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SQL SERVER ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability)

Transaction:
A transaction is a unit of work that is performed against a database. Transactions
are units or sequences of work accomplished in a logical order

ACID (an acronymn for Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a concept that Database
Professionals generally look for when evaluating databases and application architectures. For a
reliable database all this four attributes should be achieved.
Atomicity is an all-or-none proposition.
The atomicity property identifies that the transaction is atomic. An atomic transaction is either
fully completed, or is not begun at all. Any updates that a transaction might affect on a system
are completed in their entirety. If for any reason an error occurs and the transaction is unable to
complete all of its steps, the then system is returned to the state it was in before the transaction
was started.
Consistency guarantees that a transaction never leaves your database in a half-finished state.
Isolation keeps transactions separated from each other until theyre finished.
Durability guarantees that the database will keep track of pending changes in such a way that
the server can recover from an abnormal termination.
Above four rules are very important for any developers dealing with databases.

Process
A process is an instance of a program running in a computer.

Thread
A thread is the smallest unit of processing that can be performed in an OS. In most
modern operating systems, a thread exists within a process - that is, a single
process may contain multiple threads.