be assumed to be the displacements of the joints, or

nodal points, that link the structural components together.

8.2

equations for plane pin-jointed structures

In the present section we will show how the equilibrium equations that

we have derived in section 8.1 can be formulated in a much more compact form, one that is particularly suited to automatic processing by

means of computers. Many engineering structures consist of a collection of bars and beams assembled together to provide an ecient

way for resisting applied forces and carrying required loads. From a

theoretical point of view these structures can always be treated as

has been shown in the previous section, but following those procedures

step-by-step would generally involve incredibly lengthy and timeconsuming hand calculations even, as we have seen, in the case of a

fairly small number of members. However, the use of computers

oers the possibility of analysing very complex structures in a very

short time and requires minimal eort on the part of the engineers,

provided the problems are formulated in a suitable manner.

The use of linear algebra, i.e. matrix notation, stems naturally when

performing calculations on a computer, as it allows very large group of

numbers to be manipulated in a systematic and well-established

manner. At the same time a matrix approach to the analysis of structures makes possible a comprehensive method that applies to a wide

variety of types of frame structures and requires only some eort to

213

input the data dening the frame geometry, the material properties and

the loading, thus minimising the possibility of errors. Many standard

commercially developed programs are now available for use on even

quite small computers. These programs provide a capability for

calculating the displacements and strains for frames ranging from

the simplest, with say three or four members, to very complex

frames with hundreds of members. The intention here is to explain

the mechanics that underlies the computation in the programs.

As an aid to our presentation of how it is possible to formulate the

equilibrium equations in a matrix form, let us once again make reference to the pin-jointed structure of Fig. 8.1. In section 8.1 the key point

of our presentation was the analysis of the truss in terms of its individual members, whose behaviour has been related to the displacements

of the nodal joints. Following exactly the same line of reasoning, let us

try to express the same steps in a matrix format. First of all, we can recast equation (8.9) in matrix notation, which provides the relationship

between the nal and the initial lengths of each bar as function of the

displacements of its end points and of the angle of the bar in the

plane. Thus, we have

2

3

u J

"

# x

6 u J 7

0

0

cos i sin i

6 y

7

l i l0i 1 1

7

i

i 6

4

5

u

K

0

0

cos sin

x

uy K

8:19

This notation enables us to identify a matrix containing terms that provide information about the position of the i-th member in the frame,

i.e.

"

#

0

0

cos i sin i

i

R

8:20

0

0

cos i sin i

A central component in equation (8.19) is the vector containing the

displacement of the member's end nodes in the general reference

frame xy, i.e.

3

2

ux J

6 u J 7

7

6 y

8:21

Di 6

7

4 ux K 5

uy K

Notice that the product between Ri and Di results in the vector d i

214

u (K )

u (K )

u (K )

u (J)

J

u (J)

u (J)

Fig. 8.4

local reference frame shown in Fig. 8.4.

Therefore the relationship

u J

d i Ri Di

8:22

u K

may be properly regarded as a compatibility equation that links the displacements of the end nodes of the i-th bar in the general reference

frame xy to the axial components of displacement of the same

nodes in its local reference frame . It is worth noticing that

Ri T Ri I. It is now clear that the elongation of the bar can be

expressed in matrix form as

l i l 0i l i 1

1 d i 1

1 Ri Di

8:23

The elastic energy stored in each bar can also be expressed in matrix

notation. In fact we obtained the expression for the elastic energy,

equation (4.8), by means of Clapeyron's theorem, namely by taking

half of the work done by the axial loading N corresponding to the

length variation l. As the expression for N, equation (4.7), is readily

stated in matrix notation, i.e.

Ni

EAi i EAi

l i 1

li

l

1 Ri Di

8:24

1

1 EAi

1

U i N i l i

2

2 li

1 Ri Di 1

1 Ri Di

8:25

In order to reach a much more meaningful expression to our purposes, we notice that, as the transpose of a scalar (in our case a real

number) is the scalar itself, we can apply the transpose chain rule to

215

the rst three matrices from the left in equation (8.25) (whose product

is a scalar quantity) and write

1 i i 1 EAi i T i T 1

i

1 1 Ri Di

D R

8:26

U N l

2

2 li

1

By expanding the middle product between vectors and rearranging the

terms, we obtain

1 1

1 i i 1 i T i T EAi

i

U N l D R

Ri Di

8:27

2

2

l i 1

1

The term

1 1

EAi

K i

l

1

1

i

8:28

axial displacements of the end points of the bar, as yielded by equation

(8.22), to the axial loads applied at the same ends, namely

NJ

1 1

EAi

i

d i

8:29

l

NK

1

1

Inspection of the stiness matrix reveals that it is symmetric, that is the

rst and the second rows are identical, respectively, to the rst and

second columns. This is a general property of any linearly elastic system

and can be derived from the reciprocal theorems presented in section 5.2.

In fact, this property of symmetry is equivalent to stating that a given displacement

applied at point K of an elastic body causes a force at point J equal to that which

would have been caused at point K were the same displacement to be applied at coordinate J rather than K.

principle of conservation of energy. In fact, in order to be an exact

dierential, the elastic energy function U i of the generic bar must

full the following condition

qU i

qU i

qu J qu K

8:30

which by virtue of equations (8.22) and (8.27) implies that the stiness

matrix K i must be symmetric.

It is worth noting also that the term

1 1

EAi

K i Ri T i

Ri

8:31

l

1

1

216

relates the vector of the nodal displacements Di to the vector of the

nodal forces F i in the general reference frame. In fact, the vector

F i is expressed as

3 2

3

2

Fx J

cos i

0

6 F J 7 6 sin i

0 7

7 6

7 NJ

6 y

i

i T NJ

R

F 6

76

7

4 Fx K 5 4 0

NK

cos i 5 NK

i

Fy K

0

sin

8:32

By substituting equation (8.29) in equation (8.32) we obtain

i

1 1

i

i T EA

d i

F R

l i 1

1

8:33

F i K i Di

8:34

At this point the total potential energy of the whole pin-jointed structure, which we have already expressed in equation (8.16), can easily be

re-cast in matrix notation.

In order to keep the procedure as general as possible (as is desirable

for a procedure suitable for computer implementation), we align all the

nodal displacements in the vector D, namely

DT ux A uy A ux B uy B ux C uy C ux D uy D

8:35

The required matrix form of the total potential energy is then accomplished by assembling a joint stiness matrix that is obtained by summing contributions corresponding to each node from the member

stiness matrices K i . This is obviously equivalent to summing all

the expressions of the elastic energy relating to each bar, being the

associative law of multiplication valid for the matrix product.

In fact, let us write the expression of the generic member stiness

matrix K i in complete detail

2

K i

cos2 i

i

i

EAi 6

6 sin cos

6

l i 4 cos2 i

sin i cos i

sin i cos i

cos2 i

sin i cos i

sin2 i

sin i cos i

sin i cos i

cos2 i

sin2 i

sin i cos i

sin2 i

sin i cos i

sin2 i

3

7

7

7

5

8:36

217

evident that in order to obtain the stiness matrices for the bars BA,

CA and DA in a form that can be related to the joint displacement

vector D, all we have to do is identify the joints J and K in the general

numbering system on an individual basis and set the relative terms in

the appropriate position. Therefore, we can write

2

cos2 BA

6 sin BA cos BA

6

6

6 cos2 BA

6

BA 6

BA

BA

EA

6 sin cos

AB

K BA 6

6

l

0

6

6

6

6

4

0

cos2 BA

cos2 BA

sin2 BA

sin2 BA

07

7

7

07

7

07

7

7

07

7

07

7

7

05

sin

BA

sin

BA

cos

BA

BA

sin

(8.37)

2

cos2 CA

6 sin CA cos CA

6

6

6

0

6

CA 6

EA

0

6

CA

K CA 6

6

l

cos2 CA

6

6 sin CA cos CA

6

6

4

0

0

2

sin

CA

cos2 CA

sin

CA

cos

CA

sin

CA

cos2 CA

sin2 CA

sin2 CA

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

07

7

7

07

7

07

7

7

07

7

07

7

7

05

0

(8.38)

2

cos2 DA

6 sin DA cos CA

6

6

6

0

6

DA 6

EA

0

6

DA

K DA 6

6

l

0

6

6

0

6

6

4

cos2 DA

sin DA cos DA

2

sin

0

DA

0 0

cos2 DA

DA

sin

DA

cos

DA

0

0

0

0

0 0

0 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0

0 0

0 0

sin2 DA

0

0

0

0

0 0

0 0

cos2 DA

sin DA cos DA

sin2 DA

0

0

0

sin

0

0

0

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

(8.39)

Thus, the following expressions are valid:

U BA 12 DT K BA D

8:40

U CA 12 DT K CA D

8:41

U DA 12 DT K DA D

8:42

and it follows immediately that the elastic energy stored in the frame is

218

given by

U U BA U CA U DA

12 DT K BA D 12 DT K CA D 12 DT K DA D

12 DT KD

is the combined stiness matrix, that is

where K

K BA K CA K DA

K

8:43

8:44

the product between matrices. The total potential energy of the frame

in matrix notation can now be obtained by formulating the components of the applied force as a load vector, i.e.

PT Px A Py A

0 0

0 0

8:45

W DT P

8:46

and, consequently

U W 12 DT KD

DT P

8:47

At this point it is worth noting that if the reader takes the trouble to

develop the expression in equation (8.47) to its full extent by means of

the values given in the tables in section 8.1, he will nd a somewhat different result from that in equation (8.16). This is because that up to this

point we have considered as active all the possible displacements of the

nodes A, B, C and D. Even if this fact may not seem to be reasonable,

since the displacements of the joints B, C and D are actually prevented

by the attachment to a rigid wall, the reason is that we are developing

here a method suitable for an automatic procedure and our steps must

conveniently correspond to several distinct phases of operation of a

computer program. Similarly to that shown in section 7.6 in the case

of the method of localised Rayleigh functions, there is no necessity

to identify the active degrees of freedom at an early stage, as this

would impose a particularisation on the stiness matrices of the elements and prevent the possibility of implementing a totally automatic

manipulation of the data.

Moreover, to enhance further the generality of the approach we

can extend the applied load vector to include the reactions at the

constraints. Thus the loading vector in this example becomes

PT Px A Py A Rx B Ry B Rx C Rx D Ry D

8:47b

219

possible to obtain equation (8.16) by simply setting the displacements

ux and uy of the joints B, C and D to zero. However, as we are going to

see, it is better to perform this operation at the next stage.

Now, returning to the elastic equilibrium problem, it is clear that the

stationary value of the total potential energy expression, equation

(8.47), must be required with respect to the degrees of freedom set in

the displacement vector D. In eect we have to impose that

q

0

qDj

8:48

It is immediately evident that equation (8.48) is a linear system of n

equations in n unknowns, namely the components of the vector D. It

can thus be written in matrix notation as

KD

P 0

8:49

equation (8.49) does not admit a solution since the combined stiness

is singular and therefore it cannot be inverted. From a

matrix K

physical point of view, this is because the movement of the structure

as a rigid body is not prevented and, consequently, the solution of

the problem of equilibrium cannot be obtained. It is therefore necessary to impose on the system the requirements of the geometric constraints at B, C and D. In order to do so we can write the system,

equation (8.49), in the following form

KI

KI;II

PI

DI

8:50

DII

PII

KI;II T KII

where we rearranged the equations in order to distinguish two subarrays in the nodal displacement vector D, namely DI and DII ,

corresponding, respectively, to the degrees of freedom that are active

and to the degrees of freedom which are actually suppressed by the

restraints. At the same time we distinguish two sub-arrays in the

load vector P, PI and PII ; the rst corresponds to the loads applied

to the free joints, the second to the reactions which arise at the

restrained ones. It goes without saying that the set PI is assigned,

while the set PII is unknown, as the displacements DI are unknown

and the displacements DII are set to zero. This happens because we

can obviously assign kinematic or mechanical conditions at any

degree of freedom, but never both at the same time.

220

inactive degrees of freedom ux B, uy B, ux C, uy C, ux D and

uy Dand we have

DII 0

8:51

8:52

KI DI PI KI;II 0

PII KI;II T DI KII 0

8:53

and the matrix format in equation (8.49) is now reduced to a set of two

linear equations in the two unknowns active degrees of freedom, ux A

and uy A, that is

8:54

KI DI PI

which the reader will nd to be identical to equations (8.17) and (8.18),

and obviously admits a unique solution. Once we have solved equation

(8.54) and obtained the magnitudes of the displacements DI , we can

straightforwardly obtain the restraint reactions PII from equation

(8.53).

It is worth noting that the 2 2 joint stiness matrix KI is positive

denite (and therefore non-singular), which follows immediately from

the condition

U 12 DI T KI DI > 0

8:55

once any rigid body displacement has been suppressed. From a physical point of view the set of equations (8.54) requires that the sum of the

elastic reactions from the end joints of each element balances the

applied forces at any joint of the structure. In the present example

this is composed only of the force P at A.

At this stage one is allowed to wonder why we have gone through all

these lengthy and apparently cumbersome calculations in order to

obtain equation (8.54).

The reason lies in the fact that once we have established that the conditions of equilibrium (equation (8.48)) can be expressed in the form shown in equations (8.49)(8.54),

we can directly and automatically build a similar system for any plane pin-jointed

structure without bothering to repeat all the underlying reasoning in terms of energy.

As a matter of fact, the only data required to produce the equilibrium equations (8.49) are the geometry of the structure, the denition

of the load and the form of the generic element stiness matrix, equation (8.36). The imposition of the restraint conditions leads subsequently and without eort to equation (8.54).

221

This constitutes the basis of the so-called direct stiness method that

in the next chapter we will apply to rigid-jointed frames.

8.3

The example concerns the analysis of a simple truss, shown in Fig. 8.5.

The structure is pinned to a rigid foundation at A and D and has a

horizontal load, P1 , applied at the joint B and a vertical load, P2 ,

applied at C.

The loads are applied proportionally such that

P1 2P2

The frame is composed of circular hollow sections, with a mean

diameter of dm 250 mm and a wall thickness of t 7:5 mm. The

cross-section area of the members is

A 257:52 242:52 5:890 103 mm2

4

The Young modulus is

E 2:1 105 N=mm2

The axial stinesses of members AB, BC and CD are equal and is

EA 2:1 105 5:890 103

k1

l

3000

P2

P1

3m

+ve

A

3m

Fig. 8.5

222

1

k2 p k1

2

This example can be tackled using the method presented in section 8.1

and the reader is encouraged to apply that method and thus become

familiar with it. However, the main purpose of the example is to illustrate the more powerful and automated matrix approach described in

section 8.2.

The objective of the analysis is to evaluate the maximum allowable

level of the load P1 such that the maximum strain does not exceed 30%

of the material yield strain, "0 , where "0 1:5 103 .

The direct stiness method is essentially concerned with assembling

the stiness matrix of the complete structure from the component stiness matrices. Thus from equation (8.36) we have

Member AB

i AB

2

2

60

6

K AB k1 6

40

1

0

0 1 7

7

7

0

05

2

3

ux A

6 u A 7

6 y

7

DAB 6

7

4 ux B 5

uy B

Member BC

i BC 0

2

6 0

6

K BC k1 6

4 1

0

1 0

0 07

7

7

1 05

0 0

2

ux B

6 u B 7

6 y

7

DBC 6

7

4 ux C 5

uy C

Member CD

i CD

2

2

1

0

0

0

1 7

7

7

05

0 1

60

6

K CD k1 6

40

2

ux C

6 u C 7

7

6 y

DCD 6

7

4 ux D 5

uy D

Member AC

i AC

K AC

4

2

1 1

k2 6

6 1

6

2 4 1

1 7

7

7

15

1 1

2

3

ux A

6 u A 7

6 y

7

DAC 6

7

4 ux C 5

uy C

223

224

account of the displacement vectors, is

3

2

a

a

0

0

a

a

0

0

6 a 1 a

0 1

a

a

0

07

7

6

7

6

6 0

0

1

0

1

0

0

07

7

6

6 0

1

0

1

0

0

0

07

7

6

K k1 6

7

7

6 a

a

1

0

1

a

a

0

0

7

6

6 a

a

0

0

a

1 a 0 1 7

7

6

7

6

4 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

05

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

p

where a 1=2 2.

The restraint boundary conditions now are required to particularise

the stiness matrix to the truss in Fig. 8.5. These conditions are

ux A uy A ux D uy D 0

Thus, eliminating the appropriate rows and columns of the stiness

matrix we have

3

2

1 0

1

0

6 0 1

0

0 7

7

k1 6

K

7

6

4 1 0 1 a

a 5

0

1 a

W P1 ux B P2 uy C

Thus the matrix equation for the equilibrium state of the truss is, see

equation (8.49),

KD

P1 P

where

2

ux B

6 u B 7

6 y

7

D 6

7 and

4 ux C 5

uy C

3

1

6 0 7

6

7

P 6

7

4 0 5

0:5

225

3

2

4:328

7

6 0

7

1 P1 P P1 6

D K

7

6

k1 4 3:328 5

0:5

i

The strain levels, " , in each member can be obtained using equation

(8.9),

"i

l i0 l i

li

thus,

Member AB

"AB

P1

u B 0

kl y

Member BC

"BC

P1

P

ux C ux B 1

kl

EA

Member CD

"CD

P1

P

uy C 0:5 1

kl

EA

Member AC

P

1

P

"AC p1 p ux C uy C 1:414 1

EA

k 2l 2

It is evident from the above that the maximum strain occurs in

member BC and the allowable maximum load will be governed by

the maximum strain in that member. Therefore,

P

1:414 1 0:3"0

EA

and

0:3 1:5 103 2:1 105 5:89 103

394 kN

1:414

The forces in the various members can be evaluated from the strains

P1

as

N i "i EA

226

hence

N AB 0 kN;

N BC 394 kN tens:

N CD 197 kN tens:

N AC 557 kN comp:

can be evaluated from the matrix solution. Thus,

uy B 4:14 mm;

ux C 3:18 mm

uy C 0:48 mm

8.4

The presentation in sections 8.1 and 8.2 has been concerned with the

analysis of plane pin-jointed trusses, i.e. structures which were envisaged to be entirely contained in a plane together with the applied

loads. This is the case when the axes of the elements are actually contained in a plane and any geometric or mechanical feature of the

elements themselves is symmetric with respect to the same plane.

Now we intend to illustrate the extension of the direct stiness

method to deal with structures that exist in three-dimensional spacetrusses. The approach is based directly on the direct stiness method

because all the energy concepts that underlie this method remain

exactly the same as in the case of plane structures. A space pin-jointed

structure is dened to be a collection of pin-jointed bars in the threedimensional Euclidean space, as exemplied in Fig. 8.6.

The geometry and loading of the space-truss are described by reference to a general three-dimensional system of Cartesian axes xyz.

The local axes of the system are denoted by , as shown in Fig. 8.7.

Similar to the method for the two-dimensional truss, we relate here

the behaviour of the individual members of the spacetruss, which are

subjected to tension or compression loading, to the displacement of the

nodal joints. The vector containing the displacements of the end nodes

P

y

x

Fig. 8.6

K

227

Fig. 8.7

3

2

ux J

6 uy J 7

7

6

6 u J 7

7

6 z

i

8:56

D 6

7

6 ux K 7

7

6

4 uy K 5

uz K

while in the local reference frame we write

3

2

u J

6 u J 7

7

6

6 u J 7

7

6

i

d 6

7

6 u K 7

7

6

4 u K 5

u K

8:57

can be expressed as

d i Ri Di

8:58

i

3

2 i

0

0

0

x iy iz

7

6 i

6 x iy iz

0

0

0 7

7

6

i

i

7

6 i

0

0

0

x

y

z

7

6

Ri 6

i

i

i 7

6 0

0

0 x y z 7

7

6

7

6

0

0 ix iy iz 5

4 0

0

0

0 ix iy iz

8:59

228

ik are direction cosines of angles between the local axes , , and the

general axes x, y, z.

It easy to verify that, similar to the plane truss, in the three-dimensional space the transformation matrix (8.59) is orthogonal, i.e.

Ri T Ri I

8:60

Since we are dealing with structures composed of bars, the only internal forces that occur on account of the deformation of the elements are

the axial forces NJ and NK. However, it may be useful to collect

the nodal forces in the local reference frame in a six-elements array,

f i , that is

3

3 2

2

0

0

7 6 0 7

6

0

7

7 6

6

7

7 6

6

6 F J 7 6 NJ 7

i

7

6

7

6

8:61

f 6

76 0 7

0

7

7 6

6

7

7 6

6

5 4 0 5

4

0

F K

NK

so that in the local reference frame the relationship between the nodal

forces f i and the nodal displacements d i can be written in the

following form

f i K i d i

with

60

6

i6

60

EA

K i i 6

l 6

60

6

40

0

8:62

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

07

7

7

0 1 7

7

0

07

7

7

0

05

0 1

8:63

generic bar in the local reference frame and it corresponds precisely

to the expression of the stiness matrix, equation (8.28), obtained in

for plane pin-jointed structures. Inspection of matrix equation (8.63)

reveals that it is symmetric, as we would expect.

The vector F i which collects the nodal forces of the generic bar in

the general reference frame is expressed as

F i Ri T f i

8:64

229

F i Ri T K i Ri Di K i Di

8:65

i

where K is the stiness matrix of the generic bar in the general reference frame, which again corresponds to the expression in equation

(8.36) obtained in the earlier two-dimensional treatment. In detail we

can write

2

ix

6

6 i i

6 x y

6

i6

6 ix iz

EA

i

K i 6

2

l 6

6 ix

6

6

6 ix iy

4

ix iz

ix iy

ix iz

ix

ix iy

iy

iy iz

ix iy

iy

iy iz

iz

ix iz

iy iz

ix iy

ix iz

ix

ix iy

iy

iy iz

ix iy

iy

iy iz

iz

ix iz

iy iz

ix iz

7

7

iy iz 7

7

2

7

iz 7

7

7

ix iz 7

7

7

iy iz 7

5

i2

z

(8.66)

The solution of the spacetruss problems proceeds then exactly as in

the case of planetruss problems shown in section 8.2: the overall joint

is obtained by assembling the contributions from

stiness matrix K

all the bars and the elastic equilibrium equation takes the now-familiar

form

KD

P 0

8:67

D is a 3n dimension array which contains all the degrees of freedom of

the space truss under consideration, n being the overall number of

is obviously

joints. The dimension of the joint stiness matrix K

3n 3n and P is the load vector, i.e. a 3n dimension array containing

all the components of the forces applied to the joints which, for the

sake of generality, can be arranged to include the reactions of the

is symmetric for the energy

constraints. The joint stiness matrix K

reasons explained in section 8.2.

At this stage in the analysis the constraint conditions can be applied

exactly as in the earlier work , i.e. by distinguishing two sub-arrays in

the nodal displacement vector D, DI and DII . These sub-arrays

correspond to the degrees of freedom that are active and to the degrees

of freedom which are prevented by the restraints, respectively. The

remainder of the procedure consists in condensing the system of equations (8.67) accordingly (see section 8.2). Once the reduced system has

been solved, we can in a straightforward manner calculate the restraint

reactions, the strains and the actually carried forces in any member of

the spacetruss.

230

A

15 kN

1m

45

45

45

45

30 kN

Fig. 8.8

1.

frame. Calculate the vertical and horizontal deections at A and

1m

Pb

A

1m

C

D

Fig. 8.9

2.

231

D, Av , Ah , Ev , and Eh due to the applied loads. All the

structural members have a cross-sectional area of 200 mm2 . The

modulus for steel is 205 kN=mm2 .

[Ans: Av 15:5 mm, Ah 45:7 mm, Ev 28:0 mm,

Eh 40:5 mm]

A frame made from aluminium alloy, analysed as having pinjoints, is shown in Fig. 8.9. Calculate the forces and strains in

the members BC, BD due to the application of the vertical load

Pb at B. All members have the same cross-sectional area of

150 mm2 and the modulus of aluminium is 80 kN/mm2 .

[Ans: "BC 0:55 103 , NBC 6:62 kN (comp.),

"BD 1 103 , NBD 11:8 kN (comp.)]

9.

framed structures

Introduction

pin-jointed frames. In that kind of structure the presence of pin-joints

allows the component members of the structure to undergo relative

rotation as the structure deforms under the action of the applied external loads. That possibility of relative rotation eliminates bending in the

components and they experience only axial tension or compression

loading.

The present chapter extends the methodology established for pinjointed trusses to encompass the analysis of rigid-jointed frames. The

chapter essentially follows the order of presentation in chapter 8 and

rst introduces the mechanics and energy formulation underlying the

analysis of a typical frame. The equations are then formalised in matrix

notation in section 9.2, thus establishing the basis for the automated computer analysis of frames that can vary from two to several thousand components members. The procedure is exemplied by application to a frame

with the geometry similar to that considered in section 8.3, but now with

rigid joints that prevent any relative rotation of the members of the frame.

The methodology for plane frames is extended to three-dimensional

frames and the chapter concludes with some general aspects regarding

the inclusion of distributed loading, such as member self-weight, and

restrained displacements in the frame analysis method.

9.1

of beams

section and apply them to rigid-jointed frame structures, with the aid

of the example two-dimensional system shown in Fig. 9.1.

The geometry of this plane rigid-jointed frame is similar to that of the

pin-jointed structure shown in Fig. 8.1. However, in contrast with that

234

D

45

30

A

P

Fig. 9.1

truss, in this case we note that the members are not free to undergo relative rotation at connecting joints, thus the denition of rigid joint ( joints

are sometimes called nodes). In particular any rotation is totally prevented at the nodes connected to the wall at B, C and D, while the connection at A preserves the relative angular spacing of the attached

members AB, AC and AD at A. In other words, with rigid joints all

the ends of members connected at the same joint must experience the

same rotation. From a practical point of view, the nodes at B, C and

D can be thought of as welded to rigid elements, while the node at A

can be fabricated by welding the ends of steel elements together.

In contrast to the bar members of the previous section, the elements

into which we can divide the rigid-jointed structure are able to carry

shear forces and moments, as well as axial forces. In fact, since the

members are not free to rotate at the joints, corresponding restraint

moments will occur at the ends.

Notwithstanding the apparent complexity of the rigid-jointed structure, we can again analyse its behaviour in accordance with Bernoulli's

model, introduced in chapter 4, by taking into account both the exural and axial stiness of the members. This requires that the slopes

at the nodal points are assumed as unknown variables together with

the displacements at the nodes.

235

uy

K

ux

Fig. 9.2

linear theory of elasticity, the axial behaviour does not interact with

the bending behaviour.

The unstable eects that may be caused by the compressive axial

forces in members will be examined in chapter 12.

To analyse the bending behaviour of any individual member, modelled as a beam, (which will be superimposed on the axial deformation

summarised by equations (4.5) and (4.8)), let us refer to Fig. 9.2.

Here the relationship between the components of the vectorial displacement of the end point K and their contribution to the displacement u K that occurs orthogonal to the axis of the beam is clearly

represented. From a mathematical standpoint, for the end points J

and K we have

u J ux J sin i uy J cos i

i

u K ux K sin uy K cos

9:1

i

9:2

where we assume that the sign convention for the transverse displacement u is according to the local reference frame shown in Fig. 9.2.

In this local reference frame the bending deection of the beam can be

described as a function of the variables u J, u K, J and K by

means of the same procedure that led to equation (4.116). Therefore we

have

2u J J 2u K K 3

u

3

2

3

2

li

li

li

li

3u J 2J 3u K K 2

i2 i

i

2

l

l

l

li

J u J

9:3

236

u K, J and K is

l

1

EIu002

U

d

2

i

6EI i

li

u2 J u2 K

12EI i

li

u Ju K

2EI i 2

J 2 K JK

li

6EI i

li

(9.4)

We can now superpose the axial and the exural behaviour of the beam

element under consideration and write the total elastic energy stored in

it on account of its deformation. By adding equations (4.8) and (9.4)

we have

Ui

1 EAi 0i

6EI i 2

i 2

l

u J u2 K

3

2 li

li

12EI i

li

6EI i

li

u Ju K

2EI i 2

J 2 K JK

li

u KK u KJ

u JJ u JK

9:5

This expression for the strain energy relates to a typical member in the

frame. With particular reference to the elements composing the example structure shown in Fig. 9.1 we can write

Element BA

i

sin i

cos i

ux J

uy J

ux K

uy K

J

K

ux A

uy A

A

l 0BA l BA ux A

9:6

u J 0

9:7

u K uy A

9:8

U BA

237

1 EABA

6EI BA 2

2

u

A

uy A

x

3

2 l BA

l BA

2EI BA 2

6EI BA

A

uy AA

2

l BA

l BA

9:9

Element CA

i

sin i

cos i

p

3

308 12

0CA

ux J

uy J

ux K uy K

J

K

ux A

A

uy A

p

3

1

u A uy A

2 x

2

CA

9:10

u J 0

9:11

p

3

1

u K ux A

9:12

u A

2

2 y

p

2

1 EACA

1

3

CA

u A uy A

U

2 l CA

2

2 x

p

2

6EI CA

1

2EI CA

3

uy A CA 2 A

CA3

ux A

2

2

l

l

p

6EI CA

1

3

u A A

ux A

9:13

CA2

2

2 y

l

Element DA

i

sin i

p

2

458

0DA

cos i

p

2

2

DA

ux J

uy J

ux K uy K J

K

ux A uy A) 0

A

p

p

2

2

u A

u A

2 x

2 y

9:14

u J 0

9:15

p

p

2

2

ux A

u A

u K

2

2 y

9:16

238

DA

p

2

p

2

2

u A

u A

2 x

2 y

p

2

p

6EI DA

2EI DA

2

2

DA3

ux A

uy A DA 2 A

2

2

l

l

p

6EI DA

2

2

ux A

uy A A

9:17

DA2

2

2

l

1 EADA

2 l DA

Following the approach used in the analysis of the pin-jointed structure of the previous section, we will now write the total potential

energy of the present frame which, using equations (9.9), (9.13) and

(9.17) above, is evidently

U W U BA U CA U DA W

1 EABA

6EI BA 2

2EI BA 2

2

u

A

u

A

A

x

y

3

2 l BA

l BA

l BA

p

2

3

6EI BA

1 EACA

1

BA2 uy AA

u A uy A

2 l CA

2

2 x

l

p

2

3

6EI CA

1

2EI CA

uy A CA 2 A

CA3 ux A

2

2

l

l

p

6EI CA

1

3

CA2

uy A A

ux A

2

2

l

p

p

2

1 EADA

2

2

u A

u A

2 l DA

2 x

2 y

p

p

2

6EI DA

2EI DA

2

2

ux A

uy A DA 2 A

DA3

2

2

l

l

p

6EI DA

2

2

u A

u A A

DA2

2 x

2 y

l

Px ux A Py uy A

9:18

A only. As before, the values of the variables ux A, uy A and A

that render the total potential energy stationary are yielded by the

239

p

3

q

EABA

EACA 3

ux A

BA ux A CA

uy A

qux A

4

4

l

l

p

3

6EI CA 1

6EI CA

1

ux A uy A CA2 A

CA3

2

2

2

l

l

EADA 1

1

6EI DA

ux A uy A DA3 ux A uy A

DA

2

2

l

l

p

DA

6EI

2

A Px 0

9:19

DA2

2

l

q

6EI BA

6EI BA

BA3 2uy A BA2 A

quy A

l

l

p

3

EACA 1

uy A

ux A

CA

4

4

l

p

p

3

3

6EI CA 3

6EI CA

uy A

ux A CA2

A

CA2

2

2

2

l

l

EADA 1

1

6EI DA

uy A ux A DA3 uy A ux A

DA

2

2

l

l

p

6EI DA

2

A Py 0

9:20

DA2

2

l

q

2EI BA

6EI BA

2EI CA

BA 2A BA2 uy A CA 2A

qA

l

l

l

p

CA

3

6EI

1

2EI DA

CA2 ux A

uy A DA 2A

2

2

l

l

p

6EI DA

2

2

ux A

u A 0

9:21

DA2

2

2 y

l

The extremum conditions once again represent the equilibrium equations of the structure under consideration. The unique solution of this

linear system of algebraic equations provides the magnitudes of the

displacements of the node A along the x and y axes and its rotation.

The substitution of these magnitudes in equations (4.122)(4.125),

240

the strains and the forces induced in each beam by the applied load.

9.2

equations for plane rigid-jointed frames

apply the direct stiness method of structural analysis to the rigidjointed frame shown in Fig. 9.1.

The rst step in the development of the analysis involves identifying the overall degrees of freedom of the structure. In this case

they are represented by both displacements and rotations of each

joint with reference to the general frame xy. The general displacement vector for the example frame is therefore a 12-element array,

that is

DT ux A uy A A . . . . . . . . . ux D uy D D

9:22

while the vector containing the displacements of the end joints of the

generic element is a 6-element array, i.e.

2

3

ux J

6 u J 7

6 y

7

6

7

6

7

J

i

6

7

D 6

9:23

7

u

K

6 x

7

6

7

4 uy K 5

K

As we have already seen in section 9.1, in order to take into account

the elastic behaviour of the individual element it is necessary to superimpose the exural stiness on the axial stiness. Therefore, in the

local reference frame all the displacements of the joints are relevant

to the model and we can write

3

2

u J

6 u J 7

7

6

7

6

7

6

J

7

9:24

d i 6

6 u K 7

7

6

7

6

4 u K 5

K

241

It can be easily shown for the generic beam that the relationship

between the joint displacement vector Di in the general reference

frame and the joint displacement vector d i in the local reference

frame is governed by the following transformation matrix

2

cos i

6

6 sin i

6

6

6 0

i

R 6

6

6 0

6

6 0

4

0

sin i

cos i

0

i

sin i

cos

sin i

cos i

7

07

7

7

07

7

7

07

7

07

5

9:25

so that

d i Ri Di

9:26

(9.1) and (9.2) and remembering that the slopes J and K are

not aected in the transformation from the general reference frame

xy to the local reference frame . Notice that matrix (9.25) is

now a 6 6 square array because it determines the transformation

between two 6-element arrays, namely equations (9.23) and (9.24).

(Matrix (8.20) was a 4 2 rectangular array in order to relate the 4element array in equation (8.21) to the 2-element array in equation

(8.22).)

A noteworthy property of matrix (9.25) is that it is orthogonal, i.e. its

inverse coincides with its transpose as we have

Ri 1 Ri Ri T Ri I

9:27

but from a formal point of view we normally refer to inverse matrices

only when dealing with square matrices.

At this point we can relate the vector of the forces f i , that arise at

the end points of the generic beam on account of the displacements

d i , to the displacements themselves by means of the stiness matrix

of the beam K i . This is accomplished by re-casting in matrix notation

equations (4.122)(4.125) and (4.130)(4.133), and adding the axial

stiness contributions contained in equation (8.28).

242

We have therefore

2

2

EAi

7 6 li

7 6

7 6

7 6

7 6 0

7 6

7 6

7 6

7 6

7 6

7 6 0

7 6

76

7 6

7 6 EAi

7 6 i

7 6

l

7 6

7 6

7 6

7 6 0

7 6

7 6

7 6

5 4

0

3

6 F J

6

6

6

6 F J

6

6

6

6

6

6 MJ

6

6

6

6

6 F K

6

6

6

6

6 F K

6

6

6

4

MK

12EI i

l

i3

6EI i

l

i2

6EI i

l

i2

EAi

li

6EI i

i3

i2

6EI i

l

i2

4EI i

li

12EI i

l

EAi

li

2EI i

li

0

0

12EI i

li

6EI i

li

0

12EI i

li

6EI i

li

32

76 u J

76

76

6

6EI i 7

6

i2 7

76 u J

l 76

76

6

2EI i 7

76

76 J

i

76

l

76

76

76

6

0 7

76 u K

76

76

6EI i 76

76 u K

2

76

li

76

76

4EI i 54

K

li

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

(9.28)

f i K i d i

9:29

between the nodal forces vector f i and F i in the local and general

reference frames, respectively, that is

f i Ri F i

9:30

F i Ri T f i Ri T K i d i Ri T K i Ri Di

9:31

K i Ri T K i Ri

9:32

frame xy. Its expression is displayed as equation (9.33).

At this point the solution of our problem becomes straightforward:

we can once more particularise equation (9.32) to obtain the stiness

matrices of the elements BA, CA and DA and, by identifying the

position of the joints J and K in the general ordering system, we can

assemble all the concurrent contributions in order to get the expression

namely

of the overall joint stiness matrix K,

K BA K CA K DA

K

9:34

20 i

1

EA

2 i

6 B i cos

C

6B l

C

6 @ 12EI i

A

6

2 i

6 i3 sin

6

l

6

6

6

6

6

6

sym

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

sym

6

6

i

6

K 6

6

6

6

6

sym

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

sym

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

sym

sym

sym

sym

sym

sym

cos i

sym

sin i

4EI i

li

li

2

li

6EI i

6EI

sym

0 i

1

EA

i

i

sin

cos

i

B l

C

B

C

@ 12EI i

A

i

i

sin

cos

i3

l

0 i

1

EA

2 i

sin

B li

C

B

C

@ 12EI i

A

2 i

i3 cos

l

sin i

sym

sym

0 i

1

EA

2 i

cos

B li

C

B

C

@ 12EI i 2 i A

i3 sin

l

2

li

6EI i

1

EAi

i

i

sin

cos

B li

C

B

C

@ 12EI i

A

i

i

i3 sin cos

l

1

EAi

2 i

i cos

B l

C

B

C

@ 12EI i 2 i A

sin

3

li

li

6EI i

cos i

sym

0 i

1

EA

i

i

sin

cos

B li

C

B

C

@ 12EI i

A

i

i

i3 sin cos

l

0 i

1

EA

2 i

sin

B li

C

B

C

@ 12EI i

A

2 i

i3 cos

l

1

EAi

i

i

i sin cos

B l

C

B

C

@ 12EI i

A

i

i

sin

cos

i3

l

0

1

EAi 2 i

sin

B li

C

B

C

@ 12EI i

A

2 i

i3 cos

l

0

6EI i

2

li

7

7

sin i 7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

6EI i

i 7

cos

7

2

7

li

7

7

7

7

i

7

2EI

7

7

i

7

l

7

7

7

7

7

6EI i

i 7

sin

7

2

7

li

7

7

7

7

7

7

i

7

6EI

i7

i2 cos 7

7

l

7

7

7

7

5

4EI i

i

l

9:33

243

244

couples directly applied to the joints (these, however, in our particular

example are absent). We have

PT Px A Py A

0 0

...

...

0 0

9:35

KD

P 0

9:36

unknown degrees of freedom ordered in the array D.

Finally, we must take into consideration the restraints represented

by the xed ends at B, C and D by setting to zero, as in the previous

section, the terms corresponding to the inactive degrees of freedom,

that is suppressing them. The reader will nd that the core of the

system in equation (9.36) is then reduced to a system of three linear

equations in the unknowns ux A, uy A and A, i.e.

3 2

3

2

Px A

ux A

7 6

7

6

9:37

KI 4 uy A 5 4 Py A 5

A

(9.19), (9.20) and (9.21). On the same basis as in section 8.2, we nd

that the matrix KI is symmetric and positive denite.

Once again the usefulness of the equilibrium equations in the form of

equation (9.36) is evident: it can be directly applied to any number of

non-aligned members making up a plane structural system (or, as we

shall see later, a spatial structural system as well). The overall joint

stiness matrix, equation (9.34) may always be obtained by referring

the local stiness matrix of each member, equation (9.28), to the

common system axes xy and adding the corresponding contributions.

By assigning appropriate boundary conditions at each joint, the system

in equation (9.36) allows us to determine all the magnitudes of the

unknown degrees of freedom and, consequently, strains and forces

in each member. All this by means of a straightforward and practically

automatic procedure.

As in the case of the pin-jointed plane frame previously examined,

from a physical point of view the set of equations under consideration

requires that the sum of the elastic reactions from the end joints of each

element balances the applied forces at any joint of the structure. In the

present example, this is the force P at A.

9.3

frame

245

situation in which the connections of the members cannot transmit

moment from one member to another. However, the majority of

actual constructions would involve attaching the members to each

other either by welding or bolting so that they indeed have the capacity

to transfer moment. This condition is illustrated in Fig. 9.3 in which

the members are welded to cover plates that ensure rigidity to the

joint so that all the members meeting at that joint experience a

common rotation. The structure can now be classied as a plane

frame, according to the denition in section 9.1.

The objective in the present example is to exemplify the application

of the direct stiness method and to compare the forces and deformation induced in the frame by the loads to the corresponding values for

the truss.

The direct stiness method, section 9.2, is, as for the truss, essentially

concerned with assembling the stiness matrix of the complete structure from the component stiness matrices. Thus we use equations

(9.25) and (9.28) to provide the component stiness matrices. This is

exemplied below for member AB.

Member AB

i AB

2

P2

P1

B

C

A = 589 x 10 3 mm

I = 461 x 10 3 mm

Fig. 9.3

246

2

0:02

0

6 0

:

1 96

6

6

:71

6

30

0

K AB E 6

6 0:02

0

6

6

4 0

1:96

30:71

0

30:71

0

6:14 104

0:02

0

30:71

0

1:96

0

30:71

1:96

30:71

3:07 104

0:02

0

0

3

30:71

7

0

7

7

4

3:07 10 7

7

30:71 7

7

7

5

0

4

:

6 14 10

DAB T ux A

uy A A

ux B uy B BT

can provide that basis for the stiness matrix for the complete frame.

The equilibrium equations for the frame are then particularised by

imposing the boundary constraint conditions, i.e.

ux A uy A A 0

For the sake of brevity in the presentation of this example, these constraint conditions are taken into account in writing the component

stiness matrices. Thus, for member AB, the stiness matrix, given

the constraints at node A, is

2 :

3

0 02

0

30:71

6

7

K AB E 4 0

1:96

0

5

4

:

:

30 71

0

6 14 10

This component of the frame stiness matrix is now associated with

the displacement vector

DAB T ux B uy B

BT

Member BC

i BC 0

2

1:96

6 0

6

6

6 0

BC

K E 6

6 1:96

6

6

4 0

0

Member CD

i CD

2

0

0:02

30:71

0

0:02

30:71

0

30:71

6:14 104

0

30:707

3:07 104

3

1:96

0

0

0

0:02

30:71 7

7

7

0

30:71 3:07 104 7

7

7

1:96

0

0

7

7

:

0

0:02

30 71 5

4

0

30:71 6:14 10

247

2 :

3

0 02

0

30:71

6

7

K CD E 4 0

1:836

0

5

28:83

0

5:766 104

Member AC

4

2

i AC

3

0:70

0:69

10:86

7

6

0:70

10:86 5

K AC E 4 0:69

10:86 10:86 4:34 104

Following equation (9.34), the stiness matrix for the frame, with the

boundary constraints incorporated is

K AB K BC K CD K AC

K

The loading vector is similar to that for the truss taking account of the

formulation of the stiness matrix

3

2

1

6 0 7

7

6

7

6

0 7

P1 6

7

6

P

7

E6

6 0 7

7

6

4 0:5 5

0

Thus the vector of the displacements of the unconstrained nodes can be

obtained from

1 P

D K

The result has been calculated using the value of the load P1 evaluated

for the truss, to give

3

3 2

2

3:95 mm

ux B

6 u B 7 6 0:021 mm 7

7

7 6

6 y

7

7 6

6

6 B 7 6 0:93 103 7

7

76

6

6 u C 7 6 3:02 mm 7

7

7 6

6 x

7

7 6

6

4 uy C 5 4 0:45 mm 5

0:70 104

C

248

The axial loads in the members can be obtained from these displacements using equation (8.24), i.e.

N AB uy B

l0

3000

8:7 kN

EA

l

:

:

:

3 02 3 95 2 1 105 5:89 103

383 kN

3000

EA

N CD uy C

l

:

:

0 45 2 1 105 5:89 103

185 kN

3000

1

EA

N AC p ux C uy C p

2

2l

:

:

:

3 021 0 45 2 1 105 5:89 103

530 kN

6000

In comparison with the corresponding results for the truss it may be

seen that the deections at the nodes and the axial forces in the members

are slightly less for the frame than for the truss. This eect is due to the

bending action in the members in the frame adding restraint to the

actions of the forces to induce the deections. However, for the slender

members in this frame the eect of the bending actions are fairly small

and it is evident that the analysis assuming the structure would act as a

truss would be suciently accurate for engineering purposes.

A more signicant eect of the structure acting as a frame is illustrated below. It is evident from the geometry of the structure modelled

as acting as a truss that if the bracing member AC were to be damaged

or severed the truss would collapse under the action of the loads. In

eect the truss would deteriorate to act as a mechanism. However,

the actual structure because of the bending stinesses of the members

could withstand the eects of the loading, but at the penalty of

increased deections.

Suppose for the frame the brace AC were removed, the stiness

matrix for the structure would then be

K AB K BC K CD

K

N BC ux C uy B

The loading vector is unaected by this

of the stiness matrix K.

249

3

2

1

6 0 7

7

6

7

6

7

6

0

P

7

P 1 6

6

E6 0 7

7

7

6

4 0:5 5

0

Thus the vector of the modied displacements is obtained from

1 P

D K

The result has been calculated using the value of the load P1 evaluated

for the truss, to give

3

2

3 2

ux B

74:07 mm

6 u B 7 6 0:54 mm 7

7

6 y

7 6

7

6

7 6

:

6 B 7 6 0 013 7

7

6

76

6 u C 7 6 73:66 mm 7

7

6 x

7 6

7

6

7 6

4 uy C 5 4 0:062 mm 5

0:022

C

Evidently, the structure is now much more exible and deects signicantly more due to the removal of the bracing member. The reader

can conrm that the loads in the members are

N AB 223 kN;

N BC 169 kN

N CD 25:6 kN

Removal of the brace means that the actions of the loading is resisted

primarily by the bending stiness of the members and this means that

the axial loads induced in the members are signicantly reduced.

Generally, for less slender structural members than considered in

this example the eect of including the bending stiness will reduce

the axial loads in the members compared to those calculated as if the

structure is a truss.

9.4

structures, i.e. spacetrusses, dealing with the most general case of

space frames becomes quite straightforward. In general a space- frame

structure consists of a three-dimensional collection of rigidly-jointed

beams, each of which is subjected to axial and transverse loading, as

exemplied in Fig. 9.4.

250

q

P

q

P

Fig. 9.4

characterising the mechanical behaviour of a generic element in its

local reference frame and successively in establishing the relationships

that allow us to express the terms in the stiness matrices in the general

reference frame. Once this is done, we can assemble the contributions

from all the elements of the structure in the combined stiness matrix

and solve the general system of equations with reference to the nodal

loads (both directly applied and equivalent), provided the constraint

conditions have been taken into account.

In contrast to the case of pin-jointed structures, it is necessary to

take into account the exural and torsional behaviour of the generic

i-th element. The vector collecting the displacements of the end

nodes in the general reference frame is therefore enlarged to a 12elements array in order to encompass also the rotations about the

axes xyz. Thus, we have

D i T ux J uy J uz J x J y J z J . . . . . . z K

9:38

In the local reference frame it is

d i T u J u J u J J J J . . . . . . K

9:39

The relationship between d i and Di is governed by a 12 12 transformation matrix, Ri , according to the usual product

9:40

d i Ri Di

3

2

L 0 0 0

6 0 L 0 0 7

7

6

Ri 6

7

4 0 0 L 0 5

0

251

9:41

2

3

3

2

ix iy iz

0 0 0

6 i

7

7

6

i

i 7

L 6

0 4 0 0 0 5

4 x y z 5

0 0 0

ix iy iz

9:42

ik are direction cosines of angles between the local axes , , and the

general axes x, y, z.

It simple to verify that once again the transformation matrix (9.42) is

orthogonal, i.e.

Ri T Ri I

9:43

The vector that contains the nodal forces in the local reference frame is

a 12-element array. It includes the internal forces that arise at each end

of the beam on account of the deformations, namely the axial forces,

the shear forces along the axes and , the bending moments about

the axes and and the twisting moment about the axis , as shown

in Fig. 9.5.

Thus we have

f i T F J F J F J M J M J M J . . . . . . M K

9:44

M

M M

N

S

S

M

N

M

Fig. 9.5

252

and in the local reference frame the relationship between the nodal

forces f i and the nodal displacements d i can be written in the

following form

f i K i d i

with

"

K i

ki11

ki21

9:45

ki12

2

EAi

0

0

6 i

6 l

6

12EI i

6

0

6 0

3

6

li

6

6

12EI i

6 0

0

3

6

li

ki11 6

6

6 0

0

0

6

6

6

6EI i

6

6 0

0

i2

6

l

6

4

6EI i

0

0

2

li

2

EAi

0

0

6 i

6 l

6

12EI i

6

0

6 0

3

6

li

6

6

12EI i

6 0

0

3

6

li

ki22 6

6

6 0

0

0

6

6

6

6EI i

6

6 0

0

2

6

li

6

i

4

6EI

0

i2

0

l

1

9:46

ki22

3

0

0

GJ i

li

6EI i

li

4EI i

li

0 7

7

6EI i 7

7

7

i2 7

l 7

7

0 7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

7

0 7

7

i7

4EI 5

9:47

li

3

0

0

0

GJ i

li

0

0

6EI i

li

4EI i

li

7

7

6EI 7

7

i2 7

l 7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

4EI i 5

li

i

9:48

Note that the relationship between the twisting moment, Mi , and the corresponding

change of rotation, i , can be written as Mi GJ=l i i . J is the polar moment of area

of the section of the structural member.

253

EAi

6 li

6

6

6

6 0

6

6

6

6 0

6

6

i

i

k12 k21 6

6

6 0

6

6

6

6 0

6

6

6

4

0

3

0

12EI

li

6EI i

li

12EI i

0

0

l

0

i3

6EI i

l

i2

GJ i

li

0

0

6EI i

li

2EI i

li

7

7

7

6EI 7

i2 7

l 7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

2EI i 5

li

9:49

i

Inspection of the member stiness matrix (9.46) reveals that it is symmetric, like all the stiness matrices encountered up to now.

The subsequent procedure remains the same as in the previous cases:

we can express the vector F i that collects together the nodal forces of

the generic beam in the general reference frame in the following form

F i Ri T f i

9:50

9:51

F i Ri T K i Ri Di K i Di

i

where K is the stiness matrix of the generic beam in the general

reference frame. At this point we can obtain the overall combined sti by assembling the contributions from all the beams and

ness matrix K

the elastic equilibrium equation takes the usual form, equation (9.36)

KD

P 0

Of course, as we have now included all the rotations of the joints in the

degrees of freedom of the structure, D is a now 6n dimension array, n

being the overall number of joints, and the dimension of the joint sti is 6n 6n. P is the load vector, i.e. a 6n dimension

ness matrix K

array containing both the components of the forces directly applied

to the joints and the equivalent joint loads. The concept of equivalent

joint load will be claried in the next section.

is,

It goes without saying that the combined stiness matrix, K,

once more, symmetric (see section 9.2). Once the expression (equation

(9.36)) is formulated, constraint conditions can be applied and the

system of equations can be solved.

254

It must be stressed that for space structures the level of computational eort tends to increase considerably with the number of

elements and the use of a computer based automatic procedure

becomes essential for the vast majority of practical cases. However,

the analysis of many real cases can be successfully conducted by reducing three-dimensional problems to two-dimensional ones. This can be

achieved by taking account of symmetries in the geometry and loading

in the structure and treating the structure as an assemblage of plain

frames.

9.5

the sections 8.18.3 and 9.19.3 the self-weights of the individual

members have been neglected. This is fairly common practice in the

analysis and design of steel frames and trusses, where the loading

and strains induced by the distributed self-weight are usually very

small in comparison with the eects of the applied forces.

However, for other types of structures these weights are not negligible and we should include them in the analysis. Moreover, not all

external loads are actually applied at the joints and we may nd it

necessary to take into account several types of lateral loading, as

well as the eects of temperature changes and restraint displacements.

As the matrix stiness method introduced in sections 8.2 and 9.2

uses the joint displacements as the degrees of freedom of the system,

in order to reach the general matrix expression, equation (9.36),

KD

P 0

we have to replace the loads acting on the members by equivalent loads

acting at the joints. These loads are called equivalent joint loads and are

added to the actual joint loads to obtain the combined joint load vector

in the same form of equations (8.45) or (9.35). Thereafter, the structure

can be analysed using the matrix stiness method to evaluate the eect

of the combined joint loads.

Quite naturally, we can evaluate the vector of the equivalent joint

loads making reference once again to the standard energy approach.

According to the general condition of equilibrium, equation (1.28),

this is easily accomplished by equating the work of the actual loads

to the work of the required equivalent nodal forces for any virtual displacement of the degrees of freedom, i.e. the end nodes of the element.

For example, let us consider the beam element shown in Fig. 9.6.

This beam is subject to an evenly distributed load q acting in the direction of the local reference frame and we want to determine the

equivalent joint loads, i.e. those forces that are equivalent in energy

255

Fig. 9.6

words, if f^ is the vector of the equivalent nodal forces acting on

the beam in the local reference frame , we require that

^

W q W f 0

9:52

that is

l

q u d d T f^ 0

9:53

(9.53) is a function of the nodal displacement vector d by means of

equation (9.3), and the same is obviously true if we take the variation

of both terms, i.e. u and d, then equation (9.53) can be immediately solved with respect to f^ and yields

2

3

0

6 ql=2 7

6

7

6 2

7

6 ql =12 7

7

f^ 6

9:54

6

7

0

6

7

6

7

4 ql=2 5

ql 2 =12

Of course, equation (9.54) is the vector that contains the equivalent

forces acting on the beam, and the equivalent joint loads vector p^ is

readily obtained by reversing these actions in direction. We have

3

2

0

6 ql=2 7

7

6

7

6

6 ql 2 =12 7

7

9:55

p^ 6

7

6

0

7

6

7

6

4 ql=2 5

ql 2 =12

256

ql 2

12

ql 2

12

ql

2

ql

2

ql 2

12

ql 2

12

ql

2

ql

2

Fig. 9.7

nodal forces f^ coincide with the xed-end actions of the element,

that is with the restraint reactions on the beam subject to the distributed load q and considered rigidly xed at both ends.

This property applies to all types of lateral loading and it is useful to

view the table in Fig. 9.8, where the actual and equivalent loading for

some common types of applied loading are shown.

It is also worth noting that, once we have added the equivalent joint

loads to the actual joint loads in the combined joint load vector, the

direct stiness analysis of the frame under consideration produces the

same nodal displacements that we nd in the frame under the actual

lateral loads. However, the displacements and the internal forces of

the generic element must be obtained by superposing the displacements

and the related internal forces that derive from this analysis to those

corresponding to the xed-end element under the actual lateral loading.

This follows from the fact that the procedure developed above for constructing the equivalent joint load vectors has been carried out by establishing the equivalence with respect to the equilibrium of the only

degrees of freedom of the frame, i.e. the displacements of its joints.

In order to illustrate the procedure with reference to a simple frame,

consider the plane structure shown in Fig. 9.9.

This frame is composed of two straight beams. The extremity A of the

rst beam is xed, the node B is horizontally supported and the end C is

free. Suppose that a constant distributed load qy acts on the beam AB

in the direction shown and that two vertical forces P1 and P2 act at the

mid point of the span BC and at the free end C, respectively.

According to the direct stiness method, it is immediately recognised

that overall we have nine degrees of freedom, i.e. the displacements ux

FA

FA

w

MA

257

MB

FA = wa 1 ( al )2 + 12 ( al )3

FB = wa ( al )2 12 ( al )3

l=a+b

MA = wa

12 16 ( al ) + 6 ( al )2

24

2

MB = wa

8 ( al ) 6 ( al )2

24

Fab2/l2

Fba2/l2

pa (a + 2b)/2l

pa2/2l

Fig. 9.8

B, ux C, uy C, C, are not prevented by the applied constraints.

However, only the force P2 is applied directly to a joint. It is therefore

necessary to nd out what the eects of the other loads are with respect

to the degrees of freedom of the system. In order to do so we can restrain

the structure against joint displacement by introducing imaginary joint

restraints where necessary, as shown in Fig. 9.10.

Next, the constraint reactions produced by the actual member

loads (i.e. the loads that are not directly applied to the joints) are calculated. These reactions constitute the required set of xed end actions. By

reversing these xed end actions in direction we obtain a set of forces

and couples that we can consider equivalent to the member loads,

that is the equivalent joint loads. This step is shown in Fig. 9.11.

258

q

A

C

B

P2

P1

l/2

l/2

Fig. 9.9

The combined joint loads vector is obtained by adding the actual joint

loads, which in this case is only the force P2 , to the equivalent joint

loads, as shown in Fig. 9.12.

It is straightforward to show that, once we have applied the direct

stiness method to solve the situation pictured in Fig. 9.12, everything

is known about the structure subject to the actual loads in Fig. 9.9. In

fact, the superposition of the loads in Fig. 9.11(a) and the combined

loads in Fig. 9.12 produces the loads in Fig. 9.9. At the same time

the superposition of the displacement elds does not aect the joint

displacements given by the stiness analysis of Figs 9.10 and 9.11(a),

as the joint displacements of the frame shown in Fig. 9.10 must be zero.

Fig. 9.10

qh2

12

259

qh

2

qh2

12

qh

2

q

P1

P1

qh2

12

qh

2

qh2

12

P1l

8

P1l

8

P1

Pl

81

P1l

8

qh

2

P1

P1

(a)

(b)

Fig. 9.11

qh

2

qh2

12

qh2

12

qh

2

P1l

8

P1l

8

P1

P1

+ P2

Fig. 9.12

9.6

Restraint displacements

into the analysis of a framed structure by the direct stiness method.

Generally, restraint displacements consist of known translations or

rotation of the restraints. In order to illustrate this point with an

example, we again refer to the framed structure of Fig. 9.1 and apply

a vertical displacement u, at the xed node B. Such a displacement

could be due to an inelastic yielding of the built-in support, as shown

in Fig. 9.13.

The analysis of such a condition can be eected easily by recalling

the partitioned form, equation (8.50), of the general system equation

260

D

B

u

Fig. 9.13

(8.49), i.e.

KI

KI;II T

KI;II

KII

DI

DII

PI

PII

recall that we can always rearrange the full set of equations of our

problem to include in the sub-array DI the degrees of freedom of

those joints that are not restrained, and the degrees of freedom of

the restrained joints are placed in the sub-array DII . PI and PII

are the sub-arrays in which the applied loads and constraints reactions

are included, respectively. In the present example we have

2

ux A

6

7

7

DI 6

4 uy A 5

9:56

A

T

DII ux B uy B B ux C uy C C ux D uy D D

and all the displacements of the nodes C and D are set to zero, while for

the node B we have ux 0, uy

u and 0.

Consequently, the system in equation (8.50) can be divided into the

following two expressions

KI DI PI KI;II DII

9:57

PII KI;II T DI KII DII

9:58

261

ui

Ri

Fig. 9.14

The system (9.57) is, as before, disjoint from equation (9.58), as the

sub-array DII comprises known values of the displacement. Therefore, the problem of elastic equilibrium for the structure shown

in Fig. 9.13 is reduced to the system, equation (9.57), of three

equations for the three unknown degrees of freedom contained in

the sub-array DI , which are the components of displacement and

the rotation of the loaded joint A. The substitution of these values in

the relationships in equation (9.58) yields the value of the restraint

reactions PII .

We can also take into consideration a linearly elastic displacement of

the restraints, that is a displacement of the restraint that is proportional to the restraint reaction, for example

ui J cRi J

9:59

node J in the direction of the i-th axis, as shown in Fig. 9.14.

This case can also be treated in a straightforward manner. In fact, it

suces to notice that the reaction Ri J is represented in the array P

as corresponding to the i-th component of the node J and perform the

substitution expressed by equation (9.59). In this manner the i-th component of displacement of the restrained node J becomes an active

degree of freedom of the structure and can be readily incorporated

in the sub-array DI in the partitioning of the general system equation

(8.50). The rest of the procedure remains identically the same as presented above.

9.7

structures

for the analysis of trusses and frames, is highly suitable for automated

computer procedures. Generally, a computer program can be conveniently divided into several steps, some requiring the input of the structural data from the operator, others concerning the manipulation of

data and the computation of several quantities until the nal results

262

energy methods that lead to the matrix methods, and therefore we

do not deal with the subject of computer programming, not even

with a simple example (plenty of excellent textbooks are totally

devoted to this important topic). However, as a conclusion to the

topic of frame and truss analysis it may be instructive to summarise

the steps which are followed in an automatic procedure, as they are

substantially the same as we will encounter later in our presentation

of the nite element method.

These steps are summarised as

.

properties of the structure must be clearly identied. In particular it is necessary to record the number of joints and their

geometric coordinates, the number of members and their

cross-section properties, the elastic properties of the material,

the applied constraints and the inferred number of degrees of

freedom.

identication of load related data. The joint loads and member

loads acting on the structure under analysis must be clearly identied. The member loads are subsequently modied to obtain

the value of the equivalent joint loads. These latter are then

added to the directly applied joint loads and the problem is

reduced to the equilibrium of a structure subject to nodal

forces only.

construction of stiness matrix. First, the individual member

stiness matrices are calculated in the local reference frame of

any element. Subsequently, they are transformed to the general

reference frame and the contribution of each element is

assembled in the combined stiness matrix of the problem.

constraint application. The degrees of freedom that are suppressed by the constraints are eliminated in the general system

of equations of equilibrium by deleting and rearranging the

aected rows and columns in the matrices.

calculation of results. The displacements of the joints are computed from the general system of equilibrium equations. The

constraint reactions can then be simply obtained. Successively,

the evaluation of the element strains and forces induced in the

members proceeds on an individual basis: in particular, the

member end-actions can be directly computed by means of

the member stiness matrix, once the displacements of the

joints are known, and the eventual member forces can be

taken into account.

2m

263

1m

100 kN

15 m

Fig. 9.15

1.

Calculate the forces in the frame shown in Fig. 9.15 and the vertical deection at B caused by the applied load if

(a)

(b)

at A, B and C, see Fig. 9.16, and

analysed as having all the members rigidly connected at

these nodes, see Fig. 9.15.

2m

1m

B

A

100 kN

15 m

Fig. 9.16

264

A

2P

B

2m

2m

2m

2m

3m

Fig. 9.17

2.

3.

4.

diameter and 10 mm wall thickness. The modulus for steel is

205 kN/ mm2 .

[Ans: pin-jointed Av 0:303 mm, NAB 33:6 kN,

NBC 67.2 kN, rigid joints Av 0:193 mm,

NAB 42 kN, NBC 84 kN, Mab 1:97 kNm]

The continuous beam shown in Fig. 9.17 has two spans, AB with a

exural rigidity of I and BC with a exural rigidity of 2I. It is

welded to a rigid foundation at A and C and supported by an

axially innitely rigid strut at B. The strut provides no rotational

restraint to the horizontal beams at B. Calculate the deection at

the mid-length of both spans and calculate the maximum strain in

the beam span AB if that member is composed of a length of

hollow square channel, depth 200 mm and thickness 15 mm. The

member BC is a hollow square section, depth 300 mm and uniform

thickness. The modulus for steel is 205 kN/mm2 . Calculate the

maximum allowable value of the load P if the maximum strain

in the span AB is not to exceed the material yield strain,

"0 0:2% with a safety factor of 0:7.

[Ans: Ev 14:1 mm, "AB 8:6 mm, P 209 kN]

Calculate the allowable load in the frame in Fig. 9.17 if the

member DB has the same cross-section dimensions as member

AB and cannot be considered to provide a rigid foundation at

B. The member BD is rigidly connected at B to the horizontal

members.

[Ans: P 243 kN]

An arch is constructed from straight steel members, each of length

l and exural rigidity EI, as shown in Fig. 9.18. The arch is

attached to a rigid foundation at A and G and all the members

are welded to each other so that it should be considered as a

rigid-jointed frame. Calculate, taking account of symmetry as

265

P

l

E

D

30

l/2

l/2

30

60

60

Fig. 9.18

applied load P. Calculate the magnitude and position of the maximum moment Mmax in the arch. Compare the moment and deection with the corresponding value Mmax1 , D1 obtained from the

CotterillCastigliano approach, chapter 6, considering the arch as

a continuous curved structure.

[Ans: D 0:034Pl 3 =EI, Mmax 0:21Pl, Mmax1 0:105Pl,

D1 0:105Pl 3 =EI

Introduction

Up to now in this book we have considered structures that are composed of one-dimensional linear elements. That is, the variation of

deections and forces are related only to the axis along the length of

the elements. Particularly, the real three-dimensional nature of a

beam is reduced to the one-dimensional variation by the assumption

of linear strain through the depth of the beam section. There is, of

course, a wider class of elements that are common in practical structures, that is plates and shells. Essentially these elements have two

dimensions much greater than their third, which is called the thickness.

The dierence between plates and shells is that the former has an initially at surface dened by the two main dimensions, lx and ly whereas

shells have a surface that may be singly- or doubly-curved. In this

introductory text, we consider only plates.

Just as the analytical model of a beam is reduced to essentially a onedimensional model by a simplifying assumption so also a plate is

reduced to a two-dimensional body with the aim of facilitating mathematical analysis. The assumption leading to this simplication is

identical to that for a beam; that is, the strain is assumed to vary

linearly through the thickness of the plate. This is called the Kirchho

model of plate deformation, named after the famous natural philosopher. It must be appreciated that this is an approximation to the real

behaviour of plates, but within a restricted class of structural elements

the model provides an adequate level of accuracy. The model will have

reduced validity if, for example, the plate is composed of layers of

material with dierent moduli through the thickness, or the forces

imposed on the plate in, or normal to its plane are very localised and

the analysis is concerned with determining the strain distribution in

the region of these loads. However, when we are concerned with the

calculation of the general deections of plates composed of homogeneous material and with a thickness much less than the other dimensions, then the Kirchho model serves very well and provides practical

268

information at a decidedly acceptable level of accuracy, when compared with corresponding experimental results.

The presentation in this chapter follows closely the pattern of the

presentation of the Bernoulli beam theory in chapter 4. First, we will

analyse the equilibrium of the plate subject to stretching loads, i.e.

loads whose resultants always act in the mid-plane of the plate. Then

we shall concern ourselves initially with the derivation of the expressions for the strain through the thickness, in terms of the deection

of the mid-plane surface of the plate. The expression for the strain

energy in the plate material is developed for the condition where the

plate mid-surface is deformed laterally in response to loads that generally are applied normal to the surface of the plate. We have two choices

for attempting to determine the actual shape and magnitude of these

deections for specic values and patterns of loading. One approach

is to apply the methods of calculus of variations to the energy functional to derive the dierential equation of equilibrium, and then to

attempt to nd a solution to this equation for specic forms of loading.

This was the approach followed by some 18th and 19th century mathematicians and there is an interesting history of the search for the

solutions that are reported in many textbooks. This approach oers

also the possibility of elucidating the boundary conditions relevant

to plate bending, which are not so obvious as in the case of bending

beams. Inevitably, the solution of a fairly complex dierential equation

is dicult and in practice many of the solutions actually achieved

relate to idealised plate shapes, boundary conditions and forms of

loading.

The practical cases of plate bending in engineering tend not to be so

well conditioned and the solution of the dierential equations of

equilibrium is not feasible and so an alternative, and more widely

applicable approach is to be found through the use of approximate

energy methods, like the RayleighRitz procedure or the nite element

method, which is developed later in this book. Once again, it is emphasised that the exact solutions to plate bending, albeit for idealised

conditions, have a very valuable attribute in that they provide a basis

for the calibration and validation for the more approximate solutions

from the energy methods and the numerically based nite element

models used in engineering practice. Of course, as in the case of

beams, it is possible to obtain approximate solutions to the dierential

equation of equilibrium by using the method of nite dierences. However, experience has shown that this method is not so conducive to automatic generation of the plate modelling and the boundary conditions as

the nite element method so that this latter method is now the primary

analysis tool available to structural engineers for plate analysis. For this

269

reason the nite dierence method is not exemplied here and the main

emphasis is on the approximate solution of equilibrium using the

method of trial functions, including nite elements, applied to the

energy functional. Nevertheless, for the sake of completeness, the differential equations for equilibrium of plates for in-plane and lateral

loading, i.e. bending, are derived here.

10.1

Fig. 10.1. As was stated in the introduction, the plate is characterised

by the fact that two of its dimensions, lx and ly , are generally much

greater than its thickness hz . The mid surface of the plate is planar,

and therefore we can think of it as being contained in the xy plane.

Actually, the Kirchho model of plate is rather intuitive and its

correspondence with Bernoulli's model of bending beam is to some

extent straightforward.

In chapter 4 we assumed that irrespective of the deformation of the

Bernoulli beam model, its cross sections must remain plane and normal

to the curve representing the deformed axis of the beam. Now, as we

are dealing with a two-dimensional solid, we can assume that, whatever is the deformation of the plate, the segments normal to its mid

plane must remain straight and normal to the surface representing

the deformed mid-plane of the plate.

Thus, Kirchho 's model of a plate essentially incorporates a kinematic assumption regarding the manner in which the plate will

deform. Of course, it must be emphasised once more that real plates

x

y

Fig. 10.1

270

ux

y

x

Fig. 10.2

assumptions. However, experience has shown that in most practical

cases for isotropic materials the behaviour of practical plates is not

far from the hypotheses stated above. Thus the results that we are

going to obtain are usually acceptably accurate from a practical

engineering viewpoint.

As we could have anticipated, even if the basic assumptions of the

model are very similar to those adopted for the bending beam, the

fact that we are operating over two dimensions instead of one considerably complicates the development of the basic theory and obtaining

practical solutions.

Let us start from the analysis of the strain eld that occurs in the

Kirchho model of plate deformation. The fact that the edges of segments normal to the mid plane, xy, must remain straight and normal

to the surface representing the deformed mid-plane yields

ux x; y; z zy ux x; y; z0

10:1

uy x; y; z zx uy x; y; z0

10:2

uz x; y; z uz x; y; z0

10:3

displacement of the points lying on the mid-plane, z0 z 0 and

x and y are the angles of rotation along the x and y axes, respectively. The geometrical meaning of the term zy in equation (10.1) is

depicted in Fig. 10.2.

10.2

We start our analysis of the equilibrium of thin plates from the case of

simply stretched plates, i.e. under the assumption that the resultants of

the surface and boundary loads are contained in the mid-plane of the

plate, as shown in Fig.10.3.

qx

qy

q

271

x

y

S

Fx

Fy

F

Fig. 10.3

can be simplied in the following manner

ux x; y; z ux x; y; 0

10:4

uy x; y; z uy x; y; 0

10:5

uz x; y; z 0

10:6

described by the relationships

qux

qx

1 qux quy

2 qy

qx

"xx

10:7

"xy

10:8

"yy

quy

qy

10:9

where "xx and "yy are the direct strains in the x and y directions, respectively, and "xy is the shear strain in the xy plane.

Let us now consider an innitesimal element of plate, exemplied

in Fig. 10.4. This slice has been obtained by means of four innitesimally close conceptual cuts: two in the zx plane and two in the zy

plane.

Resulting from the general theory of strain for linear elasticity,

stated in chapter 3, the resultants of the internal forces per unit

272

dx

dy

z

y

x

Fig. 10.4

E

"

"

Nx h

xx

yy

1 2

E

Ny h

"yy "xx

1 2

10:10

10:11

10:12

These are a normal force Nx per unit length acting on the face of normal

x, a normal force Ny per unit length acting on the face of normal y and

nally the forces Nxy per unit length acting on both these faces. The

situation is depicted in Fig. 10.5.

On account of the above relationships the internal energy U stored

in our model of stretched plate has the following expression

1

U

Nx "xx Ny "yy 2Nxy "xy dS

10:13

2

S

Nx

Nxy

Nyx

Ny

Fig. 10.5

273

where the integral is performed over the surface S of the mid plane. At

this point, in order to study the equilibrium of the plate, we can simply

follow the usual procedure by writing the general condition (equation

(1.28)) stated in chapter 1, that is

U W

To simplify the presentation here, we suppose the loading is a distributed load qx; y, acting in the mid-plane of the plate with components

qx x; y and qy x; y, and a set of forces F per unit length on the boundary of the mid-surface, as shown in Fig. 10.3. Thus, the work done by

the external forces is

W qx ux qy uy dS Fx ux Fy uy d

10:14

S

S

10:15

On account of the general straindisplacement relationships equations (10.7)(10.9), the left hand side of the above equation can be

written as

S

quy

qux

qux quy

Ny

Nxy

dS

Nx

qx

qy

qx

qy

q

q

N u Nxy uy Ny uy Nxy ux dS

qx x x

qy

qNy qNxy

qNx qNxy

ux

uy dS 10:16

qx

qy

qy

qx

S

qfx qfy

dS fx x fy y d

qx qy

S

10:17

274

where x and y are the direction cosines of the normal to the boundary , we can write

S

qNy qNxy

qNx qNxy

ux

uy dS 10:18

qx

qy

qy

qx

S

qNy qNxy

qNx qNxy

qx ux

qy uy dS

qx

qy

qy

qx

S

10:19

As the virtual displacements ux and uy are arbitrary by denition, the

vanishing of the above equation requires that

qNx qNxy

qx 0

qx

qy

Nx x Nxy y Fx

and

and

qNy qNxy

qy 0 on S

qy

qx

10:20

Ny y Nxy y Fy

on

10:21

These are the equilibrium equations which relate the internal forces Nx ,

Ny and Nxy to the applied loads qx x; y, qy x; y and Fx , Fy in the case

of simply stretched thin plates.

It is worth noticing that the equations (10.20) and (10.21) are

formally independent from the deformation of the plate.

10.3

beams, we again keep the stretching and the bending behaviour of

the thin plates distinct. Therefore in the present section we deal with

the pure bending of thin plates and suppose that the mid-plane of the

plate does not undergo any stretching.

275

have

ux x; y; 0 uy x; y; 0 0

10:22

we can write

quz

qy

qu

y x; y z

qx

x x; y

10:23

10:24

quz

qx

quz

uy x; y; z z

qy

ux x; y; z z

10:25

10:26

described by the relationships

qux

q2 u

z 2z

qx

qx

1 qux quy

q2 uz

2 qy

qx

qx qy

"xx

10:27

"xy

10:28

"yy

quy

q2 u

z 2z

qy

qy

10:29

where "xx and "yy are the direct strains in the x and y directions, respectively, and "xy is the shear strain in the xy plane.

Let us now consider again the innitesimal element of the plate in

Fig. 10.4. Resulting from the general theory of strain for linear elasticity, stated in chapter 3, the resultants of the internal forces per unit

length are given by the relationships

h=2

Mx

h=2

E

"xx "yy z dz

1 2

h=2

h=2

2

E

q uz

q2 uz

2 z dz

qy

1 2 qx2

10:30

276

h=2

My

h=2

E

"

"

yy

xx z dz

1 2

h=2

h=2

2

E

q uz

q2 uz

z dz

qx2

1 2 qy2

10:31

h=2

Mxy Myx

2G"xy z dz

h=2

h=2

2Gz

h=2

q2 uz

z dz

qx qy

10:32

These are a bending moment Mx acting on the face of normal x direction, a bending moment My acting on the face of normal y and nally

what we will call a twisting moment Mxy on both these faces. The situation is depicted in Fig. 10.6.

My

Myx

Mx

Mxy

Mx

y

x

z

Mxy

Fig. 10.6

277

that the strain through the thickness of the plate varies linearly, equations (10.30)(10.32) become

2

q uz

q2 uz

Mx D

2

10:33

qx2

qy

2

q uz

q2 uz

My D

2

10:34

qy2

qx

Mxy D1

q2 uz

qx qy

10:35

D

Eh3

121 2

10:36

It is worth noting that in the case of the Kirchho plate model the term

D plays a role similar to that played by the term EIx for the Bernoulli

beam model.

We can now tackle the derivation of the equilibrium of the model.

With reference to Fig. 10.6, it is clear that the internal moments Mx ,

My and Mxy are responsible for the energy stored in the innitesimal

slice of plate on account of the work done by the eects of the

curvatures x , y and xy .

As we know from calculus (see also chapter 4), in the theory of

innitesimal displacements, curvatures can be related to the normal

deection of the mid-plane by

x

qx

1

q2 u

2z

ry

qy

qy

1 qx qy

q2 uz

2 qy

qx

qx qy

y

xy

qy

1

q2 u

2z

rx

qx

qx

10:37

10:38

10:39

in Fig. 10.7.

On account of equations (10.37)(10.39), the internal energy U stored

in the Kirchho 's model of bent plate has the following expression

1

U

Mx x My y 2Mxy xy dS

10:40

2

S

278

rx

y

z

Fig. 10.7

this point, in order to study the equilibrium of the plate, we can simply

follow the usual procedure by writing the general condition stated in

chapter 1, that is

U W

In order to simplify the presentation here, we suppose that the loading is a distributed load qz x; y, which is directed normally to the plane

xy of the plate, and has a set of vertical forces F and bending couples

per unit length on the boundary of the mid surface, as shown in

M

Fig. 10.8.

The work W done by the external forces is

quz

quz

W qz uz dS

Msn

d

10:41

Fuz Mn

qn

qs

S

n and M

where, with reference to Fig. 10.9, M

the generic bending couple along the normal n and the tangent s to the

boundary , respectively.

279

qz

M

F

Fig. 10.8

Fig. 10.9

(1.28), can be therefore written as

S

qz uz dS

S

quz

quz

Msn

d 10:42

Fuz Mn

qn

qs

means in terms of the displacement eld uz x; y, some mathematics

is required. Even if the procedure can appear lengthy, it is, however,

worth paying attention to each step, because it constitutes a standard

280

example of the diculties that can underlie even a simplied model,

like the Kirchho model for plate deformation. In this spirit, let us

now proceed along our way.

First of all, let us substitute the expressions, equation (10.37)

(10.39), for the curvatures into the left hand side of equation (10.42).

Thus we obtain

2

2

2

q uz

q uz

q uz

dS

Mx

My

2Mxy

2

2

qxqy

qx

qy

qz uz dS

S

quz

quz

Msn

d 10:43

Fuz Mn

qn

qs

vice versa, and get

q2 uz

q2 uz

q2 uz

dS

2M

y

xy

qx qy

qx2

qy2

sn quz d 10:44

n quz M

zM

qz uz dS

Fu

qn

qs

Mx

S

q2 uz

q

quz

qMx

q2 Mx

M

u

Mx

u

x

z

z

qx

qx

qx

qx2

qx2

10:45

q2 My

q2 uz

q

quz

qMx

M

u

u

y

z

z

qy

qy

qy

qy2

qy2

10:46

My

qMxy

q2 uz

q

quz

q

Mxy

uz

Mxy

qxqy

qx

qy

qy

qx

uz

q2 Mxy

qx qy

10:47

Bearing in mind that in equation (10.47) the x and the y coordinate can

be substituted one for the other, on account of the symmetry, we can

substitute the relationships in equations (10.45)(10.47) in the left

281

q2 uz

q2 uz

q2 uz

dS

Mx

My

2Mxy

qxqy

qx2

qy2

S

q2 Mxy q2 My

q2 Mx

uz dS

2

qx qy

qx2

qy2

q

qMx qMxy

uz

qx

qx

qy

qMxy qMy

q

uz

dS

qy

qx

qy

q

quz

quz

Mx

Mxy

qx

qx

qy

S

q

quz

quz

Mxy

My

dS

qy

qx

qy

Recalling the divergence theorem, i.e.

qfx qfy

dS fx x fy y d

qx qy

S

10:48

10:49

where x and y are the direction cosines of the normal to the boundary , we can apply it to the last two integrals of equation (10.48). Thus

q2 uz

q2 uz

q2 uz

Mx

dS

2M

y

xy

qx qy

qx2

qy2

S

q2 Mxy q2 My

q2 Mx

uz dS

2

qx qy

qx2

qy2

uz

qMxy qMy

qMx qMxy

y d

qx

qy

qx

qy

Mx

quz

quz

Mxy

x

qx

qy

quz

quz

My

y d

Mxy

qx

qy

10:50

282

qMxy qMy

qMx qMxy

10:51

y

Sn

qx

qy

qx

qy

and remember from calculus that

quz quz

qu

z

qx

qn x qs y

quz quz

qu

z

qy

qn y qs x

we have

quz

quz

Mxy

x

Mx

qx

qy

quz

quz

My

y d

Mxy

qx

qy

quz

quz

Mx 2x 2Mxy x y My 2y

qn

qs

2

2

My Mx x y Mxy x y d

quz

quz

Msn

d

Mn

qn

qs

10:52

10:53

10:54

Msn , Mx , My and Mxy (see Fig. 10.10), i.e.

Mn Mx 2x 2Mxy x y My 2y

Msn Mx My x y Mxy 2x 2y

10:55

10:56

the form

2

q2 Mxy q2 My

q Mx

uz dS

2

qxqy

qx2

qy2

S

quz

quz

Msn

d

Sn uz Mn

qn

qs

quz

quz

qz uz dS

Msn

d

10:57

Fuz Mn

qn

qs

S

283

Myx

0

Mx

My

Mxy

Msn

Mn

n

y

Fig. 10.10

step in this development consists of grouping the terms, so that

2

q2 Mxy q2 My

q Mx

2

qz uz dS

qxqy

qx2

qy2

S

sn Msn quz d

F Sn uz d M

qs

n quz d 0

Mn M

qn

10:58

vanishing of this variational expression implies some clearly dened

conditions. First of all we must have

q2 Mxy q2 My

q2 Mx

2

qz 0

qx qy

qx2

qy2

on S

4

q uz

q4 uz

q4 uz

D

2 2 2 4 qz

on S

qx4

qx qy

qy

10:59

10:60

for the displacement eld uz x; ywhich denes the deformed conguration of the Kirchho model means the satisfaction of this dierential

284

equilibrium condition, equation (10.60), and the corresponding equilibrium condition for the Bernoulli beam model, i.e. Euler's equation of

the deformed beam, equation (4.43). Both are fourth-order dierential

equations (even if, of course, equation (10.60) involves partial derivatives as a consequence of the two-dimensional character of the plate

model) and involve the exural stiness EIx and D, respectively, for

the beam and the plate bending. This is not surprising, since the kinematic hypotheses for the models, i.e. linear variation of strain through

the depth of the plate and beam, are essentially the same in both cases.

However, in contrast to the case of Bernoulli's beam, not all the

boundary conditions associated to the dierential equation (10.60)

are obvious from a mechanical point of view. In fact, the vanishing

of the general condition of equilibrium in the form of equation

(10.58) requires also the vanishing of its last integral. This happens if

quz

quz

n on

0 or Mn M

n )

10:61

qn

qn

This requires that the rotation quz =qn on the boundary coincides

with the imposed value or, alternatively, the bending moment Mn

n . Moreover, the vanishing of the

coincides with the imposed value M

second and third integral in equation (10.58) must be treated in conjunction. In fact the derivative quz =qs along the tangent to the

boundary is linked to the variation uz along the boundary itself.

Integrating the third integral by parts we get

sn Msn uz d

sn Msn quz d q M

M

qs

qs

qMsn qMsn

uz d

qs

qs

10:62

where the rst integral at the right hand side is obviously zero. In fact,

this term is the line integral along a closed path (i.e. the edge of the

plate) of a perfect dierential. Combining this result with the second

integral of equation (10.58), we get

sn qMsn

qM

uz d 0

F Sn

10:63

qs

qs

sn

qMsn

qM

F

on

uz uz or Sn

qs

qs

10:64

[ Msn +

Msn

s ]

285

ds

Msn ds

M

Msn + ssn

Msn

ds

ds

ds

ds

M

Sn = ssn

ds

ds

Fig. 10.11

term Sn represents the shear forces normal to the mid-plane xy. Its

existence on the boundary is strictly related to the twisting

moment Msn , as shown in Fig. 10.11, and this explains the mechanical

condition expressed by the second alternative of equation (10.64). In

other words, if we represent the distribution of twisting moments

Msn along the edge of the plate by means of a continuous set of twisting

couples, we are led to the conclusion that the gradient of the distribution of twisting moments Msn is statically equivalent to a distribution

of shear forces of intensity Sn qMsn =qs.

In closing this presentation it is useful to summarise all the equations

that have been yielded by the general condition of equilibrium,

equation (10.42), that must be fullled by the displacement eld

uz x; y

4

q uz

q4 uz

q4 uz

Field equation on S

D

2 2 2 4 qz

qx4

qx qy

qy

Boundary condition on

uz uz

or Sn

sn

qMsn

qM

F

qs

qs

286

Boundary condition on

quz

n

qn

n

or Mn M

in terms of the displacement eld. Thus, because of equations (10.33)

(10.35), (10.51), (10.55) and (10.56), we can write

3

3

q uz

q3 uz

q uz

q3 uz

Sn D

y

x

10:65

qx3 qx qy2

qy3 qx2 qy

2

q uz

q2 uz 2

q2 uz

Mn D

21

x

qx qy x y

qx2

qy2

2

q uz

q2 uz 2

y

10:66

qy2

qx2

2

2

q uz

q2 uz

q uz

q2 uz

Msn D

2

2 x y

qx2

qy

qy2

qx

D1

q2 uz 2

2y

qx qy x

10:67

It is now clear that the problem of the equilibrium of the plate bending model is not simple, even for the example of an evenly distributed

load qz x; y. Several special solutions have been developed for specic

problems of plate bending. However, the study of these solutions is not

really the purpose of this book and the interested reader can make

reference to specialised texts. We consider that what has been said is

sucient to elucidate the fundamentals of the problem. In the next

section we will deal with a more practical and general procedure that

is developed by making use of the energy approach with the method

of trial functions.

10.4

the solution of bending plates.

describing the elastic equilibrium does not constitute a simple task

even for the simplied model of bending plates. From an engineering

point of view it therefore appears very worthwhile to make reference

to all those methods capable of providing approximate solutions.

Among the ways we have already studied is the method of trial

function, which we will now apply to the evaluation of the response

of the example plate shown in Fig. 10.12 to the specied applied

loading.

287

Fig. 10.12

The gure shows a square plate simply supported along two edges

and rigidly clamped along the other two, subject to an evenly distributed load qz x; y. Its thickness is constant, as well as its bending stiness D. To be in a position to apply the trial function method, rst of

all we must write down the expression for the total potential energy of

the system in terms of the displacement eld, uz x; y. This is simply

achieved by means of equations (10.40) and (10.41), and taking into

account equations (10.33)(10.35) and (10.37)(10.39). We thus have

uz U W

2 2 2 2

1

q uz

q uz

q2 uz q2 uz

D

2

2

qx2

qy2

qx2 qy2

S

2 2

q uz

dS

21

qx qy

quz

quz

Msn

d

qz uz dS

Fuz Mn

qn

qs

S

10:68

For the example plate being analysed here, the boundary conditions

are essentially geometrical

l

l

10:69

uz ; y 0 and uz ; y 0

2

2

l

l

uz x;

0 and uz x;

0

10:70

2

2

quz

quz

0 and

0

10:71

qy x; y l=2

qy x; y l=2

288

Since there are no forces applied on the edges, the last term of equation

(10.68) is zero, so we have

uz U W

2 2 2 2

1

q uz

q uz

q2 uz q2 uz

D

2

2

qx2

qy2

qx2 qy2

S

2 2

q uz

dS qz uz dS

21

qx qy

10:72

(10.71) are not dependent on Poisson's ratio (as they would have

been in the case of expressions (10.66) and (10.67) for the bending

and twisting moments were involved on the edge) leads us to conclude

that the solution cannot be dependent on this ratio, as D is also constant. Therefore, if we rearrange equation (10.72) in the following

manner

uz U W

1

D

2

S

S

q2 uz q2 uz

2

qx2

qy

2

dS D1

2 2

q2 uz q2 uz

q uz

dS

qz uz dS

qx qy

qx2 qy2

10:73

2 2

2

q uz q2 uz

q uz

dS

2

2

qx qy

qx qy

10:74

1

uz U W D

2

S

q2 uz q2 uz 2

dS

qz uz dS

qx2

qy2

10:75

the plates rigidly supported on the boundary and for all polygonal

plates whose boundary conditions are either uz 0 or quz =qn 0.

We now assume a shape trial function that satises the geometrical

boundary conditions equations (10.69)(10.71). A general format for a

289

uz a1 f xgy

10:76

f x 1

4x2

l2

10:77

8y2 16y4

gy 1 2 4

l

l

Thus we have

4x2

8y2 16y4

uz a1 1 2

1 2 4

l

l

l

10:78

now substitute it in the expression for the total potential energy functional, equation (10.75). Thus

q2 uz

8

8y2 32y4

a1 2 1 2 4

10:79

qx2

l

l

l

q2 uz

4x2

16 192y2

1

10:80

1

qy2

l2

l4

l2

and

uz

1

D

2

l=2

l=2

l=2 l=2

64a21

l 12

4

2 2

2 2

2 2

4 2

3l 8l x 32l y 96x y 16y dx dy

l=2

l=2

l=2 l=2

4x2 8y2 32x2 y2

q a1 1 2 2

l

l

l4

16y4 64x2 y4

l4

l6

dx dy

10:81

1 32768 D

16

a1 ql 2

a1 a21

2

175 l 2

45

10:82

290

q

0

qa1

a1

35 ql 4

18432 D

10:83

(10.83) in equation (10.78). At the centre point of the plate, we have

4

ql

uz 0; 0 0:00190

10:84

D

This value is quite accurate. In fact the analytical solution1 to the

dierential equation of equilibrium yields

4

ql

uz 0; 0 0:00192

10:85

D

We therefore have a solution from the method of trial function with an

error of only 1:1%.

10.5

functions to plate bending

method of trial functions for calculating the magnitude of the deections of plate deformed by loads normal to their plane. The present

section expands on that example and exemplies the simplicity of the

method by application to a number of types of boundary conditions

and loading.

With respect to the general denition of the plate geometry shown in

Fig. 10.13, the energy formulation equation (10.75) is written

D

uz

2

a b

0 0

q2 uz q2 uz

2

qx2

qy

2

a b

dx dy

0 0

Three examples of boundary conditions are shown in Fig. 10.14, varying from the situation where all the edges are simple supported to the

condition where all the edges are encastre.

The applied loading is a uniform pressure, i.e.

qx; y q0

10:87

McGraw-Hill, chapter 6.

291

y

b

Fig. 10.13

The boundary conditions for this case are

uz 0

at

x 0;

x a;

y 0;

yb

10:88

trial function in the form

x

y

sin

10:89

uz x; y u0 sin

a

b

This function satises the geometry boundary conditions along all

edges. Substituting equation (10.89) into equation (10.86) and performing the mathematical operations we have

u0

4 D 4

4q

a 2a2 b2 b4 u20 20 abu0

3 3

8a b

10:90

qu0

0

qu0

10:91

the applied pressure as

16q0

a4 b4

10:92

u0 6

D a4 2a2 b2 b4

292

Fig. 10.14

Case (b): Two edges simple supported and two edges encastre

The boundary conditions for this case, see Fig. 10.14(b), are

uz 0

at x 0;

x a;

quz

0

qy

at y 0;

yb

y 0;

yb

10:94

this case is

u

x

2y

1 cos

10:95

uz x; y 0 sin

a

b

2

293

mathematical operations and applying the equilibrium condition,

equation (10.91), we have

16q0

a4 b4

u0 3

10:96

D 16a4 8a2 b2 3b4

Case (c): All edges encastre

The boundary conditions for this case, see Fig. 10.14(c), are

uz 0

at x 0;

x a;

y 0;

quz

0

qx

at x 0;

x a;

quz

0

qy

yb

at y 0;

yb

10:97

u0

2x

2y

uz x; y

1 cos

1 cos

a

b

4

10:98

mathematical operations and applying the equilibrium condition,

equation (10.91) we have

q0

a4 b4

u0 4

10:99

D 3a4 2a2 b2 3b4

The accuracy of these solutions can be assessed by comparison with the

exact values for the deection for a square plate, i.e. a b l. The

general formulation is

u0

q0 l 4

D

10:100

and

Case

a

b

c

exact

0:00406

0:00192

0:00126

trial function

0:00416

0:00191

0:00128

As the table shows the solutions from the one degree of freedom trial

function analysis are within a few percent of the corresponding exact

solutions.

294

a/2

a

y

b/2

b

Fig. 10.15

can very easily accommodate a range of types of loading without

requiring extensive re-analysis. This is exemplied here by considering

the condition where the uniform pressure of the previous section is

replaced by a concentrated load P acting at the centre of the plate

normal to its plane. This is shown in Fig. 10.15.

The potential energy functional, equation (10.75), is for this form of

loading

D

uz

2

a b

0 0

q2 uz q2 uz

2

qx2

qy

2

dx dy Pu0

10:101

Evidently the strain energy component of the potential energy is

unchanged by the type of loading.

Consider now a plate with all edges simply supported (Case a) in

which the trial function is described by equation (10.89) and the

energy functional in terms of the deection u0 is

u0

4 D 4

a 2a2 b2 b4 u20 Pu0

8a3 b3

10:102

(10.102)

4P

a4 b4

u0 4

10:103

D a4 2a2 b2 b4

295

described in Cases b and c are

16P

a4 b4

Case b

u0 4

D 16a4 8a2 b2 3b4

10:104

4P

a4 b4

Case c

u0 4

D 3a4 2a2 b2 3b4

The conditions for a square plate, a b l, are simply obtained from

equations (10.103) and (10.104) and are

u0

Pl 2

D

10:105

where

Case

a

b

c

10.6

exact

0.0116

0.0056

0:0103

0:00608

0:00513

plate bending

and the concept of these trial functions was applied to the calculation

of the deformation of beams. It is intuitively obvious that this method

can be extended to the analysis of plate bending by the derivation of

localised trial functions in the two dimensions of the plane of a

plate. The method is described in this section.

The localised trial function that ensures continuity of displacement

and slope at the boundaries of the elements of a beam is described

by equation (7.78) and is dened here as

uny i 1 ui 1 1 3i2 1 2i3 1

i 1 i 1 2i2 1 i3 1

ui 3i2 1 2i3 1 i i2 1 i3 1

10:106

i 1 zi 1 =ln , ln is the length of the n-th element, uz is the deected

shape normal to the coordinate , and u i 1 and ui are the deections

at the nodes bounding the n-th element. Again, we dene i 1

i 1 ln and i i ln .

296

ln

z

ui1

ui

i1

i

zi1

uy

Fig. 10.16

two-dimensional functions that can be used as localised trial functions

to analyse plate bending for a variety of conditions of loading and

boundary conditions. The plate is sub-divided into zones, or elements,

each of which can have dierent lengths in the x and y directions, as

shown in Fig. 10.17.

The orthogonal functions describing the deformations of an element

n, shown in Fig. 10.18, are:

Element n

i + 1, j

i + 1, j + 1

lxn

i, j

i, j + 1

y

lyn

uz

Fig. 10.17

i + 1, j + 1

i + 1, j

297

Element n

i, j

i, j + 1

Fig. 10.18

In the x direction

unz n ui 1 3n2 2n3 i n 2n2 n3

ui1 3n2 2n3 i1 n2 n3

10:107

unz n uj 1 3n2 2n3 j n 2n2 n3

uj 1 3n2 2n3 j 1 n2 n3

10:108

where

n

x

lxn

n

y

lyn

10:109

The displacement function for the plate element is obtained by combining the functions in equations (10.107) and (10.108). This is exemplied for the displacement and slopes at node, i, j. The function

associated with the displacement, ui;j is

F1 n ; n ui; j 1 3n2 2n3 1 3n2 2n3

10:110

F2 n ; n xi; j 2n2 n3 1 3n2 2n3

10:111

F3 n ; n yi; j 1 3n2 2n3 n 2n2 n3

10:112

F4 n ; n xyi; j 2n2 n3 n 2n2 n3

10:113

in Fig. 10.19. This process of identifying the functions is completed for

298

x

u

b

b

a

i, j

i, j

d

d

a

z

b

a

(a)

(b)

x

xy

b

a

i, j

i, j

d

d

z

z

y

(c)

(d)

Fig. 10.19

ui; j ;

x ;

y ;

xy

i; j

ui 1; j ;

ui; j 1 ;

xi 1; j ;

x ;

i; j 1

ui 1; j 1 ; xi 1; j 1 ;

i; j

yi 1; j ;

y ;

i; j 1

i; j

xyi 1; j

xy

10:114

i; j 1

yi 1; j 1 ; xyi 1; j 1

unz n ; n

16

X

r1

Dnr Fr n ; n

10:115

where Dnr are the elements of the vector collecting the nodal degrees of

freedom of the n-th element, i.e.

2

3

ui; j

6 7

Dn 4 5

10:116

xyi 1; j 1

299

amenable to computer programming by redening new generalised

coordinates. The deection function, equation (10.115), can be

described as

unz A0 A1 n A2 n A3 n2 A4 n n A5 n2 A6 n3

A7 n2 n A8 n n2 A9 n3 A10 n3 n A11 n2 n2

A12 n n3 A13 n3 n2 A14 n2 n3 A15 n3 n3

10:117

see equation (10.115), by

A BDn

with

10:118

3

A0

6 7

6

7

A 6

7

4 5

10:119

A15

The transformation matrix B is

2

1

6 0

6

6

6 0

6

6 3

6

6

6 0

6

6 3

6

6

6 2

6

6 0

6

B 6

6 0

6

6 2

6

6

6 0

6

6 9

6

6

6 0

6

6 6

6

6

4 6

4

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

2

0

0

3

0

0

1

0

0 2

0

0

1

0

0

2

0

3 2

0

3

0 2

0

0

1

0

0

0

2 1

0

6 6

4 9

2

0

1

0

3 4

4 3

2 2

2 6

2 6

1 4

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 07

7

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 07

7

1

0

0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 07

7

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 07

7

0

0

0 3

0 1

0 0 0 0 07

7

7

1

0

0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 07

7

0 3 1

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 07

7

7

0

0

0

0 3

0 1 0 0 0 0 7

7

0

0

0

2

0

1

0 0 0 0 07

7

7

0 2 1

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 07

7

3

6

2 9

6 3

2 9 3 3 17

7

7

0

0

0

0

2

0

1 0 0 0 07

7

3

4

2 6

3 2

1 6 3 2 17

7

7

2

3

1 6

4 3

2 6 2 3 15

2

2

1 4

2 2

1 4 2 2 1

(10.120)

The formulation for the strain energy of deformation of the element of

plate bending Un is obtained from the rst term in equation (10.73).

300

In non-dimensional notations

D

Un

2lxn lyn

1 1

0 0

b q2 unz a q2 unz

a qn2 b qn2

2 n 2 n 2 n 2

q uz q uz

q uz

21

dn dn

qn qn

qn2 qn2

10:121

The strain energy for the complete plate can be obtained by summing

the energy contributions of all the elements, i.e.

X

U

Un

10:122

n

into equation (10.121) and carrying out the mathematical operation

results in replacement of the energy functional by a function of the

generalised coordinates Ai dened in equation (10.118). That is a quadratic function, F,

Un ) FAi

10:123

D

Un

AT CA

2lxn lyn

D

Dn T BT CDn B

2lxn lyn

10:124

qUn

0

qDnr

10:125

D

BT CBDn 0

lxn lyn

10:126

K n BT CB

10:127

is obtained by adding

and the stiness matrix for the whole plate, K,

the stiness matrices of the all the elements according to equation

(10.122).

The expression for total of potential energy is obtained by addition

of the loss of potential energy of the load to the strain energy equation

301

concentrated load P applied normal to the plane of the plate. The

loss of potential energy of the load is

P

u0

10:128

vector form we can write

P

10:129

where the loading vector, P has zeros except at the position corresponding to u0 . The equilibrium condition for the whole plate is

KD

P 0

10:130

The boundary conditions are incorporated into equation (10.130) by

eliminating appropriate rows and columns. The displacements and

slopes at the nodes of the elements are obtained as

1 P

D K

10:131

generally increases as the number of elements included in the model

is increased. This is exemplied by application of the method described

in this section to a square plate with edge length, l, subjected to a concentrated load at the centre of the plate as shown in Fig. 10.20. The

analysis of the plate is run with the mesh geometries shown in Fig.

10.21. Note that symmetry conditions of loading and deformations

allow that only one quarter of the area of the plates needs to be

modelled.

P

l

Fig. 10.20

302

Symmetry

m=1

m=2

m=4

Fig. 10.21

to the applied load P is

Pl 2

D

The solutions are

u0

10:132

Mesh size

1

2

4

0:0111

0:0115

0:0116

Mesh size

1

2

4

0:00530

0:00548

0:00557

It is evident that even with only a few elements the accuracy of the

results, see section 10.5, is very good. Again, the great merit of

localised trial function approach is that once the element derivation

is programmed for a computer it is very simple to alter the boundary

conditions and to incorporate a variety of types of loading in the

numerical model.

Introduction

methods of analysis of elastic solids; particularly bars, beams, trusses,

frames, plates. In the case of plane and space trusses and frames we

have established the direct stiness method, a procedure that is

especially suitable for computer programming and therefore for the

automatic analysis of structures, even involving thousands of members. Moreover, we have seen that the treatment of structures involving

plates, even with the simplications allowed by Kirchho's model,

remains a fairly complicated matter. In this form of structural component approximate methods, and particularly the method of trial functions, can still turn out to be a dicult approach. Indeed, the method

of trial functions requires considerable skill in the choice of suitable

approximating functions and substantial eort in the construction of

the algebraic functions. In fact, the choice of the trial functions

depends on the geometry of the structural component under analysis

and on its boundary conditions and form of loading, therefore the procedure cannot be automated and there are ever-present risks associated

with the possibility of human errors that make embarking on lengthy

calculations somewhat hazardous. This diculty is common to all

those structures that are not composed simply of a nite number of

well-dened components, such as bars and beams, whose behaviour

is unequivocally known.

However, we have seen that most of these diculties can be overcome by the method of localised trial functions. In this chapter we

introduce a generalisation of the method of localised trial functions,

i.e. the nite element method, which is without any doubt the most

powerful tool for the analysis of even very complex structures and

the major analytical development in structural engineering in the last

40 years. The method was created by structural engineers, but its

versatility, easy of use and accuracy have rendered this methodology

a standard tool of analysis even for problems which may seem very

304

far from the structural ones, like heat diusion, uid dynamics and

magnetic eld analyses. Most of the high technology resources available to us, from supersonic aeroplanes to mobile telephones, owe

their actual present state of sophistication to the nite element

method. Thanks to this method, engineers and physicists can now

model mathematically and obtain solutions to a very wide range of

problems that would indeed be virtually impossible to handle in any

other way. Alternative approaches are the numerical integration of

the dierential equations of equilibrium, using the nite dierence

method and perhaps by very costly testing at full- or small-scale. But

these alternatives require special skills in numerical calculus and

model-making that in most cases are obviated by the nite element

programs now available. These programs can be accessed and operated very simply, often by engineers who, unfortunately, sometimes

have little understanding of the fundamental theory of the method

they are using.

Despite these impressive capabilities, the underlying idea of the nite

element method is very simple. It consists in a sub-division of the structure conceptually into smaller zones or areas. Once this sub-division

has been carried out, trial functions are given within each zone, usually

called an element, and the behaviour of each element can be analysed

separately and independently from all the others. The boundary

conditions between these elements can be imposed quite easily,

provided the choice of the trial functions are simple polynomials

that provide the continuity between the element under consideration

and those contiguous with it. Then, exactly as we have done in the

case of pin-jointed structures and frames, the stiness matrix of each

element can be assembled with the stiness matrices of all the other elements to produce the combined stiness matrix of the problem. The

forces applied to the structure are reduced once again to equivalent

nodal loads and the boundary conditions can be imposed very straightforwardly along the edges of the constrained elements. It may be easily

inferred that the fundamental basis of the nite element is in fact the

localised RayleighRitz method introduced and exemplied in earlier

chapters.

The procedure is very general and requires only limited data to

particularise the analysis to any structural form, i.e. the geometry of

the structure, the shape of the elements, the material properties. The

trial functions are often the same for each element, thus an analysis

can be fully automated on a computer by means of a standard set of

instructions. By following the standardised method even large-scale

nite element problems can be treated in a very straightforward and

almost routine manner.

305

obtained by increasing the number of sub-divisions, which is certainly

more simple than including more and more complex trial functions by

the classical Ritz method. However, despite the fact than the subdivision into simple elements and the equations of compatibility and

equilibrium between the elements have a sound physical meaning,

the problem of the convergence of the nite element solution to the

exact mathematical one may be quite complex and has given origin

to many signicant studies during the last 30 years. Apart from

some brief notes regarding the physical interpretation of the nite

element method, we will not deal with the topic of a formal proof of

convergence, i.e. the application of precise mathematical theorems to

the nite element method or the estimation of accuracy inherent in

the nite element approximation, nor will we give any detail beyond

a very simple outline of the basic procedure. Excellent textbooks

exist on this topic and the interested reader can make reference to

them in order to gain a more mathematical understanding of this

basic tool in current engineering practice.

11.1

the example of a simple structure, i.e. a retaining wall with lateral pressure, shown in Fig. 11.1.

As we have already seen in chapter 3, if the dimension of the structure is very large in the z-direction and the lateral pressure is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis z and does not vary along the length,

we may assume that all the cross sections are in the same state. In

fact, we can suppose that the end sections are conned between

P

Fig. 11.1

306

Fig. 11.2

smooth rigid planes, which implies that displacement in the axial direction is prevented at the ends and, by symmetry, also at the mid-section.

Consequently, we can assume that displacement in the axial direction

is prevented at any cross section. Thus, the deformation of the wall can

be assumed to be the same at any cross section and can be dened completely by the non-zero components of displacement ux and uy , which

are assumed to be functions of x and y only.

Hence, as already noticed in chapter 3, we have

ux ux x; y

uy uy x; y

quy

qux

"yy x; y

qx

qy

1 qux quy

"xy x; y

2 qy

qx

1 qux quz

0

"xz x; y

2 qz

qx

1 quy quz

0

"yz x; y

2 qz

qy

"xx x; y

uz 0

"zz

quz

0

qz

There are several important engineering problems of this kind, like, for

example, tunnels or cylindrical tubes subject to internal pressure, as

illustrated in Fig. 11.2.

Despite the fact that the problem of elastic equilibrium is reduced to

a two-dimensional model in the xy plane, nonetheless it remains a

quite complex problem and, apart from some cases characterised by

a very simple geometry of the boundary, no closed-form mathematical

solutions are readily available to engineers.

We make resort to the nite element procedure and start by conceptually sub-dividing the structure into zones, i.e. elements. This can be

done, for example, by means of four-noded plane elements as shown

in Fig. 11.3.

14

15

16

13

7

11

6

7

12

10

307

Fig. 11.3

whose deformations must be characterised by a nite number of

parameters to permit the replacement of the continuum problem by

a discrete one. It is clear that in the vast majority of structural

problems these parameters may be assumed to be the displacements

of the nodes. If we reduce also the applied loads to equivalent joint

loads, the solution of the whole problem follows exactly the same

rules as those applicable to standard discrete systems, like the trusses

and frames examined in chapters 8 and 9.

Of course, the key to the whole procedure lies in the denition of the

behaviour of each individual element in terms of the displacements of

its nodes. From a kinematic point of view this means that the displacements of the internal points of the element must be functions of the

displacements of the nodes and satisfy basic requirements of compatibility at the boundaries. Thus, for example, the displacement along

contiguous sides of adjacent elements may be required to be identical

for any specied displacement of the nodes and, in certain cases, this

requirement of continuity may be extended to the slope of the displacement. The denition and the employment of such interpolating

functions is the subject of the following sections.

11.2

the presentation of the RayleighRitz procedure, where trial functions

308

y

uy

uy

L

ux

ux

l

uy

uy

I

ux

ux

Fig. 11.4

represent the displacement eld of the elastic body under analysis.

The values of these parameters were determined by means of a minimisation of the total potential energy of the system. However, in

that case, trial functions extended over the whole structure, whereas

in the nite element method the displacement functions extend over

a single sub-domain of the region under analysis. This concept was

introduced in section 7.6 under the heading localised RayleighRitz.

The localised nature of the trial functions in the nite element

method is further examined in this section.

If we restrict ourselves to the plane strain problem introduced in the

previous section, we can take into consideration the four-noded rectangle shown in Fig. 11.4 and express the displacement eld ux; y

over this sub-region as a function of the displacements of its nodes.

For example, we can assume the components along x and y of the

displacement eld are described by polynomial expressions of the type

ux x; y a1 a2 x a3 y a4 xy

11:2

uy x; y b1 b2 x b3 y b4 xy

11:3

equations (11.2) and (11.3) we obtain a system of linear equations in

the eight unknowns a1 ; . . . ; b4 , that is

ux I a1

ux H a1 a2 l a3 l a4 l 2

uy I b1

uy H b1 b2 l b3 l b4 l 2

ux J a1 a2 l

uy J b1 b2 l

ux L a1 a3 l

ux L b1 b3 l

11:4

309

Solving this system and substituting the results in equations (11.2) and

(11.3), we have

x

y

x

y

ux x; y 1

1 ux I

1 ux J

l

l

l

l

xy

y

x

1

u L

11:5

2 ux H

l

l x

l

x

y

x

y

1 uy I

1 uy J

uy x; y 1

l

l

l

l

xy

y

x

1

u L

11:6

2 uy H

l

l y

l

Therefore the displacement functions, equations (11.5) and (11.6), can

be taken to represent the displacement eld inside the nite element

under consideration with respect to the displacement of its nodes.

At this point it must be stressed once again that the displacement

functions, similar to the situation in the RaleighRitz method, are

not exactly the displacement eld that would be provided by the solution of the elastic equilibrium equation for the particular structure

under consideration, but instead, represent an approximation. However, as the solution of the elastic equilibrium problem cannot be

obtained in closed form for the vast majority of engineering cases,

this approximation is very often the only one available to engineers

and in most cases may indeed be made very accurate.

For the sake of generality we can represent the displacement functions, equations (11.5) and (11.6), in matrix form. This is easily

obtained by writing

u

0 NL 0

NI 0 NJ 0 NH

x

Di

uy

0 NI 0 NJ

0 NH 0 NL

NDi

11:7

i-th element, i.e.

Di T ux I uy I ux J uy J ux H uy H ux L uy L

11:8

and Nj x; y are the so-called shape functions.

The shape functions have a crucial importance in the nite

element method. By reference to equation (11.7) it seems clear that

in general they have to be chosen such as to provide appropriate

310

are inserted in the shape function. In other words, we must have

NI xI; yI 1

11:9

NI xJ; yJ 0

11:10

x

y

1

NI x; y 1

l

l

x

y

NJ x; y

1

l

l

xy

NH x; y 2

l

y

x

1

NL x; y

l

l

11:11

11:12

11:13

11:14

identical manner, four shape functions are sucient to represent the

displacement functions, equations (11.5) and (11.6). The graphical

form of the shape functions NI NL over the rectangular sub-domain

under consideration are shown in Fig. 11.5.

It is worth noting that both the components of displacement ux and

uy on the four sides of the rectangle, i.e. the straight lines of equation

x 0, y 0, x l and y l, respectively, depend only on the displacement of the nodes that belong to the sides themselves. For

example, the displacement of the side connecting the nodes J and H

is given by the expressions

y

y

ux x l; y 1 ux J ux H

11:15

l

l

y

y

11:16

uy x l; y 1 uy J uy H

l

l

and similar expressions hold true for the remaining sides. This means

that two adjacent rectangular elements, like those represented, for

example, by the pairs 1 and 4 or 4 and 7, in Fig. 11.3, are characterised

by the same displacement on contiguous sides, provided, of course,

these latter are interpolated by means of equations (11.5) and (11.6)

on both the sub-domains.

Now let us turn our attention to the trapezoid elements no. 2, 5 and

8. A generic element of this set is shown in Fig. 11.6. Following the

same line of reasoning adopted for the rectangular elements, we can

311

NI

NJ

L

NH

NL

Fig. 11.5

l

y

uy

uy

L

ux

ux

l

uy

uy

I

ux

Fig. 11.6

ux

312

equations (11.2) and (11.3). In order to obtain appropriate nodal

displacements corresponding to the coordinates of the nodes, we are

now led to the following system of equations in the eight unknowns

a1 ; . . . ; b4

ux I a1

ux H a1 a2 l a3 l a4 l 2

uy I b1

ux J a1 a2 l

uy H b1 b2 l b3 l b4 l 2

11:17

ux L a1 a3 l

uy J b1 b2 l

ux L b1 b3 l

equations (11.2) and (11.3), yields

x

y

x

y

1 ux I

1 ux J

ux x; y 1

l

l

l

l

xy

y

x

1

u L

2 ux H

11:18

l

l x

l

x

y

x

y

1

uy I

1

uy J

uy x; y 1

l

l

l

l

xy

y

x

1

u L

11:19

2 uy H

l

l y

l

which we may take as the expressions of the components of the

displacement eld in the trapezoidal sub-domain, Fig. 11.6. Again,

we can express the displacement function in matrix form, equation

(11.7), provided the shape functions Nj x; y have the following

expressions

x

y

1

11:20

NI x; y 1

l

l

x

y

NJ x; y

1

11:21

l

l

xy

NH x; y 2

11:22

l

y

x

1

11:23

NL x; y

l

l

At this point of the presentation we can anticipate that this way of

proceeding may present serious drawbacks. For example, even if we

assume the same general polynomial expression for the displacement

313

functions (in the present example, equations (11.2) and (11.3)) and the

meshing of the structure is achieved using quadrilateral elements only,

it is evident that the resulting expressions for the displacement function

varies according to the shape of the element and, in general, cannot be

derived as a single function for all elements. Moreover, the conditions

fullled by the displacement functions may vary according to the shape

of the element as well. This factor can be easily explained by reference

to the property of two adjacent rectangular elements to present the

same displacement on contiguous sides.

This property does not hold true for the trapezoidal element,

Fig. 11.6. In fact, the side connecting the nodes J and H is a straight

line of equation

x l y

11:24

y

ux x l y ; y

1

u I

l

x

y

y

1

1 ux J

1

l

l

2

y y

1 ux H

l l 2

y

1 ux L

1

l

11:25

y

1

u I

uy x l y ; y

l

y

y

y

1

1

uy J

1

l

l

y y2

2

1 uy H

l l

y

1 uy L

1

l

11:26

These expressions involve the components of displacement of all the

four nodes of the element. Therefore, the displacement along contiguous sides of adjacent elements is not governed only by the behaviour

of the nodes associated with the sides themselves and, in general, it

will not be the same for both of elements. The elimination of such a

314

pathological behaviour would imply a dierent choice of the polynomial displacement functions, equations (11.2) and (11.3). Generally

speaking, this means that an appropriate analysis of the displacement

functions is required, at least for any dierent set of elements.

However, in order to obtain a procedure with the greatest degree of

automation, it is desirable that a small amount of data can be used to

represent the various types of elements that may be required in the

analysis of a real engineering problem.

This can be obtained by making resort to the use of intrinsic coordinates and appropriate transformation rules, as we will see in the

next section.

11.3

isoparametric elements

direct generation of the displacement functions for the few elements

employed for the simple meshing of the retaining wall, Fig. 11.3. If

we are to deal with more complex practical engineering structures,

which are characterised by quite complicated geometrical boundaries,

it would be valuable to nd a way to construct nite element models

using only a fairly restricted library of elements. This can be done by

mapping a simple element (the so-called parent element), such as a

rectangle in the local coordinate system ; , into a more complex

shape in the general coordinate system xy, as shown in Fig. 11.7.

In the present context, mapping means a unique, one-to-one

relationship between the local system of coordinates , and the

general reference system xy. It should be noted that in this case the

relationship between the local system of coordinates and the general

one is somewhat broader than the relationship between the local and

L

H

L

I

I

J

J

Fig. 11.7

L

r2

r1

I

r2

J

r1

315

Fig. 11.8

the general reference frames encountered in the matrix analysis of pinjointed and rigid-jointed structures. In fact, in the previous situation

we dealt with a transformation rule that allowed us to establish a

correspondence between systems of Cartesian orthogonal axes that

diered by simple translations or rotations in the three-dimensional

space. Here we have relationships that allow a continuous distortion

of the element, too. For instance, we can consider the relationship

between cylindrical polar and Cartesian coordinates, i.e.

x r cos

y r sin

11:27

system r into a distorted element in the xy space. This situation

is illustrated in Fig. 11.8.

For the sake of convenience the local system is generally

assumed to be a system of natural or intrinsic coordinates, i.e. a

system of non-dimensional coordinates varying between 1 and 1,

see Fig. 11.9.

In the case of four noded elements, this means that they can be

derived from a parent element which is a square whose sides measure

2. With regards to the transformation rules between the coordinate

Fig. 11.9

316

of the same shape functions that we use to represent the displacement

function. This means that the array ci of the coordinates of the nodes

of the element in the general reference frame is used to dene the global

coordinates x; y; z of any point in the element itself. For instance,

we can perform this by deriving a set of shape functions Nj ; in

the local reference frame according to the general procedure

introduced in section 11.3 (that is, they must have a unit value at the

reference node and zero at all the others) and by writing for each

element the following transformation rules

x; NI ; xI NJ ; xJ

NH ; xH NL ; xL

11:28

NH ; yH NL ; yL

In matrix form we can write

x;

N; ci

y;

11:29

11:30

where N; is the shape function matrix and ci is the array containing the global coordinates of the nodes of the generic element, i.e.

ci T xI yI xJ yJ xH yH xL yL

11:31

In this manner we obtain a set which is readily suitable for mapping.

In fact, it is evident that the locations of coordinates I,

I; . . . ; L; L, i.e. the four nodes of the parent element, will automatically assume the required coordinates xI; yI; . . . ; xL; yL in

the mapping. Continuity and uniqueness requirements are generally

satised by such a type of transformation, with the exception of

excessive and pathological distortions. The feature can be checked

by making reference to the Jacobian matrix (after Jacobi1 ) of the transformation, that is

3

2

qx qy

6 q q 7

7

6

11:32

J 6

7

4 qx qy 5

q

1

q

Jacobi, Karl Gustav Jacob (Potsdam, 1804 Berlin, 1851), German mathematician.

317

from equation (11.30), as

2

3

qNI

qNL

0

...

0

6 q

7 i

q

7c

J 6

11:33

4

qNI

qNL 5

...

0

0

q

q

From calculus we know that the condition for a one-to-one mapping

is that the sign of the determinant of equation (11.33) remains

unchanged at all the points of the domain under mapping. When

such a transformation rule is adopted, the elements will be called

isoparametric. One of the most signicant advantages of the isoparametric formulation is that if two adjacent elements are generated

from the same parent element, whose shape functions make the

displacement of any side dependent on the behaviour of only the

nodes belonging to the side itself, then the distorted elements will be

always contiguous, before and after deformation has occurred. This

can be demonstrated very easily by making reference to Fig. 11.10.

It is evident that along a common edge, such as the line IJ, elements

A and B have the same tangent coordinate, being A B . Moreover,

as the mapping into the distorted elements is governed along the

common edge by the same functions of , i.e. the shape functions Nj ,

J

B

A

Fig. 11.10

318

and the sets of global nodal coordinates are the same, it follows that

the inter-element boundary curve IJ will also be the same. The

same line of reasoning applied to the displacement functions, equation

(11.7), demonstrates that displacement is also the same along a

common edge. It goes without saying that the continuity of the displacement functions is preserved in the mapping and that isoparametric elements will be invariant as a consequence of the adoption of

the intrinsic coordinate system .

Finally, it must be underlined that, although we have limited our

development here to two-dimensional structures, nevertheless all the

comments and results derived above are equally valid and applicable

to the analysis of three-dimensional structures and components.

11.4

functions the patch test

Now it is appropriate to consider some conditions to which displacement functions should conform so that it is likely that the exact mathematical solution of the problem of elastic equilibrium will be

approached by the nite element treatment as more and more elements

are used to mesh a certain structure. From a rigorous mathematical

standpoint this is quite a complex matter and in the past 30 years

many studies have been devoted to underwriting the intrinsically

approximate nite element method with a formal mathematical basis.

A review of such studies and the mathematical developments are outside the purpose of this textbook and we limit the following presentation to self-evident and heuristic physical convergence requirements.

These requirements are

.

.

the displacement eld must be continuous within every subdomain. This is a fairly simple requirement and is met by any

polynomial displacement function.

inter-element compatibility should be respected, i.e. there should

be no gaps or overlaps between elements. Moreover, bending

elements (like, for instance, those associated with the Kircho

plate model or the Bernouilli beam model) should not allow discontinuities in slope between elements. The rst point of this

statement is physically evident and we have seen that the use

of the isoparametric formulation provides a straightforward

way of meeting such a condition. The second point is physically

evident, too. However, it is rather more complicated to meet

such a requirement and there are many element formulations

of common use that violate the requirement in a coarse mesh

arrangement. Nevertheless, these elements may be able to

319

yield a good convergence towards the exact mathematical solution because incompatibilities in slope tend to disappear with

increasing mesh renement. Also, incompatible elements are

very often deliberately adopted because they tend to `soften'

the behaviour of the model and counteract the natural overstiness of the displacement functions. In fact it must be

borne in mind that by substituting the real solid by a nite

element model we seek the solution of the elastic equilibrium

(which for linear problems corresponds to a minimum of the

total potential energy) in a class of functions which is a subset

of the class of all the kinematically admissible functions and

therefore provides displacements that are generally smaller

than the real ones.

the elements should be geometrically invariant or isotropic. This

requirement is once again physically evident and means that

the element behaviour should have no preferred direction. It

implies that the polynomial expression adopted to interpolate

the displacement eld over the element sub-domain should be

symmetric with respect to any coordinate. Of course obtaining

a set of isotropic elements is quite easy in an isoparametric

formulation, provided the assumed displacement functions for

the parent element retain symmetry with respect to all the

intrinsic coordinates.

the elements should be able to represent rigid-body motions

exactly. Of course, a reliable nite element model must be able

to represent correctly this situation, which may occur in the

whole structure or only in a part of it. An obvious implication

of this requirement is the following: when the vector of nodal

displacements d represents a rigid body motion, the element

must exhibit a zero strain eld. From a mathematical standpoint, this implies that the polynomial adopted for the representation of the displacement eld must possess appropriate and

adequate constant terms.

the elements should be able to represent constant strain elds.

From a physical standpoint this last requirement may seem

less obvious than the previous ones, but it is nevertheless a

very signicant requirement. We can imagine any continuous

structure as a system characterised by an innite number of

elements, each one displaying a constant strain, which is the

value of the strain at each point of the whole domain. Thus, it

seems appropriate that a nite element is able to reproduce

constant strain elds so that, as the mesh is further and further

rened and the sub-division of the domain becomes ner and

320

qz (z)

z

y

l

z (z)

Fig. 11.11

neighbourhood of each point.

In order to give a simple example of this situation, we can make

reference to an axially loaded bar, Fig. 11.11.

The form of the axial strain "z z is displayed below the bar. We may

now sub-divide the bar in a specied number of nite elements, say n,

as shown in Fig. 11.12.

If the elements are able to represent a constant strain eld, the actual

strain eld in Fig. 11.12 can be approximated by the piecewise diagram

shown in Fig. 11.13 and as n ! 1 the real strain eld will be

approached by the nite element solution.

qz (z)

z

l/n

y

l

Fig. 11.12

zz (z)

Fig. 11.13

321

Fig. 11.14

If, however, the elements are not able to represent a constant strain

eld, it may be that even when the dimension l/n of each element

becomes very small, the form of the axial strain resulting from the

nite element modelling will still dier signicantly from the exact

solution, as shown in Fig. 11.14.

We recall that in the linear theory of elasticity the strain eld within

the structure is derived from the displacement eld by means of the

well-known relationships

qu

"xx x

qx

...

11:34

1 quy qux

"xy

2 qx

qy

...

and it follows that a complete linear polynomial is required in order to

represent constant strain states. A complete quadratic polynomial is

required in order to represent constant curvatures in models for structural exure, such as Kircho's plates. As a generality, we can say that

it is desirable that polynomial expressions of displacement elds possess the highest order of a complete polynomial for the assigned

number of parameters to be determined. The whole set of complete

polynomials of any order can be shown graphically by means of the

Pascal2 triangle, Fig. 11.15.

However, it must be underlined that this condition, like each of the

previous requirements, if taken alone, is neither a necessary nor a sufcient condition to guarantee the convergence of the nite element

model to the exact mathematical solution. On the whole, it can be

armed that displacement functions that satisfy the above requirements show a good convergence to an accurate solution and do not

display strange or pathologic behaviours even for a relatively coarse

discretisation of the structure.

A practical test of validity for a generic non-conforming element (i.e.

those elements that do not respect the second of the conditions above,

2

and religious philosopher.

322

1

2 2

Fig. 11.15

which is normally the case for elements used to model plates and shells,

as discussed earlier) is the so-called patch test. This test consists of

assembling an arbitrary patch of elements in such a way that at least

one node is completely surrounded by elements, see Fig. 11.16.

Then, a boundary nodal displacement that corresponds to a state of

constant strain is applied. Once the equations of elastic equilibrium

have been solved for the nite element model, the test is considered

to be passed if resulting strains agree exactly with exact values at

every point in any sub-domain. Of course, in order to be signicant,

the test must be repeated for more than one geometry, mesh arrangement and state of strain. In fact, some elements may pass the test in

some conditions and fail it in others. It can be shown that, under

some precise requirements, the patch test is a necessary and sucient

condition for convergence. In any case and apart from precise

Fig. 11.16

323

mathematical reasons, the patch test is also the most eective and

practical benchmark for nite element programming and checking.

11.5

the components of the displacement function in the xy plane, i.e.

equations (11.2) and (11.3). The choice of a four-term polynomial

expression in x and y was obviously suggested by the fact that we

were dealing with a four-noded element and thus we had four

conditions to impose for each component of displacement in order

to make the value of the displacement function at the position of

each node equal to the displacement of the node itself. In general

this approach can be repeated for any parent element in intrinsic

coordinates, regardless of the number of nodes. As an example of

this, let us consider the eight-noded element shown in Fig. 11.17.

The components of displacement at eight points must determine

uniquely the variation of the displacement function exemplied by a

polynomial expression in and with eight free coecients, such as

ui a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 2 a6 2 a7 2 a8 3

11:35

The substitution of the coordinates of the nodes I; . . . ; P will provide

a system of eight linear equations in the eight unknowns a1 ; . . . ; a8 , i.e.

2

3 2

32 3

1 I . . . 2 II 3 I

ui I

a1

4 ... 5 4... ... ...

...

. . . 54 . . . 5

a8

ui P

1 P . . . 2 PP 3 P

11:36

O

Fig. 11.17

324

d i Ca

11:37

a1 ; . . . ; a8 , that is

a C1 d i

11:38

ui ; a C1 d i

11:39

where

1

2

2

2

3

11:40

conclude that in this case the required expression of the shape functions is

N NI

. . . . . . NP C1

11:41

the existence of the inverse of C1 is not always guaranteed. Moreover, even when the inversion of C is possible, it is still a quite complicated and lengthy formal procedure for many element geometries.

Finally, the choice of the lowest possible power for each term of the

polynomial expression does not necessarily lead to expressions that

are symmetric with respect to and . This is the case in equation

(11.35), which is a polynomial of order 3 that does not include the

terms 3 and 2 , as can be easily observed from the Pascal triangle,

Fig. 11.15.

In this manner the element shown in Fig. 11.17 has preferential

directions, allowing a fully cubic variation of the components of displacement only with respect to the coordinate and thus violates the

third of the conditions stated in the previous section. Therefore it

appears advantageous to seek to establish a procedure to specify the

shape functions directly and systematically with full compliance with

the required conditions. Actually, there are several ways to full this

goal and each one results in a precise family of shape functions.

Here we will consider two basic and popular `families' of shape functions: the Lagrange family and the serendipity family.

The Lagrange family of shape functions stems directly from the

expression of Lagrange polynomials in one coordinate. It is known

from elementary calculus that these polynomials have the following

remarkable property: given n points on the axis, it is always possible

325

1

Fig. 11.18

say the k-th, and zero value at all the other n 1. The situation is

illustrated in Fig. 11.18.

The general expression of any Lagrange polynomial in one coordinate is given by the relationship

Lnk

1 2 . . . k 1 k 1 . . . n

k 1 k 2 . . . k k 1 k k 1 . . . k n

11:42

Lnk k 1

and Lnk j 0

for j 6 k

11:43

through n points is a polynomial of order n 1. If we take into consideration a generic rectangular element with r s nodes, as shown

in Fig. 11.19, a whole family of shape functions can be written down

directly from the expression of Lagrange polynomials.

s r

r

1

326

In fact, by labelling the node by its column and row number, say h

and k, we have

Nj ; Lrh Lsk

11:44

such a family of shape functions lies in the extreme simplicity of its general expression. Additionally, as for a rectangular element both r and s

result 2, it follows that the expression, equation (11.44), will always

include a complete polynomial of order 1, thus allowing the representation of rigid displacements and constant strains. Also, if we assume

r s, as is usually the case for parent elements in intrinsic coordinates,

geometrical isotropy is automatically assured.

However, from Fig. 11.19 it is also clear that the Lagrange family

may imply a large number of internal nodes for each element. Despite

the fact that the behaviour of such nodes can be linked to the displacements of the nodes on the edges by means of a standard substructuring procedure (according to the same technique by which,

for instance, we can make the displacement of the internal node M

of the truss of Fig. 11.20 an explicit function of the displacements of

the end nodes I, J, H, L), nevertheless the presence of such degrees

of freedom can adversely aect the convergence of the nite element

model.

Moreover, if we take into consideration the generic shape function

which is derived from equation (11.44) for a 3 3 nodes element, i.e.

Nj ; a1 a2 a3 a4 2 a5 a6 2

a7 2 a8 2 a9 2 2

11:45

u (H)

u (L)

L

u (I)

I

Fig. 11.20

u (J)

L

327

Fig. 11.21

we see that it contains some high-order terms and it omits some lower

ones. In fact equation (11.45) contains, together with the complete

second order expansion, the higher order terms 2 , 2 and 2 2 ,

while it omits the terms 3 and 3 (needed for a complete third-order

expansion) and the terms 4 , 3 , 3 and 4 (needed for a complete

fourth-order expansion). This holds true for every element of the

Lagrange family, which therefore does not oset the welcome property

that polynomial expressions of displacement elds possess the highest

order of a complete polynomial for the assigned number of parameters

to be determined.

The serendipity family of shape functions is somewhat slightly less

simple to generate, but it oers substantial advantages, too. The name

serendipity was given to this class of shape functions after the princes

of Serendip, who were reported by Horace Walpole3 to be remarkable

for their chance discovery. The basis for the name stems evidently

from the way in which we derive the serendipity shape functions.

In fact, let us consider the four noded square element in Fig. 11.21.

The equations of the lines JH and LH are, respectively,

1 0

1 0

11:46

P; 1 1

11:47

will give zero value for the coordinates of the nodes J, H and L. Thus,

we can write

NI ; a1 1

11:48

we have

NI ; 14 1 1

3

11:49

328

Fig. 11.22

By repeating the same reasoning for each of the four nodes of the

element in Fig. 11.21, we are led to the general formula

Nj ; 14 1 j 1 j

11:50

ingenuity for any element we may wish to consider. In fact, if we shift

our attention to the eight-noded element shown in Fig. 11.17, we have

to identify for each node a certain number of lines that pass, in turn,

through all the other nodes and these may not be simply the sides

which do not contain the node in question. As an example, consider

a corner node, such as the node I, for which the required lines

are JP, HM and OM, as shown in Fig. 11.22. Their respective

equations are

1 0

1 0

1 0

11:51

NI ; a1 1 1

11:52

NI ; 14 1 1 1

11:53

For a side node, such as the node J, the required lines are HM, OM

and IO, as shown in Fig. 11.23.

Their respective equations are

1 0

1 0

1 0

11:54

329

Fig. 11.23

NJ ; a1 1 1

11:55

NJ ; 12 1 1 1

11:56

obtain the following general formulae

corner nodes:

Nj ; 14 j j 11 j 1 j

11:57

mid-side nodes: Nj ; 12 1 2 1 j

Nj ; 12 1 j 1 2

for j 0

for

j 0

11:58

freedom for a certain complete polynomial expansion than the Lagrangian family. Moreover, they do not require the presence of internal

nodes a priori, but this can become necessary in cases where the

presence of complete polynomials beyond the cubic for mid-side

nodes is required for particular analyses.

330

11.6

equilibrium equations

terms of shape and displacement functions, the study of the elastic equilibrium of the nite element model becomes simple and straightforward.

For the sake of simplicity and clarity of presentation, we continue

with the example of the two-dimensional plane strain problem

introduced in section 11.1. From a conceptual point of view the

development of the theory for a generic three-dimensional problem

is identical to that for the two-dimensional case and the extension

should present no real diculties.

The simplest way to study the problem consists once again in writing

down the total potential energy of the nite element model and seeking

the values of the degrees of freedom of the system, i.e. the displacements of its nodes, corresponding to the stationary value of this expression. This is exactly what we have already described in chapters 8 and 9

for the systems of bars and beams and most of the observations made

at that stage remain valid also in the theory for nite elements.

Therefore, let us recall the general expression of the total potential

energy, that is equation (6.2)

UW

Also in the present case the strain energy of the whole structure is given

by the sum of the energy stored in each of its elements, i.e.

X i

U

U

11:59

i

can write equation (3.107) in a more compact form

1

Ui

" x; yCijhk "hk x; y dA

11:60

2 ij

Si

S is the domain of the generic element and Cijhk are the constants

which dene the elastic properties of the material. Remember that

we are examining a system of unit depth, so that the integrals can be

performed over the area A of the elements. For the sake of compactness, in the case at hand the components of strain "ij x; y can be

ordered in a three-element array, i.e.

3

2

"xx x; y

7

6

11:61

"x; y 4 "yy x; y 5

2"xy x; y

331

2

3

1

0

6

E

1

0 7

6

7

11:62

C

4

1 1 2

1 2 5

0

0

2

Notice that the elastic constants matrix (11.62) can be straightforwardly derived from the relationships (3.93)(3.95) and (3.99) by

setting "zz 0 in equation (3.95) and then substituting the resulting

value of zz in the preceding two equations.

The straindisplacement relationships can also be expressed in

matrix form,

2 q

3

3 6 qx 0 7

2

"xx

6

7" #

q 7 ux

6 " 7 6

7

" 4 yy 5 6

11:63

6 0 qy 7 u

y

6

7

2"xy

4 q

q 5

qy

qx

" Su

11:64

Thus, the strain energy of the generic element can be written as

1

1

i

T

U

" C" dA

uT ST CSu dA

11:65

2

2

Si

Si

equation (11.65) i.e. ux; y Nx; yDi , we get, nally

1

i

U

Di T NT ST CSNDi dA

2

Si

1

Di T

2

NT ST CSN dADi

11:66

Si

(8.40)(8.42), obtained in the case of frame of structures, by setting

11:67

K i NT ST CSN dA

Si

332

U i 12 Di T K i Di

11:68

the nodes of the generic four-node element in the global reference

frame. Thus for the present example, see equation (11.8)

Di T ux I uy I ux J uy J ux H uy H ux L uy L

K i is therefore an 8 8 matrix. In order to make the formulae as

general as possible, we take into consideration the vector D, which

contains all the nodal displacements of the nite element model of

Fig. 11.3. We have

DT ux 1 uy 1

...

uy 9 ux 9

...

ux 16 uy 16

11:69

we can identify the joints I, J, H and L of any element in the general

numbering system. For example, for element 7 in Fig. 11.3, we have

I

! 10

! 14

! 13

11:70

an 8 8 array to a 32 32 array simply by setting its terms in the

appropriate position and leaving all the others as zero. Thus, we can

write

U i 12 DT K i D

11:71

X i X1 T i

D K D

U

U

2

i

i

1 T X i

1

D

K D DT KD

2

2

i

where

K

X

i

K i

11:72

11:73

333

Let us now take into account the body forces b that act on the

domain S of the structure, and the tractions f that act on its boundary,

. If we order their components along the axes of the global reference

frame as two arrays, i.e.

bx x; y

fx x; y

bx; y

f x; y

11:74

by x; y

fy x; y

we can write the work of the applied loads as

W bj uj dA fj uj ds

S

11:75

Given the property of the addition operator for integrals, the above

expression can also be written as

X T

X T

u b dA

u f ds

11:76

W

i

Si

By substituting the equation (11.7) for the displacement function

into equation (11.76), that is u NDi , we obtain

X i T T

X i T T

W

D N b dA

D N f ds

i

X

i

Si

9

=

D

N b dA N f ds

: i

;

i

i

8

T<

11:77

presented in chapters 8 and 9 for the framed structures, we can set

8

9

<

=

i

T

T

11:78

P

N b dA N f ds

: i

;

i

S

product of an 2 8 matrix, NT , by a two-element vector, i.e. b and

f , which gives an eight-element column array.

334

Thus, we have

X iT i

D P

W

11:79

J, H and L of any element in the general numbering system allows us to

enlarge the eight-element vectors P i to 32-element arrays. This is

done by setting the terms of P i in the appropriate positions and

leaving all the other elements as zero. In this manner we can write

X i

X T i

W

D P DT

P DT P

11:80

i

where

P

P i

11:81

At this point the total potential energy of the nite element model is

U W 12 DT KD

DT P

11:82

and, from a formal point of view, appears exactly the same as equation

(8.47) obtained in the case of framed structures, as we set out to show.

The solution of the elastic equilibrium problem can be pursued by

seeking the stationary value of the total potential energy expression

equation (11.82) with respect to the degrees of freedom set in the displacement vector D. This means that we have to impose that

q

0

qDj

11:83

In the case of the retaining wall, Fig. 11.3, equation (11.83) is a linear

system of 32 equations in 32 unknowns, namely the components of the

vector D dened by equation (11.69). In matrix notation it is

KD

P 0

11:84

dened by equations (11.73) and

It is evident that the matrix K,

(11.67), represents the combined stiness matrix for the structure,

while the vector P, dened by equations (11.81) and (11.78),

represents the equivalent combined loads vector. As was the case

with framed structures, the system equation (11.84) is singular and

not solvable before the eects of restraints are taken into account.

Imposition of the respect of the kinematic constraints at the nodes 1,

2, 3 and 4 of the nite element model in Fig. 11.3 follows the same

procedure as in section 8.2 and is therefore not repeated here. In the

335

set of 24 linear equations in 24 unknowns, that are the active degrees of

freedom of the structure, i.e. the components of displacement of the

nodes 516. The system can be written as

KI DI PI

11:85

and admits a unique solution.

The reader can also verify that, once the eect of the constraints has

been imposed, the joint stiness matrix of the problem KI is positive

denite. Restraint displacements, too, can be taken into account

following the same line of reasoning as presented in section 9.6.

Again, as in the case of the framed structures of chapters 8 and 9, the

construction of the equilibrium equations (11.85) can be pursued

directly, without the necessity to repeat every time the underlying

reasoning in terms of energy. This constitutes the direct stiness

method previously introduced. In fact, once the actual structure

has been conceptually sub-divided into nite elements, the only

components required to produce the equilibrium equations (11.84)

are the expressions for the stiness matrices K i , given by equation

(11.67), and of the equivalent nodal loads P i , given by equation

(11.78).

However, both equations (11.67) and (11.78) are expressed in the

global reference frame xy, while we generally establish the expressions of the shape and displacement functions for the generic nite

element in the intrinsic reference frame , as seen in sections 11.3

and 11.5. An appropriate manipulation of data involving the transformation rules is therefore required. Moreover, the computation

of the stiness matrices K i and of the equivalent joint loads P i

involves integration of several functions. In dealing with real largescale complex structures it is clear that these integration operations

must be performed in an automated way by means of suitable

numerical procedures. Both these points will be claried in the next

section.

11.7

nodal loads numerical integration

map the elements from the intrinsic system of coordinates to the

global system xy and therefore we possess the expression of the

shape functions matrix N; in the intrinsic system , while the

integrations in the expressions equations (11.67) and (11.78), are to

be performed in the global system xy. Some simple mathematical

manipulation is therefore required at this stage. We start from formula

336

K i Nx; yT ST CSNx; y dA

Si

Basically, in order to perform this integration we require the expression of the matrix

Bx; y SNx; y

2 qN

I

0

6 qx

6

6

qNI

6

6 0

qy

6

6

4 qN qN

I

qy

qx

... ...

qNL

qx

... ...

... ...

qNL

qy

7

7

qNL 7

7

7

qy 7

7

qNL 5

qx

11:86

A way to attain this target is obviously by means of the explicit expression of the shape function matrix N in the global reference frame xy.

However, as said above, in the isoparametric formulation we hold the

expression of the shape functions matrix N; in the intrinsic

system and the inversion of the transformation rules, equation

(11.30), may turn out to be quite a dicult task. Fortunately, some

very simple manipulation can provide the matrix Bx; y without

requiring the inversion of equation (11.30). If we consider that the

mapping correspondence equation (11.30) yields x and y as functions

of and , i.e. x x; and y y; , the chain rule of derivatives

allows us to write

qNj qNj qx qNj qy

q

qx q

qy q

qNj qNj qx qNj qy

q

qx q

qy q

or, in matrix form,

3

3

2

2

qNj

qNj

6 qx 7

6 q 7

7

7

6

6

J

7

7

6

6

4 qNj 5

4 qNj 5

qy

q

11:87

11:88

where J is the Jacobian matrix of the transformation, given by equation (11.33). Consequently, the terms qNj =qx and qNj =qy required for

337

2

3

2

3

qNj

qNj

6 q 7

6 qx 7

7

6

7

1 6

11:89

7

6

7 J 6

4 qNj 5

4 qNj 5

qy

q

Of course, the existence of the inverse of the Jacobian matrix of the

transformation is guaranteed under the condition of uniqueness on the

mapping discussed in section 11.3.

At this point, computation of the stiness matrices K i involves the

integration of known functions in the global reference frame xy over

the sub-domain of the nite element, Si . In fact, we have

i

K Bx; yT CBx; y dA

11:90

Si

coordinates . It is known from calculus that

1 1

f x; y dA

j f~; d d

11:91

1 1

Si

with

j detJ

11:92

11:93

and

Thus the integration of equation (11.90) can be performed directly in

the intrinsic system of coordinates of the parent element, given that

the expression of Bx; y is already obtained in terms of and by

virtue of equation (11.89). Then, we have

K i

1 1

11:94

1 1

equivalent nodal loads, equation (11.78)

8

9

<

=

i

T

T

P

Nx; y bx; y dA Nx; y f x; y ds

: i

;

i

S

338

N; and we can obtain the expressions bx; ; y; and

f x; ; y; of the applied loads directly from substitution of

the transformation rules, equation (11.30). Consequently, we have

81 1

1

<

i

T

P

jN; b; d d N; 1T f ; 1 d

:

1 1

N1; f 1; d

where

9

=

N1; T f 1; d

;

fJ

f s 11

fn J11

fn J12

fs J12

f

N; 1T f ; 1 d

11:95

fJ

s 21

fn J21

fn J22

fs J22

the boundary, respectively.

With regards to the eective evaluation of the integral equations

(11.94) and (11.95) in the intrinsic system of coordinates, it must be

noted that, however possible in a small and mostly academic number

of cases, the exact integration of these expressions is quite dicult

and complicated and generally not feasible in the vast majority of practical applications that may involve complex distorted elements.

Making resort to the techniques of numerical integration is therefore

the standard procedure in almost all nite element analyses. Given

the introductory purposes of this textbook, we will only summarise

here a few elementary principles regarding these numerical integration

operations, referring the interested reader to one of the many valuable

treatises readily available on the subject.

One of the most eective methods of evaluating a denite integral

numerically is the Gauss4 quadrature. The basic idea is well-known:

to approximate a certain one-dimensional integral

1

I

f d

11:96

1

4

and physicist, one of the greatest mathematicians of all times.

339

Fig. 11.24

f

Fig. 11.25

the interval and multiply it by the interval length, i.e. 2. The result is

I 2f 0

11:97

This is exact only in the case where f represents the equation of a

straight line, as shown in Fig. 11.24.

It is clear that a better approximation can be achieved by sub-dividing

the interval in many parts, Fig. 11.25, and by assuming

X

I

f i

11:98

i

where i are the mid-points of each sub-interval and their common

length.

However, it may turn out that a better approximation can be

achieved with the same number of sampling points for the function

f if they are chosen at special locations i . Thus, we can write

X

f i Wi

11:99

I

i

according to the sampling point i . Gauss quadrature, on the basis

of the properties of Legendre5 polynomials, species the position of

the sampling points so that for any number n of them a very high

5

340

Table 11.1 Sampling points and relative weights for Gauss quadrature

n

i

Wi

0:00000

0:57735

2:00000

1:00000

0:77459

0:00000

0:86113

0:33998

0:55555

0:88888

0:34785

0:65214

2

3

4

polynomial of degree 2n 1 by means of n-point sampling. Sampling

points are placed symmetrically with respect to the centre of the interval and each pair of symmetric points is characterised by the same

weighting coecient Wi .

In Table 11.1 some examples of data for one-dimensional Gauss

quadrature are presented.

Extension to the case of n-dimensional integrals is very straightforward; for instance, in two-dimensional problems we can evaluate

the denite integral

1 1

I

f ; d d

11:100

1 1

1 1

1 X

I

f ; d d

f i ; Wi d

1 1

X X

j

f i ; j Wi Wj

XX

i

f i ; j Wi Wj

11:101

approximations in the nite element analyses, the following question

arises naturally: what is the minimum number of sampling points

necessary for convergence of the problem towards the exact solution?

The answer is strictly linked to the types of element employed and

appropriate tables have been developed and made available in literature. Generally, we must bear in mind that the computational cost of

numerical integration is quite signicant, but poor treatment and

lack of attention to detail at this phase of the preparation of a nite

element program always leads to inaccurate and poorly reliability

for practical structural analyses.

341

p = 300 kN/m2

15 m

300 m

Fig. 11.26

11.8

foundation

subject to a vertical pressure p 300 kN=m2 on the top, as shown in

Fig. 11.26.

On account of its length, we can consider the foundation to be in a

state of plane strain and therefore we will limit ourselves to analysing a

cross section of unit depth in the longitudinal direction, Fig. 11.27.

l

y

x

Fig. 11.27

342

p

1

y

4

3

l

Fig. 11.28

which divides the cross section in two mirrored parts, we can further

simplify our analysis and take into account the scheme of Fig. 11.28,

where the points coincident with the symmetry axis 24 are allowed

to experience vertical displacements only.

Given the simplicity of the problem, we employ triangular elements

and derive the shape functions directly, without making resort to the

concept of parent elements and intrinsic coordinates. Thus, we

assume that the nite element model for the structure in Fig. 11.28 is

composed of two triangular elements, as shown in Fig. 11.29.

As we have seen in the previous sections, the rst step consists in

deriving the expression of the shape functions Nj x; y which represent

the displacement eld in the element as function of the displacements

of its nodes.

1

l

2

3

Fig. 11.29

343

uy (H)

y

H

ux (H)

uy (J)

uy (I)

ux (J)

ux (I)

Fig. 11.30

have

ux x; y

NI 0 NJ 0 NH

0

Di NDi

uy x; y

0 NI 0 NJ

0 NH

with

ux I

6 u I 7

7

6 y

7

6

7

6

u

J

x

7

Di 6

6 u J 7

7

6 y

7

6

4 ux H 5

uy H

In this example we use the simplest assumption for the deformed

shape of the element, that is, the components along x and y of the

displacement eld are described by rst-order polynomial expressions

of the type

ux x; y a1 a2 x a3 y

uy x; y b1 b2 x b3 y

344

Notice that this very simple expression has the advantage that it

reduces the complexity of the algebra to obtain the stiness matrix

for the element but the assumed polynomial function also restricts

the variation of the strain in the plate to be piecewise constant. Thus

for the strain "x , in the x direction,

qux

a2

qx

and, similarly, for the other strain components. This simplicity of

representation, i.e. piecewise, of a continuous strain eld may have

implications for the number of elements that are required to obtain

an accurate solution using the nite element method.

By inserting in the above expressions the coordinates of the three

nodes of the element we have the following systems of linear equations

in the unknowns a1 ; a2 ; a3 and b1 ; b2 ; b3 , respectively

8

>

< ux I a1 a2 xI a3 yI

ux J a1 a2 xJ a3 yJ

>

:

ux H a1 a2 xH a3 yH

8

>

< uy I b1 b2 xI b3 yI

uy J b1 b2 xJ b3 yJ

>

:

uy H b1 b2 xH b3 yH

"xx

the form

2

3

ux I xI yI

6

7

a1 det4 ux J xJ yJ 5=2A

ux H xH

yH

3

1 ux I yI

7

6

a2 det4 1 ux J yJ 5=2A

1 ux H yH

3

2

1 xI ux I

7

6

a3 det4 1 xJ ux J 5=2A

1 xH ux H

2

3

uy I xI yI

6

7

b1 det4 uy J xJ yJ 5=2A

uy H xH yH

2

1

61

b2 det4

1

2

1

61

b3 det4

1

345

3

yI

yJ 7

5=2A

uy H yH

3

xI uy I

xJ uy J 7

5=2A

xH uy H

uy I

uy J

3

2

1 xI yI

7

6

2A det4 1 xJ yJ 5

1 xH yH

On account of these expressions, with simple calculations we nd that

the shape functions Nj x; y take the form

NI x; y fxJyH xHyJ yJ yHx

xH xJyg=2A

NJ x; y fxHyI xIyH yH yIx

xI xHyg=2A

NH x; y fxIyJ xJyI yI yJx

xJ xIyg=2A

At this point we can evaluate the stiness matrix K i of the generic

element, as given by equation (11.90)

i

K BT CB dA

Si

2 qN

6 qx

6

6

B 6

6 0

6

4 qN

qy

2

6

4

0

qNI

qy

qNI

qx

qNJ

qx

0

qNJ

qy

0

qNJ

qy

qNJ

qx

qNH

qx

0

qNH

qy

7

7

qNH 7

7

qy 7

7

qN 5

H

qx

yJ yH

0

0

xH xJ

yH yI

0

0

xI xH

yI yJ

0

3

0

7

xJ xI 5

xH xJ

yJ yH

xI xH

yH yI

xJ xI

yI yJ

346

2

C

6

E

6

6

1 1 2 4

1

1

1 2

2

3

7

7

7

5

It is evident that for the assumed choice of displacement polynomials the deformation matrix B actually does not depend on the

coordinates x and y of the points inside the domain of the element.

Thus, the integration over the domain of the element is simple and

straightforward, and the required stiness matrix K i can be written as

1

E1

4A 1 1 2

2 2

c4 c21 c4 c1 c4 c1

6

6

c21 c24

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

sym

4

K i

c4 c5 c1 c2

c4 c2 c1 c5

c6 c4 c1 c3

c1 c5 c4 c2

c1 c2 c4 c5

c1 c6 c4 c3

c25 c22

c5 c2 c5 c2

c5 c6 c2 c3

c22 c25

c2 c6 c5 c3

c26 c23

c4 c3 c1 c6

7

c1 c3 c4 c6 7

7

7

c3 c5 c2 c6 7

7

7

c2 c3 c5 c6 7

7

7

c6 c3 c6 c3 7

5

c23 c26

with

1

1 2

21

and

c1 xH xJ

c2 xI xH

c3 xJ xI

c4 yJ yH

c5 yH yI

c6 yI yJ

For the plane analysis being exemplied here, the stiness matrix of the

element 1 (which is dened by the coordinates I 4, J 2, H 1),

K 1 , is readily obtained from the general expression by setting

c1 l

c2 0

c3 l

c4 0

c5 l

c6 l

coordinates I 4, J 3, H 2), K 2 , is obtained by setting

c1 0

c2 l

c3 l

c4 l

c5 l

c6 0

347

for the model in Fig. 11. 29 is represented by the following eightelement array

DT ux 1

uy 1

...

. . . ux 4 uy 4

is an 8 8 array. This matrix can be easily obtained by adding the

K,

contributions of the stiness matrices of the elements 1 and 2, i.e. K 1

and K 2 in the appropriate positions, as formally indicated by equation (11.73). However, the presence of the constraints at the nodes 2,

3 and 4 allows only the horizontal and the vertical displacement of

the node 1 and the vertical displacement of the node 2. Therefore,

the nodal displacement vector D reduces to

3

2

ux 1

7

6

DI 4 uy 1 5

uy 2

and the joint stiness matrix of the structure, KI , becomes a 3 3

array. Therefore the joint stiness matrix is seen to be

2

3

1

1

1

K55

K56

K54

6

7

1

1

7

KI 6

K66

K64

4

5

1

2

sym

K44 K66

1

E1

4A 1 1 2

2

3

l 2 l 2

l 2

l 2 l 2

6

7

l 2 l 2

l 2 7

6

4

5

2

2

sym

l l

3

2

1

E1

7

6

1

5

4

21 1 2

sym

1

The analytical method described above is applied here to a concrete

foundation which is composed of material with the following properties: Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio: E 3:11 107 kN=m2 and

0:15, respectively. The weight per unit volume is 22 kN=m3 .

348

Thus, we have

0:176

0:412

2 :

3

1 412 0:588

0:412

1:412 0:412 5

KI 1:642 107 4

sym

1:412

and (11.81), i.e.

8

9

<

=

i

T

T

N b dA N f ds

P

: i

;

S

i

X i

P

P

i

with

b

f

22

on the side 12

300

N4 l 2 ly=l 2 l y=l

N2 lx=l 2 x=l

N1 lx ly=l 2 y x=l

and for element 2

N4 l 2 lx=l 2 l x=l

N3 lx ly=l 2 x y=l

N2 ly=l 2 y=l

so that the vector of the nodal forces corresponding to the active

degrees of freedom is seen to be

2

3 2

3

0

0

6

7 6

7

l

l

l

6

7 6

7

6

7

6

yx

lx 7

6

7 6 300

22 dx

dy

dx 7

6

7 6

7

l

l

76

7

PI 6

x

0

0

6

7

6

7

0l

1

6

7

6

7

l

l

l

x

6

7 6

7

6

7

6

7

x

y

x

4 22@ dx

dy dx

dyA 5 4 300

dx 5

l

l

l

0

349

Notice that for the sake of clarity we kept the contribution of the body

forces and that of the applied surface load p separate. With a fairly

simple integration we obtain

3

3 2

2

0

0

6

6

l2 7

l 7

7

7 6

6

6 22 7 6 300 7

PI 6

6 76

27

7

7 6

6

5

5 4

4

l2

l

300

22

2

3

3

3 2

2

3 2

0

0

0

7

7 6

6

7 6

: 7

: 7 6

7 6

6

4 8 25 5 4 225 5 4 233 25 5

241:50

225

16:5

It is straightforward to verify that the sum of the nodal forces

corresponding to the body forces due to the self-weight of the concrete

are equal to half of the weight of the whole section, i.e.

A 22 2:25 49:5 kN (remember that we are dealing with a

plane strain problem and therefore we are examining a slice of unit

depth). Only half the weight is included in the analysis of the deformation because the remaining part of the total weight would be applied to

the constrained nodes 3 and 4 with no eect on the deformation of the

foundation. Conversely, the resultant of the surface load p, i.e.

p l 300 1:5 450 kN/m, is applied to the nodes 1 and 2 in the

form of two forces of equal value.

Finally, the equilibrium equations of the problem is

KI DI PI )

32

3

ux 1

1:412 0:588

0:412

76

7

6

1:412 0:412 54 uy 1 5

1:642 107 4

uy 2

sym

1:412

2

3

0

6

:25 7

233

4

5

2

241:50

2

3

2:14418 106 m

6

7

DI 4 0:150952 104 m 5

0:141951 104 m

350

write

3

32

3 2

2

ux 1

0

1:412 0:588

0:412

7

76

7 6

6

1:642 107 4

1:412 0:412 54 uy 1 5 4 225 5

sym

and get

1:412

uy 2

225

3

2:148710 106 m

6

7

DI 4 0:144809 104 m 5

0:133029 104 m

(11.64), (11.7) and (11.86), that is

3

2

"xx

6 " 7

i

i

4 yy 5 SND BD

2"xy

Thus, we have

2

3 2

3

"xx

0:145038 104

6 " 7 6 :

7

4 yy 5 4 0 977461 104 5

2"xy

0:655216 105

3

2

3 2

"xx

0

6 " 7 6 :

4 7

4 yy 5 4 0 897944 10 5

2"xy

0

for elements 1 and 2, respectively.

In order to validate the quality of the solution obtained, we can

refer to the exact value of the strain component "y which is

0:964630 104 . It is found that even with the extremely coarse

mesh adopted, the nite element solution diers from the exact one

by no more than 7:5%.

If a more exact solution were required for the nite element modelling there are two possible ways forward. One is simply to rene the

mesh geometry dening the elements, that is to include more elements

in the analysis. This is a simple and straight forward operation once the

element stiness matrix has been formulated in a general manner.

Indeed this approach is the one that most engineers would follow

when they use commercial programs for nite elements. They would

carry out a sensitivity analysis to determine, by progressively rening

351

the element mesh geometry, the geometry that would give an adequately

accurate answer and ensure that the answer is not sensitive to the change

of mesh geometry.

An alternative approach would be to assume a higher order

polynomial to describe the variation of the deformations ux x; y,

uy x; y, in place of the simple linear variation assumed in this example.

This alternative approach requires the re-formulation of the stiness

matrix for a generic element. The potential advantage for this

approach is that possibly the number of elements required to converge

to an adequately accurate solution may be reduced.

non-linear deformations of

beamcolumns

Introduction

linear response of systems of bars and plates to applied loading.

That is, the structural deformations can be modelled by a linear relationship between the loading and the strains induced by the loads. A

basic assumption is that the deformations of the structural elements

are suciently small that the points of application and directions of

the loads can be considered as unchanged during the deformations

and always acting on the undeformed structure.

Despite the increased complexity of incorporating non-linearity

into the analysis even for linearly elastic materials, we feel that some

introduction to these types of phenomena and solution techniques is

a valuable complement to the linear analysis methods presented in

earlier chapters. This chapter therefore is concerned with a development of the analysis of some of the simplest structural elements that

exhibit geometric non-linearity, mainly the beam-column. The deformations of this type of element have a signicant eect on the geometry

of the applied loading. In this presentation we shall restrict the theoretical development to linear elastic materials.

12.1

columns

which is capable of exhibiting stable and unstable congurations of

equilibrium. Perhaps the most simple of these systems is that already

introduced in chapter 6, i.e. the ball subject to a gravitational eld in

the landscape of hills and valleys of Fig. 6.1.

354

P

P

Fig 12.1

In section 6.1 we stated that the total potential energy of the system

coincides with the load potential Phs, which represents the capability

of the gravitational force P to perform work on account of the height

hs of the ball. If no work tends to be performed by the gravitational

force, the principle of conservation of energy assures that no kinetic

energy can be gained by the system and it is in static equilibrium.

However, it is intuitively clear that the state of equilibrium attained

at the top of a hill is qualitatively very dierent from the equilibrium

attained at the bottom of a valley. In fact, let us consider the static

forces, acting as a result of a very small displacement about an equilibrium state, as a means of inferring the likely dynamic response. If the

static forces acting upon the system after such a small displacement

about an equilibrium state (i.e. the gravitational force and the frictionless reaction of the support) are in a direction which tends to restore

the system to its original equilibrium state we consider that the original

position is a stable equilibrium state, but if the static forces are such that

they tend to upset the system then the original position is considered to

be an unstable equilibrium state.

In the case under consideration, if the ball is at the bottom of a valley

then the gravitational force P will always tend to restore the ball to its

original position of equilibrium after any small displacement about

this point, as shown in Fig. 12.1. On the contrary, if the ball is at the

top of a hill then the gravitational force P will always tend to move

the ball away from its original position of equilibrium for any small

displacement about this point, see Fig. 12.2.

P

P

Fig 12.2

355

Fig 12.3

cases of neutral equilibrium. With reference to the present example

this may happen when the ball is on a perfectly horizontal plane surface and therefore it may be placed in any displaced conguration

and still be in a state of equilibrium, Fig. 12.3. From a mathematical

standpoint a situation of neutral equilibrium can also be imagined as

a limiting case dividing stable from unstable equilibrium, but from

a practical point of view in the analysis of structures this is not a

signicant case.

The simplest problem of elastic instability in the theory of structures

is that concerning lateral buckling of compressed members. With reference to Fig. 12.4, which shows a slender bar subject to a compressive

axial load N, it is easy to nd experimentally that for a certain range

of values of the axial force, say from 0 to Nc , the axial shortening of

the bar is directly proportional to the applied load.

This happens according to the deformation relationship, equation

(4.5), stated in section 4.2 for an axially loaded bar in the linear

theory of elasticity. However, once the axial load has reached the

N

l

Nc

Fig 12.4

356

N

u (l/2)

Fig 12.5

critical value, Nc , the bar deects laterally and the value of the deection is found not to be directly proportional to the value of applied

load, even if the material is perfectly linearly elastic. At the onset of

the lateral deection we say that the bar experiences initial buckling.

Of course, as long as we remain in the realm of the linear theory of

elasticity and under the hypotheses formulated in chapter 4, such a

behaviour cannot be mathematically described, given that the deformation relationship, equation (4.5), holds for any value of the axial

load. Still, the reason for the discrepancy between the predictions of

the model introduced in chapter 4 and the observations in tests on slender columns is quite simple. Essentially, if we perturb the equilibrium

of a slender axially loaded bar, for example by slightly displacing its

mid-span, the axial load will cause a bending moment given by the

product of the force and the distance between its direction and the

deformed axis of the beam, Fig. 12.5.

As long as the elastic stiness of the beam is capable of restoring

the original conguration of equilibrium, the equilibrium is stable

and the only equilibrium conguration is the straight one. However,

when the magnitude of the axial force is such that the bending

moment yielded by the perturbation exceeds the restoring capacity

of the elastic stiness of the beam, other displaced congurations of

equilibrium become possible and the column will bend laterally. In

this case the straight conguration of equilibrium is classied as

unstable, because, as in the case of the ball at the crest of the hill of

357

Fig. 12.2, the column always departs from the crest as a result of any

small displacement of its position. From a practical point of view it

must also be said that it is experimentally very dicult to keep the

column in a straight conguration of equilibrium once the critical

value of the axial load Nc has been attained because this implies the

absence of any imperfection in the specimen or external perturbation

of the column.

It is now clear that the modelling of axially loaded bar illustrated in

chapter 4 ignores the additional moment induced by perturbations or

imperfections of the axis of the column and is therefore incapable of

describing the buckling phenomena. Intuitively it is anticipated that

initial buckling aects only slender bars, being dependent on the

length and on the bending stiness of the element. In fact, for a

squat structural member it is found that yielding and plastic deformation of the material occurs before any lateral initial buckling takes

place. However, there is a large range of practical compressed elements

that can be analysed using the theory of linear elasticity.

The mathematical problem of the lateral instability of compressed

members was solved in the 18th century by the Swiss mathematician

Leonhard Euler, who also formulated the equation of the equilibrium

for laterally loaded beams presented in chapter 4. In the realm of large

displacements this theory leads to the formulation of what is generally

known as the Euler's equation of the elastica. We will present the Euler

theory of compressed bars, i.e. struts, in section 12.4, limiting our

treatment to relatively small deections. First, however, in the next

section, we present an energy criterion for stability and give some

elementary examples.

12.2

understanding of the dynamic response of mechanical systems to disturbances is the basis of stability studies. However, from our point of

view, that is the analysis of structures, this route is probably not the

most convenient one to follow and we shall now introduce a very

useful and intuitive alternative approach based on the potential

energy functional.

We will assume that if the potential energy is a local minimum the

structure is stable with respect to small disturbances, and if the potential energy is a relative maximum the structure is correspondingly

unstable.

In order to attempt a rigorous proof of the link between dynamical

response to disturbances and the potential energy, a great deal of work,

which is outside the scope of this introductory textbook, would be

358

objections, related to very special physical systems, have been directed

towards this classical energy criterion. However, these special systems

do not impinge on the structural models considered here. Therefore,

given its intuitive basis, we will assume the criterion above to be a statement which is conrmed by correspondence between experimental

results and analytical predictions made using this assumption.

Alternatively, the following simple line of reasoning can be considered. In chapter 6 we stated the principle of stationary value of the

total potential energy, that is the relationship 0 holds in the equilibrium state of conservative systems (which in statics of structures is

always the specic state for which the stability is investigated). Let

us assume that the potential functional can be made dependent on

a system parameter that species the position, i.e. q. As a

consequence, q0 0 holds for the value q0 which corresponds to

equilibrium. For a small variation of q, we have

q

1 q2

q0 q q0 q

q2

qq q0

2 qq2 q0

q0 q0 12 2 q0

q0 12 2 q0

12:1

potential energy is a relative maximum if 2 < 0. This means

that potential energy is released and kinetic energy gained when q is

varied from q0 and the system will tend to move away from the

equilibrium position that is therefore unstable. On the contrary, if

2 > 0, potential energy is gained when q is varied from q0 and the

system cannot therefore leave the position of equilibrium by itself,

that is the equilibrium is stable. The stability boundary is given by

2 0, which corresponds to neutral equilibrium. As an historical

remark, it should be noticed that these results make the energy criterion formally identical to Dirichlet's theorem for a point system.

12.3

Branching points and limit points.

considering the elementary model in Fig. 12.6. This is a rigid cantilever

elastically hinged at the bottom end and subject to a vertical force P at

the upper end. The rotational spring is an idealised device that is

capable of resisting rotations by a reactive moment. A familiar

example might be a common door spring that restores the door to

359

l cos

M = k

Fig 12.6

its closed state. The relationship between rotation and the reactive

moment M is

M k

12:2

being the rotation about the hinge axis and k the rotational stiness

of the spring.

By virtue of Clapeyron's theorem, the strain energy stored in the

spring upon rotation is

U 12 k2

12:3

remove the hypothesis of small displacements. The total potential

energy of the system becomes, consequently

12 k2 P 12 k2 Pl1 cos

12:4

0

q

k Pl sin 0

q

12:5

0, which corresponds to the perfectly vertical position of the

bar. If we wish to examine the stability of such a conguration, we

360

P

Pc

Fig 12.7

1 2

1 q2 2

0

2

2 q2 0

Since 2 is always positive, the above term reduces to

q2

k Pl cos0

q2 0

12:6

12:7

stable, while for P > k=l the equilibrium 0 is unstable. The value

of the applied load P k=l constitutes the boundary between stable

and unstable equilibrium and that load is called the critical load, Pc .

Apart from the trivial solution, equation (12.5) is also satised by

the values of P and satisfying the relationship

k

P

12:8

l sin

In the space P this equilibrium path has the form shown in Fig. 2.7

and intersects the trivial or fundamental path, 0 coincident with the

load axis at the point Pc k=l.

Actually, this point, apart from being the boundary between stable

and unstable congurations on the fundamental path, constitutes a

branching point in the equilibrium path. Thus the critical load Pc

makes a bifurcation in the deformation state.

The rising post-buckling path, i.e. increasing deformation with

increasing load, given by the equation (12.8) is easily found to be

q2

k Pl cos > 0

q2

for

6 0

and P >

k

l

361

12:9

fundamental position of equilibrium, it will tend to return to it as

long as P < k=l. On the contrary, if P > k=l any small disturbance

will cause the cantilever to move away from the fundamental path

0 and it will tend to become on the rising equilibrium branch,

which is always stable.

Of course a perfectly straight cantilever loaded by a perfectly axial

force is a pure idealisation and in reality some imperfections will

always aect this simple model. In order to examine such a situation,

let us consider the cantilever in Fig. 12.8, where the vertical load P is

slightly oset from the vertical axis of the bar.

In such a case the total potential energy of the system becomes

12 k2 P

12 k2 Pl1 cos Pe sin

12:10

P

e sin

l cos

M = k

Fig 12.8

362

condition of equilibrium is

0

q

k Pl sin Pe cos 0

q

12:11

e

"

l

12:12

(12.11) becomes

k

P

12:13

l sin " cos

Plotting the equilibrium paths yielded by equation (12.13), as was done

in Fig. 12.9, we notice that there is no longer a bifurcation condition.

This is due to the fact that, on account of the loading eccentricity,

the trivial equilibrium path has disappeared. Nevertheless, the value

of the critical load Pc k=l for the corresponding perfect system

retains all its importance because it represents the magnitude of the

load at which the system starts to present three possible and dierent

congurations of equilibrium. Moreover, if we proceed to examine the

stability of the equilibrium paths by studying the sign of the parameter

q2

k Pl cos Pe sin

q2

12:14

Fig 12.9

363

P

l

cos

Fig 12.10

we discover that the equilibrium paths 1 and 3 are stable, while the

equilibrium path 2 is unstable.

To summarise the results, we may say that the imperfect system of

Fig. 12.8, loaded from its unloaded state, will follow a constantly

rising stable path so that no instability is encountered. The deections

will simply grow more rapidly as the critical load of the perfect system

is passed. In addition to this natural equilibrium path, the system will

also exhibit a complementary equilibrium path in the other quadrant

of the P space, which is partly stable and partly unstable and

cannot be normally encountered in a natural loading process from

P 0.

To complete our presentation of simple examples, we include a

dierent type of instability, which may occur also in perfect systems

without the presence of bifurcation of the equilibrium path. To this

purpose, we can consider the shallow arch of Fig. 12.10.

The arch comprises two axially deformable bars pinned to each

other and to rigid foundations. It is evident from the simple

equilibrium of rigid bodies that for any position, dened by the

rotation angle , the bars are always subject to axial loading only.

The deformation law (4.5) allows us to write

l

N

l

N

EA cos k

12:15

where k is the axial stiness of the bar. By dening the rotation angle

as the parameter describing the conguration of the system, we can

write the following expression for the strain energy of the system

2

1

l

l

U2 k

12:16

2 cos cos

364

W Pl tan l tan

12:17

2

1

l

l

2 k

Pl tan l tan

2 cos cos

12:18

The present example is simplied if we restrict it to a shallow arch,

that is we can take both and to be small and write

cos 1

tan ;

2

;

2

cos 1

2

;

2

12:19

tan

14 kl 2 42 2 43 4 Pl

12:20

0

q

kl 2 22 32 3 Pl 0

q

12:21

and yields

P kl22 3 2

12:22

equilibrium path, see Fig. 12.11.

P

Fig 12.11

365

First of all we notice that there are three equilibrium positions for

P 0, i.e. 0, and 2. In order to investigate the

stability of the equilibrium path, we again make reference to the sign

of the second derivative

q2

kl 2 22 6 32

q2

12:23

In this manner we nd that the two unloaded equilibrium congurations at 0 and 2 are both stable, while the unloaded

equilibrium conguration at is unstable. Moreover, the path

0A is stable, as well as the rising path CE, while the path ABC

is unstable. In other words, starting from the unloaded origin of the

co-ordinates, the arch equilibrium will be described by the stable

rising path 0A. At this point the equilibrium would require a diminishing load along the path AB until zero magnitude is attained at B.

From B to C the magnitude of the load would be required to increase

again but with opposite direction from the initial one, until point C is

reached. In reality, on attaining the point A under the prescribed value

of the load P, the arch will move dynamically to the state D, this is

termed snap buckling. In a practical case the energy released in the

rapid transition from the geometry at A to that at D will eventually

be dissipated by vibrations due to the presence of some damping and

the system will come to rest in this position. Subsequent increments

of the load will cause the inverted arch equilibrium states to follow

the stable rising path DE.

In conclusion, in this example there are no branching points and the

quality of the equilibrium changes from stable to unstable at some

points, namely A and C, which we will call limit points. In other

words, this is a form of progressive instability in the sense that

the structure tends to lose its stiness gradually as an eect of the

change of conguration due to increasing values of loading.

At the end of the presentation of these simple examples, it seems

clear that when we have to investigate the stability of equilibrium we

must start by removing one of the fundamental assumptions of the

linear theory of elasticity, that is on account of the smallness of the

displacement eld the forces acting on the body can be always referred

to the undeformed conguration. In the next section we will see what

this implies for Euler's equation of beam deformation.

12.4

presence of axial loads

when dealing with laterally loaded beams in chapter 4. Euler was

366

P

B

z

A

Fig 12.12

to the problem of an axially loaded elastic bar. Thus, at this point of

the presentation we wish to illustrate how it is possible to write the

total potential energy functional for a beam subject to axial compressive loading and establish, exactly in the same manner as we did in

chapter 4 for the laterally loaded beams, the dierential equation of

the problem.

We start by considering the simply supported beamcolumn of

Fig. 12.12. However, the procedure is absolutely general and can

account, as we will see, for any kind of boundary conditions.

For the sake of simplicity, we consider the beamcolumn to have

uniform bending stiness EIx . If we neglect the axial extensibility,

the only component of the strain energy is that due to bending, is

once more given by equation (4.33)

l

1

U

EIx u002

y dz

2

0

Since the load P is axially applied, its potential is related to the vertical

displacement of the sliding support of the structure . Given that we

have neglected any axial extensibility, this displacement is dependent

only on the lateral deection of the beamcolumn. However, in

367

we assumed that

u02

y 1

and therefore this term was discarded in order to obtain the simplied

expression of the curvature, equation (4.25), from the exact relationship, equation (4.23). This also implied that the axis of the deected

cantilever of Fig. 4.8 had, according to equations (4.27) and (4.28),

the same length of its projection on the z-axis so that the horizontal

displacement of its right end could be considered zero under bending.

We now need to remove this hypothesis in order to evaluate the displacement of the sliding support. However, it must be stressed that

we will not remove the assumption u02

y 1 with reference to the simplication of the curvature relationship equation (4.23) into equation

(4.25). In other words, we assume to have small strains but, with

respect to the applied loading, not negligibly small displacements.

This fact may appear incongruous from a mathematical point of

view, but it must be borne in mind that we are always working with

idealised models of real systems and that in order to describe a

phenomenon a model must be simplied enough to allow a solvable

mathematical treatment. Formulating a problem is, in fact, asking

questions whereas the solution is answering those questions. As long

as we obtain a solution which gives acceptable correspondence with

experimental observations, we may be satised that we have grasped

the essence of the phenomenon under investigation. Of course, every

simplication introduces a degree of approximation and we are

going to see how the present treatment will allow only the evaluation

of the initial buckling load, inasmuch as it is not able to provide any

information about the post-buckling equilibrium states.

Thus, let us consider a generic element of the beamcolumn in its

displaced conguration, as shown in Fig. 12.13. From the theorem

of Pythagoras1 we see that

dz duz 2 dz2 du2y

12:24

so that we have

q

dz duz dz2 du2y

1

s

2

duy A

dz

duz @1 1

dz

12:25

BC),

368

duy

duz

dz

dz

Fig 12.13

expansion, we can write

p

x

1x1

12:26

2

thus equation (12.25) becomes

duz 12 u02

y dz

12:27

column of Fig. 12.12 can be computed as

l

1 02

duz

u dz

2 y

l

0

12:28

and the total potential energy functional of the system can be written

as

l

l

1

1 02

002

EIx uy dz P

u dz

uy U P

2

2 y

0

12:29

369

Once again, the stationary value of the functional uy gives the equilibrium states of the system. Thus

l

dz P u0y u0y dz 0

12:30

boundary conditions exemplied in section 4.4 (and in a more general

way, in section 4.5), we get

l

EIx u0000

y uy

dz P u00y uy dz 0

12:31

to the fourth-order dierential equation

00

EIx u0000

y Puy 0

12:32

This equation is called Euler's equation of beam buckling, and its solution represents the deformed conguration of the elastic beamcolumn

under the specied axial load P.

By dividing both terms by the bending stiness EIx and setting

s

P

12:33

EIx

we can write

2 00

u0000

y uy 0

12:34

uy z A sin z B cos z Cz D

12:35

means of the geometrical and mechanical conditions at the supports

A and B. These constraints require that

uz 0

for

z0

Mz EIx u00y 0

and z l

for

z0

12:36

and z l

12:37

370

the four unknown constants A, B, C and D. The system is

8

uy 0 B D 0

>

>

>

>

>

< EIx u00y 0 EIx 2 B 0

12:38

>

uy l A sin l B cos l Cl D 0

>

>

>

>

:

EIx u00y l EIx A2 sin l EIx B2 cos l 0

or, in matrix form

2

0

0

6

0

2

6

6

4 sin l

cos l

2

2

sin l cos l

1

0

l

0

2 3

0

6

7

6

7

0 76 B 7 6 0 7

7

76 7 6 7

1 54 C 5 4 0 5

1

32

12:39

solution A B C D 0, which corresponds to the fundamental

equilibrium of the beamcolumn, i.e. its straight conguration.

From linear algebra we also know that other solutions are possible

if, and only if,

3

2

0

0

1 1

6

0

2

0 07

7

6

det6

12:40

70

4 sin l

cos l

l 15

2 sin l

2 cos l

Therefore we are led to a transcendental equation (it involves trigonometric functions) in the parameter . The solution of equation (12.40)

is found to be

PE n2

2 EIx

l2

12:41

of the axial load for which a deected conguration of equilibrium

is possible. This is usually called the Euler buckling load, PE , or the

critical load.

It must be noted that in correspondence to this buckling load the

matrix equation (12.39) will admit a solution which is dierent from

the trivial one, but the solution is modied by an arbitrary constant.

Thus the buckled conguration represented by the equation (12.35)

371

buckled shapes for n 1, n 2 and n 3 are represented.

As we anticipated before, the fact that we are left only with the

critical buckling load and not with a relationship between the load

and the corresponding deection is to be ascribed to neglecting the

eect of higher-order terms in the deectioncurvature relationship,

equation (4.23). A fully non-linear equilibrium equation enabling the

study of post-buckling equilibrium paths can be obtained quite

easily by formulating the exact expression of the curvature, but it is

not integrable in an elementary manner and is therefore outside the

scope of this introductory book.2

It is however interesting to notice that a similar behaviour to the

Euler initial buckling formulation might be found also in the previously

examined example of the elastically hinged cantilever of Fig. 12.6.

In fact, if we expand the total potential energy expression (equation

(12.4)) with reference to the term cos and retain only up to the second

2

Nevertheless, the analysis of the post-buckling behaviour of the simply supported

beam of Fig. 12.12 can be tackled in an approximate way by means of the trial function

method. In fact, with a line of reasoning similar to equation (4.23), we can write the

curvature of the deected column as

u00y

1 d

q

r ds

1 u02

y

where, however, this time the derivatives are taken with respect to the curvilinear coordinate of the undeformed axis of the beam, s. Moreover, we can write

2

u002

1

y

02

u002

y 1 uy

r

1 u02

y

Thus, the total potential energy is

l

l

1

P 02

02

EIx u002

1

ds

u ds

y

y

2

2 y

0

ns

uy A sin

l

and performing the substitution in the total potential energy expression, setting

d=dA 0 gives

P

4l 4 2n sin2n

372

a2

a3

a1

PE =

EI

l2

PE = 4 2 EI

2

PE = 9 2 EI

2

Fig 12.14

1

1

2

k2 Pl1 cos k2 Pl

2

2

2

12:42

0

q

k Pl 0

q

12:43

Equation (12.43) gives the value of the critical load Pc k=l as the

value of the load at which a non-trivial conguration of equilibrium

becomes possible, but it fails to give information about the bifurcated

equilibrium paths.

However, from a practical point of view engineers are mostly

interested in designing structures with a degree of safety such that

the critical load is not attained and therefore the knowledge only of

the magnitude of such a load is generally sucient for design analysis

purposes together with an understanding of the eects of imperfections

in the structure loading or geometry.

12.5

columns

The analysis in this section will apply quite systematically the method

introduced above for obtaining the load at which the onset of lateral

deformations are initiated. In the previous section we have seen that

the load at which the perfect column becomes unstable and develops

lateral deformations is called the Euler, or critical load. The form of

373

sometimes bar buckling to distinguish the phenomenon from the

other forms of buckling exhibited by plates and shells.

It has also been noted that a perfect column is an idealisation of

reality and implies that

.

.

.

perfectly axial loading

the material is perfectly linearly elastic, homogeneous and

isotropic

the column cross section is perfectly uniform along its length.

common examples of beamcolumns, these are the rotational

restrained column, the column with a lateral load and the column

with initial out-of-straightness. The analytical treatment in this section

reduces the degree of idealisation and the eect of lateral loads on the

column behaviour eliminates the condition of the unique critical load

behaviour. Nevertheless, the later analysis emphasises the value of the

Euler load as an important parameter characterising the behaviour of a

column subjected to increasing load levels

A column very seldom exists as a separate entity, it is usually a component in a frame and as such it has a exural restraint at its ends from

the contiguous members of the frame. The eect of this restraint, which

is a function of the relative exural stiness of the column and the

members attached to it are considered here.

Figure 12.15(a) shows the deformed shape of an initially perfect

column subjected to a load P applied along the initial axis. The

moments m at the end of the column are applied restraints from

other members attached to the column and in the present example

the restraints are equal at both ends. Note that these restraining

moments have zero value until the column begins to deect and that

they will increase in magnitude as the magnitude of the column lateral

deection increases.

We refer to Euler's equation of initial buckling (12.32)

00

EIx u0000

y Puy 0

s

P

EIx

374

P

P

m

Q

z

uy (z)

Q

m

P

(a)

(b)

Fig 12.15

we obtain

2 00

u0000

y uy 0

uy z A sin z B cos z Cz D

where A, B, C and D are constants determined from the boundary

conditions as follows

uz 0

M

EIx u00y

for

m

z0

and z l

for z 0 and

12:44

zl

8

uy 0 B D 0

>

>

>

>

< EI u00 0 EI B2 m

x y

x

>

u

l

A

sin

l

B cos l Cl D 0

y

>

>

>

:

EIx u00y l EIx A2 sin l EIx B2 cos l m

12:45

12:46

375

previous section, is not homogeneous in the present case.

Its solution yields

m 1 cos l

m

l

A

tan

EIx

sin l

EIx

2

12:47

m

m

B

C

0

D

EIx 2

EIx 2

so that

uy z

m

l

m

m

tan sin z

cos z

2

EIx

2

EIx

EIx 2

m

12:48

12:49

u0y 0 0

m

l

tan

EIx

2

12:50

we get

tan

l

2EIx

2

l

12:51

l

2 l

2

2

12:52

or also

tan

with l=EIx .

The degree of exural restraint applied to the column from a contiguous member provides the specic value of in equation (12.49) and

hence in equation (12.52) which can then be solved to provide the

appropriate value of the Euler load.

The Euler load obtained from the solution of equation (12.52) can be

written as

2 EI

12:53

l2

where
is the particular coecient related to the value of . An alternative approach and convenient to describing the Euler load is to

dene an eective length le such that

PE

PE

2 EIx

le2

12:54

376

10

P

09

le

le /l

08

P

(b )

P

m

07

le

06

m

P

(a )

05

0

10

15

= l/EI

20

25

30

Fig 12.16

where

l

le p

12:55

Curve (a) in Fig. 12.16 shows the variation of the eective length

with increasing values of . Curve (b) show the corresponding variation for columns in which one end is restrained and the other is

simply supported. The free body diagram for this case is shown in

Fig. 12.15(b) in which the asymmetry of the constraint moments

requires that a lateral load Q be applied at the ends of the column.

This load, as in the case of the restraint moments m is zero until

the column experiences lateral deections at the Euler load.

The physical interpretation of the eective length le is made more

clear in Fig. 12.17 where the deected shape of the columns at the

respective Euler loads are shown.

The analysis shows that for a column simply supported at each end,

the eective length is le l, and for a column encastre at both ends,

le l=2. The corresponding condition for a column encastre at one

end and simply supported at the other has le 0:71l. These are

shown graphically in Fig. 12.17(a) to (c) respectively. The eective

length is in fact the distance between the points of inection, i.e. zero

moment, in the deected shape of the columns. The case shown in

P

377

l

l e = 071l

l e = 05l

le = l

(a)

l e = 2l

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig 12.17

Fig. 12.17(d) is for a column encastre at one end and totally free from

constraint at the other. The analysis shows that le 2l, that is the

Euler load for this column is 25% of that for a column simply

supported at both ends. This form of buckling mode is called sway

buckling and is of particular importance to the design of frames since

the buckling load is so low.

only a load aligned with the axis. More often, the loading is a combination of axial and lateral loading, as shown in Fig. 12.18.

The following analysis considers the deections imposed on a column

due to the loading. This is for simplicity of presentation, but the method

of analysis and, more importantly, the results can easily be applied to the

other forms of boundary constraint considered up to now.

The lateral load Q is applied at mid-length of the beam, whose

behaviour is therefore symmetrical with respect to this cross section.

Given the presence of the lateral load Q, the total potential energy

of the system is given by the equation (12.29) plus the addition of

the potential relative to this lateral load, that is

uy U P1 Q2

l

l

1

1 02

002

EIx uy dz P

u dz Q2

2

2 y

0

12:56

378

P

1

2

z

Fig 12.18

On account of the symmetry of the deection with respect to the midspan section, we can express the lateral deection at the mid-span 2 as

follows

l=2

2

0

u0y

l

1 0

dz

u dz

2 y

12:57

so that

l

l

l

1

1 02

1 0

002

EIx uy dz P

u dz Q

u dz

2

2 y

2 y

0

12:58

l

l

dz P

u0y u0y

l

1

dzQ

u0y dz 0

2

12:59

conditions, we get

l

0

EIx u000

y uy

l

dz P

0

u0y u0y

l

1

dzQ

u0y dz 0

2

0

12:60

379

to the third-order dierential equation

0

EIx u000

y Puy

Q

2

12:61

By integrating both the left and the right hand terms, we obtain

EIx u00y Puy

Q

z const:

2

12:62

to see that the constant of integration is zero.

Thus, using the denition in equation (12.33) once again, we have

the following equilibrium equation

u00y 2 uy

Q

z

2EIx

12:63

homogeneous equation, as it was the case for the perfect column,

and the general solution of equation (12.63) is

uy z A sin z B cos z

Q

z

2EIx 2

12:64

that are, on account of the symmetry with respect to the mid-span

uy 0 0

and

u0y l=2 0

12:65

0

1

Q

sin z

uy

zA

@

2EIx 3 cos z

2

12:66

Q

l l

uy l=2

tan

2

2

2EIx 3

12:67

Note that as

P ! PE

l

!

2

2

uy l=2 ! 1

12:68

that is, as the axial load increases close to the magnitude of the Euler

load for the column, the deection becomes very large. The magnitude

380

2

3

l

l

1

l 4 2

2

12

tan

12:69

2 2

2

l

2

2

This approximation enables equation (12.67) to be written as

0

1

Ql 3

1

12:70

uy l=2

PA

48EIx @

1

PE

Thus it can be seen that when the axial load, P, is zero the initial deection at the mid-length of the beam corresponds to that due to the

lateral load Q only. This is

uy l=2

Ql 3

48EIx

12:71

in a non-linear manner until, as stated above, when the axial load

approaches the magnitude of the Euler load the deections become

very large. If the initial deection uy l=2 is dened as the deection

at zero value of P, then the variation of deection with load is

uy l=2

uy

1

P

PE

12:72

It is evident from equation (12.72) that the Euler load is the governing parameter in determining the increase in the deection as the axial

load is applied. The eect of the amplication factor is shown in

Fig. 12.19.

The previous example has shown how a column with a lateral load Q

initially will have a lateral deection and that deection will grow nonlinearly as the axial load P is imposed. It was assumed in section 12.4,

where the perfect column was analysed, that the initial form of the

column was perfectly straight. That is an idealisation of the actual

initial condition of a practical column which due to the manufacturing

process will have some degree of out-of-straightness along its length.

The present example deals with the evaluation of deections from

381

PE

uy (l/2)

uy

Fig 12.19

that initial condition as the axial load P is imposed on such an imperfect column.

The initial deformations of the column are dened as u0y z, as

shown in Fig. 12.20(a). According to equation (4.25), they dene the

curvature of the axis as

1

u000y

r0

12:73

P

u0y (z)

uy (z)

P

(a)

Fig 12.20

(b)

382

l

l

1

1

00

00 2

02

EIx uy u0y dz P

u02

uy

y u0y dz

2

2

0

12:74

l

EIx u00y

u000y u00y

dz P u0y u0y dz 0

12:75

conditions, we get

l

EIx u00y

u000y u00y

dz P uy u00y dz 0

12:76

to the second order dierential equation

u00y u000y uy 0

12:77

The initial deected shape of a column will be dependant on the

manufacturing process and the treatment the column experiences

during fabrication. The analysis is simplied if the initial deection,

u0y z, is represented as a trigonometric series

u0y z b1 sin

z

2z

3z

b2 sin

b3 sin

l

l

l

12:78

was being analysed and its initial deected shape had been measured.

However, for the moment it suces that the trigonometric series

representation is feasible. Substitution of equation (12.78) into

equation (12.77) gives

2

2

z

2

2z

u00y uy

b1 sin

b2 sin

l

l

l

l

12:79

2

z

l

b1 sin

uy z A sin z B cos z 2

l

2

l

2

4

2z

l

2

b2 sin

l

2

4

l

383

12:80

conditions

u0

for

z0

and z l

12:81

Hence

B0

and

A sin l 0

12:82

If sin kl 0, then at distinct values of the load, that is the eigenvalues l n, the magnitude of A can have any value. But at a

value of loading dierent from the eigenvalues, sin kl 6 0 and therefore A 0. Thus, provided the consideration is restricted to load

levels less than the Euler load, it is permissible to substitute A 0 in

equation (10.80). Consequently

uy

b1

P

1

PE

sin

z

b2

P

1

4PE

sin

2z

b3

P

1

9PE

sin

3z

l

12:83

the denominators in the right hand terms will decrease non-linearly.

Thus, provided the magnitudes of the coecients b1 , b2 , etc. are

fairly similar, the contribution to the magnitude of the deection of

the column will increase and the rate of increase with the load will

be greater for the term with b1 compared to the others. Actually,

generally it is b3 > b3 > b3 > . . ., so that as P ! PE the contribution

of the other terms becomes negligible and without introducing much

error, equation (12.83) can be approximated as

uy

b1

z

sin

l

1 P=PE

12:84

384

uy l=2

b1

1

12:85

P

PE

In the latter the initial deection is specied by the actions of the lateral

load Q, and in the former the initial deections occur due to manufacturing eects. In this second case the practical levels of initial deection

are determined by measurements made on a wide range of practical

column geometries. In both cases, the initial deections are amplied

by the action of the axial load P and it is evident that the Euler load

PE , although derived on the basis of idealised column geometry and

loading, is a very important parameter in determining the practical

behaviour of columns.

12.6

of columns

The method for applying trial functions to the evaluation of the Euler

loads for columns is very similar to that considered in chapter 7 for

beams. The method is exemplied rst by application to the perfect

columns analysed above, with uniform cross-section geometry and

with simple support and encastre boundary conditions, and then by

showing the power of the method by considering a perfect column in

which one half has a exural rigidity dierent from the other half.

For a perfect column with uniform cross-section geometry, the total

potential energy of the system, equation (12.29), is

l

l

1

1 02

002

uy U P

EIx uy dz P

u dz

2

2 y

0

the energy formulation and the trial functions are non-dimensionalised. Thus we will assume

EI

3x

2l

1 2

1 2 2

d uy

duy

P

d

d

2

2l

d

d

0

with

z

l

12:86

The rst example concerns the derivation of the Euler load for the

column simply supported at both ends and subjected to an axial

385

load P, shown in Fig. 12.12. The boundary conditions, in non-dimensional form, are

uy 0 uy 1 0

12:87

uy uy sin

12:88

integration gives

EIx 4 2 P2 2

uy

u

4l y

4l 3

12:89

by an approximate but very simple algebraic expression. The equilibrium condition is

q

0

q

uy

12:90

Hence

EIx 2

P uy 0

l2

12:91

PE

2 EIx

l2

12:92

Thus we have obtained exactly the same results for the Euler load

which were obtained from the exact analytical approach presented in

section 12.4. However, in this case it is evident that the choice of

trial function coincided with the exact mode of deection of the

column at the Euler load.

Encastre column

(Fig. 12.17(b)) are

uy 0 and

duy

0

d

at 0

and 1

12:93

uy 12 uy 1 cos 2

12:94

386

performing the integration gives

EIx 4 2 P2 2

u

uy

4l y

l3

12:95

obtained as

PE

42 EIx

l2

12:96

found by the analytical approach.

functions to the evaluation of the Euler load have shown how simple

the method is, but have not provided information beyond that available using the exact analytical approach. However, we know that the

merit in the method of trial functions is that it can provide practically

useful approximate solutions in cases where the exact analysis is quite

complex and sometimes not feasible. This advantage is exemplied

here by applying the trial functions to the evaluation of the Euler

load for a column with a step change of exural rigidity.

Figure 12.21 shows a perfect column that has half its length with a

exural rigidity of I1 and the other half with I2 . The total potential

energy functional for this condition is

2

3

1=2

1 2

1 2 2

2 2

d uy

d uy

duy

EI1 6

7 P

dI

d5

d

34

2l

d

2l

d 2

d 2

0

where

I

I2

I1

1=2

(12.97)

12:98

column is simply supported at both ends therefore a suitable trial function is

uy uy sin

12:99

387

EI1

l/2

EI2

l/2

Fig 12.21

EI1 2 4

4 2 P2 2

I

u

u

12:100

4

4 y

4l y

2l 3

Applying the equilibrium conditions, the Euler load is obtained as

1 I 2 EIx

12:101

2

l2

Evidently when I 1, i.e. the column has a uniform exural rigidity

along its length, the Euler load corresponds to the exact value.

The accuracy of the one-term trial function can be tested using more

extensive trial functions. A two-term function can be, for example,

PE

12:102

Substituting this function in the total potential energy functional, performing the integrations and applying the equilibrium conditions, i.e.

q

q

0;

0

12:103

q

u1

q

u2

388

1 I

u1

32

1 I

u2 p

u1 0

3

12:104

32

1 I

u1 161 I

u2 4p

u2 0

3

where

p

2Pl 2

2 EI1

12:105

The value of the critical loads are obtained from the zero value of the

determinant of equation (12.104), that is

32

1 I p

1 I

3

12:106

0

32

1 I

161 I 4p

3

Expanding the determinant gives the quadratic equation

2

32

2

2

4p 20p1 I 161 I

1 I

0 12:107

3

Figure 12.22 shows a plot of the Euler load obtained from the solution of equation (12.107) for varying values of I, compared to the

corresponding values from equation (12.101).

It may be seen that for I ! 1 the two solutions converge and give

the Euler load that agrees with the exact analytical value. However,

as the degree of step-change of the exural rigidity along the column

25

p1 one degree of freedom

p1, p2

20

15

10

05

02

04

06

08

I

Fig 12.22

10

12

389

accurate two-term solution.

We now apply the method of trial functions to the case where the

column with a step-change in exural rigidity has also an initial lateral

load Q. This load is applied at mid-length, as shown in Fig. 12.23.

The non-dimensional expression of the total potential energy functional for this condition is

1 2

1 2 2

d uy

duy

EIx

P

3

d

d Q2

12:108

2

2l

d

2l

d

0

With reference to Fig. 12.23, the last term in this functional is relative

to the potential energy of the lateral load during the increase in the

deection 2 at the point of application of the load.

The two-term trial functions described in equation (12.102) are applied

to the energy functional, equation (12.116) and after the appropriate

P

EI1

l/2

EI2

l/2

Fig 12.23

390

q

q

0;

0

q

u1

q

u2

are applied. Note that in this example, and for the trial functions

chosen, the deection at the point of application of the lateral load

is specied by 2 u1 , so that the potential energy term associated

with the lateral load is Q2 Q

u1 .

Thus, we get

32

u2 q

1 I p

u1 1 I

3

12:109

32

1 I

u1 161 I 4p

u2 0

3

where

p

2Pl 2

2 EI1

and q

2Ql 3

4 EI1

12:110

3

2

32

1 I

1 I p

q

7 u1

6

3

12:111

5

4

32

u2

0

1 I

161 I 4p

3

The solution of equations (12.111) to evaluate the development of

the lateral deections are exemplied in Fig. 12.24 for the conditions

I 0:2, q 0:1.

Figure 12.22 shows that the non-dimensional Euler load is found to be

p 0:745 by means of the same two-degrees of freedom trial function,

20

u1

u2

u1 (p), u2 (p)

15

10

0

0

Fig 12.24

01

02

03

04

p

05

06

07

08

391

25

20

uy ()

15

10

05

0

05

02

04

06

08

10

12

Fig 12.25

close to the Euler load the deections of the column increase in a nondimensional manner. The deected shape is a combination of the two

terms in the trial function. The shape is exemplied for p 0:7, where

Fig. 12.25 shows the deection shape is asymmetrical about the midlength of the column due to the step-change of the exural rigidity.

12.7

buckling of struts

eect are an automated way of choosing appropriate functions. This

approach actually can be considered the basis for the nite element

method and chapter 11 has presented in some detail the more formalised aspect of the nite element application in practice.

The treatment in this section starts once again by considering the socalled perfect column, that is the condition in which the column is

initially perfectly straight and the load P is applied perfectly co-axial

with the column, then it takes into account the column with a lateral

load and the column with a step-change of exural rigidity. The

development follows closely that of section 7.6.

Perfect column

The total potential energy of the system is given by equation (12.29), i.e.

l

l

1

1 02

002

EIx uy dz P

u dz

uy U P

2

2 y

0

392

P

Node 1

Element 1

Node 2

Element 2

Node 3

P

Fig 12.26

column built-in at both ends, Fig. 12.26. For the sake of simplicity we

treat the column as having two elements.

The strain energy can be particularised for an element, that is

a length of the column ln between nodes, as a function of the nondimensional length . Thus we can write

1 2 n 2

d uy

EI

Un 3

d

12:112

d 2

2ln

0

vertical projection of each element as

1 n 2

duy

1

d

12:113

n

2ln

d

0

2

3

2 1

3

1 2 n 2

n 2

n

n

X

X

d uy

duy

EI

1

4

4

d 5P

d 5 12:114

n

3

2

2l

d

d

2l

n

n

i1

i1

0

393

loaded beams an eective trial function, yet maintaining simplicity, is

uny ui 1 1 3 2 2 3 i 1 2 2 3

ui 3 2 2 3 i 2 3

12:113

As before, for the slopes we set n n ln .

Substitution of equation (12.113) into equation (12.114) and performance of the stationary conditions for equilibrium, i.e.

qn

0;

q

ui 1

qn

0;

qi 1

qn

0;

q

ui

qn

0

qi

12:114

2

32 3

u1

24

12 24

12

0

0

6 12

7

6

8 12

4

0

0 76 1 7

6

7

6

76 7

24 12

48

0 24

12 76 u2 7

4EI 6

6

76 7

6 7

l3 6

4

0

16 12

47

6 12

76 2 7

6

76 7

4 0

0 24 12

24 12 54 u3 5

0

0

12

4 12

8

3

32 3

2

u1

36

3 36

3

0

0

7

6 3

6

4 3 1

0

0 76 1 7

6

7

76 7

6

36 3

72

0 36

3 76 u2 7

P 6

76 7 0

6

6 7

15l 6

0

8 3 1 7

76 2 7

6 3 1

76 7

6

12:115

4 0

0 36 3

36 3 54 u3 5

0

0

3 1 3

4

3

The boundary conditions correspond to

u1 1 u3 3 0

thus, the system equation (12.115) reduces to

4EI 48 0 u2

P 72 0 u2

0

15l 0 8 2

l3

0 16 2

12:116

12:117

p

Pl 2

60EI

12:118

394

72 0 u2

48 0 u2

p

0 )

0 8 2

0 16 2

u2

48 72p

0

0

0

82 p 2

12:119

admits the trivial solution, i.e. u2 2 0, for any value of p. Values

of p that allows the system equation (12.119) to have a solution dierent from the trivial one correspond to the zero value of the determinant

on the matrix. That is

48 72p

0

0

12:120

0

82 p

Expanding this determinant, we have

0:776 p2 p 0

12:121

lesser of these values is the one that is practically relevant since the

lowest buckling load of a column will govern the onset of the buckling

deformations. Thus, in this case p 0:667 is the relevant value and

gives the value of the load at which instability of the column occurs

as PE 40EI=l 2 . This compares closely with the analytical value

PE 42 EI=l 2 even if, of course, the choice of the trial function,

equation (12.113), cannot represent the trigonometric shape yielded

by the Euler dierential equation.

It is interesting to notice that in the development shown above it is

possible, and trivial, to expand the determinant since there are only

two elements and therefore with the boundary conditions this reduces

the problem to a 2 2 matrix. When the number of elements included

in the modelling is increased the order of the matrix increases also and

the eort to expand the determinant becomes prohibitive. Apart from

this fact, algebraic equations of an order greater than four cannot be

solved algebraically. The approach that is used to obtain the lowest

buckling load in these circumstances is therefore dierent.

If we put equation (12.119) in a totally symbolic form, we can write

Au pBu A pBu B1 A pIu 0

12:122

395

the identity matrix.

Thus, the required values of the critical loads p are provided by the

eigenvalues of the matrix B1 A, which is a standard algebraic eigenvalue problem which can be solved by means of a classical Jacobi

procedure. Of course, the least of these values is the relevant value

for the onset of large deformations.

The method of localised Rayleigh functions, or nite elements, is

further exemplied here by considering the analysis of a column

simply supported at its ends. In such a case the boundary conditions

for the two-element model are

u1 u3 0

12:123

(12.115) we can arrange the matrix equation in the form (12.122)

Au pBu 0

where

Pl 2

;

p

60EI

2

6

6 3

6

B 6

6 1

4

0

6

6 12

6

A 6

6 4

4

3

72

12

7

0 12 7

7

7;

0 16 4 7

5

48

0

12 4 8

3

2 3

0

1

7

6 7

6 u2 7

37

7

6 7

;

u

7

6 7

7

6 2 7

1 5

4 5

4

12:124

3

The result from the calculations are that the eigenvalues of the matrix

B1 A are 0:166, 0:894, 2:145 and 3:36. The lowest of these values is

the one of practical signicance and gives the buckling load as

PE 10EI=l 2 , which as in the previous example, compares very

well with the analytical value PE 2 EI=l 2 .

considered for the case of a column with a lateral load. The method

is exemplied by application to a column with uniform exural rigidity

and simple support conditions at both ends. This is shown in

Fig. 12.27(a).

396

P

Node 1

Element 1

Node 2

Q

Element 2

Node 3

(a)

(b)

Fig 12.27

elements, is

2

3

1 2 n 2

n

X

d uy

4 EI

n

d 5

3

d 2

2l

n

i1

0

n

X

41

P

2ln

i1

3

1 n 2

duy

d 5 Q2

d

12:125

By dividing the column in two elements, Fig. 12.27(b), we have 2 u2 .

With the employment of the trial function equation (12.113), the

formulation of the stiness matrix A and of the axial loading

matrix B follows as in the development presented for the perfect

column. Thus the equilibrium equations, after imposition of the

boundary conditions, can be written in the form

Au pBu qE

12:126

397

10

08

P/PE

06

04

02

0

0

18

2/02

27

36

45

Fig 12.28

where

p

Pl 2

;

60EI

q

Ql 3

;

48EI

2 3

0

617

7

E 6

405

0

12:128

(12.124). The system equation (12.126) is no longer, as may be expected

given the presence of the lateral load, an homogeneous one. The displacement vector can be obtained for a specic value of the applied

axial load P and of the initial lateral load Q from

u A pB1 qE

12:129

the column, i.e. where the lateral load is applied, with the increase in

the axial load.

The deection is plotted as the ratio of the total deection 2 to the

initial deection caused by the lateral load alone 02 . The variation of

the axial load is plotted as the ratio of the load to the Euler load PE .

Not surprisingly, the localised trial function method replicates the

non-linear increase in the deection that is predicted by the exact

analytical method.

column that has a step-change of exural rigidity form EI1 to EI2 at

mid-length, see section 12.6. The matrix that is aected by this

change of rigidity is A and using the denition I I2 =I1 , the matrix

398

2

3

24

12

24

12

0

0

6 12

8

12

4

0

0 7

6

7

6 24 12 24I 1 12I 1 24I

7

12I

6

7

A 6

4 12I 1

8I 1 12I

4I 7

6 12

7

4 0

0

24I

12I

24I 12I 5

0

0

12I

4I

12I

8I

12:130

Applying the boundary conditions relevant to simple support conditions,

u1 u3 0

12:131

and eliminating the appropriate rows and columns in the matrix above,

the resulting system is again in the form shown in equation (12.122)

Au pBu 0

with

p

Pl 2

;

60EI1

2

4

6 3

B 6

4 1

0

8

12

4

6 12 24I 1 12I 1

A 6

4 4 12I 1 8I 1

0

12I

4I

2 3

3

1

3 1

0

6

7

72

0

37

6 u2 7

7;

u

6 7

0

8 1 5

4 2 5

3 1

4

3

3

0

12I 7

7

4I 5

8I

12:132

This equation can be solved for specic values of I and the results

compared to the corresponding values from section 12.6. The following typical results are obtained

PE

2 EI1

l2

Trial function

One-term

Two-term

Localised (two elements)

I 1

1

1

0.99

I 0:5

0:75

0:67

0:64

I 0:2

0:60

0:37

0:30

399

Thus the localised trial function agrees fairly well with the two-term

trial functions described earlier with the greater advantage that the

localised method can be automated and the numbers of elements

increases very easily.

12.8

of frames

The previous sections, namely section 12.6 and section 12.7, have

presented the application of the method of trial functions to the

calculation of the critical load of columns with various end geometric

constraints. A column is, of course, usually a component in a frame

structure and it has the important attribute that when it attains its

critical load the frame, or perhaps a region of the frame, will experience

the onset of buckling.

The ultimate load analysis of frames is the subject of many papers

and textbooks and it is not the purpose of the presentation in this

section to emulate the scope of these publications. Instead this section

introduces, by means of a simple example portal frame, the application

of the method of trial functions to the calculation of the critical loads

for frame structures.

The presentation starts by considering the analysis of the portal

frame shown in Fig. 12.29, when subjected to the loads P=2 aligned

co-axially with the vertical members of the frame.

Both the vertical members have the same exural stiness EI1 and

the horizontal member BC has a exural stiness EI2 .

As in all applications of the trial function method, we must rst

consider the likely modes in which the frame will deform at the critical

loads. Figure 12.30 shows two possible modes: (a) sway and (b)

symmetric.

There may be other modes of deformation, and each will have its

corresponding critical load. However, observations of simple tests

show that the two modes in Fig. 12.30 are related to the two lowest

critical loads. The trial functions we choose to represent these modes

are developed and incorporate the compatibility condition that the

frame is exurally rigid at joints B and C. Thus the basic assumption

is that the changes of slope of the vertical and horizontal members

have a common value at these joints.

Sway mode

1

z1

l

2

z2

l

12:133

400

l

P/2

P/2

B

C

EI2

EI1

EI1

Fig 12.29

Member AB

uAB

y

a1

1

1 cos

2

12:134

This function satises the geometric constraints of zero slope and zero

P/2

P/2

(a)

Fig 12.30

P/2

P/2

(b)

401

B

P/2

B

a 2 = a 1/4

B

B

C

u (z 2)

a1

z2

u (z 1)

(b)

z1

A

(a)

Fig 12.31

AB

1 duy

AB

AB

uy B a1

and

B

a1

l d

2l

1

Member BC

uBC

y a2 sin22

1 1

(12.135)

12:136

The slope of member BC at the joint with the vertical member, i.e. at

2 0, is

BC

1 duy

2

a2

12:137

BC B

l d2 2 0

l

Thus from the condition of compatibility of slope at the joint,

a

12:138

a2 1

4

Hence

a1

uBC

sin22

12:139

y

4

It is evident that in this manner the compatibility condition at the

joint C with the column CD is automatically satised, provided we

assume for the column CD the same shape function of the member

AB, equation (12.134).

402

The expression of the total potential energy for the frame results

1 2 AB 2

1 2 BC 2

d uy

d uy

EI1

EI2

2

d1 3

d2

2l 3

d12

2l

d22

0

1 AB 2

duy

P

d1

2l

d1

12:140

EI1 4 2 EI2 4 2

2 2

a

a

a

P

1

1

32 1

l 3 32

l3 2

12:141

total potential energy, thus

4

d

EI1 4 EI2 2 P

a 0

12:142

da1

8l 1

16l 3

2l 3

and, consequently, we have

PE

2 EI1

1 8I

2l 2

12:143

where I I2 =I1 .

When the member BC has a very small value of exural stiness

compared to the vertical members, AB and CD, i.e. I ! 0, it is

evident that the critical load for the frame approaches the critical

load for initial buckling of a simple cantilever encastre at the bottom

end, i.e. PE 2 EI1 =4l 2 , by virtue of the fact that the load P is

applied equally to the two vertical members.

Symmetric mode

We assume now that the frame experiences the form of buckling shown

in Fig. 12.30(b). The deformation conditions for the members of the

frame are shown in Fig. 12.32.

Members AB and DC

As by the nature of the method we can assume any trial function which

satises the appropriate geometric constraints, we propose a function

in the form

2

5 3

2 4

uAB

y 1 b1 1 3 1 3 1

12:144

B

403

z2

P/2

b2 = b1 /3

B

B

B

u (z 2)

u (z1)

(b)

z1

A

(a)

Fig 12.32

symmetrical mode

duAB

y

0

d1

uAB

y 0

and

uAB

y

at 1 1

at 1 0

12:145

AB

1 duy

b

AB

12:146

1

B

l d1 1 1

3l

Member BC

A suitable deformation trial function is

uBC

y 2 b2 sin2

The slope of this member at joint B is

BC

1 duy

b

2

BC B

l d2 2 0

l

12:147

12:148

b2

b1

3

12:149

404

Substituting the trial functions in equation (12.140) gives the equilibrium condition as

d

EI1 8 EI2 2 P 4

3

b 0

12:150

db1

l 105 1

l3 5

l 9

That provides the critical load for the symmetric mode of frame buckling as

PE

4:262 EI1

1 0:343I

l2

12:151

where, as in the sway mode, we have here I I2 =I1 . In this case therefore the exural stiness of the member BC has a much less eect in

increasing the critical load of the frame than is the case for the sway

buckling mode. Notice as I becomes very small the critical load

approaches the value for the strut pinned at one end and encastre at

the other end, taking into account that the load P is applied equally

to the two vertical members of the frame.

The method of analysis presented above required a separate identication of the two signicant modes of initial buckling associated with

the critical loads of the portal frame. However, it goes without saying

that the choice of deformation mode does not have to be made at the

outset of the analysis. If sucient degrees of freedom are included in

the trial functions, then the calculation of stationary values of the

potential energy will identify the buckling modes automatically.

This is simply attained by incorporating the two buckling modes, i.e.

the sway and symmetric, as one trial function with two degrees of freedom. Thus, the trial function for the members AB and CD becomes

1

5 3 2 4

AB

2

uy 1 a1 1 cos

b 1 1 1 1

12:152

3

3

2

and by reason of compatibility of rotation at the joint B, the trial function for member BC is

uBC

y 2

12.9

a1

b

sin 22 1 sin 2

4

3

lateral loads

12:153

applied to the frame at mid-length along the horizontal member as

shown in Fig. 12.33.

An additional horizontal load Q is applied at B. This implies that

there will be some initial bending in the frame and this modies the

405

l/2

P

B

Q

EI2

EI1

EI1

l

Fig 12.33

response to the applied load from that of the frame analysed in the

previous section in the same manner as for a column, which was

shown in section 12.5.

Let us assume the combined trial functions given by equations

(12.152) and (12.153) where, by means of equation (12.149), we express

b1 in terms of b2 . The total potential energy functional is

1 2 AB 2

1 2 BC 2

d uy

d uy

EI1

EI2

2

d1 3

d2

2l 3

d12

2l

d22

0

1 AB 2

duy

P

2l

d1

12:154

performing the indicated derivatives and integrals we substitute the

functional equation (12.154) with a simple function a1 ; b2 of the parameters a1 and b2 . Thus, the equilibrium conditions are simply given by

q

0;

qa1

q

0

qb2

12:155

Finally, we have

1 8I 4pa1 0:0611 0:2443pb2 0:405q

0:0611 0:2443pa1

0:2631 0:343I 0:1235pb2 0:405p

12:156

406

where

a1

a1

;

l

b2

b2

;

l

I

I2

;

I1

p

P

;

PES

q

Q

PES

12:157

PES 22 EI1 =l 2 is the critical load for a column built-in at one end

and simply supported at the other.

Putting equation (12.156) in matrix notation, we get

Au pBu q

where

"

A

"

B

1 8I

0:0611

4:00

12:158

0:0611

0:2631 0:343I

#

0:2443

0:2443 0:1235

" #

" #

q

a1

:405

u

q

0

p

b2

12:159

this happens not only on account of the transverse load Q but also if we

set Q 0, which implies q 0, as the vector q does not become zero.

This happens on account of the mid-span position of the vertical load

P which always produces a deformation of the member BC that is

transmitted to the columns AB and CD by means of the slope at

the junctions B and C. We come therefore to the conclusion that the

trivial solution u 0 is not admissible for any value of the loading.

In order to quantify this eect, we consider rst the case Q 0.

Figure 12.34(a) shows the deection amplitudes a1 and b2 for I 0

plotted against a range of values of p.

Note that the deections remain quite small until the load p

approaches the symmetric critical value, p 17:67. Thus the eect of

the positioning of the load P is to introduce some deections in the

frame at loads less than the critical value and as the load is increased

to the critical value the deections grow very rapidly. This is a very

similar behaviour to that shown by the individual struts considered

in section 12.5. Notice also that even if the bending stiness of the

horizontal member is set to zero, the corresponding deection b2

does not tend to innity because the member is described by means

of the trial shape function equation (12.153) and b1 3b2 on account

of equation (12.149). Therefore the deection b2 is related to the deection of the columns by means of the equation (12.152).

407

1000

p

q

800

a1*, b*2

600

400

a*1

b*2

200

20

15

10

p

(a)

20

a*1

16

a1*

12

20

15

10

p

05

(b)

Fig 12.34

However, the more important result from this analysis is that the

frame responded to the application of the load P as if there was no

sway buckling mode. This mode has an eigenvalue much less that

the symmetric mode and therefore it would have been anticipated

that deections in the sway mode would have developed at quite

lower values of p. However, if a small lateral load Q is applied, then

408

which the lateral load has a value of 1% of the vertical load P so

that q 0:01p, it may be seen from Fig. 12.34(b) that the magnitude

of the deections in the sway mode, i.e. a1 gradually increases with

increasing values of p, until at the eigenvalue for the sway mode, i.e.

p 2, the deections grow very rapidly.

This simple example illustrates one of the most dicult aspects of

the non-linear buckling analysis of structures which is that unless all

the potential buckling modes are activated by the form of loading

there is a danger that the lowest buckling mode of the structure will

be missed and an engineer designing a structure can easily overestimate

the load carrying capacity of the structure.

12.10

buckling

The method of localised trial functions, the progenitor of the nite element method, has been applied to the analysis of a frame with a linear

response to the applied loading. The method has also been shown

earlier in this chapter being applied to the analysis of columns with

various boundary conditions and step changes of section geometry.

In the present analysis the method is applied to the evaluation of the

initial buckling load for the simple frame previously considered.

The geometry of the frame is shown in Fig. 12.35. Once again the

analysis is carried out under the hypothesis that the axial deformation

l

z2

y2

y3

3

EI2

EI1

z1

Fig 12.35

y1

z3

EI1

409

the eects of the lateral deection.

The potential of the vertical load P is related both to the bending

deection of the horizontal beam and to the vertical displacements

of the nodes 3 and 5. Thus, the potential energy of the system in

terms of the deection of its members is

uyn U P

EI

1

2

l

0

EI

1

2

q2 uy1

qz21

l

0

2

EI

dz1 2

2

q2 uy3

qz23

2

l

0

q2 uy2

qz22

2

dz2

dz3

8 2l

39

2

2

l

<

=

quy3

1

1 4 quy1

P

dz1

dz3 5

;

2 :2

qz1

qz3

0

Puy2 l=2

12:160

The members are each composed of two elements with the nodes

numbered 1 to 7 as shown in Fig. 12.36. The interaction between the

elements, i.e. their boundary conditions, is claried in Fig. 12.36

where the nodes at the corners of the frame are separated into the

3"

Fig 12.36

5'

3'

5"

410

nodes 30 and 500 , associated with the vertical members of the frame, and

300 and 50 , associated with the horizontal members of the frame. The

generic displacement function for each element is obtained from equation (12.113). The boundary conditions at corner nodes are

u300 0;

30 300 ;

u50 0;

50 500

12:161

are

1 0;

u1 0;

7 0

u7 0;

12:162

the frame, which come from the stationary value of the total potential

energy functional, equation (12.160), are

KD

Pl 2

Pl 3

L1 D

L2 0

120

4

12:163

2

48

0 24

12

6 0

16 12

4

0

6

6

6 24 12

24

12

0

6

6

4 12 8 8I 12I

6 12

6

6 0

0

0

12I

48I

EI1 6

K

6

6 0

0

0

4I

0

6

6 0

0

0

0

0

6

6

6 0

0

0

0

12I

6

6

4 0

0

0

0

0

0

2

72

4I

12I

16I

4I

24

12

24

4I

12 8 8I

24

12

0 36

3 0 0

1 0 0

36

3 0 0

6 0

8

6

6

6 36 3

6

6

6 3 1

6

6 0

0

6

L1 6

6 0

0

6

6 0

0

6

6

6 0

0

6

6

4 0

0

0

12

4

0

0 0 0

36 3

72

07

7

7

07

7

7

07

7

07

7

7

07

7

37

7

7

1 7

7

7

05

0 0 0

3 1

4 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

36

0 0 0

3 36

4

12

48

07

7

7

07

7

7

07

7

07

7

7

07

7

12 7

7

7

47

7

7

05

0 16

411

2 3

0

607

6 7

6 7

607

6 7

607

6 7

6 7

617

7

L2 6

607

6 7

6 7

607

6 7

607

6 7

6 7

405

0

As usual, D is the vector containing the nodal degrees of freedom,

i.e.

3

2

u2

6 7

6 27

7

6

6 u30 7

7

6

6 0 7

6 3 7

7

6

6 u4 7

6

D 6 7

7

6 4 7

7

6

6 u500 7

7

6

6 00 7

6 5 7

7

6

4 u6 5

6

and I I2 =I1 .

Notice that the two rows and columns in L1 associated with u4 and

4 are completely null. This is because the vertical load P plays its role

through two distinct terms: the rst one is related to the shortening of

the vertical members on account of their lateral deection, the second

one is related to the vertical displacement of the mid-span of the

horizontal beam on account of its bending. However, these rows and

columns are required to maintain the correct order of matrix L1 to

be compatible with the vector D.

It is evident that the rst two terms in equation (12.163) determine

the eigenvalues and corresponding modes of the initial buckling of

the frame while the third term reects the bending deection of the

horizontal member in the frame. Eliminating for the moment the

412

P/2

P/2

EI2

EI1

EI1

Fig 12.37

L D 0

K

1

12:164

where

Pl 2

;

120EI1

K

1

K

EI1

P such that it is aligned with the two vertical members of the frame as

shown in Fig. 12.37.

gives ten eigenvalues, whose number is equal to

Setting I 0 in K

the number of degrees of freedom in the nite element model, of which

the lowest is

c1 0:0425

i:e:

PE1

0:5172 EI1

l2

12:165a

The initial buckling load PE1 is evidently associated with a sway

form of buckling. The next lowest eigenvalue is

c2 0:348

i:e:

PE2

4:232 EI1

l2

12:165b

symmetric deected buckling mode. These initial buckling loads and

modes correspond to those obtained in section 12.5 for columns

encastre at one end and with zero exural restraint, i.e., simply

supported, at the other, as indeed would be the case for I 0.

= 00425

PE1

2

P/2

P/2

P/2

P/2

= 0348

I=0

0258 2 EI1

l2

PE2

2

(a)

= 01772

PE1

2

212 2 EI1

l2

(b)

P/2

P/2

P/2

P/2

413

= 06667

I=

108 2 EI1

l2

PE2

2

(c)

405 2 EI1

l2

(d)

Fig 12.38

Applying I 1 in K,

(12.164) are

c1 0:1772

i:e:

c2 0:6667

i:e:

Pc1

Pc2

2:152 EI1

l2

8:112 EI1

12:166

l2

with the corresponding deformed shapes shown in Figs 12.38(c) and (d).

These two initial buckling loads also correspond to sway and symmetric

modes of buckling but now for the condition where the horizontal

member of the frame has an innite exural stiness.

The value of the lowest eigenvalue is dependent on the value of I,

that is, the ratio of the exural stiness of the horizontal and vertical

members of the frame. This was shown also in section 12.8 for the

application of the method of trial functions for the initial buckling

414

Coefficient of initial

buckling load

4

3

Variation of the initial buckling load

with I (2 term trial function)

2

1

0

05

10

15

Value of I

(a)

Coefficient of initial

buckling load

12

10

08

with I (finite element)

06

04

02

0

0

05

10

15

Value of I

(b)

Fig 12.39

whereas the present analysis using the localised trial function method

has ten degrees of freedom. Figure 12.39(a) shows the variation of

the lowest initial buckling loads, as I is increased. Figure 12.39(b)

shows the corresponding variation of the initial buckling loads

obtained from the two degree of freedom analysis in section 12.8.

It is evident that in the case at hand incorporating a larger number of

degrees of freedom predicts lower buckling loads.

Section 6.5 has shown the linear analysis of a plane frame with a

vertical load at the mid-span of the horizontal member. The ratio of

the exural stiness of the horizontal and vertical member is

I 2:68. The same frame geometry is considered here from the

viewpoint of the eects of the vertical load to cause initial buckling

of the frame.

and obtaining the lowest eigenvalue from

Putting I 2:68 in K,

equation (12.164) gives

c1 0:1264

and equation (12.163) can be written

L D0 30L

K

12:167

1

415

where

1

D0 D;

l

K

1

K

EI1

thus

L 1 L

D0 30K

1

2

12:168

corresponding values of the deections of the frame at the nodes can

be evaluated. It is evident from the symmetrical form of the frame

that if the vertical load is applied to the mid-span of the horizontal

member then the sway mode of deection may not be detected. This

was shown in section 12.8 where it was clear that in order to ensure

that the lowest buckling mode was initiated in the analysis, a lateral

load has to be applied to the frame. Similarly, in the present analysis,

a small non-dimensional lateral load is required to ensure that the

deformations calculated using equation (12.168) correspond to the

lowest value of the initial buckling load, i.e. the sway mode of buckling. Figure 12.40(a) shows the arrangement in which the lateral

load, i.e. 0:01 is classied as an initial imperfection.

This loading is incorporated in equation (12.168) by modifying the

vector L2 to be

3

2

0

60 7

7

6

6 : 7

6 0 01 7

7

6

60 7

7

6

7

6

61 7

7

L2 6

60 7

7

6

7

6

60 7

7

6

60 7

7

6

7

6

40 5

0

Figure 12.40(b) shows the variation of the horizontal deection at

node 3 with increasing values of . The applied load , has been

normalised by dividing by the lowest eigenvalue c1 .

It is relatively simple in the present example to ensure that the initial

imperfection, i.e. the lateral load, will indeed induce deformation that

correspond to the lowest initial buckling load. In other cases of nite

416

30

03

(a)

Variation of lateral deflection with increasing vertical load

(1% lateral load)

10

08

06

04

02

0

05

10

15

Non-dimensional lateral deflection

20

(b)

Fig 12.40

element modelling, where there may be thousands of degrees of freedom, the application of an initial loading system may be much more

complex. In such cases the eigenvalues can be used to introduce a

system of initial geometric imperfections that will indeed ensure that

the lowest initial buckling deformations are not overlooked in the

analysis.

The procedure is straightforward. Equation (12.164) is used to

calculate the eigenvalues of the system and the corresponding eigen~n . These eigenmodes are then introduced into equation

modes, D

(12.167) as follows

L D0 30L a D

~ 0 a D

~0

K

12:168

1

417

Normalized

vertical load

vertical load (initial geometric imperfection)

10

08

06

04

02

0

0

1

Non-dimensional lateral deflection

Fig 12.41

where D

that are generally chosen such that the form of the initial deection

of the structure is as general as possible and the magnitude of the initial

deection corresponds to measurements on practical structures.

~0i D

~i =l.

Again, D

Using equation (12.168) the deformations at the nodes of the

model can be calculated for increasing values of . Figure 12.41

shows the results from such a procedure in which a1 0:1 and

a2 a3 0. Comparison between Figs 12.41 and 12.40(b)

show that the procedure of using the eigenmodes is very similar, in

the present example, to applying a small articial lateral load.

1.

ends and has an initial deection at mid-length of 50 mm. The

cross-section is a cylindrical tube with 300 mm outside diameter

and 10 mm wall thickness. Calculate the magnitude of the applied

P

oc = 50 mm

15 m

Fig 12.42

418

P

oc =

l

l

500

axial load, P, such that the maximum strain does not exceed the yield

strain, "0 0:0015. The modulus of the material is 205 kN/mm2 .

[Ans: P 673 kN]

The column shown in Fig. 12.43 has a length l, and is built-in at

both ends. The column has an initial deection of 0c l=500.

The column is subjected concurrently to a lateral uniformly distributed load, q, and an axial load P. Derive an expression for

the total deection at mid-length, c , of the column in terms of

P, l, q and the exural stiness, EI.

"

#

l

1:3ql 3

Pl 2

1

c

1 2

Ans:

500

EI

4 EI

2.

3.

in Fig. 12.44. The column has an initial deection at mid-length of

0c l=300 and both the column and the cross-beam have the

P

Mode a

l

l

oc =

l

300

Mode b

Fig 12.44

419

same exural rigidity, EI. Show, using the method of localised trial

functions, whether the rate of increase in the total strain, "t at midlength of the column is greater in mode a or mode b.

[Ans: mode b has an eigenvalue 70% of the value of the eigenvalue

of mode a, therefore the rate of growth of bending strain in mode b

is greater than in mode a at the same applied load.]

Index

amplication factor, 380

anisotropic material properties, 63

bar buckling, 373

Beltrami, Eugenio, 81

Beltrami's equations, 81

Beltrami's yield criterion, 88

bending moment, 37

bending moment diagram, 39

Bernoulli, Daniel, 106

Bernoulli, Jacob, 94

Bernoulli's model of beam bending, 94

Betti's theorem, 148

bifurcation condition, 360

branching point, 360

buckling sway, 377

buckling, bifurcation, 360

buckling, snap, 365

bulk modulus, 90

calculus of variations, 108

Castigliano, Carlo, 155

Clapeyron, Benoit-Paul-Emile, 82

Clapeyron's theorem, 82

closed system, 5

combined joint load vector, 254

compatibility equation, 214

concatenated displacements, 28

conservative systems, 154

coordinate functions, 170, 188

Cotteril, James, 155

critical load, 360, 370

Croll, James, 106

degrees of freedom, 6, 174, 211

Descartes, Rene, 12

direct stiness method, 221

Dirichlet's theorem, 358

displacement work, 147

ductility, 54

eigenvalue problem, 395

eigenwork, 148

elastic, 54

elastic energy, 3

element, 191

elements, non-conforming, 321

energy, 1

energy conservation, 5

engineering shear strain, 70

equilibrium, neutral, 355

equilibrium, unstable, 354

equilibrium, stable, 354

equivalent joint loads, 254

Euler buckling, 373

Euler buckling load, 370

Euler, Leonhard, 20

Euler's equation of beam buckling, 369

Euler's equation of beam deformation,

109

extensometer, 51

external constraints, 21

rst law of thermodynamics, 5

exural stiness, 110

free body, 36

fundamental path, 360

Gauss, Karl, 338

generalised coordinates, 6

422

Index

generalised displacement, 149

generalised mass, 9

Green, George, 66

Green's strains, 66

node, 234

nominal strain, 52

nominal stress, 52

non-conforming elements, 321

heat, 3

Hooke, Robert, 57

Hooke's law, 57

patch test, 322

perfect column, 391

perfect system, 362

plane strain, 79

plate bending stiness, 277

plate deformation, 267

Poisson, Simeon-Denis, 61

Poisson's ratio, 61

principal components of strain, 77

principle of conservation of energy, 5

principle of stationary work, 12

principle of substitution of constraints,

33

principle of superpositon, 143

pure bending, 99

Pythagorus, Samar, 367

imperfections, 357

ineective constraint, 25

innitesimal displacements, 102

initial buckling, 356

initial imperfection, 415

initial out-of-straightness, 380

internal constraints, 21

intrinsic coordinates, 315

isoparametric, 317

isotropic material, 63

Jacobi, Karl, 316

Jacobian matrix, 316

kinetic energy, 3, 8

Kircho, Gustav, 144

Kirkho model of plate deformation,

267

Lagrange family of shape functions,

324

Lagrange, Joseph-Louis, 12

Lagrangian coordinates, 12

lateral load, 377

Legendre, Adrien-Marie, 339

limit points, 365

linear elastic, 56

localised Rayleigh-Ritz method, 189

Luder's plateau, 54

material modulus, 57

Mises, Richard von, 90

mode, sway, 399

mode, symmetric, 402

modulus, shear, 85

moment of inertia, 101

neutral equilibrium, 355

relative centre of rotation, 27

rigid joints, 234

Ritz, Walther, 174

rotational restraint, 373

Saint-Venant, Adhemar-Jean-Claude,

89

Saint-Venant's yield criterion, 89

second moment of area, 101

serendipity family of shape functions,

324

shape function, 170

shape functions, 309

shape functions, Lagrange family, 324

shape functions, serendipity family,

324

shear force, 37

shear force diagram, 39

shear modulus, 85

shear strain, 69

Shute, Nevil, iv

snap buckling, 365

Index

static equilibrium, 9

statical determinacy, 35

statical indeterminacy, 35

stiness matrix, 215

strain compatibility, 80

strain energy, 9

strain energy density, 83

strain invariants, 76

superposition, 143

sway buckling, 377

sway mode, 399

symmetric mode, 402

theory of innitesimal displacements,

102

thermodynamics, 5

Timoshenko, Stephen, 290

423

trial displacements, 10

true strain, 52

true stress, 52

virtual displacements, 10

Von Mises yield criterion, 90

Walker, Alastair, 106

Walpole, Horace, 327

Woinowsky-Krieger, Stephen, 290

work, 1

yield plateau, 54

yield strain, 57

Young, Thomas, 57

Young's modulus, 57

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