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A-1

Physiccrl Properties

of

Fluids

crnd Flow Chcrnclcteristics

oS

VqhreE Fittings, crnd Pipe


APPEND IX

\/
The physical properties of many commonly used fluids
are required flor the solution of flow problems. This
appendix presents a compilation of sucir properties obtained
from various reference sources. [n those cases where the
information given by the source reterence is in Imperial
units this has been converted and is presented here in terrns

of SI units.

!lost te,\ts on the subject ol tlrrid meclr:rrucs covcr in detail


tlrc tlow tltrouglr pipc,llut thc t'luw clr:rr;rLrcristics *rl vrlves
rnd tittings ure glvcn littlc, r['any, ;ruelrtton, probably
because the inflormation has not ttce n available. This
appendix includes a presentatit-rn oI da ta rvhich provides a
hasis [or calculatinB the resistarrce coet'{'ir:rt:nt 'K' [or various
tyllcs ol' valves ilIttl t'ittings :rrrd the rnrrtlrutl ol clrrplr:ying
this coet't'icient tr.l t-rbtain presslrrc dro[) r rr lrcad loss througlr
valves and fittings is explained in Chaptcr

\-

i.

The I/ net expansion tactors [or discharge of compressible


fluids from piping systems, wtrich are presented here. pro.
vide means for a greatly simplitied solution of a heretofore
complex problem.

APPENDIX A

T]I)-UryJ1axA9IL
S

Viscosity of !^ir.rrer and iteam,

is

'c' l-T

_ in centipoise

(p

AND

PIPE

CRANE

I Iemtr.l

I
lr,,i
i-i

o--l r.zso

t00

1.750

.s44

ls0

'

,279

.lgl t-i .18l

.014

200

TIF

.0lg

100

.020

i --J

rr0

.ozz

.a24

[rri

,,.19_
42s
+50

___r

475

,027
-_il

s00

.028

-IT
(t}tl

.o3o

650

--..1-

.a34

-_i_

zoo

No r es.

.036

.IJ

ta

.02s

.oz7

|
j

.020

.s+s

I .:so
.ts-]

I.750

i .54s
++

J .:ar--t
1I .lgJ

.135

.t07

.roa

136

.030

l-

.t)32

.034

--!r.02s
----r.-

{I

__j-

i
I

.oJs

-l

028 |
-1--

029 I
-r*
la_L 03 I
.029

.033

.033

-sri
.037
I

I .ozv
+__
o:n

.ut*
.

I
-{---_.

.UZU

.03 I

.ol ]

02,1

1.710

.546

.546

.547

.549

.549

.550

.55 I

.55 2

.293

.295

.297

.2gg

.291

.293

,295

186

.l gg

.lg0

.lg2

194

.lg7

.lgg

.145

.148

.150

.152

.l2 t

.123

.126

103

.282
r84

.VyZ

_+
.140

. 138

.L

ltl
'---

.oe3
.073

.rJ.1.)

;i .0JS

.037

.037

.olz

bar relares to
ro a rlme

)t'ii.is;C'ili.:T;"rrates

.02e

,143

.il6 I

.l Ig

.0e8

.l0r

.082

.095

.072

.076

.oes
.078

.ora

rsO
.ol

030

.O32

.03 3

.034

.036

.o3g

j.ossl

.036

.loE

.089

.0g

.079

.og2

.069

.074

.077

.06 I

.06 7

.07

.0s 2

.060

.065

.069

.(Xr!

.05 3

.M2

.048

llo i

rb.r

.054

.050

.040

.044

.048

&10

.043

.(}16

.049

.038

.o3s

.03 7

.036

.0J8

|
i

.0g5

II
I

.ozs

"os3

.03E

,0Jg

.04 I

.(NJ

&[5

.(xg

.04 I

.u2

.044

.o46

.049

rable liquid srare. The stable


srare is rrere sorid.

.080

.olg

l0

.106

1.7

.0gz

I .orr
I .03r i ^o3tl g.
I

-{
.063

.o+o

l- fi3

.oro

kl

.vJJ 1

,r--

.ozt

.f tr2
fr,

i .ozgq .M6

lo16

l__.028

J .uJr I

800

1,720

I
i
r.---i .ozr r-- .o2e i

;-

7otr

500

1.720

..^ --.o2bl.o2-/
.VZl

TToT_

1.73 0

/.lrc

--_-T

en[Il/ gtlgrwn-tgr 0"C and

o ctriticai
puint

.033

I -T.orz I -+_
nrz
I

n11
rrLt
1

400

1.740

:E1l_.o2s

ozsI.ozr,i

.026

.027

:028
.030

300-

200
1.740

.137

ffi
.tJ7(,, I

so I u re

L.740

.ro8TTill

.020

,024

.4.24

-+
,027 -*.028

,a2g

-t

I .lg2 i
--T
; .135 I

.026

.426

I-

lat f'-:.:

,024

,CI24

t.7s0

--__t

.025
.-.t-

\ .T'L
L,t
r ntr

1\

.023

4J

+,

(l)

.t82

.545

gl .zao

.0l g

---1

.03z

1.7s0

.026-l- .026

.0l g
.020

.280

f--r--

nl,
v&J

375

.o2o

.s++

-,!--

1-.016
.oto

.016

250

I .544 |
+-_
t| ,279

.514

{} I "'

i
i

8!gslgJe.--&U_1b
150

rJ

rF

I 1.750
-1------

1.750

Eirltt

l5

Source ot'data: NEL Sceam Tables


1964 (HrltsO, Edinbunlh)r

CRANE

APPENDIX A
PHYSTCAL PROPERTI ES OF FLUIDS AND FLOW CHAFACTEBISTICS OF VALVES. FITTINGS AND

PIPE A .3

Viscosity of Water and

Liquid Petroleum Prorlucts


Atlrrpteti f'rt>m tiuta extnrt,lcrl from

Billliograllhy rclt'renccs

,'1, l.l ancl 13

4000
3 000
2000

\-"

000
800

1.

Ethane (C1H6)

600

2.

Propane (CrHr)

400

Butane (C4Hro)

300

3.
4.

Natural Gasoline

200

5.

Gasoline

6.

Water

7.

Kerosene

8.

Distillate

100

80
60

o
tt,

'6

.g

9. 48 Deg. API Crude

40

10. 40 Deg.

30

11. 35.6 Dag.APl Crude

20

CJ

(J

;
VI

o
(J
,2
I

:t

API CruCe

12.

32.6 Oeg. API Crude

13.

Salt Creek Crurje

ro

4.

5.

Fuel 5 (Min.)

16.

SAE i 0 Lube

17.

SAE 30 Lube ( 100 V.t.)

18.

Fual 5 (Max ,l or

19.

SAE 70 Lube (100 V.t.)

24.

Bunker C Fuet (Max.) and


M.C. Residuum

\1.O

.8
.6

21

.4
.3
.2

.1

.08
.06
.04
.03
260

400

500

T - Temperatrrre rn kelvrrr5 (()


Example: Find the viscosity of water at 60" c
60"f = ?73 + 60 = 333 K
Viscosity of water at 33J ( = 0.47 centipoise r.curve
6)

Solution:

uel 3 (Max.)

(1

00 V.l

.)

Fuet (i (Min.)

Asphalt

APPTNDIX A
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS ,\ }i[J T LOW CIlAHACTERISTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS AND PIPE

A-4

CRAN

Viscosity of Various Liquids


6.0
5.O

4.0

1.0
.9
.8
(u
q,

.+
0J

(J

,7
.6
.5

V,

o
rJ
,2
I

-\

0.1

.09
.08
.07
,06
i

.05

,43

r40

-40

t - Temperature, in degrees Celsius ("C)


1, C.rrllon Dioxttto" . CO,
2. Ammonra ......NH,
3. ivletnvl Chlorrde . CH 3Ct
4. Sulphur Dioxide .SO,
f.12
5. Frurnn1?,.
f1 f"rnrxl 1l4.
'l {:rqt)rr 11
3. Fron113.

IIl4
...1''11

.F-113

Ethyl Alcohol
lsopropyl .\lcr:hol

9.
10.
11.

Sulph,rrrr: Acid .
Dowthnr trt

2}o,/o

rt

?AV" H.SOn

I 4-.

16. l07o Sodium Chlorido Brine . . . 10% NaCl


17. 2OYo Sodium Chloride Brine . . . 20Yo NaCl
18. 'iOYo Calcrum Chloride Brine. . . 10% CoCl,
111

?09('

Cillcrum Clrlorrcle Bnne. , . :O9t' C.lCl

"14.

[)tlwtllnrrrr r\
2QV,lioitrtrrt Ityrlroxtrl,'. . 20Y" NaOH

llxanrple: I'lrc vlscosltv ot' .rmrnonla,It

15.

Mercury

0" C is 0.15 centipoise.

t:J.

Adapaterl

ra e,{t r;icred from Bibliography reterences

5,8,

II

APPENDi X A

CRANE PHYSlcAL pnoqenrres

or ruuros

A.

aru

-5

Viscosity of Gases and Vapours

The curves for hydrocarbon vaPours and natural


gases in the chart at the upper right are adapted
from dtta taken from Maxrvell"; the curves for
tll other gases (e,tcept heliurn" ) in tlte chart are
based upon Sutherland's formula.

Vi.;cosity of Various Gaser


.o42

ls follows:

(;*) G)
where:

p = viscosity, in

centipoise

at tem-

centipoise

et

038

Air

036

i N,

O3a

j Sor

o32

co.

o .030

.g
*.

tem-

peratu re To.

\-,

040

(u

peratur e T .

Ito = viscosity, in

(u

o28

.9g = .5 \ Hvoro Carbon


,NH\v3oour and
.Sri .7s )Nan"rral
/
Gases
Sg'1.0o

(,

T = absolute

temperature, in Kelvin
1273 + " C), for which viscosity is
required.

.:

.026

v
tl,

,o24

o
o

To = absolute temperature, in

,2 .o22

C = Sutherland's constant.

.a

Kelvin,
for which viscosity is known.

.020
.018

Note: The variation oI viscosity with pressure


is small for most gases. For gases given on this
page, the correction of viscosity for pressure is
less lhan l0 per cent for pressures up to 35 bar.

.01 5

.0ta
.012
.01 0

Fluid

Approximate
Yalues of

o:

127

Air

120

N1

\-

CO,
CO

SO,

NH,
H,

.008

"C"

00 200 300 400 soo


I - Temperature, in degrees Ceisius
1

lll

240
I llt
416

Viscority of Refrigorant Vapouru


(

370

o19

o18

72

returatcd and ruperhortcd vapourr)

[T__I

,7 'll
i.O'l

.o17
I

I
I

q)

tn

'6

.016

--

ta

l,l

o
o .014
.01 3
.

o12

!
I
I

,l

i)7

ll -{
41 -/?'{l
r.j

ffi
t

l- t2

l-.,i*

iffi

tFrf

1lJ
"

l,
I

',/4a

"*

:L .o10

.009

centrpoise.

.01

Lower chart example: The viscosity of carbon


iioxide gas (COr; ar about 30"C is 0.0 1 52

./t

ldA{

,2

Upper chart example: The viscosity of sulphur


dioxicie gas (SO, ) at I g0"C is 0.0162 centipoise.

--

i'l-

'a

tr
A
l{t
/

l:l

.* .o15

ttl
\J
,J

9r4
ilt!l

.l'llliit
-40

';t
0

-2C

20

40

60

80

Tem perature, in degrees Ceisius

100

tNGS,lND

plpE

CRANE

Ili:'.rsical Properties of Water

Temperarure
of Water

Sa

tumtion

Specific

Pressure

p'

Degrees
Celsius

Itar Absolute

.0[
5

l0

.005 I l2
.008719

l5

.0t2271
.0t704r

20

.023 36tJ

Volume
v

1.0002

999.9

1.0001

t.0003
r.00 t 0
r.00 t 8
1.00J0

t.0(x4
I.0(b0

.0562r7
.07375o

35

"15

s0
55

p
Kilograms per
Cubic .\[etre

.04 24 t ri

4()

l}t

Cubic Decimetres
per Kilogram

.0t 1663

25

l0

.r

Density

g99.g
999.7
99e.0
ggg.2
997.0
995.6

994.0

1.0079

gg 2.2

.()9582
. I 2335

l.(x)99

.r5740

I .() 145
I .0171

990.2
999.0
985.7
983.2

t.0t2t

60

.t99tg

6s

.2s 008

t.0t99

974.9

.t I t60

gtl0.5
977.7

70
75

.3

854 7

80

1.0228
1.0258

.{ 7359

r.0290

971.8
969.6
965.3

85

.s

7803

90

1.03 24

.70 t 09
.845 26

1.0359
1.0396
1.0435

95
100

1.01325

110
120
130
140

160
170
180

1.05

l5

951.0

1.0603
1.0597
1.0798

943, I
926.

4.7 597
6. I 905

1.c906

916.9

I . 1021

7,9203

1.

907.4
397.3

10.0271

190

12.552

200
11<
250

15.551
25 .5

27s

100

l2s

J50
174.15

959.3-

1.995 3

1.6 136

t50

96 1.9

1.4326

2.7012

04

934.8

I 144
L.L275

896.9

l.l4 l5

875.0

565
1.1992

833.9

1.1

864.7

39.776

l.f

1,2

799.2

9..19
8s "92

I .3 168

759.4
712.5
654. t

l.{036

lo.5 7
l{rr.-}7
^ll t.l0

t.-( 289

1.7.il

l.l 70

5 7.1..1

I 15.5

To convert Specific Vrrlume from cubic decimetres per kilosrarn (dm'/kg)


to cubic melres per kjlouram (m'/kg) divide values in rable by l0'.
To convert Density 1-ronr kilograms per cubic merre (kg/m') ro kilograms
per litre (kg/litre) divide values in table by l0'.
Specific gravity of rvarer

rr l5'C -

'rr

1.00.

Data on pressure anti volume ubstracted from UK National Engineering


Laboratory "Steam T;thles 1964" with perrnission of HMSO.

-\

APPENDIX A
Ar\lD PtPE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CF FLUIDS AND FLOW Ci-{ARACTIFTSTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS

CRAN E

Specif ic

G ravity-Temperatu

A -7

for Petroleum Oils

re Relationship

(AtlapterJ from rJata extractetl flrom Bibliugraphy reference 12)


1.O

=
,i

lJ)

GRAvTTY 60 F/60 F (15.6 C/15.6


o.o
b
(o

:liri

,oo

(o

se'lo

,Y
Gl

epr

C)

RAVTTY

-t\i

{.

B o.8
o

*{l

o
q,

o.7

5
C,

(!

E 0.6

\,-,

o.
l-

t?g

{u o.u

"0

o
r-

-1-

c o.a

.:

-i-

"%

(, 0.,

+-

f-

o.

a?t
't o.r

'a

rJ

\';'I

o'(,

(l

0.2

,10

C.H

1s

iC.Hro.

lsobutane
Butane iC5Hs2 = lsopentane

Propane

Example: Thc specific gravity

oil rt

grnvitv

\.,

15.6 C

rt

.50 C

200

50

CrHc = Ethane

CrHr.

100

50

o[

an

is 0.85. The specitic


. ().83.

300

250

350

400

450

550

500

Temperature, rn Degrees Celsius

To find the densitir in kilog-rams/cubic metre_of a petroleum oii at its flowing


temperature when the specific gravity at 60 F/60 F (15.6 C/15.6 C) is known,
ful.t_lgJv the.specific -gravity o[ the oil at flowing temperarure (sce chart above)
hy o9.). thc tlensity ,rl'watcr ;rt (r() F (15.6 C).

Density and Specific Griruity* of Various Liquids


Liquid

Tomp"

Density

Speci fie
t irnvi ly

s'

OF

"C

60 I 1s.5
r0 I -tz.z
32 lo
32 lo
32 I o
60 | rs.o
32 lO
60 i ls.o
60 I rs.e
60 I rs.e
60 I rs.o
60 | rs.o
60 I rs.6
60 | rs.o
60 I rs.6
60 I rs.o

Acetone

Ammonia, Saturated
Ilenzene

Brine. L07o Ca Cl
Brine. l0% Na Cl
Bunkers C l;uel Ma.x.

Crrbon Disulphide
Distillate
Fuel 3 Max.
Fuel 5 lvlin.
Fuel 5 Max.
Fuel 6 lVIin.

Gasoline
Gasoline, Natural
Kerosene

It. C. Residuum

Lirluid

oF

kg/m'
79r.3
6ss.2
898.6

I
r077.t
t 0l 3.2
l 090.

0.792

Mercu ry

0.656
0.899

Mercury
Mercury
Merc u ry

t .091

1.078
r .014

Mercury

848.8

t.292

M ilk
Olivc r)rl

0.850

Pent ane

897 .4

0.89I

SAE l0 I,ubeu
SAE 30 Lubett
SAE 70 Lubetl

1291.1

964.8

0.966

991 .9
991 .9

0.99
0.99

3
3

749.8

0.75

i9.5

8 14.5

934.2

Temp.

0.680
0.815
0.93s

Salt Creck Crude

.6" A I'l Crude


35.6" ,\PI Crude

32

40" AI'}l Crude


4Eo ,\PI Crude

t
oe

20 I .6.7
40 I q.+
60 I rs.o
80 | zo.t
loo I lz.a
5e It..ts.o
s9 I 15.0
60 | ,r.u
50 I rs.o
60 I rs.o
60 I ts.o
60 I rs.o
60 I rs.o
60 I rs.o
60 l' ls.6

Density i ,Specific
I ()ravity

pi-I'

kg/m I

13 612
13 584
i3 s57
13 s30

3.54

1,3 502

3.5 14

I 3.6 23

13.596
1 3.s58
1

9 t7 .9

rl.c)'t r)

623.1

0,(1?4

875.3

0.8 76

891 .4

915.0

c.89
0.9 16

E41 .9

0.843

86 1.3

0.86 2

845.9
8 ?4.1
787.5

0.$47

c.8 2s

0.788

Liquid at specified temperature relative to water at 15.6"C (60"I;t


+ Milk has a density ot 1028 to 1035 kg/m'

ll

100 Viscosity Index

Values in above table are based on SmithsoniunPhysical iitbles, llrtrii's Engincers'Han(lbook and
''Nelson'sPetrr.;leum

Refinery Engineering.

APPENDIX A
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS .: X'i) FLOW (;HARACTERISTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS AND

- 8

PIPE CRANE

Physical Properties of Gases


(Approximate values at

?:O"C

and 1.01325 bar)

cp = Specit'ic hear xt constant pressure


c'u = specitic hear at constant volume

Name
of
Ca.s

.\cerylene

(e$ryne)

AirlAmmonia
Argon
n-B u rane
Cubon dioxide
Carbon monexide
Chlorine

thane

ii Lil;r;"'
Hetium
I

gy,trochloric

i Chemicat

I F<lrmula

I
I

I
I
i
i
I
I
I

Natural gas (a)

Nitric Oxide

Nitrogen
lliuorrs oxide

CrU,
NH,
A

kg/rrr'

lu

Cas

Tomperaturo
J/kg K

to Air

26.0
29.0
17.0
3 e.9

I .09 25

0.7179
1.66 r 0

0.907
1.000
0.596

.190

1.3 79

208

2190
519

2.4897

2.M7

143

1654

1.84 I 7

1.1648

1.5 29
0.96 7

297

l0r7

2.9944

2.,+86

117

1.26

35
1.17"1.4

l'.049
0.975

277

16

296

t6 75

0.1 38

36.5

0.1663
1.5273

1.268

2078
228

5234
800

r0

.tt26

c, H.

4.1.0 ./

0.0
29.0
-1.0

He

1.2&15

320
287

189

t572

858

lr9r

l.{0

862

517

1.3 2
1.6 7

1490

{ll8

37 10

1.1

858

660

1580

12

1.30

481

726
362

3il

t6

32s

73
315 3
567
13

[.40

1440

r084

1.3 3

2042
r967

16 7.1

L.22

15l2

L.22

870
1222

524
866

[.56

850

[.{ I

r657

r255

1.3 2

216 t

800

I.20

884
208
I 204
t 70s

t483

1.27

863
854

1.41

t2 r0
309s

864
2690
2298
I 396

909

r88
r98

1645
r,499

129

545

1.037

1.1648
1.8429

0.96 7

l0

t-105

1.8814
L.7 477

1.56 2

2.7270

1.45 I
.2.264

69r

649
430
r3 r5
512
r

I
r

2620
t

759

l2l

t30r

.a\r

260

0.66 7

1.249 t

t9

t0l7

1.4

145 8

925

0.8034

143

l6

846

r89

[ 9.5
30.0
28.0
44.0

Ir85

1.530

1.785

243
519
r65

1.30

733
706

00

l23 r

1034

2.1

SO,

l2 15

1845

50.5

1.3 3

r60

721
I 659

2345
957

0.554

2.0

Lr27

126
277
297

73

r465
1009

838

0.66

.I90

ca

cP

1005

[6.0

+4.
42.
64.

cu

2483

.Y

oqu{i
to

'pla

r r99

0.0695

1..1334
5

cp

Heat Capacity
per Cubic Motro
J/mr K

10r55
782
r88 r

0.0837

34. I

O,

C, Ht
C, Ho

rt Room

Constant
Ukg K

Specific Heat

.sg

Cl,

lN.
i N.o

vidual

28.0
70.9

tlNo

Indi-

ravity

tW

CO

HCt

Specifit:
Itelative

Weight

58.

I H'
I H; S
I CHn
I CHrCt

i Oxvsen
I
i pro p-,.ne
I
I Propane propylene i
i Sulphur dioxide _ i

Densiry

Molecu-

Cn H,o
CO,

Ii i.,ii:

acid I

HyCrogen
t{iaro[en sulphide
Ilefi:rne
.Vethyt Chloride

or
Symbol

Approx.

[.J0

l.{0
1.3

l.{0
l. l5
[. l4
1.26

Representarivc v.alues; ex;rcr characteristics require knowledge olexact constilutents.


To obtain density values at I5"C, 1.01325 bar. multiply tablc values by 1'0174.
('C) i.e. tllkg K may bc writtcn kJ/kg"C.
Where the Ketvin (K) appeius in the above tible ir may be replaced by the degree Celsius
Heat
abstracted from or based on Table 24
Specif-rc
and
Constant
Individual
Gas
Gravity.
Molecular Weight, Specific
Vllues of ..Stanoard
Haridtiol ior ]techanllarEngineirc', Se"enth Ediilon, i966 approximatc values adapted from a numbcr
in"Markts

(a)

Notes.

r:l'sources.Z

Values of Densities obtaine<I by multiplying rJcnsrry of dry rir:rt 20"C, 1.01325 bar. by spccific-gr1vit1r of gas. i.e.- l'2(X5 r
o",.riiv nr nir, iro111l;rrrii*o,jynomii ind'rr;;;;p;rirrop"iiics of Fluids", Y. R. Mavherir and G. F. c. Rogcrs. 1972.''

Sg^

APP':NDIX

CRANE

A
.t\.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS AND FLOW'

Steam

Values

i,

of Isentroplc Exponent,

^l'o

o
o
c1

/ lr, I \,{

o
o

-+l\-

aiJ

-)

arrl
t

,)
J

il

F-

i
ha.
a
?)

'-.{
ya
L-

"'(r)
a<
E

ta

vr

ta-

Gtp.
co;
ET
er,
,,r,
-)

ot

,rn

tr

4t

-3

f*a

tt
'-f

.i.,,
AG
Jn

)
*l

XL.
-J

o
UJ

,()
lr{

\#
-\
x.

th
cn
q)

,q

IJ

td
<
.F

a
a)
10
n

-+

Jr.

()

d
-a

U2

HI

;
@

c)
(o
C)

qf

o
f9

HiIHI

l_1

ii

C,nSr'/)
cl
ol.
pp(prF

luauc,dx3 3!do;iu?sl =

c!

ol

ti
'I

,J-

l'i

APPTND'X A
r LOW C i.IARACTER ISTI CS OF VALVES,
FITTIITIGS AND PIPE

PERTIES OF FLUIDS,,

---"-

CRAN

Density and Specific Volume

Of Gases and Vapours


The chart ()n p;rge

A-l I is based on the tbrmula:

/t' _ Il fl .\fuliSq
i<i,
T

ltl'

where

ti

= l.Ol3

tW

i.l()/r'.S,g

.tg

pt'

p,

T=273+r

Unrversal Gas Constant = 83

l4

Molecular weight of air = 19


Problem: what is the density of dry cH. if the remperarure is 40. c and the gauge pressure
is i bar?
Solution: Refer to the table 9n page A3 for molecular weight, specitlc graviry or individual gas constant. Connect 519 ol the R scale with40on i-hei.inp.rrtrlr-e scile,r,and
mark the intersection with the index scale. Connect this point rviih I on the pieisure
scaie, p. Read the lnswer, I .24 ktlograms per cubic metre, on the density scale, p.'
Densi(y ()f
(Baserr on an

i 0" i r.293 i t.930i z.56g J.8+c Is.l2 Io.rg li.ij


1.269 i I.896 2.5 223.775 i5.03 i6.28 2.53
j; lo5 :: l.:47
i 1.962.2.47713.70914.93 6.t7 7.40
is
t'.12i I i:8i0ii.,ii! il'.iiiii:fi i;:06 l|i.11
i ?(0 ,, i.2(x
i i..799 | 2.393 13.5 gL14.77 i 5.96 7.15
if--tl
; i.ros t i.7'39t2.3141:.+or i+.ar i 5:t6 lo.gr
ii iu
:s r r. trt6 it.7l timn l:.+ozt4.s4 15.07 lr,.xo
4q
I 50 ir.093[.632'2.t
i i. r 2I lt.6tt4l?.2+al l.:s ll+.+l s.sa lo.rry
7IlJ.24gl4.]3 15.+t 16.48
,
l

I
I
I

fiH: ffiTHsr,,ur",

i
|

|
,

8.95
r].78

15.3 2 16.60 I l7.gg 19.15 20.43

15.05 t6.30117.55
14.78 t6.01 11,7.24
[4.53 15.74 I 16.95
14.28 15.47 | 16.56
1.70i 12.97 | 14.04 ll5.2t 16.J8

8.6 3

8.+fl
8.14
tt.()o

i
i

7.'ll
7.It0
7.5 (r

ir
.i
mr.ffiolfuiTz.rrB
t.t
j.fioi;:t;
B0 ir:u- li.i1,r1r.isoil'.s;ii
I 91)
l5:ei i;:;;l
iqJiTll [.+52il.g37."2.ggll3.g5tl4.8L
6"7J
I

7..I

).

',i

i
Ib '{,.9?g }.22.41,ry 32 i2.4C0t 3.049i3.656 i +.16 |
t8 i rq
20 30l10l 50 i 60 ,, 7o
bar
bar barluarl barlbarlbar

icrr,I

iC.953 i

1.268it.898i2.52gt3.15g13.799i +.+z

i';;l

0o : 2,$.25 i25.53 I 26.91

I
i

i39.5 iSZ.3

l3.g2l?5.07126.32 i3g.g l5 [.4

rI l;i:;oill'.;ii il.ffi1i8:I tio.;


1.5 ,22.99

lil

l24.2A 25.4 1 I 3 7.5 149.6


' ')?.*\$ ''
73.79 i 24.99 I 36.9 lqg.7
l

-?,5 ,22.12123.391 24.56

3t)

35

135.2

47.9

t.g5 i2i.0u i 24.15 135.6 l+7.L


.76i3S.
46.+

? 1.5 Ai2-1..{r3 I 23

l5 I9.36

I
i

i
s8.6 i zo.r i 8r.6 i

[8.{ I i 19.55

10.701
7l

l8.l I I 19.:4 :0.i

r7.8llr8.y-t l0.rNl

i 5.6g
4.gz i 5.4g
5.05
80
bar

65.1 i 77.9 i .10.6 i t03.1


63.9 i 76.+ 1 rtg.o | [01.5
62.8 I 75.1 i 97.{
61.'l l Z3.g t us.g
60.6 | tzs i x+.+

19.71 I 20.94 22.L


I 20.5 7 21.7
17.84 19.03 | 20.22 21.+ r
17.s5 i [9.7] ;l9.gg 2I.0sl

18.

,CI.6

[8.{7

| ().77 1(r.tJ0 lt l.EgI 12.95 lt.t.03 I5. I I 16. l9 t7 .27 I t g.JS t g..t 2l
ir-lxi ,r,.llTro,41 ffi
14.66 I 5.70 16,75 i 17.79 iurtll
8.l.t I 9.15 it0.tT l t r,tsl r2.20l l].lt l4.lJ l5.f 4 !9.iq i !7-tI I E. l9l
;:eil
7.91 i J:Be
8.99 i 9.3r1
9.StJ I 10.87
to.gZ I ii.il
I l.g5 ii2:8i
i 12.94 lii:[i iii.Ii i rs.so 16,79 17.77
7.69i S.65
Z.6.ll
8.65 9.6
9.6tI i
tI
lJ.6.l

I
i: Ltitt i().ti46 l..ltliI.880
15.77
I
i
12.814i3.748i +.og is.6z i 6.ss I z.+gi s.+i 9.35
1 l2t) ;().891j;1.J42i1.784i2.67 t 13.55714.44 15.33 i 0.:r I 7.t0i z.gg n.87
i l.e.tl it-il55ll..?.'/6ttl.69tJlzs+tl3.l8si+.f3 1s.07 ; 5-.lt I 6.76i 7.60 8..1.5
i I{;.,
lLi.tiL5i}..217i t,02012.42413.229t+.03 l4,g+ r 5.64 I 6.+Sl 7.25 8,06
Ii tg'3 ,i).779 i 1.164 i L.-q4g i2.3 tz lr.0g6 i 3.955 l|4.62 I S.lg i 6.16 r 6.g3 7.70
lrr0 tl.7"i6 i I.i i+i t.+sl lz.zt9l 2.95s1 3.692i+.+: I s.ro I s.90 i G.64 7.37
iJLi ,u.J Lb iI.Ot,y:1.42312.129 12.8J6i 3.S42i4.2S : ,1.96 I 5.66 I 6.37 7.09
2+tJ (-t.(rlJriil.027ll.367l,2.M6l2.7zsl 3.+0+i+.09 I +.76 I 5.4+l 6.lz 6.80
;()i": ,c.{,62 !0.ggg ! 1.3 16 i l.g5g 12.62313 .27'l i :.glOl 4.59 I 5.2q I 5.gg 6.54
28u
iti.,38

I 21.70 22.9
[8.81 20.06 I 2l.J t 22.56

9.37 i t0,53 it
9.21 i 10.36 i I l.5l i 12.66 i l3.gl i 14.96 l6.l I 17.26
9.(X) i t0.t9 r t l.J2 i t2.{5 i tJ.st} i 14.72 l5.ll5 l6.gtl
Ir.9l I to.oJ lr r. r4l 12.25 | tJ.J7l t4.{n r 5.59 16.7 I

,9J0
r

rr

baribarlUrulUar

bar
I

weight or 28.e7)

l0 i rr I rz I

lJl"rlJ

Density of Air
Ak in Kilograms per Cubic Metre

armosph-,l;,:::il:t]'il,irT

io.si r I z ll l+ ls
io
i bar i bar i bar i Uar I U- I U,,, I U*
l\rjwoulrl4.

.n

gg.7

10.57 111.53
10.57t
1.53
10.28 I t.22
9.7(t 10.65
9.29 10.13
9.86 9.66
8.47 9.24
8.1 I g.g5
8.49
8.16
7.85

7.78
7.49
7.24
6.94

6.09

6.70

7.30

6.3

7.5'7

t2.+g 1 13.45 l l4.+U 15.36


t2.+9
i 12. L5 I t 3.09 | 14.02 I t4.95
r r.53 r 2.{2 l3.J I l.l. l9
t 0.97 I 1.82 [ 2.66 lJ.5 I

16.32 l7.Jl
15.89 16.82
15.08 [ 5,97
14.35 15.19
13.69 14.-$9
13.09 13.85
12.53 13.26
12.02 L2.73
I 1.55 12.23
11.77
10.72 I1.35

10.47 11.27 12.08 12.88


10.01 10.77 I1.54 12.3 I
9.5 8 10.32 I [.06 I1.79
9.20 g.g0 10.6 I ll.3 I
8.84 9.51 10.19 10.87
8.51 9. 16 9.9 [ 10.47
8.20 8.93 9.46 10.09
7.91 8.5 2 9.13 9.74 [0.34 10.95

ll.l2

gg.0i
96.3

ls.r

+0',77.t6i22.27123.3gI 34.5 i4S.6


50 i?0.50t21.591 22.66133.4 144.2

lffire:
70 t.'r..]t i20.3zlzt J4i Jt.s
|I lii ;i ;,\:;;

t.6
.i.l s , :0.73 i 10.6 i+
i;o:;

Air Density Table


Tlre tehle at the left is calculated f,or the periecr gas
law slrown at the top ot' the pilge. Correction tor

super-ttorlpresslbrlitv, thu. deviatrorr t'rom the pert'ect


gas law, wt-luld be less than three percent and has not
been applied.

The density of gases orher rhan eir cen be determined


t'rt-rm this table by multiply'ing rhe densiry listed tor
air by rhe specific gravity ot the gas relarive ro uir, ls
listed in the tables on page A-8.

CRANE

APPENDIX A
PHYSICAL PROPERTI ES OF FLUIDS AND FLOW CIIAFACTi.'iSTICS OF VALVES, FITTiNGS Ai'ID

OIPI. ,{ _

11

Density and Specific Voiume

of

Gaset and Vapours

continued

rV
10

ndex

.24

.3

i--

L
L

.4

i
I

.5

L
I

.6

.7

Fo.u
f-

.8
.9

l-.

L
f--

(l)

sx,

(,)

l-

.g

tJ4

(u

rJ

1;

(1,

v,

vl

'6

cl

(9
300

3
l-

(!.

}.-

(o

,J

o 30O-

:=

-_

lC

.g

tJrl

o_
(J

ara

CI.

IH

.fY'

(l,

.H

GI
,a.a

o.9';ft
t_
(,
.o

1.0 :(J

a*
o

,.t

(J

cf,

x,

'1
5

a)

E,

f;

t-a

*t
lrl

o)

I
I
10

'5

4)

(.)

cl

60E

v,
O

G-)

(l)

CI

a)'

ql

40 .:IrJ

L
lF
tr
F2
ll-

r[-:

E
rr1

.o

ill
t'Jl
A.

3t

a.
(n

dr

2aF

,l
a

(u
f-

.09
.08
.47

O-

.06

2oo

20

u
,5t
)t

F-

(u

.1

r.o

fr

(u

.05

io

.04
-t

l,-

lL-3g

i-'rtr applic:ation

of chart, refer to tlte


explonotion on the preceding page.

,lletlt cular weight, sr)ecific gravitv, and in,riviclual


t'(,n\tilnts lbr yarious g,ases are given on page

A_g,

I
.J

iort
I'crrccllt bY Vol trtltc

Clre ir tical CtrrttPtrsil

'l'ypc of Cas

:i I u

ral Cas,

,,1

last Furncce Gits

lJw;;es

fi'otn Coke
---.#---_t

i*tolt I

o.xirjc

4.0

27.O

I.0

27.s

473

37.0

34.0

,,ll Cls

5{

(Con

t. Vert icirl

efinery Oil Gas (Vapotrr


ir.i>U

;;;t3

ril Gas, I'acific Coast

rli.;

Nrr,l,

S* Crt-t - -

;86

t2.7

l'"1* ]ff'
0.8

s.8

2.8

6.1

l5

?4.2

I.3

I l.s

I.02

0.7

8.3

5.4

0. s7

0.5

2.9

3.0

0.63

,,J

3.5

2l

2l .7

"

0.5

396

0.8

8. t

30
^, ',
L.

tL

0.1

1.0

4.42
0.4.1

0.89

2.7

l.t

0.3

3.6

4.7

0.47

0.6

0.2

0.2

t.2

0.5

0.594

II

nunr Bank

91^8

3.0

0.6

0.2

0.2

1.2

0.0

0.588

l2

,,d.Jtg99_

9l

3.6

0.9

0.2

0.4

3.0

0.5

0.609

))

0.0

0.603

8.9

0.1

0.657

2.5

0.s

0.616

l4

_!L:::Lt:,1!3l!
Ieu'el,]yryer lluuter)

l5

92.6

3.6

0.9

0.3

8l

.9

6.0

2.5

0.2

90.8

4.3

l.l

0.3

"ikittg

f,

J
rn

U7

o
T1

V)

TI

B(,)

s5
(,)
C

f-oj

lo,

r-';

o
U7

a.
,J-

-{

il

-.

<

-+

t-

sg
n3

=
o

89,

h5

rn

\-1

rl

t1

1d
_

a)(J
A

3.3

Ieu'etI

rn

9r+

94.0

t3

o
.IJ

ttaa

l0

.4

-o

0 61

600

4.4

o
l>
r

Sg

0.86

02

l<
a

ttl Air

4.5

-Il

rf

relative

s0.9

0.6

rttl

Gravity

i:

-;t
t.2

Spcci fic

3.0

0.9

ri*'l-,*[_flo'""[":lfln;,r

83.4

;05

'1.)
ui'e-(jr ctt 6us

$ilI

c;;i,*l M' i-i

'arbureted lVater Gas

-'

ly,l ro-

Pit t sb u rgh

*O*'.t Crt froln ttitutnittou


'^ r

t\)

'n=
cq)

*a
;
(,
o

o
:E

jj

fj
a
j
o
a

o
'n

r
m

v'n

J
z

o
a

1l(cl;rttru l)utrsity
(iuscs I r.r 9 rct)rrrducctl by pcnnission l'rurrt'ilecltatrir:al l'.ngincers'llartdbook'lly l, S illurks,
5tlr l'.lltlutt, hl.'(iruu'llill tsouk ()tttttputtl', lttt''. l3
[|a1' 1976-t('
(iusus l{r tU l5
tlat:r (j \trilcled l'rolrr il rclxrrt l}rr,:lrurcd b1, u w0rkittg croup of lltc t(;U ott Cus lrtlcrclturrgcubili[1',

o
-9

'0
m

n
7

)
)

!-o

Ix
>

APPEND I X A
t/AI.VES, FITT]NG!; /Tf\ID PIPE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS AND FI..OW CHARN (]TFRISTICS OF

CRANE

,I3

Properties of Saturated Steam


S.t. Units
Iemp.

hrr

,C

Specitic
\rol.
dmr /kg

P,S

rs

Vs

Ahr.
Press.

0.I

4s.833

0.2

60.086

1467 4.6
7649.8

().J

69. I 24

5 22tl .J

0.4

75.886

993.4

fic
r\ hr. i
i Specr
"'v;i:'"
d;;';. | 'r.,np. I
I
i

Specrtic I',ntlrillpy

"C

Irrr !

kJ/ks

hf

l'ts

l9 1.8
25 1.5

2392.9
2358.4

289.J
317.7

23.16. t

84.8
260q.9
2625.4

2J 19.2

26 J(r.9

h..!

P,,

25

specrfic I:n tJraltry

l ,tr'lt8 I

i__r,
I o. | /,r i
i tS8.838 5.47 67A.4

I 3l
I
i 20{i5.0 i 2755.5
:OS.aS i OZO.O i 2!rt0.9 | 2756.e
i
(r.l i 16t.376 i z,le.at i 6ttt.5 | 2076.t1 775tl.)
6.() i102.598 lzaa.ro I 6go.g | 2072.7 i 2759.5
I
zgo.zt ogz.o 2ooa.g zzoo.s

6.A

6.2 1 160.123

rol.zgt

6.8

81.345
85.954
99.959
93.5 l2

0.6

0.7
0.9

0.9

96.7 I 3

99.632

1.2
1.3

\-

1.4
1.5
1.6

1.7
1.8

1.9

340.6
359.9
3 76.8
391.7

405.2

1693.7
1549.2

4 17.5

102.3 I 7

104.808
107.133
109.315

L428.L
1325.1
1236.3

439.4
449.2

1.0

l.l

3240.2
273L.8
2364.7
2087.0
1869.2

I I1.372
I 13.3 20
[ 15.170
I 16.933
I 18.6 l7

I159.0
109 [. I

428.8

458.4
467.1

2305.4
2293.6
2293.3
2274.0
2265.6
2257.9
2250.8
2244.1
2237.9
2231.9

0.9
977.23

483.2
490.7

2226.2
2220.9
2215.7
2210.8

929.00

497.8

2206,.1

103

475.4

2660. I

7,1

266 s .8

i.6

164.956 1 277.68
166.095 1265.50.
t67.2Og I ZSg.7o
169.300 i :s 2.?4

267fi.9

7,lt

t6g.36r]

7.0
7.2

2646.O
265 3.6

267

Ir.o

i
I

I
I
I

zCO.tO

It.2
g.+

t70.415

,3.8 1 I 74.405

2693.1

9.0
q,

269(r.2

().4

269e.0

I
I

2701 .5

1).6

27Ut.0

9.8

I
I

l6.J

720.9
25.4
729.9
734.2
739.5

L7t.44t

I
I

206l.f i
205 7.4 r
2053.7 ,
2050. I r

2.1

2.2
2.3
2.1

20.23 I
121.780
123.270
121.705
t

126.09

885.44

504.7

945.90

5l 1.3

909.99
776.81
746.45

5 17.6

523.7
529.6

2201.6
2197.2
2 193.0
2188.9
2 194.9

2706.3
2708.5

10.0
t 0.5

2711t.6

I 1.0

2712.6
2714.5

l l.5

12.0

2J

l l8 l.0

27 16.4

2177.3
2173.6
70.1

2718.2
2719.9
2771.5

2166.6

2723.1

561.4
s66.2
5 70.9

2163.2
2159.9
2156.7

75.5

21.53.5

579.9

2150.4

2724.7
2726.1
2727.6
2729.0
2730.3

127.430
128.727
129.984
l3 I .203
132.389

718.44
692.5 [
668.44

3.1

l3 3.540
134.661

605.56
s87.22

3.2

135.75 3

569.99

3.3

t36.8lg
l3 7.858

553.76
539.46

3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.9
3.9

139.8 73

524.00
510.32

584.3
588.5
592.7
595.8

2147.4
2144.4
?141.4
2138.6
2135.7

2731.6
2732.9
2734.1

3.0
2127.5
2172.3

2737.6
2739.8
2711.9

2l

27 43.9

2.7
2.9
2.9

3.0

4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.9
5.0
5.2
5.4

139.865
140.935
14 1.784
142.713

646.04
625.

I3

\ 27fr7.5
' 27{)8.5
203 9.5 | ZZ6 g.+
2A36.2 i, 2770.4
2A32.9 | 7771.3

I
I

I
I

I
I

2M3.0

!
t76.294 i
177 .214 i
I 78. I l9
I
I 79.009 |

21+.8

74L6

i
746.8 1
750.8 i
7 54.8
I
7 58.7 i

2t0.35
206. l0
202.0 t

198.07

ZAZS.S

179.8U

194.29

82.015

185.45

184.O(r7

177.38
l6 9.99
163.20

196.048
187.96

762.6
772.0
781.1
789.9
798.4

497.36
495.05
473.36

t43.623

462.22

441.50

150.3 r 3

389.36

5.5

156.l6l

5.8

15 7.5

l8

422.60

405.29

374.69
36 r.08

348.46
336.7 1
325.74

600.9
60p.7
612.3
619.6
626.7
633.s
640. I
645.5
65 2.8

658.8
664.7

Refer to page A-14 [or units and notations.

2 13

17

.2

2112.2
2107.4
2102.7
2099. I
2093.7
2089.3

273 5.3

2736.5

27 4

5.7

27 47 .5

27 49.3
27 50.9

I
I
I

I
I
I
I

I
I

27?2.1

27n.4

2016.2
2A23.A

2i73.9

20 I 9.8

2774.6
277 5.4

20L6.7
I

20 I 3.6

200s.9
1998.5
i 99 1.J

2776.2
2778.4
2779.7
278 1.3

1984.3

2792.7

ir.

ll.0 i rgl.609 | rst.t3 i gr4.7 i rglo.t I z;as.+


I 1.5 I t93.350 | 145.74 | A 72.5 i
1964.2 i ZZ8O.O
14.0 i l9s.uz I t40.72 i aro.t ; 1957.7 i 2ili.3
t4.s i 196.688 rro.o+ i arz.s i r95 1.-i i ezau.l
|
I

145.390
147.090
148.729

151.844
153.327
I 54.765

535.3
540.9
546.2
551.4
556.5

2766..t

2.6

?755..I.

2046.5
I

2t9.45

175.358

27(13.2

2764.-]

2.0

2762-A

i 240.26
| 234.69
172.449 | Z:9.:A
8.6"173.436|224J0
'i

s.4

267e.6
2683.4
268 7.0
2690.3

697.1

742.4
706,9
711,7

7ffi4.9 ,,

OJ

ki/k
j
ik_. _,_ _j,r. _-i

1s.0
r 5.5

r6J
7.0

It
202,.857 !
2M.307 I

201.372

16.0
r

l9g.2g9
l9g.85o

8#.7

zz.ss

8.51.7

123.69

8.6
865,3
8 71.8

131.66
t

85

1ZO.0S

116.52

le.s i 2n.0e9

20.0

212.37

5I

i
217.244 |
219.557 i
221.783 i

roz.or
99.536

214.855

2 1.0

22.4
23.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
z7 .0

77 52.5

28.0

27 54.0

29.0

i
i
I

223.943
226.037

94.990

ara.:

I
I
I
I
I
I

roes
908.6
9 20.0

2789.9
2794.9
2791.7
2792.6
2793.4

i927.3
1921J

i gu.6
I g90.2
i
lgi it, 208.4o8 I t0z.+l i
i
19.0 209.797 I ro+.os i aoo.a I

t 7.s '1 zos.tzs i , t3.38


lg.0 i 20z.Lrt I tto.Jz

1945.2
1939.2
1933.2

r9ts.9

'i

i
rg('tr..1 i
r899..i !
r910.3

1893.9

1888.6
1878.2

931.0

IO.OSZ

g6.Z69
83.l gg

i
I
I

94l,,.6

951.9

i Zg.lOS i geZ.O
| io.g56!, g7l.'l

zza.ozrl 74.0?.s i lat.z


23A.M7 l Tt.lggi 990.5
ggg.s
23 l.969 I 6g.9zg i

i
I

86 8.1

185 8.2

1M8.5

I
I
I
I

zigo.t
2794.9

z*t'it.S

ztos,t
27s6.7
2797,2
2798.2
2799.1
2799.8
2g$0.4

i
I

i
I

i
I
I

I
I

1839.0
1829.6
1g20.5
181t,.5
1g02.6

|
i
i
i
',

ZgOO.g

Zg0i.+
Lg}t,.7

:80?.0
?,9a2.2

APPEND

A-14

IX A

PHYSICAL PROPEFTIES OF FLUIDS AND FLgW


CHflIACTERISTTcs oF VALVES, FtrrtNGS AND ptpE

CRANE

Properties of Saturated Steam

S.l.
:

i;

I Specrrre
Te-1p. i V.ot, I
'c i dmrikg

34.0

i
i 35.0

I Jo.o
I 3z.o
| :s.o
I Jg.o

i
f?.1q3 l6,s.s2e i
:40,BEi i s:.728 j ro+r.*
i

i
rzoo.r i

242.541
244.164

I
I

I
I

I
I

245.7 54

247.31 I
?49.936

rz6s.o

s7.425

l04g.g

1752.2

55.415
53.ggg

105 7.6

17u,2

2.43 g

1065.2
1472.7

51.061

I 090.

25 0.3 33

4 1.0

L5l.g00

42.4

?s3.241
254.656

43.0
44.0

256.045

I
I

49.749
49.500
47 3A7
46.169
.{5.090

1087.4

[094.6

2(:1.373

49.u

?"b2..$52

257

53
260.A74

7,58.7

54.0
5b.0
I

60.0
2.0
{t4.!)
6

66.0
69.0

,i8.0

l3g0.g

1372.9

306.443
307.973

l3g 1.7

lg.965

1390.6

1369.6
1356.3
1344.1

18.494

l3gg.3

l33l.g

2734.7
2731.2

1409.0
1425.2
1442.2

13lg.7

2727.7

1295.3

2720.6
2713.1
2705.4
2697.4

309.479

120.0
124.0

327.165

I I15.4

l6 75.6
1669.3
166

lg.04l

13.959

17.lu

316.669

16.395
15.639
14.940

3 10.96
3
3

l,

hs

fs

2744.6
2741.4

2739.0

L27A.g

l45g.g

1246.5

5.4

1222.O

l49l.g

1197.4
1L72.6
1L47.6
L122.3

2689.2
2690.6
2671.6

t996.7

2652.5

147

34.947

1190,8
Lzoz.3

159t3.2
1584,.7

275.550

l3e.+lg

277 .697

|
?7g.7g t
i
?91.837 |
283.935 I

1.3

:o.zlo
29.223
29.272

rr66.g

t2t3.7

Lz24.B

oo

t235.7
i

zl,lll

1246.5

l2s7.o

l5 71.3
1559.0
1544.9
1531.9
15

,n r.4os

z+.t+a
z4.2zo

i
I
i 293.20s i
294.g6g i 21.525
296.d97 i zlsor
zg8.394 I zz,z3t
300.060 | 2t.627
301.69?
iZt.o+l

,t tz6t.+

tzti.o

i lZB7.7

i
i 1307.4
izg;:;

13l7.r
1326.6

36.1
r34s.4

1354.6

13

of saturated and

superheated stearn have been extracted

ircnr "siearn Tables in S.L Units-Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam,'


by' penn ission o f the authors and pubiirihcrs, rlre Cuntral ljlectricity Generating

i
I

324.646

2.019

t2s23

334.357

I1.996

1509.0
L524.0
1540.0
1555.9

116.64 I
9.874

I 1.495
I l.0l 7

1.6

1070.7

33

[587.{

1044.{

263

10.55 I
t0.t2s

1603.1

l0l

262A.7
2609.1

?799.4

lfg.0

329.621

:zgs.g

l3 2.0
136.0

33

2798.3
.7

14.293
13.664
13.079

l4 0.0
144.0

2796.4

1411.0

lit)5.7

ts2.0

34 1.05 7
143- I 93

2'lr)4.r)

156.0

J45.292

9.7072

16J4.7

2794.2

160.0

271)2.6

16.1.0

347.329
349.3I 2

I7,X).9

95

7lt,).0
2787.0

H.0
172.0

35

3.210

8. l9l2

1650.5
1666.5
1683.0
1700.4

934.3
905.6

[ {r

9.3076
8.9249
9.5535

176.0

355. I 06

7.9395

1717 .6

8ll.l

2529.7

7.4977
7.1647
6.9396
6.5173
6.1979

734.9

778.6

1769.7
1787.9

745.0
710.0
673.3

2513.4
2497. I
2479.7

[806.5

634.2

z4l,O.7

591.9
545.2

2418.4
2393.3
2364.3
2328.9
2291.6

?.71)7

lg.g

I
I
I
I

i
I

I
I

2785.0

I
I
I48oi i
1467.9 |
1455J I
1506.0
1493.3

l5 l.f

ItJ0.0
184.0

356.957

2792.9
2790.6

188"0

360.552

277 9"3

1g

2.0
196.0

36 2.3

266L3

27t)7.O

1.5

?.77 5 "9

359.771

0l

3&l,.107

27735

200"0

365.701

27t\.g

204.0
209.0

357.356
35g.gg2

l6 I8.9

27:)"347

J3.ost

l.l

ttTtJ.g

I
i

1653.9
1646.8
l6 3 9.7
1625.7
l(r I1.9

|
27 L.Ott6 i

|
I
i

682.9

i
|
37.874 i
i 36.1J4

These tebles of properties

jJc:ard,

136 3.7

94.0
96.0
gg.0

20.495
19.!)64
19.455

17tz.g izgoo.3
7os.3 i :zss.9

2(t6.373
2$tJ.7(3

lg.+zl

92.0
94,0
96.0

/kg

303.305
304.997

19.402
322.A59

1697.9
1690.3

| rtzz.t
i I l2g.g
4?.Agl i I 135.3
4t.t6l I tt4t.g
10.27$ I t tcu.z

70.0 iZgs.zg0 l,
7z.o i ,r 7.7oz 26s22
74.* i 289574 i 25.715

80.0

kJ

90.0
g2.a

I16.0

76.fi
7s.c

ecific Endralpy

l,f

lg0 l. I

tts+.s

263.9il

50.0
5 2.0

9,0

vs

2900.9

1801.4

i Specrfrc
I Vol.
I o*'/rg

rs

P,,

iaoi.r

1736.2
1729.4
1720.6

I108.5

1101.6

44.037
43.039

,41I

45.A
46,a
4 7.0
4 8.0

:aoz.s

OC

bar

t;

2902.0
2901.7

Ternp.

40.0

P:c.ss

100.0
104.0
109.0
I 12.0

i
I

I
I

centinued

l, o*.+tt i i0;:0 j iiar,o I zaoz.3


11s_.669
ii;;;'.; iirri.r
::I.y:i9?.112 jrozs.+
r0l3"z

| :z.o
I 33.0

..i. DS.

:cific Endralpy
yJ lks

Sp

P'

i
I Jo.o
j :r.o

its

'J n

I 752.

5.8757
5.5485

2642.{
t.g

7.6

990.3
962.6

873.J
842.6

2597.J
2594.9
2572.1
2556.J

5.13.0

2461.0

2765.5

212"0

lt6z.8

370J80

4.8314

1826-5
1848.1
1872.5
1901.5

216.0

372.149

4.39

tg

l93g.g

491.7
427.4
341.6

1442.9 i:759.9
i ztst.0

220.0

373.692

3.7279

201l.l

184.5

2195.6

zr5.}.0'

221.2

374.150

3.1

700

2107.4

0.0

2107.1

zz6s.3

1430J
r{,1

2.9 !

i
1393.2
t.}Us.s

:zs

o.l

5.2051

:747.8

Units and Noration

Quantity Symh,ol Unit


Pressure
p'bar(105N/mr)abs.
Temperxtu rc
r 'C
Spccillc V,rlrrrrre V cJrrr'/kg t l0-rmr/kg)
Specit'ic Enrlr:rlpy h kJ/trg(l0r Ukg)

The tollowing sutfixes arc used for satura-

tion values:

J'
I'
s
rc

Saturation
sarurared liquid
sirturutod vupour
cvaporation increment

Absolute pressure

one bar

= Gauge pressure
= i,i;$)l:iT!il,Ti,",
.lppr()x.

.qr

APPENDIX A
PHYSICAL PRoPERTIES oF FLUIoS AND FLOW CI-IARACTEPISTICS OF VALV!:STIIIfINGS AND

CRANE

PIPE T -

15

Properties of Superheated Steam

S.l. Units
Abs.

Sat.

Pres.s.

Temp.

ber

^c

p'

rs

Total Temperature: Degrees Celsius r"C

i60

100

180

210

150

,t

tl

35()

ssO

450

4t)o

6so

99.6

1.0

?
h

l(N.8

1,2

7
h

109.3

1.4

v
h

!
I
I

)6 38.7
l()74.5

1983.9
2796.2

2078.3
2835.8

2172.3
2875.4

2266.O

2406.1

2915.0

29i4.5

1650.5
2794.8

1729.7
2934.6

1808.4
2874.1

I886.7
29

1003.7
2973.9

i
l

l 0 7'1.0

1412.5
2793.4

1480.7

1548.4
2873.4

r716.3

2913.3

i
i

iast.o

283 3.5

1073.5

t4.l

l6 15.7

It97.9

2870.8
3 I 75.6

3I

02.5
3279.2

33

34.0
3 382.4

3796.5 l+Z5g.il
3595.6 i 1815.7

3t

2391.5
75.3

2594.7
3277.9

2777.7
3382.1

3 163.4
3595.4

I 354tt,Z
I :A15.5

2019.1
317 4.9

2214.9
3277.6

l3g l.3

27ll,l

2380.4

I16.9

1.8

?
h

2.2

123.3

2.6

128.7

3.0

133.5

o'o

143.6

[51.8

5.0

6.0

l5 8.8

7.0

65.0

I70.4

9.0
9.0

175.4

10.0

179.9

i
h

893.09
2787.7

753.

\*

184.1

12.0

188.0

3.0

191.6

195.0

16.0

241.4

18.0

207.1

20.0

212.4

7.36
2828.8

93

l9 I

79

t.04

i 2926.4

650.5 7

278

l.g

683.72
2924.0

T
h

493.7 I
2774.2

509.26
2817.8

83.4 7

2766.4

404.51
28 I 1.4

3I

Ir

27 59.2

6.55

334.6 I
2804.8

284.6 I
2799.0

2.47.ffi

2791.1

2t7.11

i
n

7.33.9

194.J6
27 7 6.5

85.92
2820.7

196.14
2869.6

169.23

Ir

2814.4

178.80
2864.5

t 55.09
2809.0

r64.t I

176,87

285 9.3

293

142.94

2801.4

2t7.2

24.0

221.8

r 5 1.50
2854.0

I3

2843.

I 14.96

28J I .7

102.09
2g 1g.g

22.0

0.gg

2807.5

l.s 20

i
h

4q.-ry

= specit'ic volume. cubic rJecimetres per kilogram

h = specit'ic

enthalpy (total heat), kilojoules per kilogram


i dmr/kg to V m'/kg divitie valucs of , hy I0,

Note. To convert

i
I

i
i

i j:j

2939.3 lc).r9.6 I 3156.6 i 3262.9 | 3369.5 i :S,36,J i 38OS.S


192.40 I rrr.Bs i zl+.+t i zs.r.zo i zt*..se i lffi
2e3s.4 | lrN6.e ,,s4.6 i l1o r.5 i 5le u.z 5ieI: isoi.ii
I
i
i
l.s

| re6.87 I lt{.0I ,, ?1rJZ i lli.z8 I zst.Bs-l-j26.0?


jaoi.i

| 32s9.7 i :goo.g i lsit4"3 i


I 31s2.7 i-.
1 --.-.*.--*..-r
ls z.)? i Uq*t i zt7.7z j z:+.ls I :os.e8 |
icll 1.6 i 3150.7 i 3259.2 I 336S.6 i :Sg3.i i
lrN+.3

:oz.oo
i
:goo.+
111.87 ,
---_rl.--2919.4 i036.2 I 3t46.7 i 3255.0 | 1363.0 i :s6t.+ i :s05.0
Lt4.ss i r+a.?! tit+l I lqq.i? i tqt^el i zon.ngI r.=5sl
29u.0 i 1030.7 I :r42.7
:zst.l jtoo.+ j :szl.s :Io:.0

lQl.sg
2927.6,

Iil.45
29OL4
-i

t:5.50

1025.0

i -.
iI
i
139.56,
tsl.[3
i
i 3138.0 r 3248.7
I

I
I
i -. r - -i.- i Ztt".ih
to].42
t,t7.57
|
i
i 3352.9 i ,-.77.b i :AOZ.f

roois ; iiJ
2993.-t i0lg.3 i 3134.5 i

32+5.S

l3SS.2

I r03.j36 I l11._55 i
2884.2 , ji)[3.-[ | 3130.3 i

175.22
3242.3

|i

rrs.or
::sz.o

rss.gr I t?s.86
ii :s73.8
i iZgg.j

91.07s

--

rlllii

3595.2

14.0

I 148.7
283 l.

27W.9

ih

Ir

I1.0

I 095. I
2790.5

104t.5

I :a r s."t
1201.7
1254.4
I 3 33.0
l.t53.l
15 9 2.6
1721.8
8s 0.7
2 108.1 I 2365.2
2871.5
2911.7
:g7l.g 307 2.6 317 4.1 3277.0 3 38 1.8 3594.9 :S 15. i
I
98 l.l3
1024.5 i l0g9.t ll95.g
I 302. I
1409.0
1s13.6 | nzq.t i lg34.g
2869.5
2910.0 i :970.6 I l{}7 1.6 3173.{ 327 6.1 3380.8 i 3S94.5 i 3g[.1.9
828.3g i SOS.:A ' 920.27; t0r0.t I t tot,o
'r(\1rrtl\29.7 I l?qg.? i itiq.l i tq37.q
,QA7<
2867.5 lronal
2908.J i')(t<(l.t,
ze6e.z i 1020.6
l tr 72.6 i 1lts.a l ii80:i i ir gq'.t i jiii+.i
716.3s
7e6.44 , 8zs.zg i tqLp? I ioli.
Ilg::? 1, zs67.s',
2865.5
2906.6
Jo6s.7 ,,7t.9 i liti.z iils.B i js%'.i ja i'.i
i
i
i
i
534.26
558.85
595.19 | os+.ss I zt3.8s i ttz.so I a:o"gz i 9+r.Js i lr.x, j.,r
2860.4
2902.3
2964.5 t 3067.2 i 3170.0 i 3273.6 i l:78.5 i tS92.8 i .ja13.5
424.96
144.97
!7!.q3 r sz:.ss i q7o._os i qr 7.t6 i-eo+
2855. I
2898.0
lg6ll 3ff,4.9 I 3t6g.t i 3272.t I fi77.2 i rSgl.g i :912.8
3 5 2.04
369.02
393.91 "84.39 i 474.19 i 5t3.6 I i SS2.80 | 6j0.78 ; 70rt..{1
2849.7
2893.5
zes7.6: Jrx,z.J I tr66.2'i 3z't0.6 i il1i.0 llI ia.ii ti{2,.t
'
21)9.9 2
I I 4.75
lrt.r r,i.
7844.2
2gti8.g
1954.0 J()se.rl i 3164.3 I J269.0 i :174.7 i iS 89.9 l is r l..r
260.79
27 4.02
293.21 324.t4 i Js+.3+ I lg4. 16 I +t3,74 ': 17?-49 i :t0.gg
2938.6
2984.2
2950.4 10s7.3 I 3162.4',i 3267.5 i 3373.4 i ls;,J9.0 i :a10.7
-230.32
242.31
2se.63 2,!t7..32 I l!!]e i ll!._0! I :q7)s i +rs.73i, 411,72
2832.7
2I79.5
2946.9 i05,1.7 i 3t60.5 i J265.9 I 3372.1 i 3589.1 ; lsi0.0
.-_20s.e 2
2 t 6.91
232.75: t",7.1)8 I 2S2.13 i lOO.+q I rr0.30 i:27.52i aZ+.1s,
2tt 2(r.ll
287,,1 .b
2()41.(l I to52.l I ll.5lt.s i ,)2r'+..t i ;r7o.u l rs$7.t i .l,rr,()..)
2973.2

:S 75.7

:iOO.;

I
I

APPT.NDIX A

Pnopenrl

Pttvslcnt

Al-9

ii;

FLow cHARAcrERrsrlcs oF vALVEs, FrrrlNcs ANo

prpE

CRANE

Properties of Superheated Steam

S.l. Units
.\trs,

lhu

Press.

Tern p.

p'

Total 'I emperature: Degrees Celsius r "C

226.0

27.4

vl
hi
v

22,fJ.l

28.ii

2-10.0

29,0

i
ihl

23 2.0

30.0

23

3 1"0

280

300

85.6 7 I

90.370

94.830

99.1

2903.0

2956.7

3007.4

I055.0

96.6 95

9I.035 I 95.lgg

82.111
2898.7

79.800
?994.2

295 3.

gl.l80

87.5 l0
3 00 1.1

2949.5

84.226

t4

80.098

7989.7

2945.8

2998.2

74.340
29.1tl..2.

299

;
ih

6i.587

2875.8

2934.1

6s. r 98
2971.0

237.4 I

iir,i

lb.(i I

i
I

40.0

I
I

llrr

l;

iht

?A4.2

44.0
I
I

{.6,C

?J6.0

ilt

259.9

2r !..+

48.0
50.c

I zol.r
I

2.C

zoo.+
268.8

54.,0
i
I

56.0

2zt.t

ffi.s
ll
54.0

68.0

293.8

iz.a |

287.7

95.844

093.9

[87.0

1U9.46

I16.08

124.26

140.36

36 7.0

3456.2

3568.1,

3795.0

105.82

35.78

7g.264

t 2.79 I

89.ss2

96.059

183.4

3274.5

102.{ I
3364.4

09.65

I089.2

3454.0

I16.34
3566.2

3793.6

80.099

86.691

93.026

99.200

3.15

05,27
2.8

I 12.7{
3565.J

3 79

109.36
3564.3

23.65
3792, I

086.9

.i

I lg 1.5

273.0

1J63. I

l3 l.{8
127..15

2.9

.563

83.998
3 179.7

90.171
3721.5

96. 183
3 36 1.8

102.09
3451.7

-rrrJ00lI 66Je? [].68r


2918.6 I zgt s.b I : u28.9

7?.gl I
I079.6

79.059

94.938

90.65 2

96.15 5

103.

268.d

3359.2

3449.5

356

l5
2.{

I16.69

3 175.9

3790.7

69.746

74.638
3172.2

80.255
3265.4

85.702
3356.o

9 1.038

I074.8

3&7.2

97.596
3560.5

3789.1

64.994

70.658

86.341,

92.597

I168.4

76.039
263.3

81.247

1069.8

3354.0

3445.0

3558.6

61.597

67.055

72.224

t64J

3259.2

88.075
3556.7

99.787

77.216
3351.4

82.092

3064.8
8.505
3059.7

63.779

68.755
3256.0

73.551

78.229

83.953

3160.6

3348.8

3440.5

3554.7

95.177
3785.0

74.702
3438.2

90.209
3552.8

90.967

76.768
3550.9

87.109

73.642
3549.0

83.55 9

70.679

80.282

3547.

3779.J

2926.6

77

55.08 2

58.885

62.3i?. , 65.639

2946.1

29 10.4

2968.9

45.85 3

49.463
28W.7

52.702

2913.6

2947.9

i 005.7

43.1i8

4.5.949

50.027

2902.0

2875.6

2940.5

44.443

47.569

2866.4

2933.

50.421
1993.4

+,;r.)$lsJol

I ie"ogz

2856.9

70.2U
3346.2

3.085

58.040

62.682

67.136

J049.4

3152.8

3249.7

3343.5

11.469
3435.9

0.697

55.5 t 3

50.009

54.3 13

58.+94

044.1

148.8

3246.5

3340.9

3433.7

45.947

.19.489

53.178

57.540

2980.8

3038.7

3144.8

3243.3

61.707
3338.2

65.747
3431.4

t I .t3.952
: 2974.3

46.442

51.016
3 140.7

55.254

59.293
3 335.5

63.2U

67.973

03 3.3

3429.

3545.

-14.539

49.006

53.130

236.9

60.843
3426.8

65.460
3543.2

74.430

3027.7

7.05 I
333 2.9

58.644
3424.5

63. I 20

71.807
3775.0

41.25

36.4 39
292.6.7
34.7 56
2916.0

I
I

33. I 73

2804.9

lv
ih

2909.8
g.+

3+

.]

|
I 2901.7 , 7967 .7
| 37.736 -t0.364
t 2893.5 : 2961.0
3

1.096

i 36.l+s rti.744
I zass.o , :9 sl.z
,
2867.5

33.241

0.26 5

27
I

55.5 79

i Z92S.S 'i 2987.2

9.235

8t.6

J5.796
J.J40.3

i -r.r.180
i zg+g.o , l.r 2s.B
28.32t i tl.Srl
]'.) 10.7
I

786.{

3252.9

43.201
2917.8

283 7.0

j S:.Xe
i 2999.6

5sJ87

2847.1
3

104.86
787.9

50.795
3156.7

40.156
I

5.692

3442.7

I10.46

0s4.6

h
h

j 8.696
.101,1.6

145.26;
3795.7 i

75.593
2ggg.7

lr

102.73
3277.5

98.713

128.62

I794.3

I13.35

I368.2

1 20.1 7
356 7.2

2955.0

1569.1,

[06.4 I
3279.A

796.4

112.24
J455. I

55.6 2s

120. l8
345 7.3

99.3 l5
3188.9

1096.2

[50.50

I365.7

2.3 14

I084.+

lv
lr'
z7e.s

I 3 3.30
3570.0

I276.0

2893.5

ih

124.58
3458.4

103.03
190.7

99.286

l?

I 17.52
3369.5

,)5.476

zgg2.z i lc34.s

--i

h
27 3.3

.i.I

156.14
3797,1

2.596
3185.2

2824.8

138.3 3
35 7 1.0

I 14.58

3 1,92.5

49.554

129.30
3459.5

107.03

100.8

29.855 J (lJ 7.J


66.954 7A.675 r 7"1.193

I;
lh

162.21
3797.9

.t0gI.5

v
h

253.2

143.74
35 71.9

rJ5.65 7

1.716
2835.6

ih

34.39

3450.6

l()-12.7

: J 023.3
55.440 | 58.833 6t.996
2902.0 2952.A l :017.5

zsor I

42.0

58.804
2tt56.3

I 10.35
280.5

650

I.9

llul0.0
"
73.06 I , j6.652

9.26 9

I 21.99
3370,8

550

99.232
3

29 3 0.5

62.945
2966.2

t.727

282.0

I19.14
3283.5

r.938

$.125

2942.0

126.81
3372.1

I I1.33

2tJ80.5

77.124

s00

31,94.3

rJrt. 170

460

103,0

098.5

I U48,

420

380

03.28

77.829
2885.1,

305 0.8

81.159,95.005
2995.1 , 1045.4
78.287 ts2.043

hl

.tr1.il,?39.2ir1

I
i

l7

!.560

5,7

J40

3004.4 ij053.4

vl

3.8

235 "7

Ii

j20

160

lfs

26.0

--

continued

OC

bu

Jf,.{J

30.652

2[t29.5

.l

T = specific volume, cubic dectmetres per kilogram


h = si:ccrfic enthalpy (totai heat), kilojoules per kilogrrrn
;\ror*. Tt r:onvert v dm'lkg to V m'/kg divrde values ,it'v '':y

103

783-6

3782"

3780.7

77.248
3777.8
3776.4

47.134

51.152

54.954

.\022.2

3 13 2.4

233.5

3330.2

1.105

45.3 85
3 128.3

49.306

53.016

t327.4

56.591
3422.2

60.93 7
3539.3

59.359

3230.3
45.95 7
3223.7

-t9.483

55.978

54.922

22.0

3417.6

3535.4

3770.7

I o t.oo7

]016.5

1J8.092

42.212

l oo4.9

3 I 19.8

]5..123
1993. I

3.04 I

1980.8

9.407

3nt.1
36.,) l0
I I02.3

33

2.87

3541.2

42-999
2 16.9

{6.364

49.588

58.486

3316.5

34 12.9

353 1.5

4 0.368
J 210. I

.t3.591
13 l 0.g

46.668

50.381
l5 27.6

J408..1

1?.764
.$

136.5

3240.

3773.5

I 3z6z,g

57.527
3

76.1.9

APPENDIX A

PIPE A -

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS AND FLOW CI.{ARACTERISTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS ANO

CRANE

17

Properties of Superheil[utJ $team

S.t. Units - continued


Abs
Prers

p'

rs

bu

Total Temperature: Degrees Celsiu.r t oC

Set.

Temp.

nc

360

340

'l'l ()

420 I

400

380

600

s50

s00

46 0

6so

76.0

291.4

84.0
98.0
92.0

\'-'

96.0
100.0
105.0
I 10.0

I15.0
[20.0

295.0
298.4

301.7
304.9
309.0

3l

1.0

314.6
3

18.0

321.4
324.6

2.85 8
303 3.4

36.390

I e.5 83

093.3

3 149.6

]203.2

I 2s4.9

3305.3

34

28.965
2955.1

30.985
3022.7

37.652
3094.2

34.310

.i

5.ggg

-17.405

32,+8.'l

38.874
3299.7

33

30.821
3074.8

3 2.4

3s.432

36.950

3242.3

3293.9

33.638

3s.009

32i5.9

3298.2

25.0

327.8
330.9
333.9

150.0
160.0
170.0
180.0
190.0

336.6
342.1

347.3
35 2.3

357.0
36 1.4

365.7
369.9

u.592

27.459

2928.0

3000.4

29.153
3065.3

30.727
3125.3

24. I

l0

2913.7

25.961
2g8g.g

27.625
3055.7

29. I 65
I 17.0

10.6

24.591
2977,0

25.221

27.730
3108.5

29.146
3167.2

3045.9

24.926

26.409
3099.9

27,793
l5 9.7

29.t07

3216.2

22.740

289E.8

373.7

3133.5

32.215

3181.9
15
J174.6

I
i

, .'tsl
ii .t1119.4

0.493
3222.9

3.J 2g

3292.*

47.503

03.5

3523,7

3642.9

t3
37 62.1

41.7M

45. I 02

99.8

35L9.7

48.394
3639.5

51.6 I I
37 59.2

39.576
94.0

42.939

45.996
3636.2

49.CI76

35 15.8

37.644

40.792

43.915

389.2

35 11.8

363 2.9

16 "77 1
3 75 3.4

33

35.872
J

384.4

4.i.66

3619..1

I750.5

34.U2

31.192

39.999

12.738

3276.5

33

79.5

3503.9

36 26.

3i 47.6

0.365

32,750

35.5 97

38.3 20

40"95i

3270'5

3374.6

3499.9

362L7

3714.7

1.054
3368.4

33.79,5

36.-t 0

38.935

3494.8

36 19.5

37

29.s03
3362.2

32.139

34.656
3614.2

3?.09'

3499.7

33.C63 i:S.+na

3035.7

19.997
2863. I

2 1.838
2949. I

23.440

24.993

?6.245

28.7

30248

27.szt

3089.0

3150.2

3207.9

T
h

18.639
2841.7

22.083
3009.6

23.512

27.262

3077.9

24.834
3140.5

26.078

2932.9

3 199.4

3255.5

22.247
3066.4

23.543
30.7

24.7 58
J 190.7

25.9 r r

29.096

30.635

Jt

3247.9

356.0

34'd4.7

22.357
3120.7

23.s45
92.0

24.672
240.0

26.796

29.256

3t

349.5

347 9.6

22.429

23.s

17.376

19.255
29 15.8

20.939
2996.0

16.193
2794.7

18. I 08
2998.1

19.691

21.084

2992.0

3054.8

15.077
2768.7

18.529
2967.6

20.010

21.264

2879.6

30l2.9

31

19.015
3030.7

20.252

t
T

v
T

17.041

25.5 90
34 3.3

27.987
3474.1

21.397

27.474

24.485
3 3 36.8

26.816

17.641

2860.2

2952.7

12.994
2709.9

15.102
2939.7

l(t.720

18.090

2937.J

J018.3

.]089.7

15.859
2921.4

17.227
3005.6

18.439

e.549

3079.0

i45.8

16.85 7
05 7.0

17.940
3126.9

I1.997

14.2 I 3

2675.7

2818.1

I 164.1

l3

16.041

g.3

3232.2

14.015
2740.6

3100.2

4l

263.

I 73.1

10.5

20.,1J9
t lss.0

3224.2

22.509

24.723

26.9M.

23.9

3458.8

35

18.946

r91J

20.795

?.2.909

24.9M

33 10.5

3449.3

3579.8

17.506
4.5

19.293

2132A

317

3297.1,

3437.7

16.232
3157.2

17.966
283.5

18.6 70

20.4

34

14.27 5

15.464

295 1.3

I034.2

9.5837

2652.4

[ 1.589
281 1.0

2921.7

3010.5'i

8. I 042

2569.7

10.405
2766.6

I 1.9 l3
2990.3

l3.l l5

14. 155

15.096

2985.8

t)65.9

3 139.4

I 6.785
3269.6

9.2993
2716.9

10.889
2856.7

l2"l I I

3. 148

2960.0

B{5.6

14.47 5
3 121.3

?
h

25s.4

9.9470

2.236

Ir.154

14.77

2820.5

7932.9

3A23.7

3LA2.7

3 24 1.1

7,2076
2593. I

9.0714

10.350
2904.5

r r.405
I00 1.0

l6

5.1105
2504.5

8.25

9.5883
?874.6

27 gL,3

l0

273 g.g

l0l

0.645

2977.5

12.3
3

093.6

I 1.55

3064.0

13.907
3226.5

l3.l

26 "7$B

37A9.3

l8

?1"72,1

3427.A

3562.2

73.4?g
3693.5

35

03

3553.4

715.6

?4.994
3 700.9

16.l

28.795

89.5

13.203
71.0

19.9

tsrzf]

8.2459
2660.2

T = specific volume, cubic decimetres per kilogram


h = specific enthalpy (total heatl, kilojoules per krlogram
Note. To convert i dm3/kg to V m'/kg divide values ot V by

)L/

l. 197

3722.9

33

I r. l3s

20.s 86
209. I

12.87
285 l.

ii

37lg.J

I 1.036
2716.5

15.274
3097.5

3597.1

29.977,

2s.ots

3469.3

3592,.iJ

14.225

#-i

27.97fi

15.661

I3.034

30.259 i 32.++6
3601.4 l, 3lZo.6

25.731

2979.1

33.865
3730.2

3464. I

14.292

"527

31.603
3605.7

1733.9

33 0.4

2887.7

107.5

23.461

12.562

16

3737.5

2770.9

36io.o

4i.L

21.496

J7.16.2

3 1.785

23.305
2964.8

2819.0

756.3'

41.824

21.468

38.904
07.8

2883.4

54.4

35

24.494

t.045

44.056

220.0

I3.965
I 1 89.1

210.0

35

29.094

ir

200.0

I 196.2

301 1.7

[40.0

3 14 1.6

294L.9

135.0

27.203

130.0

34.6

h
r

l. 109

90.0

lg.0l I

30.901
2969.2

22.437

3686.1

17.554

19.2.23

2fi.797.

34 05 ".2

3544.5

36 79.6

16.549
3394.1

18.16 i

w.6721

35 3 5.5

3671"1

15"638

14

Lt,-..,

18.65.S

3392.9

35 26.5

3663 "6

17,737
3656.1

19

r4.810

l$.327

321L,7

3371.6

3517..[

...\PPENOIX

18

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUII)S ;\NO FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF VALVES.


FITTINGS ANO

PIPE CRANE

Types of Valves

A{

Conventionat Globe Valvc

Converrtionol Globe Valve


With Disc Guide

Corwrntionel Anglo Valvr

1
Y-Pnttern Globe Valvo
With Stern 45 degrees f rom Run

Conventinna! Swing Check Valva

lobr Stop-Ctrcck Vrlvr

Ctsarwal, Swing Check Valve

Angh Stop-Chrck Valvr

Globo Typc

Lift Check Valvo

CRANE

APPENUIX A
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS ANO FLOW CHA"IACTERISTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS AND

PIPE A _

19

Types of Valves

ryn

-"*:f.r1

.t= Ii,

ffu,,

\Wedgr

Grtr Vrlvr

Plug Gato Valvt


(Bol ted Bon netl

(Bolted Bonnet)

Flaxible VVedqo Gate Valvo


(Pressure-Seal Bonnet)

Bail Vaives

L-

Tilting Dirc Ch.ck Vtlvr

Foot Valvc
Poppet and Hinged Types

Buttrrffy Wafcr Valvc

Three-Way Cock
Sectional and Outside Views

APPEND

^-2A

PI.{YSIC,A.L PROPERTIES OF

XA

F'-L'Ii}I] ,\ND FL.i)W CHAFIACTERISTICS

OF

VALVES, FITTINGS AND PIPE

CRAN E

Flow Coel'ficient C for Nozzles'


c

t,
ill
t.r6

df
I

0.r0

t.u

o,

r,tl

0tt o.3
o

t.r0

i*0trl

Flnw

-r
t't
v

t.0a

055

102

010

o
0

x 10') equals

I .03

shl
o

r
0t a
0.r

Iixtnr ple : J"he tJow q r )cl I icicn t


C for a diameter ratio 0 af 0.60
at a Reynolds number of 20 000
(,2

uae

-Y-

t/ I -13'

0.!n

C,

C'

,t

lrI

ur

0.I
0$

.
0.9a

0.n

a6t

t0.

R.

I tto,

-t

r rro.

Rcvnolds Numbcl brscd on d2

FIow C*efficient C for Square-Edge Orifices""

C
r.3

t.

rt
I

0.
0.

0.7
0.6 i

-t

0.5

0..
r)J

.
ll,,

Flog q-

c tt

Rcynolds NumDor brscd on

d2

0.rt

-1
v -

C,

t/ I -S'

0.76

{,

0.rr

ort

5(u
q

0.n

07lt o-

0t0

0.r0

0.6t

(u
(u

t
061

&

0.66

g
060

0.6.

0lt
06?

0 5.)

lh--

0t0
i15
0.0

rl

\'o

---

,l
h-..#

0.5t

2l

JN

i tror

Reynolds Numbel based on

o
o

()

.E

APPEN D IX A

OF VALVES, FITTiNGS A}JD PIf:I


PHYSICAL PROPEBTIES OF FLUIDS AND FLOW CHNRACTERISTICS

CRANE

AI2'I

Net Expansion Factor, Y

Critical Pressure Ratio, r"

For Compre3sible Flow through


Nozzles and Orif ices'

For CornPressibie Flow throu;h


Nozeles and Venturi Tubes'

^f

= 1.3 aPProximatelY

(for CO2, SO1, HrO, HrS, NH, NrO, Cl2, CH., CrH, and C.HJ

t0
i
I

c95

F
F.
I

o9o
r_
o

tl
lrtr
t=01 i
rr11 i
rt]l
Errnl-r0l i
[Clr

.a-

CJ

Ar$

-(3
'Z

:ii

L.

\-

tJr

isi

xe

I
I

om

(\'

-lI

)u

trt

\4.

')

I
s'

l5

r
F
l'
Xorc iI

ttorrtc

vartun

lllclr

.=0?/

r,

=oi/

ii-

iI '!i.-'/
t7l5',

--ra=.
-auo-.r

ti

flr

4.!E

J'

l"'

...

il
I

-1tt

li

-)'"

.t0

14r

06

0.{

Pressure Ratio

_L

p_

ll

I
I

p;

,] n

r.33

cp/ca

7 = 1.4 approximatelY
(for Air, H2, 02, N2, CO, NO, and HCI)

I \.--.
I

L-

uo
(J
(tI
Lr-

090

Ott

.9
a
G
(t,

OT'

e
x
Lr.l
0t3
I

YQatWttlql?*.z
r.rUr
/'

s017)
,''=26.

I
I
I

I
I

Pressure

Rar'
[to -

LP
p;

le = AP
P,,
-P,,

lrzn' =
P,,

LP' 7

P"

nn4

APPEN.JDIX A

PHYSICAL PROPERTI ES OF FLUIDS ANIL] 1:LOW CH \RACTERISTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS ANo PIPE

$.&

CRANE

Net Expansion Factor Y for Compressible Flow


Through Pipe to a Larger Florv Area
7 = 1.3

(l=:lpproxirnately
Itt

1.3 for CO:, SO., HrO, HrS. N[{r, N.O, Cl?, CHo, C2Hz,

lnd CrH.)

Limiting Factors
For Sonic Velocity
7 = 1.3

n 0q

0.30

0.9

Lp
pi

1.2

.5

25

.6 12

1.5

i50

2.0

.593

.631
.635

.642

.658

.6 78

.670

.722

.695
.598
.705
.718

0,a0

0.75

0.70

rF
\)f-r;l%i-m
,,t*l.\i 'q i I i I

0.65

i"riiillll

)) '\t

0.60

n
cr
UrdJ

.750

.773

t5

.907

20

.83

lt0

.877
.920

0.6 0.7 0.8

0.5

Lp

l0

100

.718
.718
.718

0.9

p;

? = 1.4
(7= approxirnately 1.4 tor Air, Hl O', N2, CO. NO, and HCI)

Limiting Frcton

1,0

For Sonic Vslocity


I
I

0.95

7 = 1.4

0.90

c.85

0.90

[.2

.552

[.5

.5 76

88
.505

2.0

.612

.622

.662

.539

4
6

.697
,737

.5

Y
0.75

0. J0

%l
0.6 5

+I

0.m

-\"j
.t t,

J
i

n (r

[fo _T
"+rcl

.6.19
I

.762

r0

.78.1

.685
.695

l5

.818

.702

20

.8J9
.883
.926

.7

40
r00

nt
u.t

0.5
Lp
P,,

0.5

.671

0.7

Lp=AP
P,, P,,

.7

l0
l0

.710

,^r

APPENDIX A
PHYSICAL PBOPERTI ES OF FLUIDS AND FLOW CHARACTT:RISTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS AI.JD

CRANE

PIPE A - 23

Relative Roughness of Pipe Materiais and Friction Factors


For Complete Turbui+:nce
Pipe Diameter, in inches

20 30

8 10

aO 5060 80 100

200

3OO

.05

.47

.04
.06

.03
.05

,u
.01

.008

.035

.006
oos

\-

oo4

oo3

o:I

.o25

,./l

fi

:;.

..1,

l\

.42

ool

./t
V'

oooS

0006

ooos

.018

0)

o,

.01 6

C,

F
{)
(l)

.=
+J

ooo3

oo02

CI

.014

U
o
LJ.

i\--

oool

.012

ooooS

.00006

.0000s

l
I

.00004

I
I

.00003

ooo02

ooool

oooooB
ooo006
oooooS

g 3 83

oo
oo

ooo
ooo
ot
ct

rf,

oo
oo
ro(o

() o
()
o
n 3

Pipe Diameter, rn m il I irne t res

o
o
o
N

o
o
o
(n

c?
o
o
rt

o(f,
oa
ao
lo(o

o
o
o

-tl

(Absolute Roughness is in millimetres)

Problem: Determine absoiurs and reiative roughness, and friction facror, tbr
lully turbulent flow in a casi ri()n pipe, 350 mm int. diam.
Adapted trom data

from Bibliography

extracted

reference 18

Solution:Absoluterougfuicss(e)=0.26.....Relariveroughness(e/r/)=0.001
. . . . . Friction factor at fuli.v rurbulent tlow (l) = 0.0i96.

VALUES QF (ixl ) fOH W.4"TER AT ?5'C (VELOCITY !N r,:/s X DtAn4ETEn tN *rml


6

rO

gr,.

S
c'
{t

i)

\)
",

oS s.ro ooo .i"o ^.iPo

tlrl.b.ro

l>
ct

{}'J

\)

ry

o..'o

oS oS S"

s$aq-o
u^r-

b-

+r

l,l
!a

s.'o

.'o

0.1

II

zo

.B$
. lr.
--:4:

?.-r---

CO&rFL

--

1E

l<

ix
lJIi s

11

li

05

tfl

lo

0{

lx

.03

.02
.0

TI

t:
la

i.
:l

ll

:.
o

l5

TI

El

o
r*

.0t

o
,1

.ui)tJ

r rr-

006

r!';r!

Relatrve

Focllr =

---*

/1\

LN

004

--

[?ougltness

.,,

Vt) t$,,
0008
.0006

.000{

ti .;

le
le

-t

{
uo
'+r

o
o

3
3

lfi
tta

lr
t()
la

lo

9.

t:

.0002

o,

0ml

6'
o

l*
la
t-

lrr

il{

2
a

3 I 56

810,

3 | s6

8t0,

ll, - Reynolds
Protrlern: Dererlnitte the frictinlr factor ftrr a cast iron pipe
250 rnnl int. tlilrn. at a Reynolds nunlber flow of 30,000.'
Solution: Tlre relarive roughness (see page A-23) is 0.001 .
Tlren, tlre liiction lucr or U) equals 0.026.

3 {5f,9106
Husrber

3{

56

='lYp
for ollrrr lormt of

the

ActaPtctl l'rutn data

r-rrffiI.0ffnl
r0?

.ooo,ool

I=
d

56

810'

.OOO,OO5

l, rguolion, lec pogc 3.2.

cxlrar

',1 t'r.r,'n

ltitrliograptry rel'ercncc 18.

!-o

i; IZ
l> x
ll

(D

rl

.0m05

it
j'-

o
.00t

l5

o
3

C)

,"'!"1

,(

I
I
t
I
I

t..
I

I
I

VALUES OF ludl FOR WATER AT 15"C IVELOCITY lN m/r X DlAir;iI:TER lt..t mml

i
I

3 a

t
I
I
I

6 llo

10 lo a0 50 30loo

zoo roo

{oo

.oo .oo

".$ J" S s" ."ffer""' J

c)
:o

5,"^"S
co t$"""oo"""oo .rS

tn

I
I
I

2
o

!
I

r-9

I
t

lt

t
I

t
I
I
I

in.
020

mrn

0.25

6.3

.f

030

7.6

0.{0

to.?

!tze,
hches

l'g

I
i

F r rc

t
I

I
I

tiolr

F at'to

0.50

---

9.75

_.-_ ts.

lt t.

(tJ#

l'f
3,'8

l,!7

1.2.7

3,'4

1.0

25'4

l5--_
2 _-

rH

16_It
36
{B

.009

345

I l0{

4 s6 8lOs

3 4 56

8106

I iOr

li,

Reynolds Nufilber

56 8

108

=
.Tl

TI

6'

'Tt

o
a

9)

*o

c}

-l

{r

llr

(-)

roTI

I t.r

()

l,It
I
-t

02-*-.*

it

]}

c)
o

o
-{

i-i

-',i1

'n

2o3

Ir]
l2

C}

l{

r'+

t*,
TI

254
305
406
508
610
914

I
4?lltt
Ot?332a6
oooo

l2l9
'l'ltc abovc di;rgr;rn r*l.riri lo sleul
pipcs lu ANSI 36.l ll ',rrrJ tJS l5fit)

-{

L,1

@
19
tD_

6'
(D

rn

a
rt

ur

i{
r{
i-

iZ
rJ
ir
.')
ilt
3
ilv

i:n
I

Problcrrr: Detsrntiire lhe l'ricliorr lacltrr lLr I l -ir rc lt S.: I t,",.1


tulc 40 pipc al u fluiv having a Rcynolrls nurrrhcr ul' irlt) t)rlri.

"

So!uliort: 'r'lre tiiction llutor U) eqriills 0.0 l6-

ll
!

t- rn
Z

127
152

ulc Ntrttttrcrs.
lJor olltr:r e lu:rit r-'uti'i{risi- i.ll slr,';l
1li1li;s asucrl,riti itrsi,!,,'Jiltttctr;
atttl ltsc tttein elitrl ..rlj!;

Fot olher f orms of lhe fg eguolion, tce poge 3-2.

o
*

a
o

it,

arrd irttlil'atcs tlrr: itrsit!,; Ji;rtttctcrs


ol tltr:sr: pilres l',,,. vitri,,,, s SclteiJ-

: '!;

f,.

76

fI

'Tl

1A

5l
I

Prpe

nsitlo Diametar,

I
t
I

o
!

Itrnrnal

I
i

t>
I

ir
l'

r.;
lg,
I

Ix

APPENOIX A
PHYSICAL PFOPERTTES OF FLUIOS AND FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS AND

A - 26

"K"

[:;\CTOR T.\BLE

PIPE CRANE

SHEET 1 of 4

Representative Resis' :irv:e Coerf icients (K) for Valves and Fittings

PIPE FflICTICN DATA FOR CLEAN COMMERCIAL STEEL PIPE

WITH FLOW IIU ZONE OF COMPLETE TURBULENCE


i
I

Noninal

ls

mm

Size

Yzl

in.

f I ictron
jrar:tor

20 i

.027

zs

JL

21

+0

50

65, 80

100

125

r50

Tth,3

8, l0

I 2-16

l8-24

le

.018

.0 17

.016

.015

.014

.013

.0r2

LY'

lth

.02s

.023

.022

.021

.0

200,250 300400 450-600

FORMUL,AS TCR CALCULATING "K" FACTORS


FOR VALVES AI{D FITTINGS WITH REDUCED PORT
Formula
t
4.

Formula 6

0.8 sin
E

* ,1-. P')

, ,, ?--

--

K,I
--

K^.04

+ Formula 2 + Formula 4

l.)

V -

Forrnr"lla 2

Kr=

0.5 (1

gr)

M, -

- p,) + (l - p,),

K,+
o.sr./
'

p'

{3'*

K,.01
= *+

Formuta 3

2.6
A2

d-

,in{ tr _ pr),
9'

p (Formula 2 + Formula .1) when 0

= 180'

au K,+$ [o.s(t -P')+(l-P')']

/12 =
Formula 4

(t - p,),

v =:t\7

..pe*

i
R =d'
P

Formula 5

d,

=fr

+ Formula

+ Formulr

R = A\'
tr
Vl

nfb
=?'

a2

Kr=

K, + sin

+ 2.6 (r - 0')'I
(t
tro.B - fi,)

Subscript 1 detines dimensions


and coefticients with ret'erence to

the srnaller diameter.

r?r

Subscript

ret'ers

to the

larger

diameter.

SUDDEN I\ND GRADUAL CONTRACTION

SUDDEN AND GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

t
I

---..---

d,

d,

/\
t'.

tErl
r/

,11.-.

if:

{)

r.l

5o

r.1

K', =Ftli't: '!

5"

,- I80o

K " = Ilop;i :!:,

,(. = Formula

-l

45.

K, = Fonnula -l /

APPENDIX A

CRANE

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF

FLUIOSI!!q

"K"

I!9\/

JHARAtilrrlSTlCS OF VALVES, FITTINGS r\r'tD PIPE

FACTOR TABLE

A-27

- SHEET 2 of 4

Representativo Resistance Coefficients (K) for Valves and Fittings


(for formulas and f rrcuon ctata, 5ec paglo A'261

SWiNG CHECK VALVES

GATE VALVES
Wedge Disc, Double Disc, or Plug TYPo

ffiry,$

flrftS,h.E

,q"
'-!

-Mo )
U^
rl-ifrt

L.,

K, = 8 fr
[f:p= lr0 =0 ..............
9< I and0 < 45o....... . .. K, = Formula
A< land0> 45'< 180'.... K" = Formula

r&
!(=

If:

9=

..'{^4_

$al

,(= SAfr

=50ttr

CH

ECK VALVES

ffi

, Yr
ltr
1.1

9-1....Kr=5AAfr
P < 1. . , ,

K, = Formul,aT

lfinimum pipe velocity (mps) for full disc hft

,-

K, = 340 ft

,@

=500'vY

fi-

-f--

lti

io'
'rhr

l'5
If:

100/r

LIFT

'd, 8r,

\--

' =45\ff

Cl.

l*h

i ct,,'-'\

N'{inimum pipe velocity (mps) for full ciisc iiit

GLOBE AND ANGLE VALVES

nf
;

-.*..

= 1...,r(, =55fr
P < 1. . . . ff, =-Formulg

S,

.K, -

55

fr

I,linimum pipe velocity (mps) for fuil disc

lift

LTOprG

TI LTING DISC CHECK VALVES

&-

r
d''

lf:

$=

1.

i ol, ,' a,

at

K, = 150/r

All gtobe and angle


g<

',

If: p= 1. . . .K, = 55 fr
valves,

whether reduced seat or throttled,

If:

S-

ffi

1.. . . K, = Formula

H*
l"t
50 mrn (2") to 200 rnrn (8")
25C

inm

ff =

(i0")to 350 mrn (14") K=

.i0ti rnm ( i 6') to 1200 mm (48') K =


Minrrnum pipe veiocity
(mps) for full ciisc lift =

=5" i**15.
qa,fr

fr
20 fr

ll0 l:,
JA

i'
i

30

*r*i

Note. mps = rn0trss per S0uuiiir

"L_

APPENDIX A
PHYSICAL PHOPERTIES OF FLUIDS AND FI.OW CHARACTERISTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS AND

h - 28

t'K" FACTOn TABLE

PIPE CRANE

SHEET 3 of 4

fiepresentative Resistanrrr Coefficients (K) for Valves and Fittings


(for forrnut,ts ,itii! friction data,

see

page ,4-26)

STCP-C!.I ECK VALVES

FOOT VALVES WITH STRAINER

(Globe and Angle Types)

Poppet

Disc

Hinged Disc

f,{
ffi.,d,

tr-

If:
... ,(, = 100
.re K, = Form ula 7
lr

/,

rt=
i,

p<

(mps) for full disc

ttr

=95

q[

w*

R=

lift

=20

1. . .

If:

rtr

=45

0'

p = lr0 =Q......

r....

,tr

lift

ro. ot'

..,.,.,. .'.,

'K, o3

fr

K, oo Formula
0<
p < t and A >45" < 180o.. .. .. K, = Formula
I andO < 45"

i\linirnum ptps Yelocity (mps) lor lull dist: !il't

=75

(mps) for full disc

-I

K, =350 /r
0 < 1. .. . K, = For-n:ula 7

Kr=FormulaT

Minimum pipe velocity

lift

{
If:

1....K,=300ir

f< 1...

(mps) for full disc

dri

II:
P

,fr

l( = TSfr

BI\LL VALVES

Ep"
ld'

0,

= a20fr

Minimum pipe velocity

Minimum pipe velocity

Minimum pipe velocity


(mpr) for full disc lift

=7A0r

$= 1... Kr=200/r
g< 1.... K, =FormulaT

ttr

-\
5

t!

BUTTERFLY VALVES

-.I IHr.L [-t?

J;TS
I

lct
:dn

-i H r
I

;= 1.... K,=551'.r g= 1....


.(.=Fr:rn:rula7 {3< 1....
fi< I.
',rf

tttitr:!irll l)illr vr:lrlritl'1 (lnp'i) tirl


r':
I Flr
Vr/
=ii|C,

r(, = 55 /rl'
K, = Furrn L! b
f'ull,fi',, ,!l

Sizes 50 mm (z')to 200 mm (8') . . . . . . . . ff = a5 fr


Sites l5O rnnl (10') to J50 rnm (l{'). . . . . r( I J5lr
Sizes "+00 mm (16') to 600 mm (24'). . . . . K = 25 /r

APPENDIX A

pHystcAL pHopEBTIES OF FLUTDS ANO FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF VALVES, FITTINGS AND

cRANE

,,K" FACTOR TABLE

SHEET 4

Representative ReristanoE Coefficients (K)


ifor

formulas and friction

dett,

OT

for Valves and Fittings

STANDARD ELBOWS

rilX-X

+Elrg'&

rffir
i.,

View

1,

If:

^r-. - K, = 18/r

K,

0=

450

3-Way

If:

soe poEC A'261

PLUG VALVES AND COCKS


Straight-Way

9<

(,{
?,

l(''L6fr

ff=30 l'r

If: p- l,

0= l,

=30fr
K, -

A-29

PIPE

K, =9Ofr

STANDARD TEES

JiL

Formula 6

".

MITRE BENDS

r. rF-

.t'- -.i .- --e

.F

+-d<

t,
1^)

15"
300
450

Flow thru ru.n. . . . . . . . .

/r
lr
to fr
6o fr
t5

50"

4...*-.

ZS

750
900

../o

( = ?.0 fr
Flow thru branch . . . . . . ( ='OO lr

2fr
afr
8fr

00

Y/-"
-li ,'tA=

PIPE ENTRANCE
9OO

PIPE BENDS AND

FLANGED OR BUTT.WELDING $T' ELBOWS

Flustr

lnward
Proicsting

rld
rla

i '--

T
I

*l

4
6

rld

lr
t2 fr
t2 fr
t4 lr
t7 fr
14 fr

0.00

l0

0.02
0.04
0.06
0.10

t8

fr
3a fr
l8 fr
qZ
fr
q6 fr

20

so

2o

l0

t2
l4
l6

fr

Tlre resistance coefficient , K B, for pipe bends other than


90' may be determined as follows:

,
n

Ks= (rr

-'

t)

(0., ,

n fri+

o.s

K)

0.5

0.15 & up

ff

tt
= 0.78

0.28
0.24
0.15
0.09
0.04

l-

t-i
(-

Sharp.cdged

For K,
see table

= nuntber of 90o bends

K = resistance coefficient for one 90o bend (per table)

PIPE EXIT
CLOSE PATTERN RETURN BENDS

Proiecting

Sharp-Edged

ft=50/r

-L
-T
ff=

[.0

-t

-I
!( =

Rounded

1.0

-i

ff=1.0

A-30

APPENDIX A
PHYSIC3L PROPERTIES OF FLUIpS ANp FLOw CHARACTERTSTTCS
OF VALVES, FITTINGS AND PIPE

Equivalent Lengths A and L/D and

CRA

Coefficient K

R esistance

2000

3ooo

l-

1300

,ooo

L ,ooo
t-

-1000

F
l-

900
800
700

-5oo

-4oo

-3oo E
o

tUl

sot'aE

40

s/

309 t-

o
*.

,f2oo

I-=

ef
e;
lo.
if
*J
,F5
lo
o -f_ too
3lt -[- go .E=
IO

IE

afao
-- 2%1!'-ro E

l-

,Jl-

98'

='
C

./ ./

a?

0.6
o.5
o.4

FT-

o.3

Fso
,

o.2

37c

o.l

-,1

rn4

o. 06

05
0.04

Problem: Find the equivalent length in pipe


diarneters and merres'of scheauii- +o .i.un
commercial steel pipe, and the rcsistance factoi
K tor B0 mm ano -300 mm ruitivalvcs, ANSI Class 300, with tlow"pineo-iuii
in ron. of
com plete

a^ J-

12

Solution

FF

Schedulo 4O plpc Sizc, inchet

o.03

oAi(o
t
FtF r-

-}-2o

o.

lnridc Dicmetcr of plpc, in milllmrtrrr

40

F=-\

1%t

o.08

g$

5O

t-

\\. ol

.E

t_

r-E
l_

.:

(\ It r- t(\l
F(l}
FF

F60

c
2(J(u(o

9,

//

//

5
I.

/
//
19'
/

F4OO

/lE

t/

.s

uJ/

tu

,o

,.g

soo

14

10

t,
c,

l-- too
1

24

E ,"f3oo
/| a
s
t /'ot

,tY

f-'"
lt

E
rF

zoo

"l-J
f;
]i

roo

JE
go
-

I---

ta-

l-L ,o

.s
3
o

8oo

I ,of
rBJ

Fuo 3
Foo uIe

-to

'7o
60

t
ir
ol

1OOO

<ul

-i

tg
F6O

'2OO o

,80

.E

I-l_

Q
It-

100

[-

,go

ll6

o
o

ia

l-,,

zoo

FgoO

.!
(nt

l,a

!=
l-

c
':l
t-t

(Jl

.1

80(l

F400 0
f- aoo g

(u

[
r-

-l

eoo .ts
fsoo .r-o.
F
I

(t,

'600

.,,
ol
F

Valve Size

80 mm
ters

Equiralent l"ngth. rnetres o@


I"actor r(, based on ScneAlJO prpe

300 mm

Re

l.g to l-10

ler rc

Puge A-27

0.6 2

l.{ 3

0.14

0.

rteo lines
on chart

Do

l0
--t

rurbulence.

For discussion on L/D rnd K see pages