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Applied Mechanics and Materials

ISSN: 1662-7482, Vol. 785, pp 403-408


doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.785.403
2015 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

Submitted: 2014-12-31
Revised: 2015-03-23
Accepted: 2015-04-04
Online: 2015-08-24

Injection Impact of Photovoltaic Distributed Generations (PVDG) on


Power Distribution System Stability
Hadi Suyono1,a* and Muammar Zainuddin2,b
1

Departement of Electrical Engineering, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia


Departement of Electrical Engineering, Ichsan University, Gorontalo, Indonesia
a
hadis@ub.ac.id, bmuammarzainuddin@gmail.com

Keywords: Photovoltaic Distributed Generations (PVDG), Power Distribution System Stability

Abstract. Utilization of photovoltaic power plants on distribution system has been widely used in
many countries. Commonly, the photovoltaic system has been injected to the distribution system
and called as photovoltaic distributed generations (PVDG) through medium or low voltage levels.
The injection of the PVDG on the distribution system has been claimed to improve the voltage
profile and reduce power losses. However, the good performance of the distribution system in term
of the steady-state point of view, cannot directly guarantee to give a good response during the
system disturbed. Therefore, to show the impact of the PVDG injection on power system stability is
concerned in this paper. The size of the power injection and location of the injection site that have
been determined by using the optimization technique, are then analyzed based on three scenarios,
each of which represents the PVDG injection of 2x0.5MW, 4x0.5MW, and 6x0.5MW respectively
at different bus locations. The voltage-, frequency-, and rotor angle-stabilities are analyzed to show
the dynamic impact of the PVDG during three-phase fault condition. The analysis results indicate
that the second scenario gives the best response in term of the rotor angle-, frequency-, and voltageresponses during dynamic conditions which supplies active power around 28.78% of the total load.
The PVDG injection power in the first scenario (14.39% of total load) and also in the third scenario
(43.18% of total load) would result in rotor angle and frequency responses with more oscillations
being compared to the second scenario. However, the system dynamic responses for all scenarios
show damped oscillations to reach the steady-state conditions.
Introduction
The commonly used power distribution system model in Indonesia is the radial system topology,
using the main power supply from substation. Power distribution to consumers through very long
conductors is potential to bring about higher voltage drop and more power losses. On the other
hand, long distribution system will also affect the power system recovery during the dynamic
conditions. To avoid and minimize the possibility of energy shortage, the development of renewable
energy sources are recently becoming more and more important in Indonesia, and many renewable
power generations have been injected into the distribution system being known as Distributed
Generations (DG) [1]. The injection of the photovoltaic distributed generations (PVDG) will give a
good impact on the distribution system such as maintaining voltage profile, anticipating unbalance
feeder load, mitigation of reactive power flow fluctuations, increasing power factor, and reducing
power losses [2-4]. In addition, the PVDG injection enables the provision of incentives for local PV
energy providers and improves the reliability of electrical power system [3-4]. Based on the power
capacity of PVDG injection into the distribution network, it has been classified into small-scale (up
to 10 kW), medium-scale (10-500 kW) and large-scale (500 kW-10 MW) capacities connected to
single- or three-phase distribution systems [4].
It is well-known that from the point of view of steady-state operating condition, the PVDG
injection brings a good impact to the distribution system, especially in terms of improving the
voltage profile and reducing the power losses [5]. The influence of PVDG power injection increase
on the synchronous generator stability has been analyzed [6]. However, the increase of power
injection of PVDG into the distribution network system during the dynamic condition needs to be
investigated. The impact of various power levels of PVDG injection on the power distribution

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system stability is the central concern of this paper. The power system stability study in this
analysis covers the stability of the rotor angle-, frequency-, and voltage-responses of the system
during disturbance conditions. The system without and with various power level of PVDG
injections are compared to analyze their dynamic performances such as: rotor angle-, frequency-,
voltage-, and current- responses of converter PVDG during the dynamic conditions.
Photovoltaic Distributed Generations (PVDG) System
Basic Structure of PVDG. In terms of utility characteristics, the PV system connected to the
grid is different from other type of power plants. The most fundamental difference is the absence of
mechanical devices used in the conversion process of solar energy. The PVDG can be modeled as
controlled constant P and V (PV model) and also controlled constant P and Q (PQ Model) as shown
in Fig. 1.

(a) P and Q constants controlled


(b) P and V constants controlled
Fig. 1. Basic structure of PV system on grid [7]
The load on PVDG converter is power load on the grid (load feeders). The main prerequisite of
PVDG connected to the grid is determined by the quality of the current and voltage output of the
PV system with the quality of the current and voltage on the grid. The detailed block-diagrams of
Model PQ controlled (Fig. 1(a)) and Model PV controlled (Fig. 1(b)) are given in [8]. In these
models, the current set-points can be obtained based on the desired active and reactive powers and
measurements of terminal voltage in the dq reference frame [8]. The main function of the converter
is to control the active and reactive power output which will be supplied to the grid. The converter
also controls the voltage (for the model PV) when the PVDG connected to the grid. Pref, Qref, and
Vref are adjusted based on the need of reactive power which has been obtained from the power
factor setting and active power references.
Power System Model and System. Fig. 2 shows the power system model used in the simulation
analysis. A synchronous generator (SG) is connected to an infinite bus through a transformer and
circuit transmission line. To the single-machine infinite-bus system, a large-scale PVDG power
plant is connected via a transformer and distribution line. Load data and the proposed scenarios of
the PVDG injection are shown in Table 1. The total required load is 6.948 MW and 3.949 MVAr.
There are 194 buses in the system with the total circuit length is 155ckm. Based on the PVDG
injection, three scenarios are proposed, i.e. scenario-1 (2x0.5MW), scenario-2 (4x0.5MW), and
scenario-3 (6x0.5MW). The local bus load, and the percentage of PVDG to the local bus load and to
the total load system are also given in the tabel. The optimal placements and sizing of PVDG
injection on the distribution system have been determined by using genetic algorithm optimization
method [9]. To show the stability performance of the distribution system, the three-phase fault has
been implemented into main intake 20kV level with the duration was five cycles. The proposed
PVDG system in this study is modelled as PQ constant controlled.

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 785

20 kV

70 kV
PSG +QSG

Pload+Qload

405

20 kV
Infinite Bus

R+jX

SG
30 MVA

PPV+QPV
70kV/20kV

3 Fault

PVDG
500kW

Fig. 2. PVDG power flow model


Table 1. Load data and PVDG power capacity scenarios
Scenario

No.
Bus

MW
PVDG

MW
Bus
Load

Scenario 1

109

0.5

0.133

(2 PVDG)
Scenario 2
(4 PVDG)

Scenario 3

193
11
109
127
193
11

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

0.11
0.106
0.103
0.109
0.11
0.106

(6 PVDG)

38

0.5

0.099

109

0.5

0.133

127

0.5

0.109

134

0.5

0.101

193

0.5

0.11

MW
Total
PVDG

Local MW
Bus Load

% PVDG to
MW Total
Load

% PVDG to
MW Bus
Load

0.243

14.39%

24.30%

0.428

28.78%

21.40%

0.658

43.18%

21.9%

Simulation and Results


Impacts of Power Systems Stability. The rotor angle and frequency responses during the threephase fault are given in Fig. 3 and 4 respectively. Scenario-2 shows a better response of the rotor
angle compared to the scenario-1 and scenario-3. It can be seen that the rotor-angle stability
responses of scenario-2 have smaller deviation angle being compared to the other scenarios. The
mechanical power and the power output of synchronous generator will decrease when the injection
of the PVDG is increased. The increase of the PVDG injection at many locations will cause the
reduction of generator synchronization with the PV inverter. Recovery of the rotor-angle oscillation
could be reached rapidly to achieve the steady-state after the dynamic conditions. The scenario-2
also shows a better response in terms of frequency stability of the synchronous generator during the
fault being compared to the two other scenarios. From the point of view of frequency response, as
shown in Fig. 4, scenario-1 has the highest frequency deviation.

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Recent Trends in Power Engineering

Fig. 3. Rotor angle stability

Fig. 4. Frequency stability

Voltage stability shows the ability of a power system to keep the voltage remaining stable on all
buses in the system after a fault happen in the system. The responses shown in Fig. 5 indicate the
voltage profile on the selected buses during the disturbance where the PVs are connected to the
grid. The fault occurrence on the bus where the PV inverter is connected to the grid will cause
momentary oscillations on the bus voltage. The increase of the PVDG power injection will bring
about the change in voltage oscillations on each bus. Comparing the voltage stability of each
scenarios shows that an increase in the injection value will result in a voltage increase on the bus.
Scenario-3 shows a better response being compared to the two other scenarios. The voltage drop and
oscillation on the scenario-3 is not too large being compared to scenario-1 and scenario-2. After the
fault occurrence, bus voltage return to its normal value gradually after a short oscillation in a few
seconds. Voltage stability shows the ability of the system to return to its steady-state condition in
just some milliseconds before the response of the protection system equipment. Voltage oscillation
will occurs at some bus voltage, especially those which are closest to the fault locations. The fast
recovery of voltage for Scenario-3 shows the small oscillation and immediately to reach the steadystate condition whenever the disturbance was eliminated.

(a) Voltage stability on bus 109


(b) Voltage stability on bus 193
Fig. 5. Voltage stability on selected bus for each scenarios

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 785

407

Impacts of PVDG Injection on Power Generator. Fig. 6 shows the synchronous generator
(SG) condition after power injection by PVDG.

(a) Active power SG for each scenario


(b) Reactive power SG for each scenario
Fig. 6. Power flow on synchronous generator (SG)

(b) Id / Iq converter PVDG 4, 5, 6


(a) Id / Iq converter PVDG 1, 2, and 3
Fig. 7. PVDG converter current responses of scenario-3
Fig. 6(a) and 6(b) show that with the increase of the PVDG power injection as shown in
scenario-3, the active and reactive powers supplied by the generator to the system will decrease.
During the dynamic conditions, the power needed in the system will increase and such that the
power response of the SG will be slightly high, temporarily oscillating and the power will be back
to steady state a few seconds later. During the fault conditions, the PVDG will be off-operation and
power will not be supplied to the system in a few seconds before returning to its normal conditions.
This condition impacts on the main generator (SG) to improve its output power as the PVDG power
effect gets lost in the event of fault. The amount of active power supplied by the main generator
depends on the PVDG power injection into the grid at the same time. The condition of the active
and reactive powers deviation shows the transient stability limit. On the stability of the system
during an interruption, the power generator will oscillate around its equilibrium value.
Fig. 7 shows the flow of direct and quadrature currents (Id / Iq) of PVDG converter for the
scenario-3. It can be observed that the PVDG system can give a good response to compensate the
reactive currents required by the system load, and then to supply the active power produced by
PVDG to the systems.
Conclusions
The PVDG power injection has a significant impact on the power distribution system stability.
Based on the analysis results indicate that scenario-2 (28.78% of the total load) gives the best
response in term of the rotor angle-, frequency-, and voltage-responses during dynamic conditions.
The PVDG injection power in the scenario-1 (14.39% of total load) and also in the scenario-3
(43.18% of total load) would result in rotor angle and frequency responses with more oscillations
being compared to the second scenario.

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Recent Trends in Power Engineering

References
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Recent Trends in Power Engineering


10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.785

Injection Impact of Photovoltaic Distributed Generations (PVDG) on Power Distribution System


Stability
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.785.403
DOI References
[1] T. Ackermann, G. Andersson, and L. Soder, Distributed generation: a definition, Elsevier, Electric Power
Sistems Research, No. 57, Page(s) 195-204 (2001).
10.1016/s0378-7796(01)00101-8
[2] H.E.A. Talaat, and E. Al-Ammar, Optimal Allocation and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Distribution
Networks Using Genetic Algorithms. IEEE, Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), Page(s) 1-6,
Lisbon (2011).
10.1109/epqu.2011.6128840
[3] J.R. Aguero, and S.J. Steffel, Integration Challenges of Photovoltaic Distributed Generation on Power
Distribution Systems, IEEE Power and Energy Society, Page(s) 1-6, San Diego, CA (2011).
10.1109/pes.2011.6039097
[4] F. Katiraei, and J.R. Aguero, Solar PV Integration Challenges, IEEE Power & energy magazine, Vol. 9,
Iss. 3, Page(s): 62-71, (2011).
10.1109/mpe.2011.940579
[6] M. Yagami, and J. Tamura, Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaic on Synchronous Generator Stability,
XXth IEEE International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), Page(s) 2092-2097, Marseille (2012).
10.1109/icelmach.2012.6350171
[7] B. Tamimi, C. Canizare, and K. Bhattacharya, Modeling and Performance Analysis of Large Solar PhotoVoltaic Generation on Voltage Stability and Inter-area Oscillations, IEEE PES General Meeting, Page(s) 1-6.
San Diego CA (2011).
10.1109/pes.2011.6039797
[8] B. Tamimi, C. Canizare, and K. Bhattacharya, System Stability Impact of Large-Scale and Distributed
Solar Photovoltaic Generation: The Case of Ontario, Canada, IEEE Transaction On Sustainable Energy,
Page(s) 680-688 (2013).
10.1109/tste.2012.2235151