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Problem 4.

1
Find Io in the circuit shown using linearity and the assumption that Io = 1mA.

I2

I3

4K

V1

4mA

12K
-

4K

4K

2K

4K

Io = 1k A

I1

Suggested Solution

I2

V2

12K

1
k

4K
IT

If Io =

I3

4/K A

4K

4K

V1
-

2K

4K

Io = 1k A

I1

Then V 2 = k1 (4 K + 2 K ) = 6V , I 1 =

6
4k

Then I 2 = I 1 + Io = 52 mA and V 2 = V 1 + 4 KI 2 = 16V


Then I 3 =
So

7/2mA
1mA

V2
4K + 12K
4mA
x

= 1mA IT = I 2 + I 3 = 72 mA

x = Io = 78 mA

= 32 mA

Problem 4.2
Find Io in the network shown using linearity and the assumption that Io=1mA.

2K

3K

64V

6K

2K
6K

Io

Suggested Solution
I2
2K

I4

I3

V2

64V
Vs

3K
V1

4K
-

6K

Io

If Io = 1mA, V 1 = 6V . I 1 =
V 2 = V 1 + 3KI 2 = 18V , I 3 =
Vs = V 2 + 2 KI 4 = 32V

32
1mA

6
2K

V2
6K

2K
I1

= 3mA. I 2 = Io + I 1 = 4mA

= 3mA
64
x

Then I4 = I 2 + I 3 = 7mA

x = Io = 2mA

Problem 4.3
Find Vo in the network shown using linearity and the assumption that Vo=1mV

2K
6V

2K

Vo

2K

2K

2K
I2

Suggested Solution
+

V1

V3

R1
R2

V's

R2

+
V2

I3
+

R4

I4

I 4 = VRT' o = 12 A

V 3 = I 3 R 3 = 2mV

V 2 = V 3 + V ' o = 3mV

I 1 = I 2 + I 3 = 2.5 A

V 1 = I 1R1 = 5mV

= VVs' s

I5 -

Vs = 6V

I 5 = VR'5o = 12 A

Vo
Vs

V'o=1mV

R5

V4
-

I2

All R = 2 K ,

Vo = ( 86m )(1m) = 0.75V

I 3 = I 4 + I 5 = 1 A
I 2 = VR 22 = 1.5 A
V ' s = V 1 + V 2 = 8mV
Vo = 0.75V

Problem 4.4
Find Vo in the circuit shown using linearity and the assumption that Vo=1V
4K

6K

6K
8K

Vo

2K
12V
-

Figure P4.4

Suggested Solution
Vx
I1

4K

I2

6K
6K

+
2K

Is

8K
Vs

12V

Assume Vo = 1V
I2 =

Vo
2K

= 12 mA

Vx = I 2(8 K ) = 4V

I 1 = 12VxK = 0.333mA
Is = I 1 + I 2 = 0.8333mA
Vs = Is (6 K ) + Vx = 9V
9V
1V

= 12VoV

Vo = 1.33V

Vo
-

Problem 4.5
In the network shown find Io using superposition
6K

6K

12V

6K

6K
6mA

Io

Suggested Solution
6K
6K

6K

6K
6mA

6mA
I'o

I'o

Zero the indep. voltage source

I ' o = 0.006( 9 K9+K6 K ) = 185 mA


I
6K

6K

12V

6K

6K
I''o

Zero the indep. current souce

I=

12
6 K + 6 K (6 K + 6 K )

= 65 mA

I '' o = I ( 6 K6+K12 K ) = 52 mA
Io = I ' o + I '' o = ( 185 + 52 )mA = 165 mA

6K

9K

Problem 4.6
Find Io in the circuit shown using superposition

2K

6K
30V

2K
30mA

12K
Io

Suggested Solution
Zero the indep. current source
I

6K

2K

30V

2K

12K
I'o

I=

30
6 K +12 K ||6 K

= 3mA,

I ' o = I 186 KK = 1mA

Zero the indep. voltage source


6K

2K

2K
2K

12K
I''o

30mA
I1

I 1 = 0.03( 4 K + 2 K4+K6 K ||12 K ) = 12mA


I '' o = 0.012( 186 KK ) = 4mA
Io = I ' o + I '' o = 3mA

2K

Problem 4.7
In the network shown find Vo using superposition
1K

1K
12V

1K

6mA

Vo
1K
-

Suggested Solution
Zero the indep. voltage source
1K
1K

1K

V'o

6mA

1K
-

V ' o = 0.006( 2 K2+K2 K )(1k ) = 3V


Zero the indep. current source

1K

1K

+
12V
V''o

1K

1K
-

V '' o =

12
4K

(1K ) = 3V

Vo = V ' o + V '' o = 0V

Problem 4.8
Find Vo in the network shown using superposition
6K

3K

3K

+
9V

3K

Vo

3K

Suggested Solution
R3

R1

R5
+

R2

9V

Vo

R4

12V

R3=6K

All other R=3K

R1

A
+

R2

VAB
_

9V

R3

R5
+
Vo1
-

RAB = R 2 || [ R 3 + ( R 4 || R 5)] = 2.14 K


VAB = 9( RABRAB+ R1 ) = 3.75V
V 01 = VAB ( ( R 4R||R4||5R)+5 R 3 ) = 0.75V

R4

R3

R5

C
+

R1

R2

Vo2

12V
R4

RCD = R 4 || [ R 3 + ( R1 || R 2)] = 2.14 K


V 02 = 12( RCDRCD+ R 5 ) = 5V
Vo = V 01 + V 02 = 4.25V

Problem 4.9
Find Io in the network shown using superposition.
3K

6K

2K

6V

2mA

3K

Io

Suggested Solution
C
3K

A
6K

Ic

3K
+

2K

6K

2mA

3K

6V

VAB
-

Io2
B

RCD = 3K + (6 K || 2 K ) = 4.5 K

RAB = 2 K || (3K + 3K ) = 1.5 K

Ic = 2m( 3 K3+KRCD ) = 0.8mA

VAB = 6( RABR+AB6 K ) = 1.2V

I 02 = Ic( 6 K6+K2 K ) = 0.6mA

I 01 = VAB / 2 K = 0.6mA
Io = I 01 + I 02 = 1.2mA

2K
Io1

3K

Problem 4.10
Find Io in the network shown using superposition
3K

1K

6V
Io

9mA

2K

2K

Suggested Solution
A
3K

IA

1K

Io1

9mA

2K

2K

RAB = 3K + (2 K || 2 K ) = 4 K
IA = I 01 = 9m( 1K1+KRAB ) = 1.8mA
C
3K

I02

6V

+
1K

VCD

2K

2K

RCD = (1K + 3K ) || 2 K = 1.33K


VCD = 6[ RCDRCD
+ 2 K ] = 2.4V
I 02 = 1KV+CD3 K = 0.6mA
I 0 = I 01 + I 02 = 2.4mA,

I 0 = 2.4mA

Problem 4.11
Find Io in the network shown using superposition.
2K
6K

Io

4mA
3K

12V

4K

Suggested Solution
6K

4mA

3K

I02

4K

2K

Req1

Re q1 = 6 K + (2 K || 4 K ) = 7.33K
I 02 = 4m[ 3 K +3 KRe q1 ] = 1.16mA
2K
+
6K
12V

4mA

I01
3K

4K

Req2

Re q 2 = 9 K || 4 K = 2.77 k ,
I 01 = 9VxK = 0.77 mA
I 0 = I 01 + I 02 = 0.39mA

q2
Vx = 12[ ReRe
q 2 + 2 K ] = 6.97V

Problem 4.12
Find Io in the network shown using superposition
12K
4mA

12K

Io

4mA
12K

6V

Suggested Solution
12K

Io

12K

I'o

4mA

12K

12K
4mA

12K

12K

6V

12K

6V

12K

6
3
I ' o = 12 K +12 K ||(12
K +12 K ) = 10 mA

12K

I1
4mA

12K

4mA

12K

12K

6V

12K

12K

I 1 = 4m( 12 K +1212KK ||12 K ) = 1.6mA


I '' o = 12 I 1 = 0.8mA
0.003
10

1
+ 0.008
10 = 2 mA

12K
4mA

I''o

Io = I ' o + I '' o =

12K

Problem 4.13
Find Io in the circuit shown using superposition

Io
12V

4K
6K

4K

6K

6mA

Io

Suggested Solution
Io
12V

4K
6K

4K

6K

I 'o =

I'o
0.012
12

= 1mA

4K

6K

6mA

I''o

Current splits equally: I '' o = 3mA


Io = I ' o + I '' o = 2mA

4K

6K

4K

6K

4K

6mA

6K

I''o

Problem 4.14
Use superposition to find Io in the circuit shown
12V

2K

6V

2K

Io

2mA

2K

2K

Suggested Solution
12V

2K

2K

2K

I'o

2K

2K

I''o

2mA

Current Splits equally


I''o=1mA

I'o = 12/4K = 3mA

2K

2K

12V

2K

6V
I'''o

2K

2K

I'''o = -6/4K = -3/2 mA


Then Io=I'o + I''o + I'''o = 3mA + 1mA -3/2 mA = 5/2 mA

2K

2K

Problem 4.15
Find Io in the network shown using superposition
6K

6K

6V

6K

6K

5mA

Io

Suggested Solution
6K

6K

6K

6V
I'o

I 'o =

6
6 K + 6 K ||(6 K + 6 K )

= 106K A

6K

6K

6K

6K

6K
6K

5mA

I''o

I '' o = 5m( 6 K + 6 K6+K6 K ||6 K )( 12 ) = 1mA


Io = I ' o + I '' o = 1mA + 53 mA = 52 mA

5mA

6K
I''o

6K

Problem 4.16
Find Io in the network shown using superposition.
4mA

12V

2K

1mA

1K

2K

Io

Suggested Solution
12V

2K
2K

2K

1K
I01
Io due to 12V source

I01= -12/(1K+12K) = -4mA


Io = I01 + I02 + I03 = -5.33mA

1K

1K

2K

I03

I02
Io due to 2mA source

I02 = 2m[2K/(2K+3K)] = -1.33mA

Io due to 4mA source

I03=0A

2K

Problem 4.17
Find Io in the network shown using superposition
6V

4K
3K

2mA
4K

9V
2K

Io

Suggested Solution
Io due to 9V source
Io due to 6V source (redrawn)
4K
3K

3K

9V

4K

6V

4K

2K

2K
I01

I 01 =

9
4K

= 2.25mA

I 02 =

6
4K

= 1.5mA

Io due to 2mA source

4K
2mA

3K

4K
2K
I03

(4 K ) I 03 = 0 I 03 = 0
Io = I 01 + I 02 + I 03
Io = 0.75mA

I02

Problem 4.18
Find Vo in the network shown using superposition
12V

2mA

6K

+
6K

6K

6K

6K

Vo
-

Suggested Solution
12V
Vo due to 2mA source
2mA

R2

2mA

6K
+

R3

R1

R4

R5

Vo

6K

6K

6K

6K

Vo due to
12V sosurce

All R=6K

12V

6K||6K=3K

2mA

R2

2mA

6K

+
R3

R1

R4

V01

R5

6K

R1

RAB

R2

R2

R1||R5=3K

R3

R4

R5

3K

+
V02
-

R1

B
+
RAB = R1||[R2+(R3||R4)]
RAB = 3.6K ohms
V01 = 12[R5/(R5+RAB)]
V01 = 7.5V

V02

6K

3K

2mA

V02

I02

3K
R2

I02 = 2m[R2/(R2+3K+3K)] = 1mA


V02 = I02(3K)=3V
Vo = V01+V02=10.5V
Vo=10.5

3K

Problem 4.19
Use source transformation to find Io in the circuit shown
6K

3K

2K

2mA

3K

Io

Suggested Solution
6K

3K

6K

2K

2mA

Io

3K

2mA
6V

I=6/6K + 6/6K = 2mA


3K = 6K || 6K
I

3K

2K
Io

3K+3K=6K

Io = I(3K/(2K+3K)) = 1.2mA

Io

Problem 4.20
Find Vo in the network shown using source transformation
2K

2K
+

6V

Vo

2K

2K

4mA

Suggested Solution
2K

2K
+

2K

Vo

2K

3mA

+
2K

1K Vo

4mA

3mA

4mA

2K

1K

+
Vo

3K
3V

+
1mA

2K

4mA

3K

Vo
-

3K||2K=1.2K
+
5mA

2K

1.2K

Vo
_

Vo = (5m)(1.2K) = 6V
Vo = 6V

2K

4mA

Problem 4.21
Use source transformation to find Vo in the network shown.
6V

12K

+
2mA

6K

4K

24V

Vo
-

Suggested Solution
6V

6V

12K

6K

+
2mA

6K

4K

Vo

Vo
-

4K
12V

24V

Vo
-

+
6K

24V

3mA

12K

4K

12K

2mA

Vo
1mA -

2K
Vo = 2V

Problem 4.22
Find Vo in the network shown using source transformation
3K
1K

5V
6V

2K

1K

Vo

2mA

2K

Suggested Solution

1K
5/2mA
2mA

2K

3K

1K
2mA

Io
3/4K
3/2mA

Io =

3
2K

+
1K

Vo
-

( 3/ 43/K4+K2 K ) = 0.41mA

Vo = 1K ( Io) = 0.41V

Problem 4.23
Find Io in the circuit shown using source transformation
12V

3K

6K
12K

3K

2mA

12K

Suggested Solution
12V

3K

6K

12V

12K
12K

3K
2mA 12K

6K

6K

3K
6V

12K

3K
Io

Io

Figure P4.23
12V

12K

12V

6K

12K

6K

1mA

12K

4V

Io

Io
4K
4K

4K
12K

6K

8V

6K

12K

4K

Io

Io = 2m(3K/(3K+6K)) = 0.67mA
3K

6K
Io

2mA

Io = 0.67mA

2mA

Problem 4.24
Find Io in the network shown using source transformation.
6mA
4K
Io
2mA

6K

18K

1mA

Suggested Solution
6K

5K

18K

4K
Io
18K

12V

4K

9K

18K
6V

Io

1mA

4K

2/3mA

Io

1mA

18K

9K

12V
1mA

4V
Io
1/3mA

6K

6K

4K

Io

12V
2

12

Io = -14/10K=-7/5mA

Problem 4.25
Use source transformation to find Io in the circuit shown.
6K

3K

12V

6K

6K
12K

Io

3K

2mA

Suggested Solution

3K

2mA
6K

12K

6K

Io

4K

6K

6K

3K

12K

2m

1/2m
Io

3K

Io = -3/2m(3K/9K) = -1mA

6K

3/2m
Io

Problem 4.26
Find Vo in the network shown using source transformation.
+ Vo 2K
2K

3K

2mA

4K

12K

12K

12V

Suggested Solution
+ Vo 2K
2K

3K

2mA

12K

4K
12K

12V

6K
+

2mA

6K

Vo

12K

12K

4K

4K

4K

3mA

3K

3K
I

8V

- 8 + I (4K + 3K + 3K) + 9 = 0
I = - 0.1mA
Vo = I (3K) = - 0.3V

3K
9V

Vo = -0.3V

Problem 4.27
Find Vo in the circuit shown using source transformation
8K

3K

3K

9V

4K
4K

4K

1mA
12V

3K

Io

Suggested Solution
3K
8K

3K

3K

4K
4K

12K

4K

3K

3m

3m

12V

6K

6K

9V

2m

6K

9V

3V

1/2m

3K

3K
Io

3K
6K
2m

3K
Io

3K

2m

3K
Io

3K
Io = - 1mA

3K

Problem 4.28
Find Io in the network shown using source transformation.

2K

6V
2mA

3K

4K
4K

6K

2mA

1mA
Io

Suggested Solution
4K
3K

6
6K

6V

4m

4K
1m

8V
3K

6K

8K

4K

2m

4K

4V

Io

4K

2m

Io

Io = -3/2m(8K/12K)
1/2m

8K

4K
Io

8K

2m
3/2m

4K
Io

Io = -1mA

1m

Problem 4.29
Find Io in the network shown using source transformation.
3K

Io

4mA

6K

6V

12K

9K

4K

3K

Suggested Solution
3K

6K

4mA

Io

9K

12V

6K
3K

6V

12K

Io

4K

3K

6V

6K

6K

Io
6V

12K

6K

2m

4K || 12K = 3K

12K

4K

6V

- 6 + Io ( 6K + 4K) + 8 = 0
4K
Io = - 0.2 mA

8V

Problem 4.30
Find Io in the network shown using source transformation.
12K

2K

6V

18K

4K

2mA

2mA
8K

Io

Suggested Solution

18K

12V

1/2mA

8K

2mA

12K
6K

Io

Io

1/2mA

12K

24K
1/2mA

2mA

8K
Io

12K || 24K
8K

2mA

Io = 2m [ 8K / (8K + 8K) ]
Io = 1 mA

8K

Problem 4.31
Find Io in the network shown using source transformation.
+
6V

2K

V1

2mA

6K

12K
Io
6K

3K

Suggested Solution
+
6V

V1
6K

3K

2K

2mA

2mA
6V

12K

Io
2K

6K

12K

3K || 6K
2K

Io = 2m ( 6 / (6 + 12 ) = 0.67mA
Io = 0.67 mA

6K

Problem 4.32
Use Thevenins Theorem to find Vo in the network shown.
+

3K

Vo

4K
6K

12V

2mA

2K

Suggested Solution
+
3K

Voc
4K

6K

12V

Voc = 12 ( 6K / 9K ) + 2m 2K = 12V
2K

2mA

Rth = 3K || 6K + 12K = 4K

Rth
+

4K

3K
6K

2K

4K

Vo = 6V

12V
-

Problem 4.33
Use Thevenins Theorem to find Vo in the network shown.
6V

12V
+

2K

4K

Vo

2K

Suggested Solution
6V

12V

6V

12V

+
+

2K

4K

Vo

2K

2K

4K
-

Voc

V1

V1 = - 6 [ 4K / (4K + 2K )]
V1 = - 4V
Voc = 12 + V1

Find Voc
Rth
+

2K

4K

Rth = 2K || 4K = 1.33K

2K

Vo

Voc
-

Vo = 4.8V

Problem 4.34
Use Thevenins Theorem to find Io in the network shown.
2mA
2K

6K

12V

2K

1K

Io

Suggested Solution
2mA

I1

2K

6K
I2

+
Voc

12V

1K

I1 = 2mA
-12 + 6K ( I2 - 2m) + 2K (I2 -2m) + 1K I2 = 0
I2 = 28 / 9 mA

Then Voc = 12 - 6K( I2 -2m ) = 16 / 3V

6K

2K

Io = 4/3 mA
2K

Rth

1K

2K

16/3 V
Voc

Problem 4.35
Find Io in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
4K

2mA

3K
12V

6K

2K

Io

Suggested Solution

4K

2mA
Voc = 12 + 3K (2m) = 18V

3K
12V

Rth

2K

4K
Rth = 3K

3K

3K
2K
Rth

6K

18 V
Voc

Io = 2 mA

Problem 4.36
Find Vo in the circuit shown using Thevenins Theorem.

1K

2mA

2K
+
12V

Vo

2K
-

Suggested Solution

1K

2mA
Voc = 12 + 2K (2m) = 16V

2K
+
12V

2K

1K

Voc
-

1K

Rth = 2K
3K
1K

Rth

16V

+
Vo
-

2K
Vo = 16 (2K / (2K + 2K)) = 8V

Problem 4.37
Find Io in the circuit shown using Thevenins Theorem.

4K

12V

6K

4K

6mA

6K

Io

Suggested Solution
+
4K

12V

Rth = 6K
4K

4K
Voc

4K

6K
-24 V

6K

6mA
-

Voc = 12 - 6K (6m) = -24V

6K

6K
Io = -2 mA

Problem 4.38
Find Io in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
2mA

12V

2K

4mA

2K

2K

Io

Suggested Solution

2mA

2K

4mA
Voc = - 2K (2m) - 6m (2K) = - 16V
2m

4m

+
-

Voc

2K

2K

6m
6m

2K

4K

2K
16

Rth

Rth = 4K

Io
12

Io = (16 + 12) / ($K)


Io = 7mA

Problem 4.39
Find Vo in the circuit shown using Thevenins Theorem.

4mA

2mA

2K
1K

1K
1mA

Vo

2K

1K

Suggested Solution
KCL
4mA

2mA

2K

4m

6m

2m

1K
1K

5m

1mA
1K

Voc = 1K(-2m)+1K(5m)+1K(1m)
1m

Voc

Voc = 4V

1K
1K

1K
3K

1K

Rth = 3K

+
Vo = 4 / (3K + 2K) *2K

2K
-

Vo = 8/5 V

Problem 4.40
Find Vo in the circuit shown using Thevenins Theorem.
+
2K

6V
2K

2K

Vo

2K

2mA

Suggested Solution
+
I1

6V

2K

2K

2K

2K

I2

2mA

Voc

I2 = 2m
- 6 + 4K I1 + 2K(I1 - 2m) = 0
I1 = 10/6K = 5/3 mA
Voc = 4K I1 + 2K I2 = 4K (5/3m) + 2K 2m = 32/3V

4K
2K

Rth = 2K + 4K || 2K = 10K/3

2K

10K/3
+
32/3

Vo
-

6K

Vo = 32/3 [6K/(6K + 10/3 K)] = 48/7 V

Problem 4.41
Find Io in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
1K

1mA

2mA

6V

1K

1K

Io

Suggested Solution
Find Voc
1K

1K

1mA

1mA

2mA

I1

2mA

+
6V

1K

1K

I2

1K

Voc

1K

Io

I1 = - 1 mA
I1 - I2 = 2mA , I2 = - 3 mA
Voc = (1K)I1 + (1K)I2 = - 4V

Find Rth
1K
Rth = 1K + 1K

- 6 + Io (Rth) + Voc = 0
Rth = 2K
Rth

1K

1K

Rth
Voc

6V
Io

Io = (6 - Voc) / Rth
Io = 5mA

Problem 4.42
Find Io in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
2K
12V

2K

2K

2K

2mA

Io

Suggested Solution
2K
12V

I1

Find Voc
I2 = - 2mA
Voc = 12 - (4K) I2
Voc = 20V

2K

+
2K

Voc
-

I2

2mA

Rth
2K
2K
4K

Rth

Both 2K
resistors
are shorted!

Io
Io = Voc / (Rth + 6K)

Rth = 4K

Voc

6K
Io = 2mA

Problem 4.43
Find Io in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
2K
4mA

2K
Io

12V

2K

2K

Suggested Solution
Find Voc
2K
4mA

I2

I1 - I2 = 4mA
12 = (2K) I2 + 4K (I2)
so, I2 = 2mA, I1 = 6mA

2K

Voc = 3K(I1 - I2) - 4K (I2)


Voc = 4V
12V

2K

2K

I1

Find Rth
2K

Rth
Rth = 3K + (2K || 4K)
Rth = 4.33K

Rth

Io
Vo

3K

6K

4K

Io = Voc/(Rth + 6K)
Io = 0.39mA

Problem 4.44
2K
12V

2mA

4K
4K
Io

Suggested Solution
Find Voc
I1

2K

12V

2mA

Voc

I2

2K

4K

I2 - I1 = 2mA
(4K)I2 + (2K)I1 + (2K)I2 = 0
yields: I2 = 0.5mA
Voc = 12 -(4K)I2 = 10V

Rth
Rth = 4K || (2K + 2K)
Rth = 2K

2K
4K

Rth

Io

2K

Io = Voc / (Rth + 6K)

6K
Voc

Io = 1.25 mA

Problem 4.45
Find Vo in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.

2mA

1K

1K
1K

1mA

1K

1mA

1K

Vo
-

Suggested Solution
Find Voc
I1 = 2mA, I2 = - 1mA, I3 = 1mA
2mA

I1

1K
1K

1K

1mA

I2

1K

(1K)I3 + 1K(I3 - I1) - (1K)I2 + Voc = 0


Voc = 3V

+
Voc

I2
1mA

Find Rth
Rth
1K
1K

1K
+
Rth = 3K

1K
Voc

Vo
_

Vo = Voc [ 1K / (1K + Rth)]


Vo = 0.75 V

Problem 4.46
Find Vo in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
+
6mA

4K

4K

Vo

8K

4K

2mA

12V

4K

Suggested Solution
+
6mA

I1 = 6mA

4K

I1

Voc

4K

4K

2mA

12V
I2

I3 - I2 = 2mA

I3
4K
-12 + 8K(I2 - I1) + (28K) I3 = 0
Voc = (4K)I1 + (24K) I3
Yields Voc = 74.67V

4K
Rth

Rth = 4K + [(8K + 4K) || 24K ]


Rth = 12K
Rth

24K
+
8K

Voc

Vo
-

4K

Vo = Voc[ 8K / (8K + Rth) ]


Vo = 29.87V

Problem 4.47
Use a combination of Thevenins Theorem and superposition to find Vo in the circuit
shown.
4K
8K
+

3K

4mA
6K

12V

Vo

2K
4K

Suggested Solution
Find Voc1 and Rth1
4K

3K

8K

3K

4mA
6K

12V

2K

Vo

12V

6K

Voc1 = 12[6/(6+3)]
Voc1 = 8V

voc1

4K

Rth1 = 3K || 6K = 2K
New circuit: Find Voc2 due to 8V

2K

Find Rth2
Voc2 = 8[(8+2)/(8+2+4+2)]

4K
8K

4K

Voc2 = 5V
V'oc2

8K

2K

2K

Rth2

2K

Find Voc2 due 4mA souce


+

4K

I1

8K

I1 = -4m(8+2)/(2+2+8+4)
I1 = - 1mA

Rth2 = 6K||10K = 3.75K

Rth2

V'oc2

+
Vo

2K
I2

Voc
-

I2 = 4m [ (4 + 8) / ( 4 + 8 + 2 + 20] = 3mA
V'oc2 = 8K I1 + 2K I2 = - 2V

Vo = Voc[4K/(Rth + 4K)]
Vo = 1.55V

Voc = Voc2 + V'oc2


Voc = 3V

Problem 4.48
In the network shown find Vo using Thevenins Theorem.
12V
+

1K
2K

1/2 Vo

1K

Vo
-

Suggested Solution
12V
+

1K

Voc = 18V

2K

1/2 Vo

Voc = 12 + Voc/2 [ 2K / (1K 5K) ] = 12 + Voc/3

Voc
-

12

1K

+
V'o

2K

1/2 V'o

1K

Isc = 12 / (1K || 2K) = 18mA , Rth = Voc/Isc = 1K


1K
18

12V

V'o = 0V

+
1K
-

Vo = 9V

2K

Isc

Problem 4.49
Find the Thevenin equivalent of the network shown at the terminals A-B.
1000 Ix
A
1K
2K

1K

2K

Ix

Suggested Solution
1000 Ix

A
ITest

1K
2K

1K

VTest

2K

Ix
B

Figure P4.49

Ix =

Vx VTest = 1000 Ix = Vx2

Vx
2K

So,
Vx = 2VTest
At the reference node,
Vx
Vx
ITest = V2Test
K + 2 K + 1K +1K =
Test
RAB = VITest
=

2K
5

RAB = 400

= 400

1
2K

[VTest + 2Vx] =

1
2K

[5VTest ]

Apply a test source, VTest


RAB = VTest / ITest

Problem 4.50
Find the Thevenin equivalent of the network shown at the terminals A-B.

+
Vx

1K
1K

1K

Vx / 1000
1K

Suggested Solution

1K

+
Vx

1K

Vx / 1000

1K

VTest

1K

Vx = Vy[ 1K1+K1K ] Vx = Vy2


At Vy:

Vx
1K

Vy
2K

+ VTest2 KVy yields Vy = VTest

VTest Vy
At VTest: ITest = V1Test

K + 2K

VTest
ITest

ITest

= RAB = 1K

Apply a test source,


VTest, RAB = VTest / ITest

Problem 4.51
Find Vo in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
VA/2

1K
+

6V

VA

2K

3K

Suggested Solution
VA/2

1K
+

VA = 6 [1K / (2K+1K) ]
VA/2

1K

VA

6V

Find Voc

+
2K

3K
6V

VA

VA = 2V
+
Voc

2K

I1

1K
+

VA

Voc = - VA/2 -VA + 6 = 3V

Isc

Rth

Rth = Voc / Isc


+

6V

VA/2

1K

Voc

3K

I2
VA = 6 - VA/2 => VA = 4V
I1 = VA / 1K = 4mA, I2 = (VA/2)/2K = 1mA
Isc = I1 - I2 = 3mA

Vo

Vo = Voc[3K/(3K + Rth)] = 2.25V


Vo = 2.25V

Rth = 1K

Problem 4.52
Find Vo in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
4K
+

VA

2VA
2K

12V

4K

Vo
-

Suggested Solution
4K
+

V'A

2V'A
2K

12V

Using voltage division


V'A = 12(4K/6K) = 8V

Voc
-

Figure P4.52

4K
+

V''A

KVL outer loop


-12 + V''A + 2V''A = 0
V''A = 4V

2V''A
2K

12V

Isc

If V''A = 4V
Isc = - 3mA and Rth = Voc/Isc = (-12) / (-3m) = 4K

1/K
4/K

3/K

4K
12V

4K

Vo
-

Vo = - 6V

Problem 4.53
Find Vo in the circuit shown using Thevenins Theorem.
+

4K
6V

Vo

2K

Vx

4K

2K

12V
Vx/1000

Suggested Solution
+
4K
6V

Vx

Voc

Vx = 6 [ 2K / (4K + 2K) ] = 2V

2K

4K
Vy = 12 - 4K ( Vx/1000 ) = 4V

2K

12V
Vy

Vx/1000

Voc = Vx + Vy = - 2V

Find Isc
Isc

4K

4K

+
6V

12V

2K
-

Vx/1K

Isc = Vx/1K + (Vx - 12) / 4K

Vx = 9/4 V
Isc = - 0.19 mA

(6 - Vx)/4K = Vx / 2K + Isc
Rth

Rth = Voc / Isc = 10.67 K


+

Voc

2K

Vo = Voc[ 2K / ( 2K + Rth) ]

Vo
-

Vo = - 0.32 V

Problem 4.54
Use Thevenins Theorem to find Vo in the circuit shown.
Ix
+

2K

6V

1K

1K

Vo

2 Ix
_

Suggested Solution
I'x
2K

6V

I'x = 0 , Voc = 6V

Voc

1K
2 I'x

I''x
2K
1K

I1

6V
Isc

I''x = Isc, I1 = - 2 Isc


2K Isc + 1K Isc +1K I1 - 6 = 0
Isc = 6mA

2 I''x

Rth = Voc / Isc = 1K

1K
6V

1K

Vo
_

Vo = 3V

Problem 4.55
Use Thevenins Theorem to Find Io in the circuit shown.
+

Vx

4K

2K
20V

2K

2Vx
Io

Suggested Solution
+

V'x

4K

2K
20V

- 20 + 2K I + 4K I + 2 Vx = 0
V'x = 2K (I)
2V'x

Voc

I = 2mA
Voc = 20 -2m (2K) = 16V

V''x

V''x = 20
Isc = 20 / 2K + 40 / 4K = 20 mA

4K

2K

2V''x

20V

Rth = Voc / Isc = 4/5 K

Isc

Io = 16 / (2 + 4/5)K = 40 / 7K = 5.71 mA

4/5 K
16V

2K
Io = 5.71 mA
Io

Problem 4.56
Find Vo in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
2K
+

2K

12V

2Vx

+
Vx
-

1K

2K

Vo

2K

Suggested Solution
Find Voc
2K
V1

2K

12V

2Vx

1K

+
Vx
-

2K
2K

Vo

2K

1K

2K
-

(Vx - V1)/2K = V1/1K + Vx/2K


yields,
Vx = Voc = 18 V

Find Isc
V2
+

2K

12V

0V
2Vx
-

Isc

2K

1K

+
Vx=0V
-

2K

2K

Now, Vx = 0! and V2 = - 12V


V2/2K + V2/1K + Isc = 0 , Isc = 18 mA

Isc

Rth = Voc/Isc = 1K
Rth
Voc

2K

+
Vo
-

Vo = Voc [ 2K / ( 2K + 2K + Rth)] = 7.2V


Vo = 7.2V

Problem 4.57
Use Thevenins Theorem to find Vo in the network shown.
12V

2K
+

2K
2K

2KIo

1K

1K
Io

Vo
-

Suggested Solution
12V
Voc-12

Voc
+

2K

Supernode - KCL
(Voc - 12 - 2KIx) / 2K + (Voc - 12) / 2K + Voc / 1K = 0

2K

2KI'o

1K

I'x = Voc / 1K
I'x
-

Then Voc = 12 V

1K Resistor is shorted
I''x = 0

12V

2K

2K
Isc = 12mA and Rth = Voc / Isc = 1K

1K
12

2K
1K

Vo = 12(1K/4K) = 3V
-

Problem 4.58
Find Vo in the network shown using Thevenins Theorem.
100Ix

6K

1K
3V

2K

Vo

1mA 2K

Ix

Suggested Solution
100Ix

6K

1K
3V

2K

1mA 2K

3V

Vo

Voc

2K

Ix

Ix

Ix = - 3/8K = - 0.38 mA

Find Isc
6K

3V

100Ix

6K

100Ix

2K

3 + (6K)Ix - (1K)Ix + Voc = 0


Voc = - 1.13V
Rth = Voc / Isc = 2.25 K

Vx = 2000Ix
Vx = - 1000 Ix
Vx = 0 and Ix = 0A
Now, -3 / 6K = Isc => Isc = -0.5mA

Isc

Ix

100Ix

Rth

Find Voc
1K
+

Rth
+
Voc

Voc

1mA

V'oc

Ix

V'oc = (1m)Rth + Voc


V'oc = 1.13V

Voc = -1.13V, Rth = 2.25K

Rth

1mA

Vo

2K

Rth
R'th = Rth

1K
2K

Vo
-

V'oc = V'oc[2K / (2K+1K+R'th)]

Vo = 0.43V

Problem 4.59
Use Thevenins Theorem to Find Vo in the circuit shown.

2Ix

1K

12V
1K

1K

Vo

1K

Ix

Suggested Solution

(Voc - 12) / 1K + 2I'x + Voc/1K = 0

+
12V
2I'x

1K

1K

I'x

Voc

I'x = Voc / 1K
Voc = 3V

I''x = 0, The network is reduced to


12V
2I''x

1K

1K

Isc

I''x

1K

12

Isc = 12mA

Rth = Voc / Isc = 3 / 12m = 0.25 K

1/4 K

1K
1K

Vo = [ 3 / (2 + 1/4)K ] 1K = 4/3 V

Vo
-

Vo = 4/3 V

Problem 4.60
Vx

+
1K

1K
1K

2K

Vo

1mA
1K

2Vx / 1000

1K
2K

4mA

Suggested Solution
+
1K

Vx

Find Voc
+

1K

2K

1K

+
1K

Vo

1mA

2K

Vx

1K

I1

+
Voc
-

1mA

Vx = 0
I1 = 1mA
I3 = - 4mA
I2 = 0

1K

1K

1K

1K
4mA

2K

4mA

2Vx / 1000

2K

2Vx / 1000

Find Isc

1K
2K

I2

Vx

(3K)I1 + Voc - (1K) I3 + 1K (I1 - I2) = 0


Voc = -8V

1K
1mA

I1

Rth = Voc / Isc

Isc

Rth
Voc

1K
I2
2Vx / 1000

I3

+
1K

Vo
-

1K
I3
2K
4mA

I1 - Isc = 1mA, I3 = -4 mA
Vx = - Isc (1K), I2 = 2Vx / 1K
3KI1 + (1K) Isc + 1K (Isc -I3) + 1K (I1 - I2) = 0
yields, Isc = -1mA

Vo = Voc [ 1K / (1K + Rth ) ]

Vo = - 0.89 V

Rth = 8K

Problem 4.61
Use Nortons Theorem to find Vo in the network shown.
2000Ix
+

4K

6K
6V

2K

Vo

4K

Ix

2mA

Suggested Solution
2000Ix
4K

6K
6V

2K

4K

Ix

I1
6V

Find Isc

2mA

2KIx

6K
2K

I2

+
Vo

I1

6K

6V

2K

4K

Ix

Same equations as those used to find


Isc except Isc -> 0. Also,

yields: Voc = 6V

Isc
2mA

Ix

Voc = 2K Ix + 2K Ix

I2

6 + 6K I1 + 2K(I1 -I2) = 0
2K (I2 - I1) - 2K Ix + 4K Isc = 0
Ix = I1 - I2 Isc - I2 = 3mA
yields: Isc = 0.86mA

Voc

3mA

4K

2000Ix

Rth = Voc / Isc = 7K


Vo = Isc[ Rth || 4K ]

+
Isc

Rth

Vo

4K
-

Vo = 2.18V

Problem 4.62
Find Io in the network shown using Nortons Theorem

2K

4K
4V

2K

12V

Io

Suggested Solution
Find Isc
2K
12V

4K

I1
4V

2K

2K
12V

4K
4V

Isc

Io

I2
Io

Req = 2K || 4K

I1 = 12 / 2K = 6mA
I2 = 4 / 4K = 1mA
Isc = I1 - I2 = 5mA
Io = Isc[ Req/( Req + 2K) ]

2K

Req

4K

2K

Req = 1.33 K
Isc

Req

Io = 2mA

Problem 4.63
Use Nortons Theorem to find Io in the circuit shown.

3K

12V

3K

2K

2K

4mA

Io

Suggested Solution
Isc = 12 / 3K - 4m[3K / (3K + 3K)]
3K

3K

12V
Isc

2K
4mA

3K

1K

Isc = 2mA

2K
Rth = 3K || 6K = 2K

3K

Rth

1K

2mA

2K

2K
Io = 1mA

Problem 4.64
Find Io in the network shown using Nortons Theorem.
3K

6K

6V

2K

3K
2mA

Io

Suggested Solution
Find Isc
6K

3K

6K

3K
Isc

6V

2K

3K
2mA

Io
Find req

6V

6V
I1

1K

Isc = I1 + I2 = 2mA
Req = 6K || (3K + 3K)

1K

I1 = 6 / 6K = 1mA
I2 = 6/ 6K = 1mA

I2

Req

1K

Req = 3K

Io
Isc

Req

2K

Io = Isc [ Req / (Req + 2K)]


Io = 1.2 mA

Problem 4.65
Find Io in the network shown using Nortons Theorem.
2K

3K

6K

12V

Io

2K

4K

Suggested Solution
Find Isc
Isc
V1 = 12V
6K

V2

V1

3K

(V1 - V2) / 6K + (V1 - V2) / 3K = V2 / 2K


yields, V2 = 6V

12V

2K

4K

Isc = (V1 - V2) / 3K + V1 / 4K = 5mA

Req
6K

Io

3K
Isc
2K

Req = 4K || [3K + (6K || 2K)]


Req = 2.12 K

4K

1K

2K
Req

Io = Isc[ Req / (Req + 2K)]


Io = 2.57mA

Problem 4.66
Use Nortons Theorem to find Vo in the network shown.
1K
2mA

2K
+
Vo

12V

1K

2K
_

Suggested Solution
1K
Isc = 12 / 2K + 2 / 1K = 8mA

2mA

2K

12V

1K

Rth = 2K
1K
+

2K
1K
Rth

8m

2K

2K

Vo
-

Vo = 8V

Problem 4.67
4K
3K

Vo

4mA

6K

6V

8K

4K

2K

Suggested Solution
4K
3K

Find Isc

8K

4K
+

6K

6V

4mA

4K

2K

Vo
-

3K

4m
2K

6K

2mA
Find Req

4K

4K

Find Isc
2K

4V

I2

I1

8K
8K

4mA
2K

3K

6K

Isc

2K

I1 - I2 = 4mA, 2K(Isc - I1) + 8K (Isc - I2) = 0


4 = (2K) I1 + (4K) I2
yields: Isc = 0.1333 mA

Req = (8K + 2K) || [4K + (6K || 3K)]


Req = 3.75 K

+
Isc

Req

Vo

4K
-

Vo = Isc [ Req || 4K] = 258mV


Vo = 258 mV

8K
Isc

Problem 4.68
Given the linear circuit shown, it is known that when a 2-K load is connected to the
terminals A-B, the load current is 10mA. If a 10-K load is connected to the terminals
the load current is 6mA. Find the current in a 20K load.

A
Rth
Voc

Suggested Solution
Rth
A
+
Voc

RL

VAB

B
I

(Rth + RL) I = Voc


if RL = 2K , I = 10mA => Voc = 20 + 0.01Rth
if RL = 10K , I = 6mA => Voc = 60 + 0.006Rth
yield Voc = 120V and Rth = 10K
If RL = 20K , I = Voc / (RL + Rth)
I = 4 mA

Problem 4.69
If an 8-K load is connected to the terminals of the network shown, VAB = 16V. If a 2K load is connected to the terminals VAB = 8V. Find VAB if a 20K load is connected
to the terminals.
A
Linear
circuit
B

Suggested Solution
Rth
A
+
Voc

VAB

If RL = 8K , VAB = 16V => Voc = 16 [ 1 + Rth / 8K ]

If RL = 2K , VAB = 8V => Voc = 8 [ 1 + Rth / 2K ]

B
Thevenin eq.
for linear circuit

VAB = Voc[ RL / (RL + Rth) ] => Voc = VAB [ 1 + Rth / RL ]

yield: Rth = 4K and Voc = 24V


If RL = 20K , VAB = 24 [ 20 / (20 + 4) ]

VAB = 20 V

Problem 4.70
Find RL for maximum power transfer and the maximum power that can be transferred in
the network shown.

12V

6K

6K

RL

3V

6K

Suggested Solution
A

Find RAB
All 3 Resistors are attached
to both node A and node B, so,

12V

6K

6K

RAB = 6K || 6K || 6K

6K
6K

RL

RAB = 2K

6K

3V

6K

RAB

B
Find maximum load tranfer
V3
12V

V1

6K

6K

6K
RL

V2
3V

Yields:
V3 - V1 = 12V
V2 = 3V

V3 = 5V

At supernode:

PL = V23 / RAB

(V3 - V2) / 6K + (V1 - V2) / 6K + V3 / 2K + V1 / 6K = 0

PL = 12.5 mW

Problem 4.71
Find RL for maximum power transfer and the maximum power that can be transferred in
the network shown.

3K

2mA
6K

RL

5K

Suggested Solution
Find RAB

A
2mA

3K

2K

6K

RAB = 2K + 3K + 5K = 10K

3K

RL

5K
5K

B
Find maximum load tranfer

3K

I1

I3 - I1 = 2mA I2 = 1mA
(2K) I1 + (10K) I3 + 5K (I3 - I2) + 3K (I1 - I2) = 0

2mA
I3

6K

RL

yields: I3 = 0.9mA
PL = I23 RAB

I2

5K

PL = 8.1 mW

Problem 4.72
In the network shown find RL for maximum power transfer and the maximum power that
can be transferred to this load.
RL

4K

6K
3K

3V

2mA

Suggested Solution

Rth = 4K + 3K || 6K = 6K
4K

6K
3K

Voc

I1 = 2m
3K (I2 - I1) + 6K I2 + 3 = 0

4K

I2 = 1/3 mA

6K
I1

3K

3V
I2

2mA

Voc = 4K (2m) + 6K (1/3 m) = 10V


6K
Vo = 5V

+
10

Vo
-

RL = 6K

PL = V2o / RL
PL = 25/6 mW

Problem 4.73
Find RL for maximum power transfer and the maximum power that can be transferred in
the network shown.
2K

RL

4K

1mA

+
2K

Vx / 2000

2K

Vx
-

Suggested Solution
2K

RL

4K

1mA

To find Req, replace RL with a 1mA


current source,
Req = VTest / 1mA
2K
+

2K

Vx / 2000

2K

I3

Vx
-

4K
I1

Find max load power


Vx / 2000

2K

1mA

I1

Vx / 2000

I4
4K

I2
2K

RL
+

I3
2K

Vx
-

2K

+
I2
2K

Vx
-

I1 = Vx / 2K , I2 = Vx / 2K
I3 - I2 = 1mA
(2K)I3 + (2K)I2 + 2K(I2 -I1) + 4K(I3 -I1) = 0
VTest = 4K(I3 - I1) + (2K)I3
yields: VTest = 3V
Req = VTest / 1mA = 3K

I1 = 1mA, I2 - I1 = Vx / 2K, I3 = Vx / 2K
4K (I4 - I2) + 2K I4 + 3K (I4 - I3) = 0
2K I3 + 2K (I3 - I2) + 3K ( I3 - I4) = 0
yields: I3 = 1.25mA and I4 = 1.42mA => PL = 3K (I4 - I3)2
PL = 83.3 W

VTest

Problem 4.74
In the network shown find Io using PSPICE.
6K

6K

12V

6K

6K
6mA

Io

Suggested Solution
I o = 3.2 mA.
R1

6K

R3

6K

+
12V
V1

R2
-

6K

I1
6mA
IDC

6K
R5

3.200mA

Problem 4.75
In the network shown determine Vo using PSPICE.
6V

12K

+
2mA

6K

4K

24V

Vo
-

Suggested Solution
Vo = 2V

IDC
2mA
I1

V1

6V

R3

6K
-

R1
6K

R2
4K

2.000V

V2
24V

Problem 4.76
Find Vo in the network shown using PSPICE.
+

3K

Vo

4K
6K

12V

2mA

2K

Suggested Solution
Vo = 5 ( 1) = 6
R1

V.
6K

+
12V
V1

R3
5.000V

6K
-1.000V

R2

R4

6K

2K

I1
2mA
IDC

Problem 4.77
Find Vo in the network shown using PSPICE.
2K
+

2K

12V

2Vx

1K

+
Vx
-

2K

2K

Vo

Suggested Solution
Vo = 8V
R3 1K
I1 2mA

R1 2K
+
R2

V1
12V

2K

IDC
8.000V

R4
2K

Problem 4FE-1
Determine the maximum power that can be delivered to the load RL in the network
shown.
1K

1K

1K
2K

12V

RL

4mA

Suggested Solution

1K

1K

Voc

2K

12V
4mA

1K

1K

(Vx - 12) / 1K - 4m + Vx / 3K = 0
Vx = 12V
Voc = Vx [ 2K / (2K + 1K)] = 8V

1K

Rth = 2K || 2K = 1K

RL = 2K

1K
RL

PRL = (8 / 4K)2 (2K)


PRL = 8mW

Problem 4FE-2
Find the value of the load RL in the network shown that will achieve maximum power
transfer, and determine the value of the maximum power.
1K
+

Vx

1K
2Vx

RL

12V

Suggested Solution
1K
+

V'x

1K

+
Voc

12V

2Vx

- 12 + 2K I + 1K I + 2V'x = 0
V'x = 2K I
Voc = 12 - 2K I = 66/7 V

1K
+

V''x

1K
Vx = 12
Isc = 12 / 2K + 24 / 1K = 30mA

Isc

12V

2V''x

Rth = Voc / Isc = 2/7 K


P = [(60/7)/(4/7 K)]2 (2/7 K)

2/7 K
66/7 V

RL = 2/7 K

P = 64.3 mW

Problem 4FE-3
Find the value of RL in the network shown for maximum power transfer to this load.
Ix
12

3
12V

2Ix

12

RL

Suggested Solution
I'x
+

3
12V

(Voc - 12) / 3 + Voc / 12 - 2 I'x = 0


I'x = (12 - Voc) / 3
Voc = 144/13 V

Voc

12
2I'x

I''x
I''x = 12/3 = 4mA
3
12V

Then
12

2I''x
Isc

Rth = Voc / Isc = (144/13)/12 = 12/13


Then RL = 12 + 12/13
RL = 12.92 for MPT

Isc = I''x + 2I''x = 12A